Statistics Made Easy

## How to Write a Null Hypothesis (5 Examples)

A hypothesis test uses sample data to determine whether or not some claim about a population parameter is true.

Whenever we perform a hypothesis test, we always write a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis, which take the following forms:

H 0 (Null Hypothesis): Population parameter =, ≤, ≥ some value

H A (Alternative Hypothesis): Population parameter <, >, ≠ some value

Note that the null hypothesis always contains the equal sign .

We interpret the hypotheses as follows:

Null hypothesis: The sample data provides no evidence to support some claim being made by an individual.

Alternative hypothesis: The sample data does provide sufficient evidence to support the claim being made by an individual.

For example, suppose it’s assumed that the average height of a certain species of plant is 20 inches tall. However, one botanist claims the true average height is greater than 20 inches.

To test this claim, she may go out and collect a random sample of plants. She can then use this sample data to perform a hypothesis test using the following two hypotheses:

H 0 : μ ≤ 20 (the true mean height of plants is equal to or even less than 20 inches)

H A : μ > 20 (the true mean height of plants is greater than 20 inches)

If the sample data gathered by the botanist shows that the mean height of this species of plants is significantly greater than 20 inches, she can reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the mean height is greater than 20 inches.

Read through the following examples to gain a better understanding of how to write a null hypothesis in different situations.

## Example 1: Weight of Turtles

A biologist wants to test whether or not the true mean weight of a certain species of turtles is 300 pounds. To test this, he goes out and measures the weight of a random sample of 40 turtles.

Here is how to write the null and alternative hypotheses for this scenario:

H 0 : μ = 300 (the true mean weight is equal to 300 pounds)

H A : μ ≠ 300 (the true mean weight is not equal to 300 pounds)

## Example 2: Height of Males

It’s assumed that the mean height of males in a certain city is 68 inches. However, an independent researcher believes the true mean height is greater than 68 inches. To test this, he goes out and collects the height of 50 males in the city.

H 0 : μ ≤ 68 (the true mean height is equal to or even less than 68 inches)

H A : μ > 68 (the true mean height is greater than 68 inches)

## Example 3: Graduation Rates

A university states that 80% of all students graduate on time. However, an independent researcher believes that less than 80% of all students graduate on time. To test this, she collects data on the proportion of students who graduated on time last year at the university.

H 0 : p ≥ 0.80 (the true proportion of students who graduate on time is 80% or higher)

H A : μ < 0.80 (the true proportion of students who graduate on time is less than 80%)

## Example 4: Burger Weights

A food researcher wants to test whether or not the true mean weight of a burger at a certain restaurant is 7 ounces. To test this, he goes out and measures the weight of a random sample of 20 burgers from this restaurant.

H 0 : μ = 7 (the true mean weight is equal to 7 ounces)

H A : μ ≠ 7 (the true mean weight is not equal to 7 ounces)

## Example 5: Citizen Support

A politician claims that less than 30% of citizens in a certain town support a certain law. To test this, he goes out and surveys 200 citizens on whether or not they support the law.

H 0 : p ≥ .30 (the true proportion of citizens who support the law is greater than or equal to 30%)

H A : μ < 0.30 (the true proportion of citizens who support the law is less than 30%)

## Additional Resources

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Introduction to Confidence Intervals An Explanation of P-Values and Statistical Significance

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## Writing Null Hypotheses in Research and Statistics

Last Updated: July 24, 2023 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Joseph Quinones and by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Joseph Quinones is a High School Physics Teacher working at South Bronx Community Charter High School. Joseph specializes in astronomy and astrophysics and is interested in science education and science outreach, currently practicing ways to make physics accessible to more students with the goal of bringing more students of color into the STEM fields. He has experience working on Astrophysics research projects at the Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Joseph recieved his Bachelor's degree in Physics from Lehman College and his Masters in Physics Education from City College of New York (CCNY). He is also a member of a network called New York City Men Teach. There are 8 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 16,505 times.

Are you working on a research project and struggling with how to write a null hypothesis? Well, you've come to the right place! Start by recognizing that the basic definition of "null" is "none" or "zero"—that's your biggest clue as to what a null hypothesis should say. Keep reading to learn everything you need to know about the null hypothesis, including how it relates to your research question and your alternative hypothesis as well as how to use it in different types of studies.

## Things You Should Know

- Write a research null hypothesis as a statement that the studied variables have no relationship to each other, or that there's no difference between 2 groups.

- Adjust the format of your null hypothesis to match the statistical method you used to test it, such as using "mean" if you're comparing the mean between 2 groups.

## What is a null hypothesis?

- Research hypothesis: States in plain language that there's no relationship between the 2 variables or there's no difference between the 2 groups being studied.
- Statistical hypothesis: States the predicted outcome of statistical analysis through a mathematical equation related to the statistical method you're using.

## Examples of Null Hypotheses

## Null Hypothesis vs. Alternative Hypothesis

- For example, your alternative hypothesis could state a positive correlation between 2 variables while your null hypothesis states there's no relationship. If there's a negative correlation, then both hypotheses are false.

- You need additional data or evidence to show that your alternative hypothesis is correct—proving the null hypothesis false is just the first step.
- In smaller studies, sometimes it's enough to show that there's some relationship and your hypothesis could be correct—you can leave the additional proof as an open question for other researchers to tackle.

## How do I test a null hypothesis?

- Group means: Compare the mean of the variable in your sample with the mean of the variable in the general population. [9] X Research source
- Group proportions: Compare the proportion of the variable in your sample with the proportion of the variable in the general population. [10] X Research source
- Correlation: Correlation analysis looks at the relationship between 2 variables—specifically, whether they tend to happen together. [11] X Research source
- Regression: Regression analysis reveals the correlation between 2 variables while also controlling for the effect of other, interrelated variables. [12] X Research source

## Templates for Null Hypotheses

- Research null hypothesis: There is no difference in the mean [dependent variable] between [group 1] and [group 2].

- Research null hypothesis: The proportion of [dependent variable] in [group 1] and [group 2] is the same.

- Research null hypothesis: There is no correlation between [independent variable] and [dependent variable] in the population.

- Research null hypothesis: There is no relationship between [independent variable] and [dependent variable] in the population.

## Expert Q&A

## You Might Also Like

## Expert Interview

Thanks for reading our article! If you’d like to learn more about physics, check out our in-depth interview with Joseph Quinones .

- ↑ https://www.collin.edu/studentresources/tutoring/What%20is%20a%20hypothesis.pdf
- ↑ https://online.stat.psu.edu/stat100/lesson/10/10.1
- ↑ https://online.stat.psu.edu/stat501/lesson/2/2.12
- ↑ https://support.minitab.com/en-us/minitab/21/help-and-how-to/statistics/basic-statistics/supporting-topics/basics/null-and-alternative-hypotheses/
- ↑ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5635437/
- ↑ https://online.stat.psu.edu/statprogram/reviews/statistical-concepts/hypothesis-testing
- ↑ https://education.arcus.chop.edu/null-hypothesis-testing/
- ↑ https://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/mph-modules/bs/bs704_hypothesistest-means-proportions/bs704_hypothesistest-means-proportions_print.html

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## Keyboard Shortcuts

5.2 - writing hypotheses.

The first step in conducting a hypothesis test is to write the hypothesis statements that are going to be tested. For each test you will have a null hypothesis (\(H_0\)) and an alternative hypothesis (\(H_a\)).

When writing hypotheses there are three things that we need to know: (1) the parameter that we are testing (2) the direction of the test (non-directional, right-tailed or left-tailed), and (3) the value of the hypothesized parameter.

- At this point we can write hypotheses for a single mean (\(\mu\)), paired means(\(\mu_d\)), a single proportion (\(p\)), the difference between two independent means (\(\mu_1-\mu_2\)), the difference between two proportions (\(p_1-p_2\)), a simple linear regression slope (\(\beta\)), and a correlation (\(\rho\)).
- The research question will give us the information necessary to determine if the test is two-tailed (e.g., "different from," "not equal to"), right-tailed (e.g., "greater than," "more than"), or left-tailed (e.g., "less than," "fewer than").
- The research question will also give us the hypothesized parameter value. This is the number that goes in the hypothesis statements (i.e., \(\mu_0\) and \(p_0\)). For the difference between two groups, regression, and correlation, this value is typically 0.

Hypotheses are always written in terms of population parameters (e.g., \(p\) and \(\mu\)). The tables below display all of the possible hypotheses for the parameters that we have learned thus far. Note that the null hypothesis always includes the equality (i.e., =).

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## How to Write a Research Hypothesis

- 5-minute read
- 11th November 2023

Writing a compelling research hypothesis is a crucial step in starting any research paper . Whether you’re a student, a professional, or simply someone interested in exploring a topic in depth, a well-crafted hypothesis will serve as the foundation for your research. In this post, we’ll explore the importance and key components of a research hypothesis in writing and provide you with a step-by-step guide on how to write an effective one. Let’s begin!

## Understanding the Role of a Research Hypothesis

A research hypothesis is a critical component of the research process, serving as the foundation on which your entire study is built. It’s a statement that outlines the expectations, predictions, and objectives of your research. Here’s why a hypothesis is vital in the writing process:

● Guidance : A well-crafted hypothesis provides a clear path for your research, ensuring that your writing remains focused and on-topic.

● Structure : A logical structure from your introduction through your discussion helps you organize your thoughts and ideas, making a logical flow easier to create in your writing.

● Clarity : A hypothesis clarifies the subject you intend to investigate and the expected outcomes, which, in turn, make your writing more coherent and understandable.

## Key Components of a Research Hypothesis

Before we dive into the process of writing a research hypothesis, you should understand the components:

· The dependent variable is what you intend to study or measure.

· The independent variable is what you suspect has an impact on the dependent variable.

· Your hypothesis should contain specific predictions about the relationship between the variables.

## Step-By-Step Guide to Writing a Research Hypothesis

Now, let’s break down the process of crafting an effective research hypothesis for your writing project.

## 1. Choose Your Research Topic

Start by selecting a research topic that intrigues you. It should be something you want to explore further, with a relevant scope for your research. This step involves choosing a topic that aligns with the purpose of your content or article.

## 2. Review Existing Literature

Before you can formulate a hypothesis, you need to understand what is already known about your chosen topic. Conduct a literature review to familiarize yourself with existing research and insights. This step involves researching and collecting information on your chosen subject.

## 3. Identify the Variables

In research, a hypothesis typically involves identifying two variables : the independent variable (the one you manipulate or analyze) and the dependent variable (the one that responds to the changes in the independent variable). You can also think of this step as identifying the main arguments (independent variable) and the expected outcome (dependent variable) in their content.

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## 4. Formulate a Testable Statement

Your hypothesis should be a clear and testable statement . It should reflect a cause-and-effect relationship between the variables. To achieve this, you need to formulate a clear and focused assertion or argument related to your chosen topic.

## 5. Use Specific Language

Avoid vague language or overly broad statements. Be specific in your hypothesis , using clear and concise terms, and aim for clarity.

## 6. Make Predictions

Your hypothesis should predict an outcome based on the cause-and-effect relationship you propose. This process involves outlining the expected impact or outcome of the argument presented.

## 7. Revise and Refine

Don’t be afraid to revise and refine your hypothesis until it accurately represents your research goals or the main argument of your content.

## Research Hypothesis Examples

Let’s say you’re doing a research study about the impact of regular journaling on writing skills. Here’s a sample research hypothesis:

You could use several methods to test your hypothesis. You might do interviews with students in a writing class, where half of the students are following a prescribed journal-writing practice and the other half have been instructed not to journal at all, and compare their improvement at the end of the study.

If your study involves a statistical analysis, a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis can be presented. A null hypothesis simply states that the dependent variable (the variable that you intend to study, in this case, writing skills) will not be changed by the independent variable (the variable that you suspect has an impact on the dependent variable, in this case, journaling). The null hypothesis is indicated by ( H 0 ), as in this example:

The alternative hypothesis states just the opposite – that the independent variable will have an impact on the dependent variable – and is indicated by ( H 1 ), as in this example:

In this approach, you start by assuming that ( H 0 ) is true and the dependent variable will not be changed by the independent variable. After you present your statistical analysis, you will “reject” or “fail to reject” the null hypothesis. Although it may seem counterintuitive, if your study proves the intervention (the independent variable) had an effect (on your dependent variable), you “reject” the null hypothesis.

Whether you choose to pose a null hypothesis will depend on your methods and, to some extent, the conventions of your audience. However, the above steps will help guide you to a compelling research hypothesis for whichever approach works best for you.

A well-structured research hypothesis is an indispensable tool for effective writing . It provides the direction, focus, and clarity necessary to produce a compelling research paper. You can craft a research hypothesis that enhances both the quality of your writing and your research efforts by following the steps outlined above: choose your topic; review existing literature; identify your variables; formulate a testable statement; ensure testability; be specific and clear; and revise and refine.

Finally, if you’re interested in receiving help proofreading your research paper , please consider our research paper editing services . You can even try a free sample of our services . Happy hypothesizing and researching!

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- How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples

## How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples

Published on May 6, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on August 15, 2023.

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection .

## Example: Hypothesis

Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor’s visits.

## Table of contents

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

## Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more types of variables .

- An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls.
- A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

If there are any control variables , extraneous variables , or confounding variables , be sure to jot those down as you go to minimize the chances that research bias will affect your results.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

## Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

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See an example

## Step 1. Ask a question

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

## Step 2. Do some preliminary research

Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to ensure that you’re embarking on a relevant topic . This can also help you identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalize more complex constructs.

## Step 3. Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

## 4. Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

- The relevant variables
- The specific group being studied
- The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

## 5. Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if…then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

## 6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis . The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

- H 0 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has no effect on their final exam scores.
- H 1 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has a positive effect on their final exam scores.

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

- Sampling methods
- Simple random sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Cluster sampling
- Likert scales
- Reproducibility

Statistics

- Null hypothesis
- Statistical power
- Probability distribution
- Effect size
- Poisson distribution

Research bias

- Optimism bias
- Cognitive bias
- Implicit bias
- Hawthorne effect
- Anchoring bias
- Explicit bias

## Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

## Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, August 15). How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 11, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/hypothesis/

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- How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

## How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

Published on 6 May 2022 by Shona McCombes .

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection.

## Table of contents

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

## Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more variables . An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls. A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

## Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

Step 1: ask a question.

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

## Step 2: Do some preliminary research

Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalise more complex constructs.

## Step 3: Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

## Step 4: Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

- The relevant variables
- The specific group being studied
- The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

## Step 5: Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if … then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

## Step 6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis is not just a guess. It should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (‘ x affects y because …’).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses. In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

## Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

McCombes, S. (2022, May 06). How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 9 November 2023, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/research-methods/hypothesis-writing/

## Is this article helpful?

## Shona McCombes

Other students also liked, operationalisation | a guide with examples, pros & cons, what is a conceptual framework | tips & examples, a quick guide to experimental design | 5 steps & examples.

## How to Insert the Null Hypothesis Symbol in Microsoft Word

In Microsoft Word you can type the null hypothesis symbol, which is the letter H followed by the numeral 0 as a subscript using the subscript button in the Home tab, or you can use a keyboard shortcut to apply the subscript format. Note that after typing the zero as a subscript, any punctuation immediately after it will also appear as a subscript unless you disable the subscript formatting.

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## Typing the Symbol

To type the null hypothesis symbol, type the letter "H" and then click the subscript icon in the Font section of the Home tab. Your cursor will appear smaller, and you can now type the numeral "0." When you press the space bar, your font will change back to your default font size and you can continue typing.

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## Using a Keyboard Shortcut

After you've typed the letter "H," press and hold the Ctrl key, then press the equal sign and then release both. You can now type the numeral "0," which will appear as a subscript. When you press space, your font size will revert to what it was formerly and you can continue typing.

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- New York University: Elementary Statistics Tests of Hypothesis: Means

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## Null Hypothesis Examples

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The null hypothesis —which assumes that there is no meaningful relationship between two variables—may be the most valuable hypothesis for the scientific method because it is the easiest to test using a statistical analysis. This means you can support your hypothesis with a high level of confidence. Testing the null hypothesis can tell you whether your results are due to the effect of manipulating the dependent variable or due to chance.

## What Is the Null Hypothesis?

The null hypothesis states there is no relationship between the measured phenomenon (the dependent variable) and the independent variable . You do not need to believe that the null hypothesis is true to test it. On the contrary, you will likely suspect that there is a relationship between a set of variables. One way to prove that this is the case is to reject the null hypothesis. Rejecting a hypothesis does not mean an experiment was "bad" or that it didn't produce results. In fact, it is often one of the first steps toward further inquiry.

To distinguish it from other hypotheses, the null hypothesis is written as H 0 (which is read as “H-nought,” "H-null," or "H-zero"). A significance test is used to determine the likelihood that the results supporting the null hypothesis are not due to chance. A confidence level of 95 percent or 99 percent is common. Keep in mind, even if the confidence level is high, there is still a small chance the null hypothesis is not true, perhaps because the experimenter did not account for a critical factor or because of chance. This is one reason why it's important to repeat experiments.

## Examples of the Null Hypothesis

To write a null hypothesis, first start by asking a question. Rephrase that question in a form that assumes no relationship between the variables. In other words, assume a treatment has no effect. Write your hypothesis in a way that reflects this.

- What Is a Hypothesis? (Science)
- Null Hypothesis Definition and Examples
- What 'Fail to Reject' Means in a Hypothesis Test
- What Are the Elements of a Good Hypothesis?
- Scientific Method Vocabulary Terms
- Definition of a Hypothesis
- Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis
- Hypothesis Test for the Difference of Two Population Proportions
- Six Steps of the Scientific Method
- What Is the Difference Between Alpha and P-Values?
- What Are Examples of a Hypothesis?
- Hypothesis Test Example
- Understanding Simple vs Controlled Experiments
- How to Conduct a Hypothesis Test
- The Difference Between Type I and Type II Errors in Hypothesis Testing
- What Is a P-Value?

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- 9.1 Null and Alternative Hypotheses
- Introduction
- 1.1 Definitions of Statistics, Probability, and Key Terms
- 1.2 Data, Sampling, and Variation in Data and Sampling
- 1.3 Frequency, Frequency Tables, and Levels of Measurement
- 1.4 Experimental Design and Ethics
- 1.5 Data Collection Experiment
- 1.6 Sampling Experiment
- Chapter Review
- Bringing It Together: Homework
- 2.1 Stem-and-Leaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs
- 2.2 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Time Series Graphs
- 2.3 Measures of the Location of the Data
- 2.4 Box Plots
- 2.5 Measures of the Center of the Data
- 2.6 Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode
- 2.7 Measures of the Spread of the Data
- 2.8 Descriptive Statistics
- Formula Review
- 3.1 Terminology
- 3.2 Independent and Mutually Exclusive Events
- 3.3 Two Basic Rules of Probability
- 3.4 Contingency Tables
- 3.5 Tree and Venn Diagrams
- 3.6 Probability Topics
- Bringing It Together: Practice
- 4.1 Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for a Discrete Random Variable
- 4.2 Mean or Expected Value and Standard Deviation
- 4.3 Binomial Distribution (Optional)
- 4.4 Geometric Distribution (Optional)
- 4.5 Hypergeometric Distribution (Optional)
- 4.6 Poisson Distribution (Optional)
- 4.7 Discrete Distribution (Playing Card Experiment)
- 4.8 Discrete Distribution (Lucky Dice Experiment)
- 5.1 Continuous Probability Functions
- 5.2 The Uniform Distribution
- 5.3 The Exponential Distribution (Optional)
- 5.4 Continuous Distribution
- 6.1 The Standard Normal Distribution
- 6.2 Using the Normal Distribution
- 6.3 Normal Distribution—Lap Times
- 6.4 Normal Distribution—Pinkie Length
- 7.1 The Central Limit Theorem for Sample Means (Averages)
- 7.2 The Central Limit Theorem for Sums (Optional)
- 7.3 Using the Central Limit Theorem
- 7.4 Central Limit Theorem (Pocket Change)
- 7.5 Central Limit Theorem (Cookie Recipes)
- 8.1 A Single Population Mean Using the Normal Distribution
- 8.2 A Single Population Mean Using the Student's t-Distribution
- 8.3 A Population Proportion
- 8.4 Confidence Interval (Home Costs)
- 8.5 Confidence Interval (Place of Birth)
- 8.6 Confidence Interval (Women's Heights)
- 9.2 Outcomes and the Type I and Type II Errors
- 9.3 Distribution Needed for Hypothesis Testing
- 9.4 Rare Events, the Sample, and the Decision and Conclusion
- 9.5 Additional Information and Full Hypothesis Test Examples
- 9.6 Hypothesis Testing of a Single Mean and Single Proportion
- 10.1 Two Population Means with Unknown Standard Deviations
- 10.2 Two Population Means with Known Standard Deviations
- 10.3 Comparing Two Independent Population Proportions
- 10.4 Matched or Paired Samples (Optional)
- 10.5 Hypothesis Testing for Two Means and Two Proportions
- 11.1 Facts About the Chi-Square Distribution
- 11.2 Goodness-of-Fit Test
- 11.3 Test of Independence
- 11.4 Test for Homogeneity
- 11.5 Comparison of the Chi-Square Tests
- 11.6 Test of a Single Variance
- 11.7 Lab 1: Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit
- 11.8 Lab 2: Chi-Square Test of Independence
- 12.1 Linear Equations
- 12.2 The Regression Equation
- 12.3 Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient (Optional)
- 12.4 Prediction (Optional)
- 12.5 Outliers
- 12.6 Regression (Distance from School) (Optional)
- 12.7 Regression (Textbook Cost) (Optional)
- 12.8 Regression (Fuel Efficiency) (Optional)
- 13.1 One-Way ANOVA
- 13.2 The F Distribution and the F Ratio
- 13.3 Facts About the F Distribution
- 13.4 Test of Two Variances
- 13.5 Lab: One-Way ANOVA
- A | Appendix A Review Exercises (Ch 3–13)
- B | Appendix B Practice Tests (1–4) and Final Exams
- C | Data Sets
- D | Group and Partner Projects
- E | Solution Sheets
- F | Mathematical Phrases, Symbols, and Formulas
- G | Notes for the TI-83, 83+, 84, 84+ Calculators

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses . They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis . These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints.

H 0 , the — null hypothesis: a statement of no difference between sample means or proportions or no difference between a sample mean or proportion and a population mean or proportion. In other words, the difference equals 0.

H a —, the alternative hypothesis: a claim about the population that is contradictory to H 0 and what we conclude when we reject H 0 .

Since the null and alternative hypotheses are contradictory, you must examine evidence to decide if you have enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis or not. The evidence is in the form of sample data.

After you have determined which hypothesis the sample supports, you make a decision. There are two options for a decision. They are reject H 0 if the sample information favors the alternative hypothesis or do not reject H 0 or decline to reject H 0 if the sample information is insufficient to reject the null hypothesis.

Mathematical Symbols Used in H 0 and H a :

H 0 always has a symbol with an equal in it. H a never has a symbol with an equal in it. The choice of symbol depends on the wording of the hypothesis test. However, be aware that many researchers use = in the null hypothesis, even with > or < as the symbol in the alternative hypothesis. This practice is acceptable because we only make the decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis.

## Example 9.1

H 0 : No more than 30 percent of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p ≤ 30 H a : More than 30 percent of the registered voters in Santa Clara County voted in the primary election. p > 30

A medical trial is conducted to test whether or not a new medicine reduces cholesterol by 25 percent. State the null and alternative hypotheses.

## Example 9.2

We want to test whether the mean GPA of students in American colleges is different from 2.0 (out of 4.0). The null and alternative hypotheses are the following: H 0 : μ = 2.0 H a : μ ≠ 2.0

We want to test whether the mean height of eighth graders is 66 inches. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : μ __ 66
- H a : μ __ 66

## Example 9.3

We want to test if college students take fewer than five years to graduate from college, on the average. The null and alternative hypotheses are the following: H 0 : μ ≥ 5 H a : μ < 5

We want to test if it takes fewer than 45 minutes to teach a lesson plan. State the null and alternative hypotheses. Fill in the correct symbol ( =, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : μ __ 45
- H a : μ __ 45

## Example 9.4

An article on school standards stated that about half of all students in France, Germany, and Israel take advanced placement exams and a third of the students pass. The same article stated that 6.6 percent of U.S. students take advanced placement exams and 4.4 percent pass. Test if the percentage of U.S. students who take advanced placement exams is more than 6.6 percent. State the null and alternative hypotheses. H 0 : p ≤ 0.066 H a : p > 0.066

On a state driver’s test, about 40 percent pass the test on the first try. We want to test if more than 40 percent pass on the first try. Fill in the correct symbol (=, ≠, ≥, <, ≤, >) for the null and alternative hypotheses.

- H 0 : p __ 0.40
- H a : p __ 0.40

## Collaborative Exercise

Bring to class a newspaper, some news magazines, and some internet articles. In groups, find articles from which your group can write null and alternative hypotheses. Discuss your hypotheses with the rest of the class.

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## How to Write a Hypothesis

If I [do something], then [this] will happen.

This basic statement/formula should be pretty familiar to all of you as it is the starting point of almost every scientific project or paper. It is a hypothesis – a statement that showcases what you “think” will happen during an experiment. This assumption is made based on the knowledge, facts, and data you already have.

How do you write a hypothesis? If you have a clear understanding of the proper structure of a hypothesis, you should not find it too hard to create one. However, if you have never written a hypothesis before, you might find it a bit frustrating. In this article from EssayPro - custom essay writing services , we are going to tell you everything you need to know about hypotheses, their types, and practical tips for writing them.

## Hypothesis Definition

According to the definition, a hypothesis is an assumption one makes based on existing knowledge. To elaborate, it is a statement that translates the initial research question into a logical prediction shaped on the basis of available facts and evidence. To solve a specific problem, one first needs to identify the research problem (research question), conduct initial research, and set out to answer the given question by performing experiments and observing their outcomes. However, before one can move to the experimental part of the research, they should first identify what they expect to see for results. At this stage, a scientist makes an educated guess and writes a hypothesis that he or she is going to prove or refute in the course of their study.

## Get Help With Writing a Hypothesis Now!

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A hypothesis can also be seen as a form of development of knowledge. It is a well-grounded assumption put forward to clarify the properties and causes of the phenomena being studied.

As a rule, a hypothesis is formed based on a number of observations and examples that confirm it. This way, it looks plausible as it is backed up with some known information. The hypothesis is subsequently proved by turning it into an established fact or refuted (for example, by pointing out a counterexample), which allows it to attribute it to the category of false statements.

As a student, you may be asked to create a hypothesis statement as a part of your academic papers. Hypothesis-based approaches are commonly used among scientific academic works, including but not limited to research papers, theses, and dissertations.

Note that in some disciplines, a hypothesis statement is called a thesis statement. However, its essence and purpose remain unchanged – this statement aims to make an assumption regarding the outcomes of the investigation that will either be proved or refuted.

## Characteristics and Sources of a Hypothesis

Now, as you know what a hypothesis is in a nutshell, let’s look at the key characteristics that define it:

- It has to be clear and accurate in order to look reliable.
- It has to be specific.
- There should be scope for further investigation and experiments.
- A hypothesis should be explained in simple language—while retaining its significance.
- If you are making a relational hypothesis, two essential elements you have to include are variables and the relationship between them.

The main sources of a hypothesis are:

- Scientific theories.
- Observations from previous studies and current experiences.
- The resemblance among different phenomena.
- General patterns that affect people’s thinking process.

## Types of Hypothesis

Basically, there are two major types of scientific hypothesis: alternative and null.

- Alternative Hypothesis

This type of hypothesis is generally denoted as H1. This statement is used to identify the expected outcome of your research. According to the alternative hypothesis definition, this type of hypothesis can be further divided into two subcategories:

- Directional — a statement that explains the direction of the expected outcomes. Sometimes this type of hypothesis is used to study the relationship between variables rather than comparing between the groups.
- Non-directional — unlike the directional alternative hypothesis, a non-directional one does not imply a specific direction of the expected outcomes.

Now, let’s see an alternative hypothesis example for each type:

Directional: Attending more lectures will result in improved test scores among students. Non-directional: Lecture attendance will influence test scores among students.

Notice how in the directional hypothesis we specified that the attendance of more lectures will boost student’s performance on tests, whereas in the non-directional hypothesis we only stated that there is a relationship between the two variables (i.e. lecture attendance and students’ test scores) but did not specify whether the performance will improve or decrease.

- Null Hypothesis

This type of hypothesis is generally denoted as H0. This statement is the complete opposite of what you expect or predict will happen throughout the course of your study—meaning it is the opposite of your alternative hypothesis. Simply put, a null hypothesis claims that there is no exact or actual correlation between the variables defined in the hypothesis.

To give you a better idea of how to write a null hypothesis, here is a clear example: Lecture attendance has no effect on student’s test scores.

Both of these types of hypotheses provide specific clarifications and restatements of the research problem. The main difference between these hypotheses and a research problem is that the latter is just a question that can’t be tested, whereas hypotheses can.

Based on the alternative and null hypothesis examples provided earlier, we can conclude that the importance and main purpose of these hypotheses are that they deliver a rough description of the subject matter. The main purpose of these statements is to give an investigator a specific guess that can be directly tested in a study. Simply put, a hypothesis outlines the framework, scope, and direction for the study. Although null and alternative hypotheses are the major types, there are also a few more to keep in mind:

Research Hypothesis — a statement that is used to test the correlation between two or more variables.

For example: Eating vitamin-rich foods affects human health.

Simple Hypothesis — a statement used to indicate the correlation between one independent and one dependent variable.

For example: Eating more vegetables leads to better immunity.

Complex Hypothesis — a statement used to indicate the correlation between two or more independent variables and two or more dependent variables.

For example: Eating more fruits and vegetables leads to better immunity, weight loss, and lower risk of diseases.

Associative and Causal Hypothesis — an associative hypothesis is a statement used to indicate the correlation between variables under the scenario when a change in one variable inevitably changes the other variable. A causal hypothesis is a statement that highlights the cause and effect relationship between variables.

Be sure to read how to write a DBQ - this article will expand your understanding.

## Add a secret ingredient to your hypothesis

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## Hypothesis vs Prediction

When speaking of hypotheses, another term that comes to mind is prediction. These two terms are often used interchangeably, which can be rather confusing. Although both a hypothesis and prediction can generally be defined as “guesses” and can be easy to confuse, these terms are different. The main difference between a hypothesis and a prediction is that the first is predominantly used in science, while the latter is most often used outside of science.

Simply put, a hypothesis is an intelligent assumption. It is a guess made regarding the nature of the unknown (or less known) phenomena based on existing knowledge, studies, and/or series of experiments, and is otherwise grounded by valid facts. The main purpose of a hypothesis is to use available facts to create a logical relationship between variables in order to provide a more precise scientific explanation. Additionally, hypotheses are statements that can be tested with further experiments. It is an assumption you make regarding the flow and outcome(s) of your research study.

A prediction, on the contrary, is a guess that often lacks grounding. Although, in theory, a prediction can be scientific, in most cases it is rather fictional—i.e. a pure guess that is not based on current knowledge and/or facts. As a rule, predictions are linked to foretelling events that may or may not occur in the future. Often, a person who makes predictions has little or no actual knowledge of the subject matter he or she makes the assumption about.

Another big difference between these terms is in the methodology used to prove each of them. A prediction can only be proven once. You can determine whether it is right or wrong only upon the occurrence or non-occurrence of the predicted event. A hypothesis, on the other hand, offers scope for further testing and experiments. Additionally, a hypothesis can be proven in multiple stages. This basically means that a single hypothesis can be proven or refuted numerous times by different scientists who use different scientific tools and methods.

To give you a better idea of how a hypothesis is different from a prediction, let’s look at the following examples:

Hypothesis: If I eat more vegetables and fruits, then I will lose weight faster.

This is a hypothesis because it is based on generally available knowledge (i.e. fruits and vegetables include fewer calories compared to other foods) and past experiences (i.e. people who give preference to healthier foods like fruits and vegetables are losing weight easier). It is still a guess, but it is based on facts and can be tested with an experiment.

Prediction: The end of the world will occur in 2023.

This is a prediction because it foretells future events. However, this assumption is fictional as it doesn’t have any actual grounded evidence supported by facts.

Based on everything that was said earlier and our examples, we can highlight the following key takeaways:

- A hypothesis, unlike a prediction, is a more intelligent assumption based on facts.
- Hypotheses define existing variables and analyze the relationship(s) between them.
- Predictions are most often fictional and lack grounding.
- A prediction is most often used to foretell events in the future.
- A prediction can only be proven once – when the predicted event occurs or doesn’t occur.
- A hypothesis can remain a hypothesis even if one scientist has already proven or disproven it. Other scientists in the future can obtain a different result using other methods and tools.

We also recommend that you read about some informative essay topics .

Now, as you know what a hypothesis is, what types of it exist, and how it differs from a prediction, you are probably wondering how to state a hypothesis. In this section, we will guide you through the main stages of writing a good hypothesis and provide handy tips and examples to help you overcome this challenge:

## 1. Define Your Research Question

Here is one thing to keep in mind – regardless of the paper or project you are working on, the process should always start with asking the right research question. A perfect research question should be specific, clear, focused (meaning not too broad), and manageable.

Example: How does eating fruits and vegetables affect human health?

## 2. Conduct Your Basic Initial Research

As you already know, a hypothesis is an educated guess of the expected results and outcomes of an investigation. Thus, it is vital to collect some information before you can make this assumption.

At this stage, you should find an answer to your research question based on what has already been discovered. Search for facts, past studies, theories, etc. Based on the collected information, you should be able to make a logical and intelligent guess.

## 3. Formulate a Hypothesis

Based on the initial research, you should have a certain idea of what you may find throughout the course of your research. Use this knowledge to shape a clear and concise hypothesis.

Based on the type of project you are working on, and the type of hypothesis you are planning to use, you can restate your hypothesis in several different ways:

Non-directional: Eating fruits and vegetables will affect one’s human physical health. Directional: Eating fruits and vegetables will positively affect one’s human physical health. Null: Eating fruits and vegetables will have no effect on one’s human physical health.

## 4. Refine Your Hypothesis

Finally, the last stage of creating a good hypothesis is refining what you’ve got. During this step, you need to define whether your hypothesis:

- Has clear and relevant variables;
- Identifies the relationship between its variables;
- Is specific and testable;
- Suggests a predicted result of the investigation or experiment.

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## Hypothesis Examples

Following a step-by-step guide and tips from our essay writers for hire , you should be able to create good hypotheses with ease. To give you a starting point, we have also compiled a list of different research questions with one hypothesis and one null hypothesis example for each:

## Ask Pros to Make a Perfect Hypothesis for You!

Sometimes, coping with a large academic load is just too much for a student to handle. Papers like research papers and dissertations can take too much time and effort to write, and, often, a hypothesis is a necessary starting point to get the task on track. Writing or editing a hypothesis is not as easy as it may seem. However, if you need help with forming it, the team at EssayPro is always ready to come to your rescue! If you’re feeling stuck, or don’t have enough time to cope with other tasks, don’t hesitate to send us you rewrite my essay for me or any other request.

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- Null Hypothesis

Before understanding the Null Hypothesis in detail, let us first understand the definition of the Hypothesis.

In Statistics, a hypothesis can be defined as a formal statement, which gives an explanation about the relationship between any two or more variables of the specified population.

Hypothesis helps the researcher to translate any given problem to a clear explanation for the outcome of the study.

Hypothesis clearly explains and predicts the expected outcome and it indicates the types of experimental design and directs the study of any research process.

## What Is The Null Hypothesis?

We can define a null hypothesis as a general statement or a default position that says there is no relationship between two measured phenomena or there is no association among groups.

## Why is Null Hypothesis Important?

Testing (which involves accepting, approving, rejecting, or disproving) the null hypothesis and thus concluding that there are or we can say that there are no grounds for believing that there is any relationship between two phenomena is basically a central task in the modern practice of science; in the field of statistics.

To be more specific, hypothesis testing gives precise criteria for rejecting or accepting a null hypothesis within a level known as the confidence level.

## Null Hypothesis Symbol-

A Null Hypothesis is denoted by the symbol H 0 in statistics. It is usually pronounced as “h-nought” or “H-null”. The Subscript in H is the digit 0.

## Null Hypothesis Principle and When is A Null Hypothesis Rejected?

The principle followed for null hypothesis testing is basically collecting the data and determining the chances of a given set of data during the study on any given random sample, assuming that the null hypothesis is true.

Suppose, if the given data does not face the expected null hypothesis, then the outcome we will get will be quite weaker and they conclude that by saying that the given set of data does not provide strong evidence against the null hypothesis which is because of insufficient evidence.

Finally, this leads to null hypothesis rejection.

## Null Hypothesis Formula or How Do You Find The Null Hypothesis :

So far, understanding the concept of null hypothesis, let’s now discuss the null hypothesis formula:

Here, the null hypothesis formula is given below.

H 0 : p = p 0

The formula for the alternative hypothesis can be written as: H a = p >p 0 , and < p 0 ≠ p 0

The formula for the test static is denoted by:

\[Z=\frac{P-P_{0}}{\sqrt{\frac{P-P_{0}}{n}}}\]

Remember that, p 0 here is the null hypothesis.

## Types of Null Hypothesis.

There are 4 different types of Null hypothesis. Each of them is explained below with examples.

Simple Hypothesis: A simple Hypothesis is the one in which the relationship between two variables is predicted. One is an independent variable and the other is a dependent variable. A simple Hypothesis completely specifies the population distribution. An example of a simple Hypothesis is “Consuming sugar drinks daily leads to being overweight.”

Composite hypothesis. A Composite hypothesis describes the relationship between two or more independent variables and two or more dependent variables. In this hypothesis, the population distribution is not specified. An example of the Composite hypothesis is stated below. “ Individuals who consume sugar drinks daily and have a family history of health issues are more likely to become overweight and develop diabetes.”

Exact hypothesis. In this hypothesis, the exact value of the parameter or variable is defined. All the assumptions made during the derivation of the hypothesis are met in the exact hypothesis. An example of an exact hypothesis is, “ Students in a division score an average 17 out of 25 in exams. Hence, μ=17.”

Inexact hypothesis. Unlike the exact hypothesis, the exact value of the parameter or variable is not defined in the Inexact type of Hypothesis. Instead, a specific range or interval of the parameter is stated. For example, Students in class score an average between 12 to 15 out of 20 in exams. Hence, 12< μ< 15.

## Null Hypothesis Problem Problem : A researcher thinks that if the knee surgery patients go to physical therapy twice a week (instead of going 3 times), their recovery period will be longer. Given average recovery time knee surgery patients are given 8.2 weeks.

Step 1: First, we need to figure out the hypothesis from the problem . The hypothesis is usually hidden in a word problem that you need to figure out. The hypothesis that has been given in the above question is “I expect the average recovery period to be greater than 8.2 weeks.”

Step 2: You need to convert the hypothesis to math . Remember that the average can be sometimes written as μ.

H 1 : μ > 8.2(average)

Step 3: Now state what will happen if the hypothesis doesn’t come true. If the recovery time is not greater than the given average that is 8.2 weeks, there are only two possibilities, that the recovery time is equal to 8.2 weeks or it is less than 8.2 weeks.

H 0 : μ ≤ 8.2

H 0 (The null hypothesis): μ (the average) ≤ (is less than or equal to) 8.2

H 0 🡪 μ 1 = μ 2 where

H 0 is the null hypothesis,

μ 1 is the mean of population 1, and

μ 2 is the mean of population 2.

A stronger null hypothesis denotes that if two samples are drawn from the same given population, such that the variances and shapes of the given distributions are also equal.

## Examples of situations where hypothesis tests are used in the real world.

Is there a 100% chance of getting affected by dengue?

Answer : There could be chances of getting affected by dengue but the chances of getting affected by dengue are not 100%.

Do teenagers these days use mobile phones more than adults to access the internet?

Answer : Age has no limit and is not a factor that we can use mobile phones to access the internet.

Does having the fruit apple daily will not cause fever?

Answer : Having an apple daily does not assure of not having fever, but on the other hand it does increase the immunity to fight against such diseases.

Are children better at performing mathematical calculations than adults?

Answer : Again in this example too, age has no effect on Mathematical skills.

Hypothesis tests are often conducted in botany to determine whether some new treatment, fertilizer or chemical can cause increased growth, stamina or immunity in plants and animals.

Suppose, a botanist believes that a certain fertilizer will cause plants to grow more during a 1 month period than what they actually grow. Currently, they grow to 20 inches. To test the effectiveness of the fertilizer, the botanist applies the fertilizer to each of the plants in her lab for a month. Then performs a hypothesis test using the following hypothesis: H 0 : μ = 20 inches as the effect is nil on the mean plant growth by the fertilizer.

H A : μ > 20 inches (the fertilizer will cause mean plant growth to increase)

If the p-value of the test is significantly less then it will reject the null hypothesis and as a result, the fertilizer leads to increased plant growth.

In clinical trials, hypothesis tests are often used to determine whether some new treatment, drug, procedure, etc. cause improved outcomes in patients and thus elevate the treatment levels. Suppose a doctor wishes to test a new drug that reduces blood pressure in obese patients. To test its effectiveness, the doctor may measure the blood pressure of 40 patients before and after using the new drug for a month. Then a hypothesis test is performed using the following hypothesis. H 0 : μafter = μbefore means the mean blood pressure is the same before and after using the drug

H A : μafter < μbefore (the mean blood pressure is less after using the drug)

Hypothesis tests are often conducted in business organizations to determine whether a new advertising campaign will get more leads and cause an increase in sales. Suppose, the executive team of an organization believes that spending more on digital advertising leads to increased sales. To test this, the organization may increase money spent on digital advertising during a 3 month period and collect data to see if overall sales have increased or not. A hypothesis test can be performed using the following hypothesis.

H 0 : μafter = μbefore signifies the mean sales is the same before and after spending more on advertising

H A : μafter > μbefore (the mean sales increased spending more on advertising)

## Apart from just the above 3 examples, hypothesis testing is widely used in research centers, chemical laboratories, stock market predictions, the Investment industry and several business organizations.

Decision errors.

There are two types of decision errors that can happen when doing a hypothesis test. They are described below.

Type I error: This happens when one rejects the null hypothesis despite the null hypothesis being true. The probability of making a type I error is equal to the alpha level significantly

Type II error. This happens when one fails to reject the null hypothesis when it is actually false. The probability of committing a type II error is the power of the test.

## Importance of Hypothesis testing in real life and examples

The main aim of a hypothesis statement in statistics is to determine whether or not some hypothesis of a population parameter is true or false. It is an essential part of the procedures in statistics.

A hypothesis test evaluates two mutually exclusive statements and determines which statement is best supported by sample data. A discovery or a new finding holds a significant value when supported by a hypothesis test. Because the hypothesis test provides sufficient evidence to check the credibility of the given data.

To conduct a hypothesis test in the practical world, researchers obtain a random sample from the population and perform a hypothesis test on the sample data using Null and Alternative hypotheses.

## Difference between Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis.

## FAQs on Null Hypothesis

1. Why is a null hypothesis important and can you accept a null hypothesis?

The purpose and the importance of the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis are that they provide an approximate description of any given phenomena. The purpose of the null hypothesis is to provide the researcher or an investigator with the relational statement that is directly tested in any research study.

A null hypothesis is a hypothesis that is never acceptable. We either reject them or we fail to reject them. Hence, failing to reject the null hypothesis does not mean that we have shown that there is no difference in accepting the null hypothesis.

2. State one example where a Null hypothesis is applied in a practical life scenario?

The concept of null hypothesis has a variety of practical applications. Let us take the example of stock investment, buying shares of a company. The annual return of company stock when invested for a long duration is assumed to be 7.5%.

Now to test if the assumption is true or false, we consider the null hypothesis to be, ”the mean annual return for XYZ company shares is not 7.5%”. To test this hypothesis, we first accept the null hypothesis.

We then check the history of the stock performance of the last 5 years of XYZ company and then calculate the mean of the annual return. The result is then compared to the assumed annual return of 7.5%.

If it turns out that the average annual return of the last 5 years is 7.5%, then the null hypothesis is rejected. And the alternative hypothesis is accepted.

3. What is the purpose of Hypothesis testing?

Hypothesis testing is a statistical process of testing an assumption regarding a particular phenomenon or parameter. Often a good theory can make accurate predictions. However, for an analyst, hypothesis testing is a rigorous way of backing up his prediction with statistical analysis to support the predictions. It is also helpful to determine sufficient statistical evidence that can favor a certain hypothesis about the specified parameter.

In simple words, hypothesis testing is a systematic approach to assessing theories through observations and then determining whether the stated statement is true or false.

- Math Article

## Null Hypothesis

In mathematics, Statistics deals with the study of research and surveys on the numerical data. For taking surveys, we have to define the hypothesis. Generally, there are two types of hypothesis. One is a null hypothesis, and another is an alternative hypothesis .

In probability and statistics, the null hypothesis is a comprehensive statement or default status that there is zero happening or nothing happening. For example, there is no connection among groups or no association between two measured events. It is generally assumed here that the hypothesis is true until any other proof has been brought into the light to deny the hypothesis. Let us learn more here with definition, symbol, principle, types and example, in this article.

Table of contents:

- Comparison with Alternative Hypothesis

## Null Hypothesis Definition

The null hypothesis is a kind of hypothesis which explains the population parameter whose purpose is to test the validity of the given experimental data. This hypothesis is either rejected or not rejected based on the viability of the given population or sample . In other words, the null hypothesis is a hypothesis in which the sample observations results from the chance. It is said to be a statement in which the surveyors wants to examine the data. It is denoted by H 0 .

## Null Hypothesis Symbol

In statistics, the null hypothesis is usually denoted by letter H with subscript ‘0’ (zero), such that H 0 . It is pronounced as H-null or H-zero or H-nought. At the same time, the alternative hypothesis expresses the observations determined by the non-random cause. It is represented by H 1 or H a .

## Null Hypothesis Principle

The principle followed for null hypothesis testing is, collecting the data and determining the chances of a given set of data during the study on some random sample, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. In case if the given data does not face the expected null hypothesis, then the outcome will be quite weaker, and they conclude by saying that the given set of data does not provide strong evidence against the null hypothesis because of insufficient evidence. Finally, the researchers tend to reject that.

## Null Hypothesis Formula

Here, the hypothesis test formulas are given below for reference.

The formula for the null hypothesis is:

H 0 : p = p 0

The formula for the alternative hypothesis is:

H a = p >p 0 , < p 0 ≠ p 0

The formula for the test static is:

Remember that, p 0 is the null hypothesis and p – hat is the sample proportion.

Also, read:

## Types of Null Hypothesis

There are different types of hypothesis. They are:

Simple Hypothesis

It completely specifies the population distribution. In this method, the sampling distribution is the function of the sample size.

Composite Hypothesis

The composite hypothesis is one that does not completely specify the population distribution.

Exact Hypothesis

Exact hypothesis defines the exact value of the parameter. For example μ= 50

Inexact Hypothesis

This type of hypothesis does not define the exact value of the parameter. But it denotes a specific range or interval. For example 45< μ <60

## Null Hypothesis Rejection

Sometimes the null hypothesis is rejected too. If this hypothesis is rejected means, that research could be invalid. Many researchers will neglect this hypothesis as it is merely opposite to the alternate hypothesis. It is a better practice to create a hypothesis and test it. The goal of researchers is not to reject the hypothesis. But it is evident that a perfect statistical model is always associated with the failure to reject the null hypothesis.

## How do you Find the Null Hypothesis?

The null hypothesis says there is no correlation between the measured event (the dependent variable) and the independent variable. We don’t have to believe that the null hypothesis is true to test it. On the contrast, you will possibly assume that there is a connection between a set of variables ( dependent and independent).

## When is Null Hypothesis Rejected?

The null hypothesis is rejected using the P-value approach. If the P-value is less than or equal to the α, there should be a rejection of the null hypothesis in favour of the alternate hypothesis. In case, if P-value is greater than α, the null hypothesis is not rejected.

## Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis

Now, let us discuss the difference between the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.

## Null Hypothesis Examples

Here, some of the examples of the null hypothesis are given below. Go through the below ones to understand the concept of the null hypothesis in a better way.

If a medicine reduces the risk of cardiac stroke, then the null hypothesis should be “the medicine does not reduce the chance of cardiac stroke”. This testing can be performed by the administration of a drug to a certain group of people in a controlled way. If the survey shows that there is a significant change in the people, then the hypothesis is rejected.

Few more examples are:

1). Are there is 100% chance of getting affected by dengue?

Ans: There could be chances of getting affected by dengue but not 100%.

2). Do teenagers are using mobile phones more than grown-ups to access the internet?

Ans: Age has no limit on using mobile phones to access the internet.

3). Does having apple daily will not cause fever?

Ans: Having apple daily does not assure of not having fever, but increases the immunity to fight against such diseases.

4). Do the children more good in doing mathematical calculations than grown-ups?

Ans: Age has no effect on Mathematical skills.

In many common applications, the choice of the null hypothesis is not automated, but the testing and calculations may be automated. Also, the choice of the null hypothesis is completely based on previous experiences and inconsistent advice. The choice can be more complicated and based on the variety of applications and the diversity of the objectives.

The main limitation for the choice of the null hypothesis is that the hypothesis suggested by the data is based on the reasoning which proves nothing. It means that if some hypothesis provides a summary of the data set, then there would be no value in the testing of the hypothesis on the particular set of data.

## Frequently Asked Questions on Null Hypothesis

What is meant by the null hypothesis.

In Statistics, a null hypothesis is a type of hypothesis which explains the population parameter whose purpose is to test the validity of the given experimental data.

## What are the benefits of hypothesis testing?

Hypothesis testing is defined as a form of inferential statistics, which allows making conclusions from the entire population based on the sample representative.

## When a null hypothesis is accepted and rejected?

The null hypothesis is either accepted or rejected in terms of the given data. If P-value is less than α, then the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis, and if the P-value is greater than α, then the null hypothesis is accepted in favor of the alternative hypothesis.

## Why is the null hypothesis important?

The importance of the null hypothesis is that it provides an approximate description of the phenomena of the given data. It allows the investigators to directly test the relational statement in a research study.

## How to accept or reject the null hypothesis in the chi-square test?

If the result of the chi-square test is bigger than the critical value in the table, then the data does not fit the model, which represents the rejection of the null hypothesis.

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## FREE 11+ Null Hypothesis Templates in PDF | MS Word

The Null Hypothesis is that the style of hypothesis used within the statistics that proposes that there’s no distinction between the sure characteristics of the population or the information generating method.The null hypothesis is thought because the conjecture, assume that any style of distinction between the chosen characteristics that you see in an exceedingly set of the information because analysts look to reject the null hypothesis to rule out a number of the variables explaining the phenomena of interest.

## Table of Content

- Null Hypothesis Significance Test
- Null Hypothesis Significance Testing Review
- Null Hypothesis Template
- Null Hypothesis Testing
- Null Hypothesis Testing Procedures

## 9. Null Hypothesis Significance Testing Goals

10. college null hypothesis significance testing, steps to process the null hypothesis, faq’s, how does the null hypothesis work, what is the difference between null and alternative hypothesis, what is the objective behind the null hypothesis, what is the role of the null hypothesis, 1. null hypothesis significance test.

## 2. Null Hypothesis Significance Testing Review

## 3. Consequences Null Hypothesis Template

## 4. Analogy Null Hypothesis Template

## 5. Future Research Null Hypothesis Template

## 6. Steps in Null Hypothesis Testing

## 7. Statistical Null Hypothesis Testing Procedures

## 8. Research Method Null Hypothesis Template

## 11. Rejecting Research Null Hypothesis Template

## 12. Steps for Alternative Null Hypothesis Template

## Step 1: State the Null Hypothesis

Step 2: support the null hypothesis, step 3: find the p-value, step 4: compare the answers, step 5: make the decision, more in real estate templates, get instant access to free & premium , ai tools & daily fresh content.

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Whenever we perform a hypothesis test, we always write a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis, which take the following forms: H0 (Null Hypothesis): Population parameter =, ≤, ≥ some value HA (Alternative Hypothesis): Population parameter <, >, ≠ some value Note that the null hypothesis always contains the equal sign.

[1] Research hypothesis: States in plain language that there's no relationship between the 2 variables or there's no difference between the 2 groups being studied. Statistical hypothesis: States the predicted outcome of statistical analysis through a mathematical equation related to the statistical method you're using. Examples of Null Hypotheses

The null hypothesis ( H0) answers "No, there's no effect in the population." The alternative hypothesis ( Ha) answers "Yes, there is an effect in the population." The null and alternative are always claims about the population. That's because the goal of hypothesis testing is to make inferences about a population based on a sample.

The first step in conducting a hypothesis test is to write the hypothesis statements that are going to be tested. For each test you will have a null hypothesis ( H 0) and an alternative hypothesis ( H a ). Null Hypothesis The statement that there is not a difference in the population (s), denoted as H 0 Alternative Hypothesis

Step-By-Step Guide to Writing a Research Hypothesis. Now, let's break down the process of crafting an effective research hypothesis for your writing project. 1. Choose Your Research Topic. Start by selecting a research topic that intrigues you. It should be something you want to explore further, with a relevant scope for your research.

Knowledge Base Methodology How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples Published on May 6, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on August 15, 2023. A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research.

The null hypothesis in statistics states that there is no difference between groups or no relationship between variables. It is one of two mutually exclusive hypotheses about a population in a hypothesis test. When your sample contains sufficient evidence, you can reject the null and conclude that the effect is statistically significant.

The null hypothesis is often stated as the assumption that there is no change, no difference between two groups, or no relationship between two variables. The alternative hypothesis, on the other hand, is the statement that there is a change, difference, or relationship. Questions Tips & Thanks Want to join the conversation? Sort by: Top Voted

The first step to writing the null hypothesis is to find the (alternate) hypothesis. In a word problem like this, you're looking for what you expect to be the outcome of the experiment. In this case, the hypothesis is "I expect weight loss to take longer than six weeks." This can be written mathematically as: H 1: μ > 6

Step 5: Phrase your hypothesis in three ways. To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if … then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable. If a first-year student starts attending more lectures, then their exam scores will improve.

1 Simple hypothesis A simple hypothesis suggests only the relationship between two variables: one independent and one dependent. Examples: If you stay up late, then you feel tired the next day. Turning off your phone makes it charge faster. 2 Complex hypothesis

Choose 1 answer: H 0: p = 0.1 H a: p ≠ 0.1 A H 0: p = 0.1 H a: p ≠ 0.1 H 0: p ≠ 0.1 H a: p = 0.1 B H 0: p ≠ 0.1 H a: p = 0.1 H 0: p = 0.1 H a: p > 0.1 C H 0: p = 0.1 H a: p > 0.1 H 0: p = 0.1 H a: p < 0.1 D H 0: p = 0.1 H a: p < 0.1 Stuck? Use a hint. Report a problem Do 4 problems

To type the null hypothesis symbol, type the letter "H" and then click the subscript icon in the Font section of the Home tab. Your cursor will appear smaller, and you can now type the numeral "0." When you press the space bar, your font will change back to your default font size and you can continue typing. Video of the Day

To write a null hypothesis, first start by asking a question. Rephrase that question in a form that assumes no relationship between the variables. In other words, assume a treatment has no effect. Write your hypothesis in a way that reflects this. Null Hypothesis Examples

Basic definitions. The null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis are types of conjectures used in statistical tests, which are formal methods of reaching conclusions or making decisions on the basis of data. The hypotheses are conjectures about a statistical model of the population, which are based on a sample of the population. The tests are core elements of statistical inference ...

Step 1: Figure out the hypothesis from the problem. The hypothesis is usually hidden in a word problem, and is sometimes a statement of what you expect to happen in the experiment. The hypothesis in the above question is "I expect the average recovery period to be greater than 8.2 weeks.". Step 2: Convert the hypothesis to math.

The actual test begins by considering two hypotheses.They are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.These hypotheses contain opposing viewpoints. H 0, the —null hypothesis: a statement of no difference between sample means or proportions or no difference between a sample mean or proportion and a population mean or proportion. In other words, the difference equals 0.

Search for facts, past studies, theories, etc. Based on the collected information, you should be able to make a logical and intelligent guess. 3. Formulate a Hypothesis. Based on the initial research, you should have a certain idea of what you may find throughout the course of your research.

Write a null hypothesis for the resulting comparison. Step 1: Determine the quantity, or quantities, in question, and whether they are means or proportions. If you only have a single mean or ...

A null hypothesis is a type of hypothesis that proposes there is no difference or meaningful relationship between two things, either tangible or abstract. It is unnecessary to believe the null hypothesis is true to test it, and the word "null" highlights that scientists are actually attempting to invalidate the stated null hypothesis.

Here, the null hypothesis formula is given below. H0: p = p0. The formula for the alternative hypothesis can be written as: Ha = p >p0, and < p0≠ p0. The formula for the test static is denoted by: Z = P − P0 √P − P0 n. Remember that, p0 here is the null hypothesis.

In statistics, the null hypothesis is usually denoted by letter H with subscript '0' (zero), such that H 0. It is pronounced as H-null or H-zero or H-nought. At the same time, the alternative hypothesis expresses the observations determined by the non-random cause. It is represented by H 1 or H a. Null Hypothesis Principle

Step 1: State the Null Hypothesis. Figuring out the hypothesis from the matter. The hypothesis is sometimes hidden within the word drawback and is typically the statement of what you expect to happen within the experiment. Then, convert the hypothesis to mathematics. State what is going to happen if the hypothesis does not return true.