• Published: 12 July 2021

Research and teaching writing

  • Steve Graham 1 , 2 &
  • Rui A. Alves 3  

Reading and Writing volume  34 ,  pages 1613–1621 ( 2021 ) Cite this article

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Writing is an essential but complex skill that students must master if they are to take full advantage of educational, occupational, and civic responsibilities. Schools, and the teachers who work in them, are tasked with teaching students how to write. Knowledge about how to teach writing can be obtained from many different sources, including one’s experience teaching or being taught to write, observing others teach writing, and advise offered by writing experts. It is difficult to determine if much of the lore teachers acquire through these methods are effective, generalizable, or reliable unless they are scientifically tested. This special issue of Reading & Writing includes 11 writing intervention studies conducted primarily with students in the elementary grades. It provides important new information on evidence-based writing practices.

Working on a manuscript?

There are many different ways that teachers can learn about how to teach writing. One way of acquiring such knowledge is by teaching this skill to others. As teachers apply different instructional procedures, they form judgments about the value and efficacy of these practices. In essence, they learn by doing (Graham, 2018 ).

A second way teachers learn about how to teach writing is by observing others and learning from them (Graham, 2018 ). Teachers likely remember some of the instructional methods used by those who taught them to write (e.g., teachers, mentors, parents, guardians, and peers). They may in turn adopt some of these practices when they teach their own students. This may be particularly true for instructional practices they considered effective.

Teachers can gain additional insight into teaching writing by observing and absorbing insights offered by others who have taught writing or studied how to teach it. This includes knowledge acquired from instructors teaching literacy and writing courses as well as experts offering advice on writing instruction at conferences, through workshops, podcasts, or other forms of information sharing. Teachers may also learn about teaching writing by discussing this topic with their peers or observing them as they teach writing.

A third source of knowledge that teachers can access are published materials about how to teach writing. This includes textbooks and articles on the subject, curriculum guides, commercial materials, and position statements from professional organizations to provide just a few examples. These resources can further involve digital sources such as videos demonstrating how to apply specific writing procedures, experts promoting specific teaching techniques, or web sites devoted to writing instruction.

The concern

Given all of the possible knowledge sources teachers can access or experience, there is an abundance of information, recommendations, and teaching materials on how to teach writing that is available to teachers. This blessing experiences at least one serious limitation. Too often, there is limited, circumscribed, or no evidence that the proffered advice, know-how, or wisdom works. There are many claims about what is effective, but too little proof. Unfortunately, this observation applies to much of the lore that teachers acquire about writing instruction.

Teaching lore mainly involves writing practices teachers experienced when they learned to write, instructional practices teachers develop and apply with their students, writing practices they see other teachers apply, and teaching practices promoted by experts (Graham & Harris, 2014 ). While we have no doubt that teachers and experts possess considerable knowledge and insight about how to teach writing, basing the teaching of this complex skill on such lore alone is risky.

Why is this the case? One reason is that it is difficult to determine which aspects of teaching lore are valid. For example, there are many things a teacher does while teaching writing. When their students’ writing improves, they may attribute this change to specific procedures they applied. While this evaluation may be correct, it is also possible that this judgment is incorrect or only applies to some students or to a procedure in a given context.

Teachers are not the only ones who can succumb to such selective bias. Specific teaching lore promoted by writing experts are also susceptible to misinterpretation in terms of their effectiveness. To illustrate, writing experts can overestimate the impact of favored instructional methods, forming judgments consistent with their philosophical views on writing development or instruction. For instance, proponents of the whole language approach to learning to read and write believed that writing and reading develop naturally just like oral language (Goodman, 1992 ). Consistent with these beliefs, they championed an approach to literacy instruction based on the use of informal teaching methods (e.g., reading and writing for real purposes), while at the same time deemphasizing explicitly and systematically teaching students foundational writing and reading skills and strategies (Graham & Harris, 1997 ). Instead, these skills are only taught when the need arises, mostly through short mini-lessons. Advocates for whole language frequently promoted the effectiveness of this two-pronged approach (Begeron, 1990 ), without providing much in the way of empirical evidence that it was effective, or perhaps even more importantly, that it was as effective as other alternatives such as reading and writing programs that emphasized reading and writing for real purposes, coupled with systematic and explicit skills and strategy instruction (Graham & Harris, 1994 ). Even for fundamental writing skills such as spelling, there is considerable evidence that both informal teaching and explicit instruction are effective (Graham, 2000 ; Graham & Santangelo, 2014 ), while whole language approaches are fundamentally misguided about what is written language (Liberman, 1999 ).

Whole language is not the only approach to teaching writing that has suffered from questionable claims about its effectiveness. Even the venerable Donald Graves was guilty of this to some degree with the process approach to writing that he supported and advocated (see Smagorinski, 1987 ). The evidence he offered in support of his favored approach to teaching writing relied in large part on testimonials and exemplar writing of selected students, presenting a potentially overly optimistic assessment of this approach. This is not to say that the process approach is ineffective, as there is now considerable empirical evidence supporting the opposite conclusion (Sandmel & Graham, 2011 ). Instead, this example illustrates that adopting whole cloth even highly popular and widely used teaching lore without careful consideration of its effectiveness and the evidence available to support it can be risky. The lack of evidence or the type of evidence provided can make it extremely difficult for teachers or other interested parties to determine if the testimonials or evidence used to support specific teaching lore in writing are representative or atypical.

A third issue that makes some teaching lore risky is that it may be based on the experience of a single or a very small number of teachers. As an example, this can occur for knowledge a teacher acquires as a result of his or her experience teaching writing. The teaching practice(s) may in fact be effective for the students in this teacher’s classroom, but they may not be effective when applied by another teacher or with different students. Until this proposition is tested, there is no way to determine if this teaching lore will produce reliable results when applied more broadly.

As these concerns demonstrate, the validity, generalizability, and replicability of instructional practices based on teaching lore are uncertain. This is not to devalue what teachers or experts know, but to demonstrate the limits of this knowledge.

Evidence-based writing practices

The concerns about the value of teaching lore raised above raises the question: How should the structure and details of writing instruction be determined? The solution that we recommend is to take an evidence-based practice approach to both enhance teachers’ knowledge and develop writing instruction. Starting with medicine in the 1990s, and spreading quickly to psychology, informational science, business, education, and a host of other disciplines, this movement promoted the idea that practitioners in a field should apply the best scientific evidence available to make informed and judicious decisions for their clients (Sackett et al., 1996 ). The basic assumption underlying this approach is that the findings from research can positively impact practice. The evidence-based practice movement was a reaction to practitioners basing what they did almost strictly on tradition and lore, without scientific evidence to validate it.

One reason why this represents a positive step forward in education and the teaching of writing is that instructional practices based on high quality intervention research addresses the three issues of concern we raised about teaching lore. First, high quality intervention studies address the issue of validity. They are designed specifically to isolate the effects of a specific instructional practice or set of instructional practices. They provide systematically gathered evidence on whether the instructional practices tested produced the desired impact. They further apply methodological procedures to rule out alternative explanations for observed effects. Second, high quality intervention studies address issues of generalizability by describing the participants and the context in which the practice was applied, and by using statistical procedures to determine the confidence that can be placed in specific findings. Three, they address the issue of replicability, as the replication of effects across multiple situations is the hall mark of scientific testing (Graham & Harris, 2014 ).

Another reason why the evidence-based approach represents a positive step forward in terms of teaching writing is that the evidence gathered from high quality intervention studies can provide a general set of guidelines for designing an effective writing program. Graham et al. ( 2016 ) created such a roadmap by drawing on three sources of scientific evidence: true-and quasi- experimental writing intervention studies, single-case design studies, and qualitative studies of how exceptional literacy teachers taught writing (see also Graham & Harris, 2018 ). They indicated that the scientific evidence from these three sources supports the development of writing programs that include the following. Students write frequently. They are supported by teachers and peers as they write. Essential writing skills, strategies, and knowledge are taught. Students use word processors and other twenty-first century tools to write. Writing occurs in a positive and motivating environment. Writing is used to support learning. Based on several recent meta-analyses of high quality intervention studies (Graham, et al., 2018a , b ; Graham, et al., 2018a , b ), Graham now recommends that the evidence also supports connecting writing and reading instruction (Graham, 2019 , 2020 ).

A third reason why the evidence-based approach is a positive development is that it provides teachers with a variety of techniques for teaching writing that have been shown to be effective in other teachers’ classes and in multiple situations. While this does not guarantee that a specific evidence-based practices is effective in all situations, a highly unlikely proposition for any writing practice, it does provide teachers with instructional procedures with a proven track record. This includes, but is not limited to (Graham & Harris, 2018 ; Graham et al., 2016 ):

Setting goals for writing.

Teaching general as well as genre-specific strategies for planning, revising, editing, and regulating the writing process. Engaging students in prewriting practices for gathering, organizing, and evaluation possible writing contents and plans.

Teaching sentence construction skills with sentence-combining procedures.

Providing students with feedback about their writing and their progress learning new writing skills.

Teaching handwriting, spelling, and typing.

Increasing how much students write; analyzing and emulating model texts.

Teaching vocabulary for writing.

Creating routines for students to help each other as they write.

Putting into place procedures for enhancing motivation.

Teaching paragraph writing skills.

Employing technology such as word processing that makes it easier to write.

It is also important to realize that an evidence-based approach to writing does not mean that teachers should abandon the hard-earned knowledge they have acquired through their experiences as teachers or learners. The evidence-based movement emphasizes that teachers contextualize knowledge about teaching writing acquired through research with their own knowledge about their students, the context in which they work, and what they know about writing and teaching it (Graham et al., 2016 ). When applying instructional practices acquired through research as well as teaching lore, we recommend that teachers weigh the benefits, limitations, and possible harm that might ensue as a consequence of applying any teaching procedure. Once a decision is made to apply a specific practice, it is advisable to monitor its effectiveness and make adjustments as needed.

Finally, while the scientific testing of writing practices has provided considerable insight into how writing can be taught effectively, it is not broad, deep, or rich enough to tell us all we need to know about teaching writing. It is highly unlikely that this will ever be the case. We operate on the principle that there is no single best method for teaching writing to all students, nor is it likely that science will provide us with formulas to prescribe exactly how writing should be taught to each student individually. Writing, learning, children, and the contexts in which they operate are just too complex to make this a likely consequence of the evidence-based movement. As a result, we believe that the best writing instruction will be provided by teachers who apply evidence-based practices in conjunction with the best knowledge they have acquired as teachers and learners, using each of these forms of knowledge in an intelligent, judicious, and critical manner.

Over time, we anticipate that evidence-based practices will play an ever increasing role in the process described above. This is inevitable as our knowledge about evidence-based writing practices expands. This brings us to the purpose of this special issue of Reading & Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal . This special issue presents 11 writing intervention studies focusing almost exclusively with students in the elementary grades. These studies were conducted in Europe and the United States, and they replicate and extend prior research conducted with young developing writers.

The special issue

Perhaps the most tested writing instructional practice of all time, and the one yielding the largest effects sizes (Graham et al., 2013 ), is the Self-regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model developed by Karen Harris (see Harris et al., 2008 for a description of this approach). Several studies in the current special issue tested specific iterations of the use of the SRSD model as a means for teaching writing to elementary grade students. Collins and her colleagues examined the effectiveness of teaching third grade students in the United States task specific strategies for planning and drafting expository essays using information from social studies text using this model. This instruction enhanced the quality of students’ texts and resulted in improvement on a norm-referenced measure of writing where students identified their favorite game and provided reasons why this was the case.

In a second SRSD study conducted with second and third grade children in Spain, Salas and her colleagues examined if teaching planning and drafting strategies for writing an opinion essay was equally effective with children from more and less disadvantaged backgrounds. SRSD was equally effective in improving the opinion writing of children from both backgrounds, but carryover effects to reading comprehension (a skill not taught in this study) only occurred for students from less disadvantaged backgrounds.

A third study by Rosario and his colleagues involved a secondary analysis of data from an investigation in Portugal where third grade students were taught to write narratives using SRSD procedures and a story writing tool they developed. Their reanalysis focused on students experiencing difficulties learning to write showing that they differed in their approach and perceptions of teacher feedback. The majority of these children were able to use the feedback provided by their teacher and viewed it as helpful.

A fourth investigation by Hebert and his colleagues taught fourth grade students in the United States to write informational text using five text structures (description, compare/contrast, sequence of events, problem–solution, and cause effect). While the authors did not indicate they used SRSD to teach these strategies, the teaching methods mirrored this approach. In any event, the instruction provided to these children enhanced how well they wrote all five of these different kinds of text. These effects, however, did not generalize to better reading performance.

Lopez and her colleagues in Spain examined three approaches to improving sixth grade students’ writing. Students in all three conditions were taught how to set communicative goals for their writing. Students in one treatment condition were taught a strategy for revising. Students in a second treatment condition observed a reader trying to comprehend a text and suggesting ways it might be improved. Control students continued with the goal setting procedures. Students in both treatment conditions improved their writing and revising skills more than control students, but there were no differences between these two treatments.

In another Spanish study conducted by Rodriguez-Malaga and colleagues, the impact of two different treatments on the writing of fourth grade students was examined. One treatment group learned how to set product goals for their writing, whereas the other writing treatment group learned how to set product goals and strategies for planning compare/contrast texts. Only the students in the product goal and planning strategy treatment evidenced improved writing when compared to control students.

Philippakos and Voggt examined the effectiveness of on-line practice-based professional development (PBPD) for teaching genre-based writing strategies. Eighty-four second grade teachers were randomly assigned to PBPD or a no-treatment control condition. Treatment teachers taught the genre-based writing strategies with high fidelity and rated PBPD positively. Even more importantly, their students writing evidenced greater improvement than the writing of students in control teachers’ classes.

Walter and her colleagues in England examined the effectiveness of two writing interventions, sentence combining and spelling instruction, with 7 to 10 year old children experiencing difficulties learning to write. As expected, sentence combining instruction improved sentence construction skills, but even more importantly, these researchers found that the degree of improvements in sentence writing was related to students’ initial sentence, spelling, and reading skills.

In another study focused on improving students’ sentence construction skills, Arfé and her colleagues in Italy examined the effectiveness of an oral language intervention to improve the sentence construction skills of fifth and tenth grade students. This oral treatment did enhance the sentence writing skills of the younger fifth grade students. This study provides needed evidence that interventions aimed at improving oral language skills transfer to writing.

Chung and his colleagues in the United States examined if sixth grade students’ writing can be improved through self-assessment, planning and goal setting, and self-reflection when they revised a timed, on-demand essay. These students as well as students in the control condition were also taught how to revise such an essay. Treatment students evidenced greater writing gains, and were more confident about their revising capabilities than control students.

Lastly, Graham and his colleagues in the United States examined if the revising behavior of fourth grade students experiencing difficulties with writing can be enhanced through the use of revising goals that focused attention on making substantive when revising stories (e.g., change the setting of the story). Applying such goals across four stories had a positive effect on the revising behavior of these students when these goals were not in effect, resulting in more text-level revisions, more revisions that changed the meaning of text, and more revisions rated as improving text.

The 11 intervention studies in this special issue of Reading & Writing are particularly noteworthy for several reasons. One, some of these studies ( n  = 4) concentrated on improving students’ skills in writing informational and expository text. This is an area that has not received enough attention in existing writing literature. Two, enhancing students’ revising was the goal of multiple studies ( n  = 4). Again, too little attention has been given to this topic with either younger or older students. Three, it was especially gratifying to see that a pair of studies examined how to enhance sentence writing skills. This has been a neglected area of writing research since the 1980s. Four, multiple studies focused on improving the writing of students who experienced difficulties learning to write ( n  = 3). This is an area where we need much more research if we are to maximize these students’ writing success. Finally, more than half of the studies in this special issue ( n  = 6) were conducted in Europe, with the other half conducted in the United States. It is important to examine if specific writing treatments are effective in different social, cultural, political, institutional, and historical context (Graham, 2018 ), as was done with the four studies that applied SRSD to teach students strategies for writing.

We hope you enjoy the studies presented here. We further hope they serve as a catalyst to improve your own research if you are a writing scholar or your teaching if you are a practitioner.

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Graham, S., Alves, R.A. Research and teaching writing. Read Writ 34 , 1613–1621 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-021-10188-9

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Accepted : 29 June 2021

Published : 12 July 2021

Issue Date : September 2021

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-021-10188-9

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Impact of Self-Regulation Skills on Academic Performance of Young Children in Private Schools of Karachi

Journal of Education and Educational Development

This research aimed to explore if self-regulation skills had any effect on the academic outcomes of young children in private schools of Karachi, Pakistan. Quantitative research method was used to determine the impact of self-regulation upon the academic outcome of young children by utilizing Early School Self-Regulation Scale-Care Giver Version (Bhamani, 2012).The sample size consisted of randomly chosen 210 children, studying in grades 1 and 2 from seven different private schools in Karachi. The results of the research show that self regulation skills had a significant impact on the academic outcome of young children in private schools of Karachi, b = -6.3, t (198) = 0.693, p < .01. Self-regulation skills also explained a significant proportion of variance in students grades, R2 = .397, F (1, 198) = 130.536, p < .01.

Impact of Self-Regulation Skills on Academic Performance of Young Children in Private Schools of Karachi (Vol. 2 No.1(June 2015)(JoEED)).pdf

Arab World English Journal (AWEJ)

2020, Arab World English Journal (AWEJ)

Recent debates about the bachelor in Morocco show that teaching learners to maintain positive attitudes and take over responsibilities for social and political processes is an essential educational asset of soft skills, mainly for schools that adopt project-based instructions. To engage students in this newest reform, significant preconditions of democratic school culture are set as effective outcomes to generate ethical behaviors. Today, social and political issues tend to provide meaningful opportunities to engage students in proper activities, specifically by using project-based learning. This paper aims at examining important venues that Moroccan school leaders, along with the bachelor outcomes, wish to implement to foster democratic participation within and outside school life by adopting project-based learning. It questions the challenges and perspectives of this implementation along with the progress of Moroccan educational institutions. Hence, the paper adheres to a meta-analysis technique, whereby a unique examination of the various already conducted studies came out with conclusions: perspectives and challenges. The typical meta-analysis method disengages readings of various scholarly academic sources related to school effectiveness concerning the implementation of project-based instruction, specifically after a long journey of debates about the bachelor. Because of its descriptive nature, this method allows the researcher to explore the wide-range of pitfalls that provide potential opportunities for alternative conclusions which are adopted in restructured and well-run approaches. The significant results and conclusions drawn from this paper are profoundly and qualitatively discussed and analyzed.

Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Proceedings of  2nd  MEC TESOL Conference   2020

sajid abbas

Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER)

Creative writing owns an important place in the education system. It enlightens creativity and boosts critical thinking among students. Therefore, it appears to be a ruling skill. Knowing that conventional high-stakes examination leaves a key impact on teaching and learning, the present study was designed to identify the effect of high-stakes exams on creative writing skills of secondary level students of English as a Second Language (ESL) in Pakistan. For this, the content of a series of seven English tests by 8th, 9th, and 10th graders (separately) taken in one of the two spans of private coaching at a renowned tuition center for preparation of high-stakes exams was analyzed to see incremental change in students’ creative writing abilities. Analysis discovered that the whole of students’ content was mere replicas of ready-made notes except few traces of original effort by students only in the beginning. It was revealed that the system of examination is producing crammers rather th...

Effect of High-Stakes Exams on Creative Writing Skills of ESL Learners in Pakistan

Syeda Saima Ferheen Bukhari

The study identifies appropriate Mind mapping techniques to enhance the EFL learners’ writing ability. It reviews and examines the traditional techniques used in teaching writing to the Saudi intermediate learners and identifies appropriate Mind mapping techniques along with an application procedure to enhance the writing skill. The sample included 40 intermediate learners and 20 English language teachers at the English Language Institute. The study divided into two phases; a Survey Phase and an Experiment Phase; started with the learners’ placement test and a questionnaire distributed in EL teachers to collect the data on practicing usual techniques and problems faced while teaching writing. Since, the main focus of the study was to identify the appropriate Mind mapping techniques to enhance the learners’ writing ability, the experiment phase continued for 7-8 weeks. The statistical analysis of the data was carried out by using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. The results indicated that the learners, who were taught through Mind maps, improved cohesion and coherence; content paragraph structure and length in writing. The results manifested that the hierarchical structure of the Mind mapping techniques used in the pre-writing process enhanced the EFL learners’ writings.

Mind Mapping Techniques to Enhance EFL Writing Skill

Steve Graham

Developing Materials for English for Future Careers

Samia Naqvi

Technology-enriched classrooms have been claimed to produce enhanced learning opportunities for foreign language students. These technologies can be integrated into language teaching and learning inside the classroom or used for independent learning by students outside it. This study involves the use of digital-videos in Middle Eastern English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. It attempts to explore if using technology creatively in language teaching has the potential to enhance communication skills and other sub-skills in EFL classes. Omani EFL students, working in small groups, created commercials for products they chose to design and promote using digital videos. These were then presented to the class while each group was responsible for collaboratively writing a report the presentation of a commercial product and wrote about their experiences. Using data collected mainly from student questionnaires, this article reports on this experience from the points of view of students.

ICT and Language Learning: A Case Study on Student-Created Digital Video Projects

Robert Kirkpatrick

Plenary Talk at 17th international NELTA

Hulya Tuncer

Newspapers do not only carry the role of spreading news nation or worldwide but also serve as an educational tool in foreign language contexts subsidiarily. Consisting of as few words as possible yet to define a lot of ideas, newspaper headlines were considered to form a fruitful base for promoting reading and writing skills of pre-service EFL teachers. With this thought in mind, a news story prediction activity was implemented with 45 pre-service teachers at the English Language Teaching (ELT) Department of a state university in Turkey. Completed through two semesters (20 weeks), this study required the participants to keep newspaper portfolios in which they put a) the news story that they found, b) their written prediction based on the headline before reading the content, and c) written comparison of their prediction with the original news story focusing on matching and/or mismatching points of their guesses after reading the news story. The researcher assessed students' performance by giving them two headlines at the end of each semester. In addition, a questionnaire was distributed to the students to gather their thoughts about reading and writing skills improvement and also the appreciation of the utilized technique. Together with the portfolio process evaluation and a final interview, this study underpins the contribution of newspaper headlines for facilitating the reading and writing skills of pre-service teachers of EFL.

Newspaper Headlines in EFL Classes: Development of Reading and Writing Skills

Hasan Jaashan , Mehmet DEMIREZEN

2022, Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies

Richards (2015) states that receptive competence is far more developed in all language users than productive competence and that in L2 learning, new lexis first shows as passive knowledge and later as active or productive competence. Moreover, productive competence is not a natural corollary to receptive competence; rather, the former requires noticing and focused output. The current study concerns itself with the focused output or the ability of the learners to produce comprehensible language post-intervention, which is essential for learners to acquire a new language. The study is conducted with 42 EFL learners at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia, twenty of whom are taught Figures of Speech as a receptive skill while the remaining twenty-two are taught the Figures of Speech through three stages, designed to lead them into giving focused output or use the Figures of Speech productively in creative writing. The post-test results show that learners who are taught Figures of Speech as receptive skill could not write creatively, whereas the learners who are taught these as productive skill successfully apply the Figures of Speech to compose fine and new pieces of literature which exhibit moderate to a good grasp of creative writing. The study concludes that learners show a positive attitude and preference towards enhancing creativity by adopting such new and effective teaching methods. Accordingly, the study highly recommends adopting teaching Figures of Speech as a productive skill, in place of the commonly practiced method as a receptive skill to EFL learners.


Aly A B D E L S A M E A Qoura

Journal of Research in Curriculum Instruction and Educational Technology

EFL Teacher Competencies in the ICT age

Umm e Habiba

Responsible Education, Learning and Teaching in Emerging Economies

Purpose: The objective of the study was to compare the English writing skills of English in the classroom at secondary level. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study was carried on sample of hundred students of secondary level drawn from simple randomly selected from five private and five public secondary schools of Lahore. Self-structured test was used to compare English writing skill at secondary level. There were two sections of test, essay type and translation of ten sentences into English. The data collected was analyzed by using percentage and results obtained were converted to descriptive findings. Findings: The result showed English writing skill of private school students is better than public schools students because majority of the private school students have correct sentence structure, Subject verb agreement in essay writing, correct Translations of Urdu sentences into English as compared to the public school students. In addition, most of the public schools student’s sp...

Comparison of English Writing Skill between Public and Private Sector Schools Students at Secondary Level: In Pakistani Perspective

2019, Journal of Education and Educational Development

Teachers in the recent fast transforming technological era are required to regularly upgrade their knowledge, skills and attitudes to meet the needs of the 21 st century learners & learning. This study explores the engagement of the school leaders in continuous professional development (CPD) by using a case study method. An elite school was selected as a sample case considering its recognition of CPD models and its constructive implications on learning. Two school leaders consisting of school headmistress and CPD convenor were selected using a purposive sampling method. The data were collected using an in-depth interview strategy and having a semi structured interview guide that could allow subjective detailed questioning and responses. Also, researchers own observations of CPD programmes provided relevant data for the study. The data analysis revealed that school leaders pursue CPD in a very systemic and process-oriented manner. The process starts from exploring individual teachers' needs to providing them with avenues to upgrade their teaching with timely support and monitoring. This study synthesizes the findings and present essential characteristics of effective professional development. Strategies for policy makers, school leadership, school administrators and teachers to engage in continuous, relevant and contextualized professional development endeavours are discussed.

Engagement of School Leadership in Teachers' Continuous Professional Development: A Case Study

Getachew Abay

Daniel 4 new

Maria Isabel Maldonado Garcia

Book Abstract -ICLAP 2016

2019, Arab World English Journal

In the present study, with the aim of analyzing the relationship among teacher feedback, feedforward, and grade, the corrections and comments made by four experienced assessors on 187 compositions were under scrutiny. These essays were written by 56 Swedish university students studying English as a second language at three different educational levels. The results reveal that while there were clear links between mid-essay corrections/comments and grades given, the links between mid-essay corrections/comments and end comments were not only comparatively few, but less clear. Moreover, although valued highly in the research literature because of their ability to promote writing skills in an enhanced manner, there were more summative end comments than formative ones. The conclusion was, therefore, drawn that it is quite taxing for assessors, even for experienced ones, to produce connections that involve an alignment among a) mid-essay corrections/comments, b) end comments and c) grade that will, at the same time, promote students’ writing skills in accordance with what is suggested by the research literature. The assessors were, however, irrespective of grade given, attuned to the educational level at hand, focusing more on analytic aspects at the two lower levels, while taking a more holistic approach at the highest educational level. This may indicate that offering corrections/comments does not only entail a developmental journey for students, but for teachers too.

Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Volume 10. Number 3 September 2019

Huda Kahwaji

International Journal of Learning and Teaching

With the globalising of education, discourse about the teaching of ESL (English as a second language) has contested ‘old’ literacy teaching and learning. Innovative approaches to language have changed perspectives about teaching and learning English in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education and paved the way for ‘new’ developments of literacy practices. Yet, STEM education for ESL leaners is still standing in a disjuncture between the global digital forms of communication and traditional practices. This paper draws upon recent literature investigating the teaching of English for ESL learners to engage in a robust discussion about ESL teaching practices in STEM education. It presents some of the issues facing ESL teachers and learners, as well as the knowledge and skills that ESL practitioners must acquire and integrate into their classroom practice to successfully address these arising challenges. This paper presents a need to change the current pedagogica...

The Influence of Teaching English in STEM Education for ESL Learners amidst a Changing World after COVID19

Prof.Dr. Muhammad Yousuf Sharjeel

Dr. Muhammad Yousuf Sharjeel C.V February 2017

Dr Sharjeel CV January 2017

The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact of habits of mind (HoM) based strategies on students' writing skills and autonomy. Questions formulated to achieve the purpose of the study focused on. (1) Determining the habits of mind suitable for EFL students. (2) Finding out differences in both English as a foreign language (EFL) students' writing performance test regarding experimental and control group. (3) Finding out differences in both EFL students' autonomy scale of experimental and control group. Thirty three EFL students constituted the sample for this study and four instruments-designed by the researchers-were used for data collection. Results indicated that students of experimental group outperformed their counterparts of the control group in EFL writing performance test and autonomy scale scores. The effect of using HoM on students writing skills and autonomy was profound and significant.

Using Habits of Mind to Develop EFL Writing Skills and Autonomy

The proficiency in writing skills is the most basic and important skill to achieve success in academics. Therefore, not only to ace the exams but also to perform better the students need to develop and improve their writing skills, especially in an EFL environment. Here the perception of teachers regarding the writing needs of business students' matter a lot, as they design their course and teaching materials according to the specific writing needs of the students. Hence, to improve the writing skills of students, it is imperative to determine their writing needs and then employ various strategies, which cater to their specific writing needs. This study aims to explore the writing needs of business students from the perspective of English teachers along with the writing strategies practiced for improvement of writing skills. For this reason, in-depth interviews of three English language teachers of a private business school were conducted. The finding to emerge from this study is that business students face major problems in grammar, Subject-Verb agreement, vocabulary, sentence structure and organization of ideas. Moreover, it was concluded that the awareness of genre and context and use of different registers in writing is essential. Additionally, it was also seen that strategies for writing skills could enhance the skills and abilities of students enormously, especially by incorporating some reading strategies. Implications are drawn for the cooperation between business and English language faculty and more emphasis on the genre based, combination of product process approach of teaching and incorporation of reading tasks.

The Writing needs of Business Students: A Teacher's Perception in an EFL context

farzaneh khodabandeh

The use of different types of creative teaching techniques such as mind-mapping has drawn the attention of teachers. In this regard, the present research aimed to investigate the effect of implementing mind mapping technique on the improvement of EFL learners’ speaking skill in traditional and flipped classes. It also took a further step and examined the personality of the learners into account. To this end, 80 homogenous elementary EFL students who were studying English language teaching at Payam-e-Noor University, were divided into four equal groups based on their personality type and were assigned into the traditional and flipped classes. Before the treatment, a speaking pretest was taken and the results indicated that the groups were homogenous in terms of their speaking ability prior to the administration of the treatments. After the pre-test, the groups received treatment. The participants of the traditional groups drew mind maps about each speaking topic, and the participants...

The Comparison of Mind Mapping‐Based Flipped Learning Approach on Introvert and Extrovert EFL Learners’ Speaking Skill

Ari Setyorini

2017, CONAPLIN 2017

This article attempts to frame critical literacy practice in EFL Classroom in Indonesia since it is known that critical literacy should be implemented by higher education in the 21st century to answer the need of transformative pedagogy. Using descriptive qualitative analysis, the study was focused on two prominent points. Firstly, it examined how a higher education teacher in EFL classroom put critical literacy into practice and challenged her students to be critical learners. Further, applying Critical Language Awareness (CLA) strategies, this paper took a deeper discussion on how CLA could enhance student’s critical consciousness in reading a text. Secondly, this study described the challenge of teaching English Language using critical literacy perspective for higher education in EFL classroom.

research on writing skills pdf

This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of using Some Online-Collaborative Learning Tools (Google Docs and Padlet) to develop student teachers&#39; EFL creative writing skills and writing selfefficacy. The study followed a pre-post experimental one group design. The participants were 36 second year students enrolled in English Language section, Faculty of Education, Benha University. To determine the most important and required EFL creative writing skills for the participants, a checklist of EFL creative writing skills was developed and validated. A pre-post EFL creative writing skills test and writing selfefficacy scale were prepared. Students were pre-tested, to identify their entry level of EFL creative writing skills and their writing self-efficacy beliefs. Then, they were trained through the suggested online collaboration-based program on how to develop their creative writing skills (fluency, accuracy, flexibility and originality) and the main dimensions of writing ...

Using Some Online-Collaborative Learning Tools (Google Docs &Padlet) to Develop Student Teachers' EFL Creative Writing Skills and Writing Self-Efficacy

International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation

In writing an essay, a writer is demanded to consider several essential aspects of writing. They are mechanics, contents, coherence, organization, grammar, and vocabulary (Harmer, 2001, p. 88). Because of these demands on writing an essay, learners who are training their writing skills may face various problems in the process of writing an essay. Moreover, it is important to notice that many ESL students consider writing as hard and become suspicious when faced with writing assignments; thus, they often refuse to take time to write (Rankin-Brown, 2006). This research aims to discover how peer correction helps students find and reduce their mistakes in composing a recount text. This research used a quasi-experimental method. The population was the students of senior high school in Sidrap regency, Indonesia. The total population was 178 students from seven classes, and this research assigned two groups, namely experimental and control groups. The sample was selected by using a clust...

Peer Correction Technique in Encouraging the Indonesian EFL Learners to Write Compositions

Sahbi Hidri, PhD

The spread of the English language in this globalized world has led many countries to undertake their research in English where the lat- ter, being the lingua franca, has been perceived as the main medium to publish research. Today, the most important research discoveries are reported in English. This prevalent use of English, for instance, has ena- bled English Language Teaching (ELT) research to spread more and more, since it has been backed up and promoted by the UK and the USA. The stance of these countries toward ELT research has been very rewarding at different levels. To be part of this globalized world and in order to maintain a well-known research reputation, many countries have been struggling to find a niche by publishing and disseminating research in English. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is a case in point. The MENA region comprises the following countries that share the same religion, culture and language, with all its different dia- lects: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Syria Arab Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The region is divided into two major parts, as it had long been decided by two great colonial ....

INTRODUCTION CHAPTER_2019_Bookmatter_EnglishLanguageTeachingResearc.pdf

Munazza Ambreen

Pakistan Journal of Education

one from academic point of view. The students at intermediate level need to practice expository essay writing to be able to write fluently in their university stage ahead. The study investigated the effects of conceptmapping strategy on expository writing skill of the students atintermediate level. The study was experimental in nature with pretestposttest control group design. To this end, forty students fromGovernment Girls Higher Secondary School from Intermediate Part IIwere selected as an average sample after their Proficiency in EnglishLanguage Test (PET). They were divided into two equivalent groupsafter pretest. The concept mapping treatment was given to theexperimental group for six weeks. They composed 10 expository essaysfollowing concept mapping strategy for each essay. The control groupwas taught in a conventional way. Pretest-Posttest score difference ofwriting achievement of control and experimental groups revealedsignificant difference. It was observed that the he tre...

Concept Mapping for Improving Expository Writing in Second Language

pragasit sitthitikul , Savika VARAPORN

This study investigated the effects of multimodal tasks on critical reading ability and perceptions of Thai university students. To compare effects on critical reading ability, students were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups and assessed with preand post-critical reading tests. Furthermore, reflective journals and semi-structured interviews were used to gain in-depth information about students’ perceptions towards the multimodal tasks. The findings revealed that the experimental group with the treatment of multimodal tasks outperformed the control group in critical reading test scores. Furthermore, evidence from the reflective journals and semi-structured interviews showed that students generally had a positive perception of the multimodal tasks. The multimodal tasks not only assisted them in proposing critical reading ideas and fostered analytical thinking skills, but also enhanced intrinsic motivation and learning autonomy.

Effects of multimodal tasks on students’ critical reading ability and perceptions

reza kafipour

The relationship between multiple intelligences and writing skill of medical students in Iran

Saravanan Palanisamy

Systematic Review: Challenges in Teaching Writing Skills for Upper Secondary in ESL Classrooms and Suggestions to overcome them

Jawed Chandio

Creative writing has an important place in the educational institutions. It is ignored in Pakistani English Language Teaching (ELT) classrooms. This study was designed to investigate the condition of creative writing skills of 9 graders. This study had been started with the review of the literature; many studies were found which analyzed different aspects of creative writing in ELT classrooms. A need was felt to see the condition of the four levels of creative writing namely descriptive writing, narrative writing, story writing, and functional writing among the secondary school level students. A sample of 238 students was selected from North and South of the Punjab province of Pakistan. Six classes from govt. and private sector schools were the sample.The major objectives of the study were to explore the condition of the above mentioned levels of creative writing in teaching of English at secondary level. Four tasks for creative writing were adapted from the Cambridge University O-l...

Condition of Creative Writing in the North and South Punjab

Wisma Yunita

2019, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education (ICoIE 2018)

Integrated Story-Based Grammar Learning Model: The Effectiveness and Students’ Perception on Its Implementation in a Grammar Classroom

Kelly-Ann Allen

2012, 3rd International Conference On Education and Educational Psychology

Belonging in Adolescents: A synthesis of research.

Ibrahim M R Al-Shaer

2014, International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

Employing Concept Mapping as a Pre-writing Strategy to Help EFL Learners Better Generate Argumentative Compositions


2010, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences

Spatial location of movement by children with intellectual disabilities: Automatically encoded or not?

Fatima MuhammedZein

Although some assessment modes have proved successful, many learning problems encountered by low achieving learners need to be fixed by a more procedurally adequate remedial classroom assessment. Many EFL instructors adopt conventional and static modes of assessment rather than flexible and humanistic assessment modes. Hence, the study aims at examining how Dynamic Assessment that premises on Vygotsky&#39;s &#39;zone of proximal development and advocates mediation through good social setting and practice can enhance EFL language learning. Accordingly, 25 EFL students pursuing the first level of an undergraduate course at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, formed the experimental group for the writing task and 20 for the Reading task. Pre-test and post-test were administered based on Browns’ Interventionist Model for writing task and Feuerstein’s Interactionist model for Reading Comprehension. In addition, an online questionnaire was distributed to 43 university teachers from Pr...

Dynamic Assessment: A Complementary Method to Promote EFL Learning

This paper focuses on the improvement of Oral Communication Skills (OCSs) of Pakistan's Public school's Grade-6 students who have a lack of opportunities and are seldom exposed to the English language generally and OCSs particularly. Since more importance is given to reading and writing skills of English in which results overlook the importance of OCSs and due to which students are found to be silent, shy or have a profound fear of being wrong. It further highlights self developed strategies of students in improving accuracy and fluency in which the National Curriculum for English Language (NCEL) was taken as a guiding tool and action planner through which systematic lessons were delivered in classrooms. Findings of Pre and post intervention phases of four participants revealed that children's OCSs had shown a marked improvement by giving opportunities to practice oral languages, providing conducive learning environment and using new teaching strategies. This study also claims that code switching, Peer and self error correction, short pauses and speech fillers are inevitable to improve speaking skills in the process of second language learning. It shows new ways in order to improve students' speaking skills and has implications for second language learners and teachers.

Improving English Oral Communication Skills

Abdullah Almelhi

English Language Teaching

The present research aimed to examine the effectiveness of the ADDIE model as used in teaching online in the LMS of Blackboard® and its facilities such as discussion boards, forums and blogs for improving the creative writing skills of EFL college students. The researcher utilized a quasi-experimental method, involving a pretest, posttest and control group design. Sixty students were randomly selected from freshmen studying in the English department participated in the study and were assigned equally to the research groups. The experimental group was exposed to the e-learning environment, which sought to develop the students’ creative writing skills while the control group was exposed to the traditional teaching method. Using a creative writing checklist and a writing test designed to assess the specific features of creative writing (originality, accuracy, self-expression, fluency, flexibility and overall writing performance for assessing creative writing in the research participant...

Effectiveness of the ADDIE Model within an E-Learning Environment in Developing Creative Writing in EFL Students

Subadrah Madhawa Nair

International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies

The Effects of Utilizing Smart Phones in Enhancing Students’ English Essay Writing Skills in Pakistan


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  1. (PDF) Teaching Students Effective Reading and Writing Skills

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