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When did the term 'computer virus' arise?
- October 19, 2001
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Academic literature on the topic 'Computer viruses'
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Journal articles on the topic "computer viruses":.
Melhum, Amera I., and Susan A. Mahmood. "Parasitic Computer Viruses." Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A 4, no. 1 (September 5, 2000): 45–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.17656/jzs.10064.
Gagescu, Raluca. "Computer viruses." Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 2, no. 5 (May 2001): 324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35073057.
Weems, Robyn P. "Computer Viruses." Library & Archival Security 14, no. 2 (August 18, 1998): 51–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/j114v14n02_07.
Subramanya, S. R., and N. Lakshminarasimhan. "Computer viruses." IEEE Potentials 20, no. 4 (2001): 16–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/45.969588.
Fountain, V. A. E. "Computer viruses." IEE Review 34, no. 10 (1988): 399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/ir:19880159.
Morgan Lloyd, Mark. "Computer viruses." IEE Review 35, no. 9 (1989): 338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/ir:19890149.
Siegel, Michael A. "Computer Viruses." Journal of the American Dental Association 123, no. 11 (November 1992): 10–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.1992.0303.
Abelson, Martin N. "Computer viruses." American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 104, no. 1 (July 1993): 96–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0889-5406(08)80123-0.
Cohen, Fred. "Computer viruses." Computers & Security 6, no. 1 (February 1987): 22–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-4048(87)90122-2.
Hennessy, Chris. "Computer viruses." Computer Law & Security Review 5, no. 5 (January 1990): 40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0267-3649(90)90050-l.
Dissertations / Theses on the topic "Computer viruses":
Luke, James Steven. "Detecting previously unseen computer viruses." Thesis, University of Southampton, 2002. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.274015.
Szeto, Wai-chi. "Computer virus prevention and control in Hong Kong /." [Hong Kong] : University of Hong Kong, 1993. http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkuto/record.jsp?B13302371.
Posluszny, Frank S. "Overcoming limitations in computer worm models." Link to electronic thesis, 2005. http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/ETD/Available/etd-01315-115046.
Weideman, Melius. "A critical evaluation of the destructive impact of computer viruses on files stored by personal computer users." Thesis, Cape Technikon, 1994. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11838/1363.
Schultz, John S. "Offline forensic analysis of Microsoft Windows XP physical memory." Thesis, Monterey, Calif. : Springfield, Va. : Naval Postgraduate School ; Available from National Technical Information Service, 2006. http://library.nps.navy.mil/uhtbin/hyperion/06Sep%5FSchultz.pdf.
Li, Xin. "Computer viruses: The threat today and the expected future." Thesis, Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, 2003. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-1998.
This Master’s Thesis within the area computer security concerns ”Computer viruses: The threat today and the expected future”.
Firstly, the definitions of computer virus and the related threats are presented; Secondly, current situation of computer viruses are discussed, the working and spreading mechanisms of computer viruses are reviewed in details, simplistic attitude of computer world in computer virus defence is analyzed; Thirdly, today’s influencing factors for near future computer virus epidemics are explained, then it further predicts new possible types of computer viruses in the near future; Furthermore, currently available anti-virus technologies are analyzed concerning both advantages and disadvantages; Finally, new promising trends in computer virus defence are explored in details.
Posluszny, III Frank S. "Overcoming Limitations in Computer Worm Models." Digital WPI, 2005. https://digitalcommons.wpi.edu/etd-theses/151.
Webster, Matthew Paul. "Formal models of reproduction : from computer viruses to artificial life." Thesis, University of Liverpool, 2008. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.501590.
林衛華 and Wai-wa Lam. "Multi-agent based human immune system." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 1999. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B31221117.
Lam, Wai-wa. "Multi-agent based human immune system /." Hong Kong : University of Hong Kong, 1999. http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkuto/record.jsp?B2093337X.
Books on the topic "Computer viruses":
Roberts, Ralph, and Ralph Roberts. Computer viruses: A Compute! book . Edited by Stephen Levy. Greensboro, NC: Compute! Books, 1988.
Henderson, Harry. Computer viruses . San Diego, Calf: Lucent Books, 2005.
Stang, David J. Computer viruses . 7th ed. [Washington, D.C.]: National Computer Security Association, 1991.
Denning, Peter J. Computer viruses . [Moffett Field, Calif.?]: Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science, 1988.
Peers, Eddie. Computer viruses . [London]: Deloitte Haskins & Sells, 1989.
Collier, Paul. Computer viruses . London: Member Services Directorate of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, 1991.
Louw, Eric. Managing computer viruses . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Shea, John M. Combating computer viruses . New York: Gareth Stevens, 2013.
Hruska, Jan. Computer viruses and anti-virus warfare . New York: Ellis Horwood, 1990.
Hruska, Jan. Computer viruses and anti-virus warfare . 2nd ed. New York: Ellis Horwood, 1992.
Book chapters on the topic "Computer viruses":
Hunter, John M. D. "Computer Viruses." In Computer Communications and Networks , 115–33. London: Springer London, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-0261-8_12.
Salomon, David. "Viruses." In Elements of Computer Security , 37–97. London: Springer London, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-85729-006-9_2.
Marchette, David J. "Computer Viruses and Worms." In Computer Intrusion Detection and Network Monitoring , 215–40. New York, NY: Springer New York, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-3458-4_6.
Slade, Robert. "Computer Viruses and Worms." In Handbook of Computer Networks , 440–53. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118256107.ch28.
Slade, Robert. "Computer Operations and Viral Operations." In Guide to Computer Viruses , 91–130. New York, NY: Springer New York, 1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-2384-9_4.
Ferbrache, David. "Theory of Viruses." In A Pathology of Computer Viruses , 31–54. London: Springer London, 1992. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-1774-2_3.
Ferbrache, David. "Apple Macintosh Viruses." In A Pathology of Computer Viruses , 153–66. London: Springer London, 1992. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-1774-2_6.
Belous, Anatoly, and Vitali Saladukha. "Computer Viruses, Malicious Logic, and Spyware." In Viruses, Hardware and Software Trojans , 101–207. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-47218-4_2.
Slade, Robert. "Introduction: Definitions, Jargon, and Myths." In Guide to Computer Viruses , 3–28. New York, NY: Springer New York, 1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-2384-9_1.
Slade, Robert. "Beginner’s Panic Guide to Viral Programs." In Guide to Computer Viruses , 29–46. New York, NY: Springer New York, 1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-2384-9_2.
Conference papers on the topic "Computer viruses":
BOTH, Paul-Valentin. "Computer Viruses and Methods to Avoid Viruses and Spyware." In International Conference on Cybersecurity and Cybercrime . Romanian Association for Information Security Assurance, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.19107/cybercon.2014.04.
Davis, R. "Exploring computer viruses." In Fourth Aerospace Computer Security Applications . IEEE, 1988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/acsac.1988.113403.
"EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER VIRUSES." In Математическое и программное обеспечение информационных, технических и экономических систем . Издательство Томского государственного университета, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.17223/978-5-907442-42-9-2021-34.
Bhattacharya, Prasanta, and William Thies. "Computer viruses in urban Indian telecenters." In the 5th ACM workshop . New York, New York, USA: ACM Press, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1999927.1999940.
Cohen, F. "Current best practice against computer viruses." In 25th Annual 1991 IEEE International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology . IEEE, 1991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ccst.1991.202223.
Gladychev, Nikolai. "Computer Viruses: The Abstract Theory Revisited." In 6th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy . SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.5220/0008942704060414.
Tsarava, Katerina, Manuel Ninaus, Tereza Hannemann, Kristina Volná, Korbinian Moeller, and Cyril Brom. "Teaching primary school children about computer viruses." In WiPSCE '20: Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education . New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3421590.3421660.
Tsarava, Katerina, Manuel Ninaus, Tereza Hannemann, Kristina Volná, Korbinian Moeller, and Cyril Brom. "Fostering Knowledge of Computer Viruses among Children." In Koli Calling '20: 20th Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research . New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3428029.3428033.
Hannemann, Tereza, Tereza Stárková, Pavel Ježek, Kristina Volná, Kateřina Kačerovská, and Cyril Brom. "Eight-Year-Olds' Conceptions of Computer Viruses." In WiPSCE'19: 14th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education . New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3361721.3361726.
Shah, Devavrat, and Tauhid Zaman. "Detecting sources of computer viruses in networks." In the ACM SIGMETRICS international conference . New York, New York, USA: ACM Press, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1811039.1811063.
Reports on the topic "Computer viruses":
Wack, John P., and Lisa J. Carnahan. Computer viruses and related threats . Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1989. http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/nist.sp.500-166.
Brown, D. R. An introduction to computer viruses . Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), March 1992. http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/5608409.
Brown, D. R. An introduction to computer viruses . Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), March 1992. http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/10133178.
Tinto, Mario. Computer Viruses: Prevention, Detection, and Treatment . Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center, March 1990. http://dx.doi.org/10.21236/ada477537.
Kirsch, Robert A., and II. Viruses And Other Computer Pathogens: Should DoD Care? Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center, April 1997. http://dx.doi.org/10.21236/ada326780.
Skormin, Victor, and Douglas Summerville. Recognition of Computer Viruses by Detecting Their Gene of Self Replication . Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center, March 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.21236/ada448622.
Orvis, W. J. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301 . Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), January 1994. http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/10151004.
Murray, W. P. The Computer Virus: Infection, Removal, and Protection . Fort Belvoir, VA: Defense Technical Information Center, September 1993. http://dx.doi.org/10.21236/ada637045.
Rodriguez Muxica, Natalia. Open configuration options Bioinformatics for Researchers in Life Sciences: Tools and Learning Resources . Inter-American Development Bank, February 2022. http://dx.doi.org/10.18235/0003982.
Fred Cohen and the first Computer Virus
Hex dump of the Blaster worm, showing a message left for Microsoft CEO Bill Gates by the worm’s programmer
On November 10, 1983, U.S. student Fred Cohen at the University of Southern California ‘s School of Engineering presented to a security seminar the results of his test , a program for a parasitic application that seized control of computer operations, one of the first computer viruses , created as an experiment in computer security .
John von Neumann – the “Father of Computer Virology”
But, the history of computer viruses dates back even further. The first academic work on the theory of self-replicating computer programs was performed in 1949 by John von Neumann who gave lectures at the University of Illinois about the “ Theory and Organization of Complicated Automata “.[ 1 ] Von Neumann founded the field of cellular automata and did first experiments on self replicating automatons with pencil and paper. Later his work was published as the “ Theory of self-reproducing automata “, where described how a computer program could be designed to reproduce itself. Von Neumann’s design for a self-reproducing computer program is considered the world’s first computer virus, and he is considered to be the theoretical father of computer virology .
Already in 1972, the Austrian computer scientist Veith Risak, directly building on von Neumann’s work on self-replication, published his article “ Selbstreproduzierende Automaten mit minimaler Informationsübertragung ” (Self-reproducing automata with minimal information exchange), in which he described a fully functional virus written in assembler language for a SIEMENS 4004/35 computer system. In 1980 Jürgen Kraus wrote his diplom thesis “ Selbstreproduktion bei Programmen ” ( Self-reproduction of programs ) at the University of Dortmund , in which he postulated that computer programs can behave in a way similar to biological viruses .
Also already in the ARPANET , the forerunner of today’s internet, there was a virus called Creeper . The Creeper virus was first detected on ARPANET in the early 1970s. It was an experimental self-replicating program written by Bob Thomas at BBN Technologies in 1971, which used the ARPANET to infect DEC PDP-10 computers running. Creeper gained access via the ARPANET and copied itself to the remote system where the message, “ I’m the creeper, catch me if you can! ” was displayed. The Reaper program was created to delete Creeper. In 1975, British author John Brunner published the novel The Shockwave Rider , in which he foresaw the danger of Internet viruses. Also the idea of swarm intelligence is outlined in his story. The 1973 Michael Crichton sci-fi movie Westworld made an early mention of the concept of a computer virus, being a central plot theme that causes androids to run amok. In 1979, his colleague Thomas J. Ryan described in The Adolescence of P-1 how an artificial intelligence spreads virus-like across the national computer network.
The Birth of the “Computer Virus”
Then, in 1983, Fred Cohen, a student at the University of Southern California ‘s School of Engineering, wrote a program for a parasitic application that seized control of computer operations in Leonard Adleman’s class – Adleman was one of the co-inventors of the RSA encryption. Cohen wrote a short program, as an experiment, that could “infect” computers, make copies of itself, and spread from one machine to another. It was hidden inside a larger, legitimate program, which was loaded into a computer on a floppy disk. In 1984, Fred Cohen wrote his paper “ Computer Viruses – Theory and Experiments ” . It was the first paper to explicitly call a self-reproducing program a “virus”, a term introduced by Cohen’s mentor Leonard Adleman. In 1987, Fred Cohen published a demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible viruses. Fred Cohen’s theoretical compression virus was an example of a virus which was not malware , but was putatively benevolent. However, antivirus professionals do not accept the concept of benevolent viruses, as any desired function can be implemented without involving a virus. Any virus will by definition make unauthorized changes to a computer, which is undesirable even if no damage is done or intended.
Tequila Virus (1991, x86 MSDOS)
And the Virus became a Worm
Before computer networks became widespread, most viruses spread on removable media, particularly floppy disks. In the early days of the personal computer, many users regularly exchanged information and programs on floppies. Some viruses spread by infecting programs stored on these disks, while others installed themselves into the disk boot sector, ensuring that they would be run when the user booted the computer from the disk, usually inadvertently. Of course this should change with the advent of the internet. Then, the computer virus became a computer worm . A computer worm is a standalone malware self replicating computer program that is supposed to spread to other computers via a computer network. A computer worm relies on security failures on the target computer to access it. Unlike a computer virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Worms almost always cause at least some harm to the network, even if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses almost always corrupt or modify files on a targeted computer.
References and Further Reading:
-  John von Neumann – Game Theory and the Digital Computer , SciHi Blog.
-  D. Bilar, E. Filiol (ed.) On self-reproducing computer programs , Master Thesis in Computer Science University of Dortmund, in Journal in Computer Virology February 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 9-87
-  Fred Cohen: Computer Viruses and Experiments , 1984
-  @mikkohypponen , DEFCON 19: The History and the Evolution of Computer Viruses , (2011), blackhattish @ youtube
-  John Brunner: The Shockwave Rider . Harper & Row, 1975
-  von Neumann, John (1966). “ Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata “ . Essays on Cellular Automata . University of Illinois Press: 66–87.
-  Computer Virus at Wikidata
-  “The Internet comes down with a virus” . The New York Times . August 6, 2014.
-  Timeline of Computer Security Exploits , via DBpedia and Wikidata
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Computer Viruses: Spreading, Multiplying and Damaging Essay
A computer virus is a software program designed to interfere with the normal computer functioning by infecting the computer operating system (Szor, 2005). These viruses have the capability of spreading from one computer to another. They are also capable of multiplying. Viruses cause myriads of working challenges to computers ranging from destruction of files, slowing down computer performance, renaming files in computers and eventually making it difficult to access stored files (Szor, 2005).
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These viruses can spread from one computer to another through an internet connection and sharing of floppy disks, flash discs and any other external and portable device that can transfer data from one machine to another. Viruses are distinguished from worms because they cannot run automatically (Szor, 2005). Therefore, the user of a computer must perform a function that will necessitate their operations.
The virus programs are not-self generated within a computer system. However, they are designed and produced by computer hackers. The hackers who design most common computer viruses usually come up with the names (US-CERT , 2012).
Some of these viruses include Melissa, the Anna Kournikova, MyDoom, Sasser & Netsky, the ILOVEYOU virus, The Klez Virus, Code Red and Code Red II, Nimda virus, SQL Slammer/Sapphire virus, Leap-A/Oompa-A virus, and Storm Worm (US-CERT , 2012). All these viruses are tools used by hackers to destroy and access remote computer files.
There are many ways through which a computer can be infected by a virus. These may range from direct access such as file sharing to remote access portals such as using internet connectivity. For a computer virus to be effective, it must be allowed to run by the user through various means (US-CERT, 2012). A computer user can accept any new message on the screen without knowing the information in the file.
In this way, a computer virus is then allowed to run, causing harm to the computer. If a computer user opens unknown attachments, then viruses can easily find access into files in a computer. If a computer’s operating system is not updated, it will not be able to filter viruses, making it more vulnerable to attacks (US-CERT , 2012).
In addition, downloading files from unsecure sources allows viruses to gain access to a computer. Viruses can also be hidden within some software. For instance, during software installation, viruses are allowed to infiltrate into computer files (US-CERT , 2012).
Viruses have become a major challenge to several companies across the world. However, some measures can be taken to regulate the spread of these computer viruses. For instance, the use of an updated antivirus program sourced from a reputable vendor offers computer protection against most viruses (US-CERT , 2012).
The antivirus must be frequently updated and configured to automatically start as the computer is switched on. Besides, the antivirus should be configured to allow regular virus scanning and virus check when running executable file on the computer. Backing up data is also an important method of protecting a computer from loss of data due to virus infection. The internet is the most common source of viruses.
When dealing with any form of data from an online source, make sure that the source is well known. The use of USB data transfer gadgets should be well monitored and conducted with caution. The antivirus in this case should be used to scan USB drives before accessing the files. The most important protection is making sure that the operating system is updated and the firewall is always activated.
It is also possible to erase crucial information from hard disc drives using viruses. This information may be data collected from a crime scene, banking records, confidential files, and even important government files (Szor, 2005). The use of viruses can manipulate important computer information such as bank records resulting into an individual accessing vital and confidential records. The development and use of viruses has always been aimed at committing crime either directly or indirectly.
Szor, P. (2005). The Art of Computer Virus Research and Defense. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley Professional. US-CERT (2012). Virus Basics. Retrieved from https://www.us-cert.gov/publications/virus-basics
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Dangers of Computer Viruses: Protect Your Devices
A computer virus is a malicious program that penetrates vulnerable devices to alter the way they function. There are many types of viruses, and new ones are constantly being created. This means that you need to have a robust security plan in place to deal with these ever-changing threats.
Replication is the singular feature that makes viruses so dangerous to computers. Once inside the host program, the virus will start to make copies of itself. It often spreads rapidly, and it can cause widespread damage to other software programs inside a device. It can even spread across networks and reach any systems connected to the network, damaging other endpoint devices and taking total control of the entire system. The virus can be challenging to eliminate once it gains access to the system.
What is a Computer Virus?
A computer virus is an illegal, harmful, or malicious program that can change the way your computer runs and behaves. Some of these programs seek to cause as much damage as possible to the endpoint devices they infect, like altering software programs or corrupting data. Other viruses will attempt to gain access to sensitive information. This information might include personal identifying information, credit card numbers, bank information, addresses, and other financial data. Other viruses will seek to steal information and also cause damage to your system.
What Causes Computer Virus Infections?
The best way to detect, block, and avoid computer viruses is to know where they’re coming from or what causes them. After answering the question, “what is a computer virus?”, the next step is to identify its types. Here are some of the common causes of computer viruses:
Opening suspicious email attachments
Attaching unsecured removable or external storage devices (e.g., flash drives, external hard drives, memory cards)
Accessing malicious websites
Clicking malicious ads
Downloading malicious and unlicensed applications
How Does a Computer Virus Spread Infection?
Computer viruses have many characteristics and behaviors that create signs of an infection, so if there are any sudden changes in your computer's performance, scan it immediately. A virus begins as a malicious program that requires a host computer or device to launch. It can embed its code onto the device. From there, it could turn into many variations. These viruses can get onto the system when you open a link or an email attachment that contains a malicious code, for example.
Many viruses will directly infect your system with malicious codes through different means. Dependent viruses need to be downloaded and installed through a host program. If the virus does require a host program, it won't become active until the program is launched. But if the virus is independent, it will not need a host program. This kind of virus can attack systems without using the resources of a host. The damages caused by these viruses can be significant; some estimates are in billions of dollars every year— $4.5 billion in households and 55 billions in workplaces and businesses . The global cost of malware infections and damages is estimated to reach $6 trillion by 2021. This whopping potential cost, as well as the mental and emotional repercussions on a personal level, are excellent reasons to stay away from any sites, links, attachments, videos, images, or files that could be infected with a computer virus.
Can Computer Virus Enter the System Through Trusted Sources?
Many viruses can get on the system when the computer user clicks on an unsafe link. But other viruses might enter the system from a legitimate download. They might even sneak onto the system without being detected when the user installs software that would otherwise be safe.
If the virus could attach itself to a piece of software during installation, it can get into the deepest levels of the computer and remain there undetected. By the time the damage is apparent, it could be too late to do anything about it.
Some programs target the user’s email account even if the malicious link or attachment will appear to be coming from a trusted source. Some programs can sneak onto the system and avoid detection even for experienced computer users with licensed software programs. This is why preventing infection is the best course of action. Monitor your behavior online, and avoid any potentially infected sites or links. Antivirus software can also help allow the computer owner to scan the system and detect any malicious programs.
What Are the Common Types of Computer Viruses
Computer viruses can compromise your system and all of the information on your hard drive. This is why it’s helpful to learn about the most common types of computer viruses; this information can help you identify the best course of action to take.
Know how to ensure your privacy and security even in a worst-case scenario by learning the behaviors of these viruses and identifying the likelihood of an infection. In this way, you’ll immediately notice early signs of infection through the performance of your device. The most common computer viruses include the following:
This notorious program is also simply called a trojan . These viruses appear to have a benevolent or helpful function. However, they can inflict damage once it gains access to the system—like the infamous wooden horse from the Trojan War.
Web scripting virus
This is a very harmful kind of virus hidden in the coding of links, videos, advertisements, or code within a malicious website. If the user accesses an infected malicious website, the virus will enter the system and cause harm by breaching the web browser security.
File infector .exe
This kind of file can infect the computer when the file is launched. However, this virus can only run after the file is launched. Most file infector viruses only replicate and spread, taking up storage, but others damage host programs and licensed applications.
Computer worms can come from software vulnerabilities, malicious email attachments, or instant messages from social networking sites. These pernicious programs can replicate and infect entire networks of computers without the user’s permission or any human interaction. After replication, they can steal information, corrupt sensitive files, or change the computer system’s settings.
Malware is a generic computer term that refers to some kind of program that is malicious. As an umbrella term, computer viruses are then also considered malware. Common kinds of malware include spyware, adware, trojan horses, and computer worms . They can steal information, damage hardware and software technologies, or monitor users.
Spyware, one of the most dangerous types of malware, can observe user activities online or offline. It can monitor private activities, such as web browsing and online shopping. Hackers executing spyware may have the means to view your passwords, bank account information.
Detecting a Virus
Early detection is one of the vital defenses against a computer virus—after active prevention. A common sign of an infected computer is a slow operating system. Other signs might include programs launching without being prompted. Email spam can also be a sign of a virus that can generate unwanted and misleading emails in your inbox.
Installing and running an antivirus program can help you scan your computer, locate the virus, remove it, or place it into quarantine. You can execute a manual, regular, or deep scan, depending on the performance and behavior of your computer.
Tips for Avoiding Computer Viruses
Prevention is the best solution when it comes to any kind of virus. Practicing universal precautions won’t have you go through the complicated process of detecting, isolation, and eliminating the virus.
Universal precautions simply mean that you improve your security layers offline and online, so you can enjoy browsing the Internet without worries. It also means you adopt all of the best browsing behaviors necessary to keep your computer safe, such as protecting your passwords and financial details and avoiding suspicious-looking websites.
In terms of specific online behavior, it would mean adjusting your actions and behaviors when accessing websites, opening messages, and downloading applications. Some of them may look legitimate but actually carry malicious codes.
Observing the most basic precautions will prevent many infections. Get started with these list of tips to protect your computer and personal data against computer viruses:
Update your system regularly
Make sure to update your operating system, browser, and installed programs. Updates will often include additional safety features designed to protect your computer against the latest threats. Viruses can usually find an entry point from an out-of-date browser, operating system, or software application. Regularly check for software updates as much as you can or allow your device to automatically update software programs and systems.
Always assume the worst when it comes to links and attachments from unknown sources. Hackers and malware authors can use clickbait to lure unsuspecting internet users into clicking on a suspicious link. This action will download the virus onto the user's system.
Check the URL
The universal resource locator, or URL, is the web address at the top of each webpage. If you click on a suspicious link, this might present a suspicious URL. Legitimate URLs begin with “https” instead of just “http” as proof that they are encrypted and can protect sensitive information. When you access a website, always check the URL and the website privacy protocols.
Install and use security features
Many antivirus and anti-malware programs are designed to protect your computer from threats. However, it’s also important to get the right kind of protection for your system. Only trust software products with an established reputation, and always download applications directly from the main website of the company, brand, or product. If you don’t want to look too far, you might want to view the features offered by McAfee’s family of security products. You can start with McAfee’s Free Security Assessment or Total Protection to know the exact security product your computer needs.
Update your antivirus software
An antivirus software always knows what a computer virus is, so ensure that it’s always up-to-date. Updated versions improve the security features by patching any vulnerable security areas of your device and software programs. They can also handle the latest cyber threats and malware programs.
New viruses are constantly being created, so back your antivirus software with the universal precautions we’ve mentioned before. Prevention is still the best line of defense against computer viruses and other malware.
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We Handle Any Paper Writing Task for High School, College, and Grad School
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We Employ Expert Academics to Make Your “Write My Paper” Order Perfect
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How can I pay someone to write a paper for me? What are your payment methods??
We accept credit and debit card payments by Visa, MasterCard, Discover, JCB, and American Express. You can use a reliable and secure payment system that keeps your personal and financial information safe to get us to write an essay for you. So you don’t have to worry and ruminate, “Is it safe to pay someone for writing my papers online?” After all, it’s as safe as getting your next coffee batch on Amazon or paying for your Netflix subscription.
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“Write my essay ASAP!” and “Write my essay, and I need it yesterday!” are two of the most common requests we get from college students. And although we can’t trick time and only have 24 hours in our days, we can deliver short pieces in 6 hours and longer assignments—within a day. As long as you don’t come asking “Write my research paper in six hours,” and are realistic about your expectations, our experts should be able to handle the tightest deadlines. But please account for a preview and revisions not to miss your submission deadline.
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Sure, our rates start as low as $6.99. Despite inflation and global crises, we keep our prices student-friendly. So anyone who comes asking, “write my paper for cheap” or “write my term paper without breaking the bank” will feel welcome and safe in the knowledge they’ll get the best value for money. At the same time, we urge you to beware of online frauds promising free results, as every “Write my research paper for me for free” may end in a scam.
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Sadly, no. In an ideal world of perfectly honest people, you’d say, “I need help write my research paper”, and we’d have it ready for you for free and rely on your generosity. In the real world, our writers, editors, and support managers are real people who like to have a roof over their heads and meals on their tables. Our refund policy keeps you safe, but only your upfront payment protects our writers from scams. So whenever you ask, “Can you write my essay cheap?”, we say, “Sure”, but we ask you to cover the cost first.
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You can get a revision or a refund, depending on how much your “write my essay for me” order went off track. We know when you pay someone to write your paper you expect the best results, and we strive to follow every instruction to a T when we write a paper for you, but miscommunication can occur. In this case, don’t be shy about requesting a free revision or a new writer to rework your assignment. And if you feel the paper is unsalvageable, you may be liable for a partial or full refund.
How do I know you’ve finished writing my paper?
We’ll notify you via email the moment the writer uploads the first draft for your revision. You can then preview it and approve the piece to download an editable file or get it sent for a revision round with your comments about necessary corrections. Besides, you can always request a progress update from your writer or a support manager. Just ask them, “Any progress since I hired you to write my essay for me?”. As you see, you don’t need to fret, thinking, “How will I know when you write my essay, and it’s ready?”
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