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APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)
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Resources on using in-text citations in APA style
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APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources
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Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
- Italicize the title
- Identify whether source is doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title
See Ch. 10 pp. 313-352 of APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules
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APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide
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A thesis is an unpublished document produced by student as part of the requirements for the degree. They come at various levels (e.g. Honours, Masters, PhD, etc). Check with your lecturer before using a thesis for your assignment.
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To be made up of:
- Year of submission (in round brackets).
- Title of thesis (in italics).
- Degree statement.
- Degree-awarding body.
- Available at: URL.
- (Accessed: date).
Smith, E. R. C. (2019). Conduits of invasive species into the UK: the angling route? Ph. D. Thesis. University College London. Available at: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10072700 (Accessed: 20 May 2021).
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APA 6th Referencing Style Guide
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Thesis, dissertation or exegesis?
Theses and dissertations from online sources, theses and dissertations in hardcopy format.
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Thesis and dissertation can mean different things, depending on which institution the work is from. For study purposes and for your APA reference you need to know the level of the work.
- Always check the title page, or subsequent pages, to determine exactly what the work is
- Use the information there for your APA reference
At Auckland University of Technology (and other NZ universities)
Thesis is either for a doctoral or a master's degree.
Dissertation is either for a master's or a bachelor's degree with honours.
Exegesis is the written component of a practice-based thesis where the major output is a creative work; e.g. a film, artwork, novel.
In some other parts of the world such as North America, a dissertation may be for a doctoral degree and a thesis for a master's degree.
See Section 7.05 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition .
Reference format for a thesis from a commercial database:
Reference format for a thesis from an institutional repository:
A Doctoral dissertation (USA) from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database
Reference list entry:
- Include the name of the database and the order number of the document
- Use this style for theses retrieved from a commercial database
Thesis from a NZ institutional repository :
- Include the full URL for the thesis/dissertation and the full name of the degree-granting institution/university
- Also include the location of the university, if outside the United States.
In-text citations guide
Reference format for unpublished thesis/dissertation:
- Give the correct full name of the university, not its abbreviation or brand name.
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All you need to know about citations
How to cite a master's thesis in APA
- Google Docs
To cite a master's thesis in a reference entry in APA style 6th edition include the following elements:
- Author(s) of the thesis: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J. D.) of up to seven authors with the last name preceded by an ampersand (&). For eight or more authors include the first six names followed by an ellipsis (…) and add the last author's name.
- Year of publication: Give the year in brackets followed by a full stop.
- Title of the master's thesis: Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns are capitalized.
- URL: Give the full URL where the document can be retrieved from.
Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a master's thesis in APA style 6th edition:
Author(s) of the thesis . ( Year of publication ). Title of the master's thesis (Master's thesis). Retrieved from URL
If the thesis is available from a database, archive or any online platform use the following template:
- Author(s) of the thesis: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J. D.) of up to 20 authors with the last name preceded by an ampersand (&). For 21 or more authors include the first 19 names followed by an ellipsis (…) and add the last author's name.
- Title of the Master's thesis: Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns are capitalized.
- Publication number: Give the identification number of the thesis, if available.
- Name of the degree awarding institution: Give the name of the institution.
- Name of Platform: Give the name of the database, archive or any platform that holds the thesis.
- URL: If the thesis was found on a database, omit this element.
Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a master's thesis in APA style 7th edition:
Author(s) of the thesis . ( Year of publication ). Title of the Master's thesis ( Publication number ) [Master's thesis, Name of the degree awarding institution ]. Name of Platform . URL
If the thesis has not been published or is available from a database use the following template:
- Location: Give the location of the institution. If outside the United States also include the country name.
Author(s) of the thesis . ( Year of publication ). Title of the master's thesis (Unpublished master's thesis). Name of the degree awarding institution , Location .
If the thesis is not published, use the following template:
Author(s) of the thesis . ( Year of publication ). Title of the master's thesis [Unpublished master's thesis]. Name of the degree awarding institution .
APA reference list examples
Take a look at our reference list examples that demonstrate the APA style guidelines for a master's thesis citation in action:
A master's thesis found in an online platform
Bauger, L . ( 2011 ). Personality, passion, self-esteem and psychological well-being among junior elite athletes in Norway ( Master's Thesis ). Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/29a9/ef96c34e577211246b83b11813a2585033c5.pdf
Bauger, L . ( 2011 ). Personality, passion, self-esteem and psychological well-being among junior elite athletes in Norway [ Master's Thesis , University of Tromsø ]. Semantic Scholar . https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/29a9/ef96c34e577211246b83b11813a2585033c5.pdf
An unpublished master's thesis
Aube, K. E . ( 2019 ). A comparison of water main failure prediction models in San Luis Obispo, CA ( Unpublished master's thesis ). Cal Poly , San Luis Obispo, CA .
Aube, K. E . ( 2019 ). A comparison of water main failure prediction models in San Luis Obispo, CA [ Unpublished master's thesis ]. Cal Poly .
This citation style guide is based on the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association ( 6 th edition).
More useful guides
- APA Referencing: Theses
- Citation Help for APA: Master's Thesis or Project
- APA Thesis, dissertation or exegesis?
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Harvard referencing: theses.
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- Basic format to reference an unpublished thesis
Referencing theses: Examples
Basic format to reference a thesis.
The basics of a Reference List entry for an unpublished thesis:
- Author. The surname is followed by first initials.
- Title (in single inverted commas).
- Level of Thesis.
Example of unpublished thesis: Kyei-Nimakoh, M 2017, ‘Management and referral of obstetric complications: a study in the upper east region of Ghana ’, PhD thesis, Victoria University, Melbourne.
- A thesis can come in a number of formats, i.e. they can be published, unpublished or retrieved from a database.
- The principles when referencing a thesis are similar to those employed when referencing a book.
- The example above is for an unpublished thesis, examples for an online or a published thesis can be found below.
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How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition) | Guide & Generator
This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020). Scribbr also offers free guides for the older APA 6th edition , MLA Style , and Chicago Style .
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Table of contents, apa in-text citations, apa references, formatting the apa reference page, free lecture slides, frequently asked questions.
In-text citations are brief references in the running text that direct readers to the reference entry at the end of the paper. You include them every time you quote or paraphrase someone else’s ideas or words to avoid plagiarism .
An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system). If you’re citing a specific part of a source, you should also include a locator such as a page number or timestamp. For example: (Smith, 2020, p. 170) .
Parenthetical vs. narrative citation
The in-text citation can take two forms: parenthetical and narrative. Both types are generated automatically when citing a source with Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator.
- Parenthetical citation: According to new research … (Smith, 2020) .
- Narrative citation: Smith (2020) notes that …
Multiple authors and corporate authors
The in-text citation changes slightly when a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author. Pay attention to punctuation and the use of the ampersand (&) symbol.
When the author, publication date or locator is unknown, take the steps outlined below.
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APA references generally include information about the author , publication date , title , and source . Depending on the type of source, you may have to include extra information that helps your reader locate the source.
Citing a source starts with choosing the correct reference format. Use Scribbr’s Citation Example Generator to learn more about the format for the most common source types. Pay close attention to punctuation, capitalization, and italicization.
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It is not uncommon for certain information to be unknown or missing, especially with sources found online. In these cases, the reference is slightly adjusted.
On the first line of the page, write the section label “References” (in bold and centered). On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order .
Apply these formatting guidelines to the APA reference page:
- Double spacing (within and between references)
- Hanging indent of ½ inch
- Legible font (e.g. Times New Roman 12 or Arial 11)
- Page number in the top right header
Which sources to include
On the reference page, you only include sources that you have cited in the text (with an in-text citation ). You should not include references to personal communications that your reader can’t access (e.g. emails, phone conversations or private online material).
Are you a teacher or professor looking to introduce your students to APA Style? Download our free introductory lecture slides, available for Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.
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The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:
- Missing commas and periods
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When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.g., a press release by a charity, a report by an agency, or a page from a company’s website—use the organization’s name as the author in the reference entry and APA in-text citations .
When no author at all can be determined—e.g. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymously—use the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary.
When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation . If there are no page numbers (e.g. when citing a website ) but the text is long, you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two:
(Caulfield, 2019, Linking section, para. 1).
Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable.
If you are referring to the source as a whole, it’s not necessary to include a page number or other marker.
The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:
Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources.
However, if you are citing a website or online article that’s designed to change over time, it’s a good idea to include an access date. In this case, write it in the following format at the end of the reference: Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html
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The library's format requirements are designed to work with a variety of scholarly conventions and citation styles across the disciplines. Check with your degree program, advisor, or dissertation committee to find out if a particular citation style is required for theses or dissertations.
- AAA Style Guide As of September 2015, the American Anthropological Association now adheres to the Chicago Style (Author-Date).
- American Chemical Society (ACS) Style Quick Guide "The ACS Style Guide is the definitive source for all information needed to write, review, submit, and edit scholarly and scientific manuscripts."
- American Institute of Physics (AIP) Publishing Manuscript preparation guidelines for authors, including information on equations, notations, and references.
- American Mathematical Society (AMS) Author Handbook "The Author Handbook contains guidelines for preparing AMS-LaTeX files for submission to the AMS for publication."
- American Political Science Association (APSA) Style Manual Latest edition is rev. 2006, currently under revision as of 2017. Includes grammar, usage, citation style for submiting to APSA journals.
- APA Style Online The full APA style guide is available in print and ebook formats. This supplementary site from APA includes quick reference materials and updates.
- ASA Guide Online From Purdue's online writing lab, an outline of style guide basics from the American Sociological Association. The full ASA style guide is available in print book format only.
- CMOS Shop Talk Blog "With these pages and posts, the editors and staff of the Manual hope to bring clarity, education, and amusement to anyone who works with words."
- Harvard Referencing (Cite Them Right) There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style, and this guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version.
- Modern Language Association (MLA) Style Center The full MLA Style manual is not available online, but this is a useful distillation of the most common concerns.
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Citation managers allow you to save and organize references and citations you gather during research. You can import citations from databases such as JSTOR, Humanities Full-Text, or Academic Search Premier or manually enter citations. You can attach pdfs and images to the citations as well. They also generate bibliographies and footnotes. The Graduate Center supports Zotero and Refworks. Links and descriptions are below. If you want to have an introduction to any or all of the citation managers make an appointment here .
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How to Cite a Dissertation or Thesis
Apa (7th ed).
A dissertation or thesis is considered published when it is available from a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global or PDQT Open, an institutional repository, or an archive. Include a publication number after the title, if available. Use bracketed text with "Doctoral dissertation" or "Master's Thesis" (without quotes) and degree-granting institution, separated with a comma. Include the database or repository name. Only include a URL if no login is required. Read more on APA Style Online .
Doctoral dissertation with ProQuest publication number:
Kabir, J. M. (2016). Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Publication No. 10169573) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
Doctoral dissertation in an institutional repository:
Zambrano-Vazquez, L. (2016). The interaction of state and trait worry on response monitoring in those with worry and obsessive-compulsive symptoms [Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona]. UA Campus Repository. https://repository.arizona.edu/handle/10150/620615
Chicago (17th Ed. Notes & Bibliography)
Titles of theses and dissertations appear in quotation marks—not in italics; otherwise, they are cited like books. The kind of thesis, the academic institution, and the date follow the title. Like the publication data of a book, these are enclosed in parentheses in a note but not in a bibliography. Only include a URL if there is no login required. If retrieved from a database, include the database title and publication number, if available. Read more at CMOS 17 Online, 14.215: Theses and Dissertations .
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA
How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA
Citing a thesis or dissertation.
Thesis – A document submitted to earn a degree at a university.
Dissertation – A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university.
The formatting for thesis and dissertation citations is largely the same. However, you should be sure to include the type of degree after the publication year as supplemental information. For instance, state if the source you are citing is an undergraduate thesis or a PhD dissertation.
MLA Thesis and Dissertation Citation Structure (print)
Last, First M. Title of the Thesis/Dissertation. Year Published. Name of University, type of degree.
MLA Thesis and Dissertation Citation Structure (online)
Last, First M. Title of the Thesis/Dissertation. Year Published. Name of University, type of degree. Website Name , URL.
Wilson, Peggy Lynn. Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of English Language in Secondary Public Schools in Parker County . 2011. University of Maryland, PhD dissertation.
In-text Citation Structure
(Author Last Name page #)
In-text Citation Example
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A Harvard Referencing Generator is a tool that automatically generates formatted academic references in the Harvard style.
It takes in relevant details about a source -- usually critical information like author names, article titles, publish dates, and URLs -- and adds the correct punctuation and formatting required by the Harvard referencing style.
The generated references can be copied into a reference list or bibliography, and then collectively appended to the end of an academic assignment. This is the standard way to give credit to sources used in the main body of an assignment.
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Harvard is the main referencing style at colleges and universities in the United Kingdom and Australia. It is also very popular in other English-speaking countries such as South Africa, Hong Kong, and New Zealand. University-level students in these countries are most likely to use a Harvard generator to aid them with their undergraduate assignments (and often post-graduate too).
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🍏 What other versions of Harvard referencing exist?
There isn't "one true way" to do Harvard referencing, and many universities have their own slightly different guidelines for the style. Our generator can adapt to handle the following list of different Harvard styles:
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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.