- Ph.Ds & Postdocs
- Prospective Students & Guests
- What is a Community?
- Student Athletes
- First Generation and/or Low Income Students
- International Students
- LGBTQ Students
- Students of Color
- Students with Disabilities
- Student Veterans
- Exploring Careers
- Advertising, Marketing & PR
- Finance, Insurance & Real Estate
- General Management & Leadership Development Programs
- Law & Legal Services
- Startups, Entrepreneurship & Freelance Work
- Environment, Sustainability & Energy
- Media & Communications
- Policy & Think Tanks
- Healthcare, Biotech & Global Public Health
- Life & Physical Sciences
- Programming & Data Science
- Graduate School
- Health Professions
- Business School
- Meet with OCS
- Student Organizations Workshop Request
- OCS Podcast Series
- Office of Fellowships
- Navigating AI in the Job Search Process
- Cover Letters & Correspondence
- Job Market Insights
- Professional Conduct & Etiquette
- LinkedIn & Professional Online Identity
- Interview Preparation
- Resource Database
- Yale Career Link
- Jobs, Internships & Other Experiences
- Gap Year & Short-Term Opportunities
- Planning an International Internship
- Funding Your Experience
- Career Fairs/Networking Events
- On-Campus Recruiting
- Job Offers & Salary Negotiation
- Informational Interviewing
- Peer Networking Lists
- YC First Destinations
- YC Four-Year Out
- GSAS Program Statistics
- Statistics & Reports
- Contact OCS
- OCS Mission & Policies
- Additional Yale Career Offices
- Share This: Share Writing Samples on Facebook Share Writing Samples on LinkedIn Share Writing Samples on Twitter
Guide to Submitting a Writing Sample
Source: https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/interviewing/guide-to-submitting-a-writing-sample November 23, 2020
Writing samples are used by employers to evaluate your writing skills, tone and style. If you are applying for positions that require strong writing skills, you might be asked to submit a writing sample.
While some employers might ask you to email or upload your writing sample as part of your application, others might ask you to bring it to your interview or possibly email it after your interviews to help employers make a decision. In this guide, we discuss what employers look for in a writing sample, how to choose a writing sample, how to write one and how to submit it.
What is a writing sample?
A writing sample is a supplemental document for a job application often requested for jobs that include a significant amount of writing, like those in journalism, marketing, public relations and research. Employers might also ask for a writing sample if you will be responsible for writing and communicating important information or correspondences. For example, if you are applying for a job in HR at a small company, you might be responsible for sending company-wide information. In this case, the employer will look for candidates with strong writing skills who can clearly communicate important information across the company.
What do employers look for in a writing sample?
Different employers look for different details in your writing sample depending on the job, company and industry. Every employer, however, will look for tone, style and writing skills including content, grammar, spelling and punctuation. While the specific writing style of the company can often be learned on the job, employers might be looking to hire someone with a certain level of writing skills at their first day on the job.
How long should a writing sample be?
In most cases, your writing sample should be around 750 words or between one and two pages. Like your resume, employers have a limited amount of time to review your writing sample. A brief, impactful writing sample is better than a long, less impressive one. Often times, employers will provide a specific page or word count they require from your sample. If you decide to submit a research paper or other lengthy document, you can make it shorter for the employer by selecting a certain passage or section.
How do I choose a writing sample?
While some employers might give you a writing assignment with a specific prompt, others might simply ask you to provide a sample from your past work. Choose a writing sample that is relevant for the job you’re applying for. Here are some examples you may want to consider:
- Research papers from a job or class
- Narrative papers from a job or class
- Other writing assignments
- Press releases
- Articles or other contributions
When deciding which piece of writing you should submit, consider the following ideas:
Follow the employer’s instruction
The employer might ask for a specific type of writing like a research paper or a piece covering a certain topic. Read the employer’s instructions carefully before making a writing sample selection.
Consider relevant writing samples
When deciding on a writing sample, you should consider only those writing pieces that are relevant to the position. For example, if you are applying for a scientific research position, you should select a research paper from your most recent position or highest level of schooling. If you are applying for a position in PR, you should submit a press release or other relevant documents.
Find relatable topics
Along with selecting a relevant writing style, you should try to find a sample that also relates to the subject matter of the position. Submitting a sample with content similar to what you’ll be writing about on the job will help employers relate your writing skills directly to the job.
Align your writing with the company’s tone
You should select a piece of writing that is relatable for the company. For example, you should not submit a sarcastic, irreverent writing sample for a company with a professional, helpful brand image. Alternatively, you might not submit a modest, simple writing sample to a company that’s sole focus is risk and creativity. You can find clues about a company’s tone by researching their website, Company Page and recent news articles or press releases.
You should also read several pieces of writing that the company has already published. This could include reading their company blog, website or research papers.
Make sure it is up to date
Selecting a writing sample that is older than one year might contain out of date or irrelevant content. If you are selecting an old writing sample, be sure to carefully review and update it to reflect the most recent ideas. You also want to demonstrate that you have recently had to use your writing skills—if you send an employer a writing sample from several years ago, they may assume that you have not done any writing since then.
Avoid sensitive subject matter
Unless specifically requested by the employer, you should avoid sensitive content like politics, religion or personal information. You should also review your writing sample to exclude any confidential information like third-party contact information or private company information like financial or other data.
What if I don’t have a writing sample?
You might not have a writing sample if you have no professional experience or have not previously held a job where you produced applicable pieces of writing. If this is the case, it is acceptable to write a new sample for the employer. This way, you’ll be able to write a fresh, relevant passage that is specific to the position you’re applying for.
Pay close attention to the employer’s direction regarding the writing sample, research the company for clues on tone and style and review your document carefully for grammar, spelling and punctuation mistakes.
How to submit a writing sample
Before submitting a writing sample, you should proofread it several times to ensure it is free of errors. It is critical to achieve as close to perfection as possible in a writing sample, as your writing skills are the key focus of this document. It might be helpful to read your document backward—doing so presents the words in a new order and makes it easier to catch mistakes. You might also consider asking trusted friends or family to review your writing sample.
Whether you submit an entire piece or part of a writing sample, it can be helpful to write a short introductory paragraph for context. You might include it directly on your sample, on a cover page or in your email. For example:
“Please find my writing sample for the Sr. Product Research position attached to this email. This sample is a passage from a larger study about how product simplicity impacts consumers. I believe it showcases my ability to clearly communicate results from an important project that lead to key achievements for the company.”
After you’ve polished your writing sample, you should follow the employer’s instructions when submitting it. You might be asked to upload your sample on an online application, email it or bring it to your interview. If you are bringing your sample to an interview, you should bring at least five hard copies in case you have multiple interviewers. If you are applying to several writing jobs, you might consider creating an online writing portfolio that you can easily send to employers.
Office of Career Strategy
Division of student affairs, selecting and submitting writing samples.
What is a writing sample and why is it necessary?
In today’s competitive job market, applicants—even those applying to positions not related directly to writing—may be required to submit writing samples. These are primarily used to determine writing ability, show literary and grammar skills, and reflect one’s overall writing style.
What should I consider when selecting a writing sample?
- Follow employers instructions; it is fine to ask for clarity if you are unsure.
- If the employer does not specify, submit a sample that closely matches the subject matter or position.
- If you have no relevant work experience (i.e., you are applying for an entry-level job), you may submit a school assignment. A lab report would work for a science-related position. An assignment from a business or technical writing class would also be appropriate.
Are certain samples inappropriate?
- Submitting outdated samples (older than one year) is not a good idea. Doing so communicates that you have not kept current.
- Avoid samples that have no relevancy to your industry/expertise. For example, a creative or narrative writing sample would not be appropriate when applying to a scientific or technical position, whereas it might work well for other positions or graduate programs. Try to match your sample to the kind of writing you will be doing on the job.
- Blogs are discouraged unless they are professional sounding and relevant to your field.
- Avoid sending samples on political or religious topics.
What if I don’t have an appropriate, recent sample?
- Write one! There is no rule that your writing sample must be something you wrote for work or a class.
How long should a writing sample be?
- Samples should be concise and succinct: one to four pages are usually sufficient. In many cases, reviewers are primarily interested in how well you convey your ideas (structure and grammatical accuracy) as opposed to content.
- You may provide an excerpt of a longer paper, as long as the excerpt makes sense as a stand-alone document. If your sample is an excerpt of a longer work, be sure to note that on the first page.
Can I submit a sample I co-authored?
- It is permissible to send a sample that was a collaboration between you and another person; however, it’s best to do so if collaborative efforts are a part of the position for which you are applying.
- It is best to also include other samples where you are the sole author.
Are there any precautions I need to take when submitting samples?
- Be sure to protect confidential information included in your documents. Change or remove names, company names, addresses, etc., to protect the identity of those referenced.
- Edit your sample! Just because you received a good grade on a paper doesn’t mean it’s free from errors.
Start gathering samples now!
You never know when you might be asked to submit a writing sample. Consider developing a portfolio of well-written pieces so they will be accessible when needed. Choose samples that represent a full range of skills: samples of how well you summarize and convey complex ideas, research papers, editorials, articles, journals and blogs (relevant ones). You can keep a few of your best writing samples in Handshake.
Adapted from, “Tips to Get Your Writing Sample Right for a Job Application” by Margot Charmichael Lester)
- Consumer Information
- Equal Opportunity
- Privacy PDF Download
- Web Accessibility
Subscribe to UMBC Weekly Top Stories
I am interested in:.
- I am interested in: Undergraduate
- I am interested in: Graduate
- I am interested in: Professional Masters
- Fall Updates
- For Employers
- In the Know
- Make An Appointment
- Employers We Work With
- CCE Programs
- Funding Programs
- Drop-in Hours
- Career Counseling Appointments
- Practice Interviews
- Programs & Services
- Summer Updates
- Design Your Next Steps
- Resumes & CVs
- Cover Letters
- Career Advancement
- Graduate School
- Free Premium Resources
- Communications & Media
- Engineering & Technology
- Environment & Sustainability
- Financial Services
- International Affairs
- Non-Profits & Social Justice
- Psychology, Counseling & Social Work
- Ways to Gain Experience
- Career Assessments
- Connect With Alumni
- Student Experiences
- First-Generation/Low-Income Students
- International Students
- Students with Disabilities
- Veteran Students
- LGBTQ Students
- Visiting Students
- Students of Color
Tips on Providing a Quality Writing Sample
Employers may ask you to provide writing samples as part of your job or internship application. A writing sample provides an employer with an example of how you organize and express your thoughts. The purpose is to convince an employer you can create the kind of written materials and handle the type of work expected of an employee in the position. A writing sample is common for positions in media, law or research assistant roles in a variety of industries.
How to choose a writing sample
When possible use writing samples that match the type of the writing that the position would involve.
- For journalism positions, submit “clips”—actual articles that have been published in a campus newspaper, blog, or other publication.
- For research positions, submit an in-depth analysis of an issue or a topic.
- For PR positions, submit a press release you have written from a previous internship or as the marketing chair of a campus group. If you don’t have any, you can write a press release for an upcoming event (just make sure you specify that it has not been published).
Submit your best writing
If you do not have specific experience or relevant writing samples, a class paper from one of your courses at Columbia could work well. Here are some tips if you are deciding between two papers you have written:
- Always choose the better written paper, even if the weaker paper is topically more relevant
- You could also consider rewriting the relevant paper to be stronger before you submit it.
- Remember, it’s your writing skills that the employer is assessing, and being topically relevant is just an added bonus.
Provide excerpts if your samples are long
Most employers will specify how many pages or how many clips they want. If they don’t, then submit 2-5 pages of writing, usually double-spaced (unless it is a clip). This can be a combination of one or more writing samples. If you want to use a paper that is longer than five pages, provide an excerpt with a notation at the top that tells the employer that it is an excerpt from a _(number)-page paper on ___(topic)___ and where in the paper this excerpt is from. You might share the introduction, sections of the body, and your conclusion, so the reader is still able to follow your thought process.
Polish your writing samples
Proofread your document to avoid errors or typos, have a someone else review your sample as well. Make sure that you send in samples that do not have your professor’s comments. Provide clean copies of your writing and revise them as necessary.
Generate accurate APA citations for free
- Knowledge Base
- APA Style 7th edition
- How to write an APA methods section
How to Write an APA Methods Section | With Examples
Published on February 5, 2021 by Pritha Bhandari . Revised on June 22, 2023.
The methods section of an APA style paper is where you report in detail how you performed your study. Research papers in the social and natural sciences often follow APA style. This article focuses on reporting quantitative research methods .
In your APA methods section, you should report enough information to understand and replicate your study, including detailed information on the sample , measures, and procedures used.
Table of contents
Structuring an apa methods section.
Example of an APA methods section
Other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an apa methods section.
The main heading of “Methods” should be centered, boldfaced, and capitalized. Subheadings within this section are left-aligned, boldfaced, and in title case. You can also add lower level headings within these subsections, as long as they follow APA heading styles .
To structure your methods section, you can use the subheadings of “Participants,” “Materials,” and “Procedures.” These headings are not mandatory—aim to organize your methods section using subheadings that make sense for your specific study.
Note that not all of these topics will necessarily be relevant for your study. For example, if you didn’t need to consider outlier removal or ways of assigning participants to different conditions, you don’t have to report these steps.
The APA also provides specific reporting guidelines for different types of research design. These tell you exactly what you need to report for longitudinal designs , replication studies, experimental designs , and so on. If your study uses a combination design, consult APA guidelines for mixed methods studies.
Detailed descriptions of procedures that don’t fit into your main text can be placed in supplemental materials (for example, the exact instructions and tasks given to participants, the full analytical strategy including software code, or additional figures and tables).
Are your APA in-text citations flawless?
The AI-powered APA Citation Checker points out every error, tells you exactly what’s wrong, and explains how to fix it. Say goodbye to losing marks on your assignment!
Begin the methods section by reporting sample characteristics, sampling procedures, and the sample size.
Participant or subject characteristics
When discussing people who participate in research, descriptive terms like “participants,” “subjects” and “respondents” can be used. For non-human animal research, “subjects” is more appropriate.
Specify all relevant demographic characteristics of your participants. This may include their age, sex, ethnic or racial group, gender identity, education level, and socioeconomic status. Depending on your study topic, other characteristics like educational or immigration status or language preference may also be relevant.
Be sure to report these characteristics as precisely as possible. This helps the reader understand how far your results may be generalized to other people.
The APA guidelines emphasize writing about participants using bias-free language , so it’s necessary to use inclusive and appropriate terms.
Outline how the participants were selected and all inclusion and exclusion criteria applied. Appropriately identify the sampling procedure used. For example, you should only label a sample as random if you had access to every member of the relevant population.
Of all the people invited to participate in your study, note the percentage that actually did (if you have this data). Additionally, report whether participants were self-selected, either by themselves or by their institutions (e.g., schools may submit student data for research purposes).
Identify any compensation (e.g., course credits or money) that was provided to participants, and mention any institutional review board approvals and ethical standards followed.
Sample size and power
Detail the sample size (per condition) and statistical power that you hoped to achieve, as well as any analyses you performed to determine these numbers.
It’s important to show that your study had enough statistical power to find effects if there were any to be found.
Additionally, state whether your final sample differed from the intended sample. Your interpretations of the study outcomes should be based only on your final sample rather than your intended sample.
Write up the tools and techniques that you used to measure relevant variables. Be as thorough as possible for a complete picture of your techniques.
Primary and secondary measures
Define the primary and secondary outcome measures that will help you answer your primary and secondary research questions.
Specify all instruments used in gathering these measurements and the construct that they measure. These instruments may include hardware, software, or tests, scales, and inventories.
- To cite hardware, indicate the model number and manufacturer.
- To cite common software (e.g., Qualtrics), state the full name along with the version number or the website URL .
- To cite tests, scales or inventories, reference its manual or the article it was published in. It’s also helpful to state the number of items and provide one or two example items.
Make sure to report the settings of (e.g., screen resolution) any specialized apparatus used.
For each instrument used, report measures of the following:
- Reliability : how consistently the method measures something, in terms of internal consistency or test-retest reliability.
- Validity : how precisely the method measures something, in terms of construct validity or criterion validity .
Giving an example item or two for tests, questionnaires , and interviews is also helpful.
Describe any covariates—these are any additional variables that may explain or predict the outcomes.
Quality of measurements
Review all methods you used to assure the quality of your measurements.
These may include:
- training researchers to collect data reliably,
- using multiple people to assess (e.g., observe or code) the data,
- translation and back-translation of research materials,
- using pilot studies to test your materials on unrelated samples.
For data that’s subjectively coded (for example, classifying open-ended responses), report interrater reliability scores. This tells the reader how similarly each response was rated by multiple raters.
Report all of the procedures applied for administering the study, processing the data, and for planned data analyses.
Data collection methods and research design
Data collection methods refers to the general mode of the instruments: surveys, interviews, observations, focus groups, neuroimaging, cognitive tests, and so on. Summarize exactly how you collected the necessary data.
Describe all procedures you applied in administering surveys, tests, physical recordings, or imaging devices, with enough detail so that someone else can replicate your techniques. If your procedures are very complicated and require long descriptions (e.g., in neuroimaging studies), place these details in supplementary materials.
To report research design, note your overall framework for data collection and analysis. State whether you used an experimental, quasi-experimental, descriptive (observational), correlational, and/or longitudinal design. Also note whether a between-subjects or a within-subjects design was used.
For multi-group studies, report the following design and procedural details as well:
- how participants were assigned to different conditions (e.g., randomization),
- instructions given to the participants in each group,
- interventions for each group,
- the setting and length of each session(s).
Describe whether any masking was used to hide the condition assignment (e.g., placebo or medication condition) from participants or research administrators. Using masking in a multi-group study ensures internal validity by reducing research bias . Explain how this masking was applied and whether its effectiveness was assessed.
Participants were randomly assigned to a control or experimental condition. The survey was administered using Qualtrics (https://www.qualtrics.com). To begin, all participants were given the AAI and a demographics questionnaire to complete, followed by an unrelated filler task. In the control condition , participants completed a short general knowledge test immediately after the filler task. In the experimental condition, participants were asked to visualize themselves taking the test for 3 minutes before they actually did. For more details on the exact instructions and tasks given, see supplementary materials.
Outline all steps taken to scrutinize or process the data after collection.
This includes the following:
- Procedures for identifying and removing outliers
- Data transformations to normalize distributions
- Compensation strategies for overcoming missing values
To ensure high validity, you should provide enough detail for your reader to understand how and why you processed or transformed your raw data in these specific ways.
The methods section is also where you describe your statistical analysis procedures, but not their outcomes. Their outcomes are reported in the results section.
These procedures should be stated for all primary, secondary, and exploratory hypotheses. While primary and secondary hypotheses are based on a theoretical framework or past studies, exploratory hypotheses are guided by the data you’ve just collected.
Scribbr Citation Checker New
The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:
- Missing commas and periods
- Incorrect usage of “et al.”
- Ampersands (&) in narrative citations
- Missing reference entries
This annotated example reports methods for a descriptive correlational survey on the relationship between religiosity and trust in science in the US. Hover over each part for explanation of what is included.
The sample included 879 adults aged between 18 and 28. More than half of the participants were women (56%), and all participants had completed at least 12 years of education. Ethics approval was obtained from the university board before recruitment began. Participants were recruited online through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk; www.mturk.com). We selected for a geographically diverse sample within the Midwest of the US through an initial screening survey. Participants were paid USD $5 upon completion of the study.
A sample size of at least 783 was deemed necessary for detecting a correlation coefficient of ±.1, with a power level of 80% and a significance level of .05, using a sample size calculator (www.sample-size.net/correlation-sample-size/).
The primary outcome measures were the levels of religiosity and trust in science. Religiosity refers to involvement and belief in religious traditions, while trust in science represents confidence in scientists and scientific research outcomes. The secondary outcome measures were gender and parental education levels of participants and whether these characteristics predicted religiosity levels.
Religiosity was measured using the Centrality of Religiosity scale (Huber, 2003). The Likert scale is made up of 15 questions with five subscales of ideology, experience, intellect, public practice, and private practice. An example item is “How often do you experience situations in which you have the feeling that God or something divine intervenes in your life?” Participants were asked to indicate frequency of occurrence by selecting a response ranging from 1 (very often) to 5 (never). The internal consistency of the instrument is .83 (Huber & Huber, 2012).
Trust in Science
Trust in science was assessed using the General Trust in Science index (McCright, Dentzman, Charters & Dietz, 2013). Four Likert scale items were assessed on a scale from 1 (completely distrust) to 5 (completely trust). An example question asks “How much do you distrust or trust scientists to create knowledge that is unbiased and accurate?” Internal consistency was .8.
Potential participants were invited to participate in the survey online using Qualtrics (www.qualtrics.com). The survey consisted of multiple choice questions regarding demographic characteristics, the Centrality of Religiosity scale, an unrelated filler anagram task, and finally the General Trust in Science index. The filler task was included to avoid priming or demand characteristics, and an attention check was embedded within the religiosity scale. For full instructions and details of tasks, see supplementary materials.
For this correlational study , we assessed our primary hypothesis of a relationship between religiosity and trust in science using Pearson moment correlation coefficient. The statistical significance of the correlation coefficient was assessed using a t test. To test our secondary hypothesis of parental education levels and gender as predictors of religiosity, multiple linear regression analysis was used.
If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.
- Normal distribution
- Measures of central tendency
- Chi square tests
- Confidence interval
- Quartiles & Quantiles
- Cluster sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Thematic analysis
- Cohort study
- Peer review
- Implicit bias
- Cognitive bias
- Conformity bias
- Hawthorne effect
- Availability heuristic
- Attrition bias
- Social desirability bias
In your APA methods section , you should report detailed information on the participants, materials, and procedures used.
- Describe all relevant participant or subject characteristics, the sampling procedures used and the sample size and power .
- Define all primary and secondary measures and discuss the quality of measurements.
- Specify the data collection methods, the research design and data analysis strategy, including any steps taken to transform the data and statistical analyses.
You should report methods using the past tense , even if you haven’t completed your study at the time of writing. That’s because the methods section is intended to describe completed actions or research.
In a scientific paper, the methodology always comes after the introduction and before the results , discussion and conclusion . The same basic structure also applies to a thesis, dissertation , or research proposal .
Depending on the length and type of document, you might also include a literature review or theoretical framework before the methodology.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Bhandari, P. (2023, June 22). How to Write an APA Methods Section | With Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 9, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/methods-section/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, how to write an apa results section, apa format for academic papers and essays, apa headings and subheadings, scribbr apa citation checker.
An innovative new tool that checks your APA citations with AI software. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!
Choosing a writing sample.
Writing samples are a potential employer’s first look into your writing ability, thought process, organizational capability, communication skills, and ability to support an argument from beginning to end.
Unless you are given a specific topic to write on for the application or the organization provides specific instructions on what sort of sample to submit, keep the following guidelines in mind to help you pick a writing sample:
- Use a paper that you’ve already written for a college class
- Submit a clean copy with no grades or marks
Major Areas of Importance
- For example, don’t submit a lengthy research paper for an internship that would require you to write briefs and memos.
- Unless specifically requested, do not submit any creative writing samples.
- If possible, submit a writing sample with content that is relevant to the internship.
- However, content is secondary to quality – always pick the stronger piece even if you feel that the content is less relevant.
- Keep the sample to 2-5 pages .
- If you decide to do this, be sure that you select excerpts that keep a sense of the argument’s flow through the beginning, middle and end of the original piece.
- Start the sample with a brief paragraph about the topic of the paper and the class it was written for. This will give the reader a sense of the context
Spelling and Grammar
- Be sure to double-check for spelling and grammar mistakes!
- However, we can help you decide which of your writing samples is suitable for the application.
Example vs. sample: Are you confusing the two terms in academic writing?
When it comes to research, the terms example and sample are often used interchangeably. However, they have distinct meanings that are important to understand to ensure clear communication and accurate reporting of results. In this blog post, we will explore the differences between example and sample, and provide guidelines for when to use each term in research writing.
Difference between ‘example’ and ‘sample’
An example is a specific instance or case that is used to illustrate a point. It is often used to clarify or explain a concept, idea, or theory.
For instance, in a research paper on the effects of social media on teenagers, an example might be given of a particular teenager who experienced cyberbullying as a result of using social media.
A sample , on the other hand, is a subset of a larger population that is selected for research purposes. It is used to gather data about the population as a whole, and the results are extrapolated to make inferences about the larger population.
For instance, if a researcher wants to study the effects of a new medication on a particular disease, they might select a sample of patients with that disease to participate in the study.
When to use ’example’ in academic writing
Examples are useful for clarifying or illustrating a point in research writing . They can be used to explain a concept or theory, provide evidence to support an argument, or describe a particular case or situation. Examples are typically used in the introduction or discussion sections of a research paper to help the reader understand the context and significance of the research findings.
For example , in a study on the effectiveness of a new teaching method, the researcher might use examples to illustrate how the method was used in the classroom, what types of activities were used, and how the students responded. This would help the reader understand the practical implications of the research and how it could be applied in real-world settings.
When to use ‘sample’ in academic writing
Samples are used in research to gather data about a particular population of interest. They are typically selected using a specific sampling method that is designed to ensure that the sample is representative of the larger population. Samples can be used in a variety of research designs, including experimental, observational, and survey research.
When writing about a sample in a research paper, it is important to provide detailed information about the sampling method used, the characteristics of the sample, and any limitations or biases that may have affected the results. This helps to ensure that the reader understands the generalizability of the findings and the extent to which they can be applied to the larger population.
For example , in a study on the effects of a new diet on weight loss, the researcher might describe the characteristics of the sample, such as age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). They might also describe the sampling method used, such as random sampling or convenience sampling, and any limitations of the study, such as a small sample size or lack of diversity in the sample.
In summary, while example and sample are often used interchangeably, they have distinct meanings in research writing. Examples are used to illustrate or clarify a point, while samples are used to gather data about a particular population of interest.
Did that help you write your piece of research? If yes, we have more such articles in line to aid you in your research journey. Keep checking this page for more!
- Inter vs. intra: Differences, examples, definitions
- Allusion vs. illusion: What is the difference
- Your vs. you’re: How to use your and you’re correctly
- Ambiguous vs. ambivalent: How to use the right word in the right context
The art of precision: How ‘few’ vs. ‘a few’ can affect your message
Single vs. double quotation marks: a comparison, you may also like, paraphrasing in academic writing: answering top author queries, sentence length: how to improve your research paper..., navigating language precision: complementary vs. complimentary, climatic vs. climactic: difference and examples, language and grammar rules for academic writing, transitive and intransitive verbs in the world of..., led vs. lead: how to differentiate between the..., academic writing for esl students: 7 tips and strategies..., characteristics of academic writing￼, ‘lose’ vs. ‘loose’: difference, meaning and examples.
Academic Phrases for Writing Methods Section of a Research Paper
Overview | Abstract | Introduction | Literature Review | Materials & Methods | Results & Discussion | Conclusion & Future Work | Acknowledgements & Appendix
The methods section that follows the introduction section should provide a clear description of the experimental procedure, and the reasons behind the choice of specific experimental methods. The methods section should be elaborate enough so that the readers can repeat the experimental procedure and reproduce the results. The scientific rigor of the paper is judged by your materials and methods section, so make sure you elaborate on all the fine details of your experiment. Explain the procedures step-by-step by splitting the main section into multiple sub-sections. Order procedures chronologically with subheadings. Use past tense to describe what you did since you are reporting on a completed experiment. The methods section should describe how the research question was answered and explain how the results were analyzed. Clearly explain various statistical methods used for significance testing and the reasons behind the choice.
The methods section of your research paper should include the following:
- Experimental setup
- Data collection
- Data analysis
- Statistical testing
- Remit of the experiment
1. Experimental setup
This experimental design was employed because __ In the course of the experiment, __ played an important role. The experiments were performed with __ This was experimentally investigated by __ Most experiments have been carried out with __ The main focus of the experiments was to calculate __ Prior to each experiment __ The experiments are completely based on __ In our preliminary experiments we estimated that __ In this experiment, we introduced a __ Methods were based on previous experiments __ This proceeds in two stages: __ After a series of experiments it was found that __ Therefore, in this experiment we define goals as __ In this experiment, we introduced a __ We consider the setup generic, however, __ This was designed to acquire approximately __ These were designed in such a way that __ This experimental design was employed because __ This was specifically designed for __ This was designed to acquire approximately __
2. Data collection
There were __ participants in this sample. Participants first provided informed consent about __ We performed additional data collection with __ For this study, we analyzed the data collected from __ The data are less clear-cut than __ Data were collected and maintained by __ For this purpose, we employ survey data collected from __ The application employs data obtained from __ The analyzed data included: __ The procedures of handling the data followed the suggestions of __ Subsequently, __ were then used to elicit further data. The experimental data on __ is very scarce. The data in this work consists of __ Survey data were collected from __ This study used different data collection methods such as __ The quality can be enhanced by providing additional data for__ Such data are prone to __ We utilize secondary data from __ The data was divided into __ Participants in the first data collection were __ The sample was heterogeneous with respect to __ The sample size in this study was not considered large enough for__ We cannot deny the presence of some sample selection biases because __ The sample of respondents included __ The researchers pooled samples to __ The sample strategy was the same as for__
3. Data analysis
However, there are trends in our data to suggest that __ The trend values were then subjected to __ We analysed data as a function of __ We used an established technique, namely __, to analyse __ This showed a judgement error of __ To investigate this statistically, we calculated __ A __ test was used to determine the significance of data Our data show that there is __ Our data suggest that __ which may be based partly on __ Data also revealed a significant __ Our data also address the __ Data were analyzed and correlated with __ The data are presented in Table __ However, according to our data __ We undertake the empirical analysis using data collected in __ The data is analyzed from different points of view such as __ The data reveals significant differences in __ Thus, the data supports the premise that __ Results provides a good fit to the data __ We compared the results with the original data in ways __ The evaluation of the data is shown in __ We explicitly accounted for __ Missing values were replaced using __ This analysis was confined to __ The evaluation of the data presented in this work leads to __
4. Statistical testing
We explored these effects statistically by __ Statistical analyses was performed by using the __ applying a significance level of __ The results were statistically significant when compared using __ This was normally distributed throughout the study population. This distribution resulted in __ Significant differences in the __ remained. This was the only parameter that had a statistically significant correlation with __ We used __ statistics to report __ This had a statistically significant impact on __ The correlation between __ and __ is positive and statistically significant at __ We calculate __ statistic to test the null hypothesis that __ As shown in Table __ are statistically significant at all levels. We can clearly see that the estimated values are positive and statistically significant at __ This revealed no statistical differences on __ The test for __ found no significant differences. Our results show a statistically significant improvement in __ All differences in performance were statistically significant in __ The method achieves a statistically significant improvement compared to __ In order to obtain statistically representative __ it is required to __ To investigate this statistically, we calculated __ Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables used in the study using __ The significance testing was based on __ All statistical analyses were performed using __
Such a potentially unrealistic assumption arises from the fact that __ Based on these assumptions, hypotheses were developed: __ Based on these assumptions, __ have been treated as __ This is based on assumptions that __ These assumptions are generally accepted these days__ The fundamental assumptions of the models are: __ This assumption is supported by the fact that __ Under certain assumptions, __ can be construed as __ These assumptions result in __ This assumption might be addressed in future studies by __ This compilation of research assumptions should result in __ These assumptions have been disproved by __ According to __ assumption, the study reports faithfully __
6. Remit of the experiment
For the current work, it is sufficient to point out that __ Because we were interested in __, we considered only __ This was sufficient to __ This is sufficiently generic to be adapted to other __ This is generally sufficient to produce good results. Still, results might be sufficient, especially in __ This was not possible due to insufficient observations. After a series of experiments __ was considered as sufficient. It has been proven that __ must be sufficient to __ This was not sensitive enough to __ This study cannot be considered large enough for __ This is simpler and usually sufficient to __ It turns out that it is sufficiently accurate for __ There is in fact sufficient information present in __ This is considered sufficiently unique for __ This is enough to get a sufficiently accurate solution.
Academic Phrases for Writing Abstract Section of a Research Paper
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to the abstract section. An abstract is a self-contained and short synopsis that describes a larger work.
Academic Phrases for Writing Introduction Section of a Research Paper
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to introduction section such as opening statement, problem definition and research aims.
Academic Phrases for Writing Acknowledgements & Appendix Sections of a Research Paper
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to thanking colleagues, acknowledging funders and writing the appendix section.
Academic Phrases for Writing Results & Discussion Sections of a Research Paper
In this blog, we discuss phrases related to results and discussion sections such as findings, limitations, arguments, and comparison to previous studies.
Useful Phrases and Sentences for Academic & Research Paper Writing
In this blog, we explain various sections of a research paper and give you an overview of what these sections should contain.
How to Write a Research Paper? A Beginners Guide with Useful Academic Phrases
This blog explains how to write a research paper and provides writing ideas in the form of academic phrases.
Thank for useful guidelines.
It is very useful for Master and ph.D students.
- Pingback: Research Paper Structure – Main Sections and Parts of a Research Paper
Thank you so much
Leave a Reply Cancel reply
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *
Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
- 20 Share Facebook
- 18 Share Twitter
- 18 Share LinkedIn
- 37 Share Email