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Defense and submission deadlines, formatting the etd, defense day essentials, post-defense essentials, copyright and publishing information.
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Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD)
- Electronic Thesis and Dissertation (ETD)
- Policies & Forms
- Electronic Thesis & Dissertation (ETD)
The Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) database submission program is a joint effort between the Graduate School and the University of Miami Libraries. Master's theses and dissertations/doctoral essays are stored in electronic form in the Scholarship@Miami digital archive and are made available online for worldwide retrieval. All graduating doctoral (Ph.D./Ed.D./D.M.A.) students with a dissertation/doctoral essay/lecture recital essay requirement and all graduating master’s students with a thesis requirement at UM are required to submit an electronic copy of their dissertation/doctoral essay/lecture recital essay or Master's thesis for inclusion in the ETD institutional repository.
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Have questions on how to format your thesis or dissertation?
We’ll help you align your document to fit Rackham Graduate School requirements.
Use our formatting guide
Our Guide to Microsoft Word for Dissertations includes a template you can modify, along with links to the Rackham Dissertation Handbook and formatting checklist. It also covers how to:
- Apply styles to maintain consistency
- Create a table of contents that keeps itself up to date
- Include properly formatted landscape pages
- Insert page numbers, footnotes, images, figures, and more
Most of our support is based on using Microsoft Word. If you plan to use LaTeX for your thesis or dissertation we recommend starting with a LaTeX template designed to meet Rackham’s requirements.
We also have a workshop recording on using LaTeX to format your U-M dissertation .
Make an appointment
We’re happy to discuss your document or help you solve a problem.
Make an appointment .
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Guidelines for the Preparation of Research Project, Dissertation and Thesis 2023
APA Formatting and Style Guide (for thesis/dissertation writing)
Guidelines for Handling Plagiarism
Guidelines For The Preparation of Research Report, Dissertation and Thesis 2021
Last Update: 21/07/2023
- University of Michigan Library
- Research Guides
Microsoft Word for Dissertations
- Introduction, Template, & Resources
- Formatting for All Readers
- Applying a Style
- Modifying a Style
- Setting up a Heading 1 Example
- Images, Charts, Other Objects
- Footnotes, Endnotes, & Citations
- Appendix Figures & Tables
- Table of Contents
- List of Figures/Tables
- Chapter and Section Numbering
- Page Numbers
- Landscape Pages
- Combining Chapter Files
- Commenting and Reviewing
- The Two-inch Top Margin
- Finalizing Without Styles
- Preparing Your Final Document
Help with Microsoft Word
Members of the University of Michigan community can get dissertation & thesis formatting assistance from the experts at ScholarSpace:
Please visit this link to make an appointment , or send an email to [email protected].
We're here to solve any formatting problems you've run into, and can give you guidance about captioning figures, solving numbering issues, creating a List of Tables/Figures/Appendices, and more.
Introduction to Word for Dissertations
Formatting your dissertation (or thesis) will likely take more time than you expect. But using the special features described in this Guide will save you a great deal of work , particularly if you use our template (available in the box below). The earlier you begin to use these tools, the more time you'll save and the less stress you'll have as your submission deadline approaches. Students at the University of Michigan are also encouraged to contact the experts at the Library's ScholarSpace anytime you run into a problem or have a question.
To meet Rackham’s Dissertation Formatting Guidelines you will need to modify the standard settings that Microsoft Word uses. This guide will show you how to use the tools to make the necessary modifications. While we do follow the requirements from Rackham’s formatting guidelines to demonstrate the tools, in the end, you are responsible for verifying that your document meets the requirements that Rackham sets.
To save yourself time and effort , please consider using our Dissertation Template (link available in the box below). Many of the settings discussed in this Guide are already included in that document.
Please note that, as a University of Michigan student, you have free access to the Microsoft Office suite of tools -- including Microsoft Word. Visit this link to learn more and to download Office to your own computer.
Dissertation Template and other Resources
- ScholarSpace Template for Dissertations This Microsoft Word document comes with many of the Rackham formatting guidelines built in, and can be used for dissertations and theses. Please note that this template doesn't follow the formatting direction of any particular Style Guide. It is your responsibility to make sure you are following the Style Guide predominant in your field, and to make any relevant formatting changes to heading styles, numbering, captions, etc... How to make many of those changes is described throughout this Guide.
- Rackham Dissertation Handbook Rackham's Dissertation Guidelines and Handbook
- Dissertation Formatting Checklist Rackham's list of formatting issues to watch out for in your dissertation.
- Using Microsoft Word for Large Documents (non-dissertation specific) Handout (This document was written for an older -- much older -- version of Word, but nearly all of the information is still accurate and useful)
A word about LaTeX
LaTeX is a writing and markup language often used in science and engineering documents because it allows for great control in creating complex equations and formulas. ScholarSpace does not maintain a template for dissertations created with LaTeX, and we can only provide very limited support for it. That said, there is a community of U-M folks who actively maintain this LaTeX template to keep it in line with Rackham's guidelines .
Here are some other very useful resources:
- Video recording of a UM Library Workshop on Dissertation Formatting with LaTeX
- Documentation for LaTeX and Overleaf
- Bibiliography Management with LaTeX
- How to Write a Thesis in LaTeX
- A huge collection of LaTeX resources
Can I use Google Docs for my dissertation?
No. Google Docs can get you pretty far down the road to something that looks like what Rackham requires, however, it's going to take a lot more work to get that far, and as you approach the finish line there will be obstacles that Google Docs just won't be able to get around. The issue is that Google Docs was not designed for complicated documents like a thesis or dissertation. To get it to do many of the special things that Rackham requires, you'll have to do a lot of work that Word will just do for you . A few examples:
- Rackham requires 1" margin on all pages, but a 2" margin at the top of each new section. You'll have to manually adjust every relevant page yourself in Docs to get this, but Word will just do it automatically.
- Docs gives you three choices for how your Table of Contents will look, none of which are suitable for Rackham. While you can adjust the format, many aspects of it (such as spacing) will revert to the original every time you update it. With Word, you're in charge of what your ToC looks like.
- In Docs, you'll have to manually type in your figure numbers ("Figure 3.6") and change them every time you add or move them. But Word will manage numbering and caption placement for you, it will renumber figures or tables as you add or move them, and it will create your List of Figures/Tables automatically – correct page numbers and all.
- With Word's figure/table numbering, you can also insert cross-references so when you refer to "(see Figure 4.2)" but then you add some new figures before that, not only will Figure 4.2 renumber itself automatically, but anywhere you've referred to it will be updated, too. No more anxiety about whether you've updated everything accurately.
- Page numbers: Rackham wants the first two pages to have no page numbers, the rest of the frontmatter to have small roman numerals, and the body of the document to have arabic numerals. Docs just plain can't do that.
If you're concerned about the learning curve of using Word, please know that this Guide goes over how to do everything, AND the Word template found here has nearly everything already set up for you. We also regularly offer a workshop that serves as an introduction to the most useful features, and you can set up a meeting with a ScholarSpace expert anytime you run into something that you can't figure out.
This Guide is all about how to properly format your dissertation -- how to make it look the way Rackham wants it to look. But what if you need help with the actual composition of your content? Our friends at the Sweetland Writing Center offer such assistance, through their Writing Workshop program. From their website:
These are just a few quick but especially important tips to help you get started. See our more expansive Tips & Troubleshooting section for suggestions that are a little more complex.
- Save early , save often, and create backup versions as you go along. Consider setting up Microsoft OneDrive (you have free access with your umich login credentials). With this, you can turn on "Autosave" in Word to automatically save your document at regular intervals.
- Use our template (available above), it will save you lots of time. Nearly all of the difficult formatting stuff we discuss in this Guide is already built into the template. Consider doing all of your writing in it -- even if you're working in separate files for each chapter, you can use a copy of the template for each one of those chapters.
- Set the margins including the two-inch margin for chapters titles ( Setting Margins ) .
- Define styles for Headings 1-3, Normal, Captions, and Quotes – these are most common; you may need others ( Working with Styles ).
- If headings need to be numbered (for example, 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, etc.), define a multi-level list ( Automatic Numbering ).
- If captions need to include the chapter number, define a multi-level list ( Automatic Numbering ).
- Share your file(s) with your advisors using Track Changes ( Commenting and Reviewing ) .
- If you use EndNote to manage your citations and create your bibliography, use only one EndNote library for your entire dissertation (see our EndNote Basics guide).
- Did we mention that you really ought to try out our template (available above)?
Thesis & Dissertation Filing
The University of Maryland, College Park has entered into an agreement with Proquest Information and Learning Services to accept theses and dissertations in Adobe PDF format via the Web. The university accepts 99% of all dissertations and theses in electronic form.
The submission process is as follows:
- After your defense, you submit your thesis or dissertation document directly to Proquest’s University of Maryland Electronic Thesis and Dissertation (ETD) website .
- The Office of the Registrar then evaluates your document online for formatting and legibility, according to the standards set forth in the Thesis and Dissertation Style Guide . If corrections are needed, you will receive an email from the Office of the Registrar detailing what needs to be done.
- Once you make all your necessary formatting corrections, the Office of the Registrar will accept the document and begin the graduation clearance process.
- After this process is complete, the Office of the Registrar “delivers” the documents officially to Proquest, who logs, indexes, and publishes them on Digital Dissertations , a nationwide clearinghouse of theses and dissertations, to which the vast majority of US theses and dissertations are submitted.
- The Office of the Registrar also delivers thesis and dissertation documents to the university's Digital Repository at the University of Maryland (DRUM) for online publication. DRUM is an open-access archive that is accessible by everyone.
Visit the Academic Deadlines section to see the Graduate School's deadlines for thesis and dissertation submission. These deadlines indicate the date by which your academically complete document must be submitted to the system. Any formatting changes requested by the Office of the Registrar can be made based on an evaluation of selected components within your submission. Requested changes must be made by the communicated deadline from the Office of the Registrar to ensure approval of clearance for the applied semester.
The Graduate School’s requirements for all theses and dissertations are detailed in the ETD Style Guide . The guide also the ETD submission process and includes a section on formatting the document with Microsoft Word. It is important that students consult this document prior to beginning the ETD process.
The departments listed below have special requirements for electronic theses and dissertations. Please consult the ETD Style Guide for more information and requirements.
- The Department of Art
- The Department of Art History and Archaeology
- The School of Music
- School of Theatre, Dance, and Performance Studies
Template for Microsoft Word
These are beta versions of documents intended to assist students in completing their thesis or dissertation at the University of Maryland. The template comes pre-formatted to Graduate School standards; the template Instructions offer detailed assistance on using the documents. If you would like to use the Template / Instructions, please download it and email any feedback to [email protected] . Your comments are welcomed and encouraged; the Graduate School wants to make the Thesis / Dissertation process as user-friendly as possible.
Template Instructions Full Template for Dissertations Lite Template for Dissertations Full Template for Theses Lite Template for Theses
Template for LaTex
This document was created by the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics. Like the MS Word template, the document comes pre-formatted to the standards set forth in the Thesis and Dissertation Style Guide.
Thesis and Dissertation Template For LaTex
Doctoral Student Surveys
The Graduate School requires that doctoral students complete two surveys prior to graduation. Learn more about these surveys here .
Third-Party Access to Dissertation
Prior to 2010, ProQuest offered doctoral students the option of allowing third parties to acquire the students’ dissertations. Because there was no restriction on whether or not the third party could sell the dissertation, some third parties, such as Amazon, have been doing so.
If you published your dissertation prior to 2010 and would not like third parties to have the ability to acquire your dissertation, you must contact ProQuest via email at [email protected] and request that your dissertation (which is under copyright to you) be restricted from sales to third parties. You should expect to receive a response from ProQuest within 48 hours.
If you published your dissertation in 2010 or later, you do not need to worry about this issue. ProQuest stopped offering this option in 2010.
Corrections to Theses and Dissertations
Once submitted to the Digital Repository at the University of Maryland ( DRUM ), the body of a thesis or dissertation may not be changed. Students may, however, request that a dated addendum be appended to their original thesis or dissertation document.
To add an addendum, students must submit:
- A written request to the Graduate School ( [email protected] ) to add an addendum to the thesis or dissertation document currently in DRUM.
- The request should include the proposed addendum and a letter of support from the thesis or dissertation chair. The letter of support should confirm that the addendum does not substantively change the content of the document and that all members of the thesis or dissertation committee are aware of the submitted addendum.
- For corrections that arise from the process to review concerns under the University’s policy on scholarly misconduct , the Graduate School will collaborate with the Office of Faculty Affairs on the proper resolution before a thesis or dissertation addendum will be posted. Thesis and dissertation chairs, committee members, and students must adhere to the policy’s reporting requirements if there is a concern that a thesis or dissertation may require correction as a result of such misconduct.
- With the written approval from the Graduate School, the thesis or dissertation author should send the proposed addendum and Graduate School approval to the Libraries ( [email protected] ) to upload the addendum.
Students who wish to add an addendum to their document on the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global Database must contact ProQuest directly at [email protected] for procedures and fees.
The Graduate School
Thesis & dissertation, what is an electronic thesis or dissertation.
The University of Maryland, Baltimore County has entered into an agreement with ProQuest to accept Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD). Students submit their documents directly to Proquest, and the Graduate School evaluates them online for formatting and legibility. If you need to make corrections, you’ll receive an email from the Graduate School detailing what needs to be done.
Once all corrections are made, the Graduate School accepts the document, and, provided you have passed all necessary departmental and university checks (see your department and the Graduate School for more info) for graduation, you are cleared to graduate. After this process is complete, the Graduate School “delivers” the documents officially to ProQuest, who logs, indexes and publishes them on Digital Dissertations , a nationwide clearinghouse of theses and dissertations, to which the vast majority of U.S. theses and dissertations are submitted. After delivery, if you need to make corrections or changes, you will deal directly with ProQuest, as administration of the documents shifts to them.
Back to Top
Graduate School deadlines for thesis and dissertation submission are listed here. These deadlines indicate the date by which your academically complete document must be submitted to the system. An academically complete document is one to which all examining committee-ordered revisions have been made.
- Fall: December 1st
- Summer: August 1st
- Spring: May 1
As long as your academically complete document is submitted by the deadline (even without correct Graduate School formatting), it is considered to have met the deadline. Any formatting changes requested by the Graduate School can be made after the ETD editors evaluate your document during the submission process.
Materials Available to Help You
The Graduate School’s requirements for all theses and dissertations are outlined in detail in the Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Style Guide . Anyone submitting a Thesis or Dissertation document should consult these requirements prior to beginning the ETD process.
In addition, thesis and dissertation templates for Word and LATEx are available. The documents come pre-formatted to the standards set forth in the Style Guide.
- Instructions for Using the Dissertation and Thesis Templates
- Full Template for Dissertations
- Full Template for Theses
- Thesis and Dissertation Template for LATEx
ProQuest also provides a guide for Preparing your Manuscript for Submission.
Policy on the Remote Participation of Committee Members
All members of the Final Defense Committee must be physically or remotely present for Masters Thesis and Doctoral Dissertation defenses. Remote participation must occur in a synchronous form of communication that allows the Committee Members and the Degree Candidate to see and hear each other. This is considered a hybrid defense. In addition, the Candidate must ensure that the remote participant(s) has access to the thesis or dissertation and the presentation. Doctoral Degree Candidates must provide the web address of hybrid or remote defenses to the Graduate School at the time that they submit their Announcement of Defense forms.
The Report of Examining Committee form will be sent to the committee via DocuSign prior to the start of the defense. All committee members, whether physically or remotely present, are responsible for signing the Report of Examining form within 48 hours of the conclusion of the defense. Once the DocuSign form is complete, it will automatically be sent to the appropriate Graduation Coordinator in the Graduate School.
The Graduate School strongly encourages using Webex for hybrid and remote defenses. Information on setting up a Webex defense can be found here:
Serving On Committees After Leaving In Good Standing
The following are guidelines approved by the Graduate Council for serving on Thesis and Dissertation committees for Regular or Associate Graduate Faculty who have left the University in good standing.
At the discretion of the Dean or Associate Dean:
- For committees that were formed before the faculty member left the University, faculty may retain their graduate faculty status to fulfill minimum number of associate or regular members on a committee. Faculty who leave the University cannot Chair an existing committee but may serve as co-Chair. The time limit for this rule shall be two (2) years with an option for the program to reconfirm for additional two-year periods.
- Faculty who maintain an adjunct appointment may continue as an Associate member and thus can chair a thesis committee but not a dissertation committee.
- For all committees formed after the faculty member has left, the former faculty member serves as an Outside Member and a CV is required. Special Graduate Faculty status is not required.
- With prior approval by the department and/or program, faculty who have been granted emeritus status, and who are actively involved in research and their department, may retain their graduate faculty status, including chairing a committee.
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Theses & Dissertation Collection
- Academy of Islamic Studies
- Academy of Malay Studies
- Faculty of Economics and Administration
- Cultural Centre
- Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
- Faculty of Agriculture (1965-1986)
- Faculty of Built Environment
- Faculty of Business & Accountancy
- Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology
- Faculty of Dentistry
- Faculty of Education
- Faculty of Engineering
- Faculty of Languages and Linguistics
- Faculty of Law
- Faculty of Medicine
- Faculty of Science
- Institute of Educational Leadership
- Institute of Postgraduate Studies
- Sports Centre
Copies of all University of Malaya PhD and Masters theses are held in the Minda Hall, Level II of the Main Library. All theses are catalogued and have an entry in Pendeta Discovery. UM Students' Repository - Provides an online archive for the written work of University of Malaya students such as academic exercises, dissertations and theses.
- Theses & Dissertations : PhD
- Theses & Dissertations : Master
Looking for a Thesis & Dissertation ? How to search for a Thesis & Dissertation?
- Searching Result
- Understanding Searching Result
- Browse the library collection of theses from this libguide. OR
- Go to Pendeta Discovery to search for the library catalog. Type the title, author, subject or any keyword and dissertation note (Faculty) of the theses that you are looking for in the box.
- Limit your search result by Author, Format, Language,Material Type, Library, Publication date and Subject.
- Make sure you select Theses & Dissertation under Material Type.
Tick the record of theses underneath Format on the left OR click on the title
Once you have identified the theses that you are looking for in the displayed list, click the title to get item details as shown above.
- Which library has it?
- Material type of the Thesis
- Are you ready to check out (Internal used only)? Write down the call number. Take the item on the shelf and go to the counter for internal borrowing.
- Is the theses AVAILABLE? If not, there will be a due date
- This thesis is unavailable for hold
- Next: Academy of Islamic Studies >>
- Last Updated: Mar 9, 2022 4:14 PM
- URL: https://umlibguides.um.edu.my/c.php?g=930083
Home > Resources > Databases
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Database info, guides & training, bachelor theses.
Included is the full text of (a selection of) bachelor theses from the following Maastricht University programmes:
More information will follow soon.
Included is the full text of (a selection of) master theses from the following Maastricht University faculties:
- Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (FASoS), from 1994 to 2005, from 2013 onward
- Faculty of Science and Engineering (FSE), from 2023 onward
- Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG), from 2002 onward
- Maastricht Sustainability Institute (MSI), from 2011 onward
- School of Business & Economics (SBE), from 2016 onward
- The UM Theses are only open to Maastricht University.
- Some theses are confidential and do not include a pdf with the full text
There are no Guides or trainings for this database at this time.
Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
Tips and Examples for Writing Thesis Statements
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This resource provides tips for creating a thesis statement and examples of different types of thesis statements.
Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement
1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing:
- An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.
- An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.
- An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.
If you are writing a text that does not fall under these three categories (e.g., a narrative), a thesis statement somewhere in the first paragraph could still be helpful to your reader.
2. Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence.
3. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.
4. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper.
Thesis Statement Examples
Example of an analytical thesis statement:
The paper that follows should:
- Explain the analysis of the college admission process
- Explain the challenge facing admissions counselors
Example of an expository (explanatory) thesis statement:
- Explain how students spend their time studying, attending class, and socializing with peers
Example of an argumentative thesis statement:
- Present an argument and give evidence to support the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college
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- Knowledge Base
- What Is a Thesis? | Ultimate Guide & Examples
What Is a Thesis? | Ultimate Guide & Examples
Published on September 14, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on July 18, 2023.
A thesis is a type of research paper based on your original research. It is usually submitted as the final step of a master’s program or a capstone to a bachelor’s degree.
Writing a thesis can be a daunting experience. Other than a dissertation , it is one of the longest pieces of writing students typically complete. It relies on your ability to conduct research from start to finish: choosing a relevant topic , crafting a proposal , designing your research , collecting data , developing a robust analysis, drawing strong conclusions , and writing concisely .
You can also download our full thesis template in the format of your choice below. Our template includes a ready-made table of contents , as well as guidance for what each chapter should include. It’s easy to make it your own, and can help you get started.
Download Word template Download Google Docs template
Table of contents
Thesis vs. thesis statement, how to structure a thesis, acknowledgements or preface, list of figures and tables, list of abbreviations, introduction, literature review, methodology, reference list, proofreading and editing, defending your thesis, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about theses.
You may have heard the word thesis as a standalone term or as a component of academic writing called a thesis statement . Keep in mind that these are two very different things.
- A thesis statement is a very common component of an essay, particularly in the humanities. It usually comprises 1 or 2 sentences in the introduction of your essay , and should clearly and concisely summarize the central points of your academic essay .
- A thesis is a long-form piece of academic writing, often taking more than a full semester to complete. It is generally a degree requirement for Master’s programs, and is also sometimes required to complete a bachelor’s degree in liberal arts colleges.
- In the US, a dissertation is generally written as a final step toward obtaining a PhD.
- In other countries (particularly the UK), a dissertation is generally written at the bachelor’s or master’s level.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
The final structure of your thesis depends on a variety of components, such as:
- Your discipline
- Your theoretical approach
Humanities theses are often structured more like a longer-form essay . Just like in an essay, you build an argument to support a central thesis.
In both hard and social sciences, theses typically include an introduction , literature review , methodology section , results section , discussion section , and conclusion section . These are each presented in their own dedicated section or chapter. In some cases, you might want to add an appendix .
We’ve compiled a list of thesis examples to help you get started.
- Example thesis #1: “Abolition, Africans, and Abstraction: the Influence of the ‘Noble Savage’ on British and French Antislavery Thought, 1787-1807” by Suchait Kahlon.
- Example thesis #2: “’A Starving Man Helping Another Starving Man’: UNRRA, India, and the Genesis of Global Relief, 1943-1947″ by Julian Saint Reiman.
- Example thesis #3: “An Introduction to Higher-Order Frames in Communication: How Controversial Organizations Maintain Legitimacy Over Time” by Kees Smeets
The very first page of your thesis contains all necessary identifying information, including:
- Your full title
- Your full name
- Your department
- Your institution and degree program
- Your submission date.
Sometimes the title page also includes your student ID, the name of your supervisor, or the university’s logo. Check out your university’s guidelines if you’re not sure.
Read more about title pages
The acknowledgements section is usually optional. Its main point is to allow you to thank everyone who helped you in your thesis journey, such as supervisors, friends, or family. You can also choose to write a preface , but it’s typically one or the other, not both.
Read more about acknowledgements Read more about prefaces
An abstract is a short summary of your thesis. Usually a maximum of 300 words long, it’s should include brief descriptions of your research objectives , methods, results, and conclusions. Though it may seem short, it introduces your work to your audience, serving as a first impression of your thesis.
Read more about abstracts
A table of contents lists all of your sections, plus their corresponding page numbers and subheadings if you have them. This helps your reader seamlessly navigate your document.
Your table of contents should include all the major parts of your thesis. In particular, don’t forget the the appendices. If you used heading styles, it’s easy to generate an automatic table Microsoft Word.
Read more about tables of contents
While not mandatory, if you used a lot of tables and/or figures, it’s nice to include a list of them to help guide your reader. It’s also easy to generate one of these in Word: just use the “Insert Caption” feature.
Read more about lists of figures and tables
If you have used a lot of industry- or field-specific abbreviations in your thesis, you should include them in an alphabetized list of abbreviations . This way, your readers can easily look up any meanings they aren’t familiar with.
Read more about lists of abbreviations
Relatedly, if you find yourself using a lot of very specialized or field-specific terms that may not be familiar to your reader, consider including a glossary . Alphabetize the terms you want to include with a brief definition.
Read more about glossaries
An introduction sets up the topic, purpose, and relevance of your thesis, as well as expectations for your reader. This should:
- Ground your research topic , sharing any background information your reader may need
- Define the scope of your work
- Introduce any existing research on your topic, situating your work within a broader problem or debate
- State your research question(s)
- Outline (briefly) how the remainder of your work will proceed
In other words, your introduction should clearly and concisely show your reader the “what, why, and how” of your research.
Read more about introductions
A literature review helps you gain a robust understanding of any extant academic work on your topic, encompassing:
- Selecting relevant sources
- Determining the credibility of your sources
- Critically evaluating each of your sources
- Drawing connections between sources, including any themes, patterns, conflicts, or gaps
A literature review is not merely a summary of existing work. Rather, your literature review should ultimately lead to a clear justification for your own research, perhaps via:
- Addressing a gap in the literature
- Building on existing knowledge to draw new conclusions
- Exploring a new theoretical or methodological approach
- Introducing a new solution to an unresolved problem
- Definitively advocating for one side of a theoretical debate
Read more about literature reviews
Your literature review can often form the basis for your theoretical framework, but these are not the same thing. A theoretical framework defines and analyzes the concepts and theories that your research hinges on.
Read more about theoretical frameworks
Your methodology chapter shows your reader how you conducted your research. It should be written clearly and methodically, easily allowing your reader to critically assess the credibility of your argument. Furthermore, your methods section should convince your reader that your method was the best way to answer your research question.
A methodology section should generally include:
- Your overall approach ( quantitative vs. qualitative )
- Your research methods (e.g., a longitudinal study )
- Your data collection methods (e.g., interviews or a controlled experiment
- Any tools or materials you used (e.g., computer software)
- The data analysis methods you chose (e.g., statistical analysis , discourse analysis )
- A strong, but not defensive justification of your methods
Read more about methodology sections
Your results section should highlight what your methodology discovered. These two sections work in tandem, but shouldn’t repeat each other. While your results section can include hypotheses or themes, don’t include any speculation or new arguments here.
Your results section should:
- State each (relevant) result with any (relevant) descriptive statistics (e.g., mean , standard deviation ) and inferential statistics (e.g., test statistics , p values )
- Explain how each result relates to the research question
- Determine whether the hypothesis was supported
Additional data (like raw numbers or interview transcripts ) can be included as an appendix . You can include tables and figures, but only if they help the reader better understand your results.
Read more about results sections
Your discussion section is where you can interpret your results in detail. Did they meet your expectations? How well do they fit within the framework that you built? You can refer back to any relevant source material to situate your results within your field, but leave most of that analysis in your literature review.
For any unexpected results, offer explanations or alternative interpretations of your data.
Read more about discussion sections
Your thesis conclusion should concisely answer your main research question. It should leave your reader with an ultra-clear understanding of your central argument, and emphasize what your research specifically has contributed to your field.
Why does your research matter? What recommendations for future research do you have? Lastly, wrap up your work with any concluding remarks.
Read more about conclusions
In order to avoid plagiarism , don’t forget to include a full reference list at the end of your thesis, citing the sources that you used. Choose one citation style and follow it consistently throughout your thesis, taking note of the formatting requirements of each style.
Which style you choose is often set by your department or your field, but common styles include MLA , Chicago , and APA.
Create APA citations Create MLA citations
In order to stay clear and concise, your thesis should include the most essential information needed to answer your research question. However, chances are you have many contributing documents, like interview transcripts or survey questions . These can be added as appendices , to save space in the main body.
Read more about appendices
Once you’re done writing, the next part of your editing process begins. Leave plenty of time for proofreading and editing prior to submission. Nothing looks worse than grammar mistakes or sloppy spelling errors!
Consider using a professional thesis editing service or grammar checker to make sure your final project is perfect.
Once you’ve submitted your final product, it’s common practice to have a thesis defense, an oral component of your finished work. This is scheduled by your advisor or committee, and usually entails a presentation and Q&A session.
After your defense , your committee will meet to determine if you deserve any departmental honors or accolades. However, keep in mind that defenses are usually just a formality. If there are any serious issues with your work, these should be resolved with your advisor way before a defense.
If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!
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The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation shouldn’t take up more than 5–7% of your overall word count.
If you only used a few abbreviations in your thesis or dissertation , you don’t necessarily need to include a list of abbreviations .
If your abbreviations are numerous, or if you think they won’t be known to your audience, it’s never a bad idea to add one. They can also improve readability, minimizing confusion about abbreviations unfamiliar to your reader.
When you mention different chapters within your text, it’s considered best to use Roman numerals for most citation styles. However, the most important thing here is to remain consistent whenever using numbers in your dissertation .
A thesis or dissertation outline is one of the most critical first steps in your writing process. It helps you to lay out and organize your ideas and can provide you with a roadmap for deciding what kind of research you’d like to undertake.
Generally, an outline contains information on the different sections included in your thesis or dissertation , such as:
- Your anticipated title
- Your abstract
- Your chapters (sometimes subdivided into further topics like literature review , research methods , avenues for future research, etc.)
A thesis is typically written by students finishing up a bachelor’s or Master’s degree. Some educational institutions, particularly in the liberal arts, have mandatory theses, but they are often not mandatory to graduate from bachelor’s degrees. It is more common for a thesis to be a graduation requirement from a Master’s degree.
Even if not mandatory, you may want to consider writing a thesis if you:
- Plan to attend graduate school soon
- Have a particular topic you’d like to study more in-depth
- Are considering a career in research
- Would like a capstone experience to tie up your academic experience
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Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore needs your careful analysis of the evidence to understand how you arrived at this claim. You arrive at your thesis by examining and analyzing the evidence available to you, which might be text or other types of source material.
A thesis will generally respond to an analytical question or pose a solution to a problem that you have framed for your readers (and for yourself). When you frame that question or problem for your readers, you are telling them what is at stake in your argument—why your question matters and why they should care about the answer . If you can explain to your readers why a question or problem is worth addressing, then they will understand why it’s worth reading an essay that develops your thesis—and you will understand why it’s worth writing that essay.
A strong thesis will be arguable rather than descriptive , and it will be the right scope for the essay you are writing. If your thesis is descriptive, then you will not need to convince your readers of anything—you will be naming or summarizing something your readers can already see for themselves. If your thesis is too narrow, you won’t be able to explore your topic in enough depth to say something interesting about it. If your thesis is too broad, you may not be able to support it with evidence from the available sources.
When you are writing an essay for a course assignment, you should make sure you understand what type of claim you are being asked to make. Many of your assignments will be asking you to make analytical claims , which are based on interpretation of facts, data, or sources.
Some of your assignments may ask you to make normative claims. Normative claims are claims of value or evaluation rather than fact—claims about how things should be rather than how they are. A normative claim makes the case for the importance of something, the action that should be taken, or the way the world should be. When you are asked to write a policy memo, a proposal, or an essay based on your own opinion, you will be making normative claims.
Here are some examples of possible thesis statements for a student's analysis of the article “The Case Against Perfection” by Professor Michael Sandel.
Descriptive thesis (not arguable)
While Sandel argues that pursuing perfection through genetic engineering would decrease our sense of humility, he claims that the sense of solidarity we would lose is also important.
This thesis summarizes several points in Sandel’s argument, but it does not make a claim about how we should understand his argument. A reader who read Sandel’s argument would not also need to read an essay based on this descriptive thesis.
Broad thesis (arguable, but difficult to support with evidence)
Michael Sandel’s arguments about genetic engineering do not take into consideration all the relevant issues.
This is an arguable claim because it would be possible to argue against it by saying that Michael Sandel’s arguments do take all of the relevant issues into consideration. But the claim is too broad. Because the thesis does not specify which “issues” it is focused on—or why it matters if they are considered—readers won’t know what the rest of the essay will argue, and the writer won’t know what to focus on. If there is a particular issue that Sandel does not address, then a more specific version of the thesis would include that issue—hand an explanation of why it is important.
Arguable thesis with analytical claim
While Sandel argues persuasively that our instinct to “remake” (54) ourselves into something ever more perfect is a problem, his belief that we can always draw a line between what is medically necessary and what makes us simply “better than well” (51) is less convincing.
This is an arguable analytical claim. To argue for this claim, the essay writer will need to show how evidence from the article itself points to this interpretation. It’s also a reasonable scope for a thesis because it can be supported with evidence available in the text and is neither too broad nor too narrow.
Arguable thesis with normative claim
Given Sandel’s argument against genetic enhancement, we should not allow parents to decide on using Human Growth Hormone for their children.
This thesis tells us what we should do about a particular issue discussed in Sandel’s article, but it does not tell us how we should understand Sandel’s argument.
Questions to ask about your thesis
- Is the thesis truly arguable? Does it speak to a genuine dilemma in the source, or would most readers automatically agree with it?
- Is the thesis too obvious? Again, would most or all readers agree with it without needing to see your argument?
- Is the thesis complex enough to require a whole essay's worth of argument?
- Is the thesis supportable with evidence from the text rather than with generalizations or outside research?
- Would anyone want to read a paper in which this thesis was developed? That is, can you explain what this paper is adding to our understanding of a problem, question, or topic?
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Thesis / dissertation formatting manual (2022).
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UCI Libraries maintains the following templates to assist in formatting your graduate manuscript. If you are formatting your manuscript in Microsoft Word, feel free to download and use the template. If you would like to see what your manuscript should look like, PDFs have been provided. If you are formatting your manuscript using LaTex, UCI maintains a template on OverLeaf.
- Annotated Template (Dissertation) 2023 PDF of a template with annotations of what to look out for
- Word: Thesis Template 2023 Editable template of the Master's thesis formatting.
- PDF Thesis Template 2023
- Word: Dissertation Template 2023 Editable template of the PhD Dissertation formatting.
- PDF: Dissertation Template 2023
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UUM Theses and Dissertations: Home
What are uum theses and dissertations.
They're growing collection of post graduates theses produced by UUM researchers. The collection comprises titles digitized from print holdings and items first submitted electronically from 1986 in various subject taught in the university. Most of the full text is made available only by contacting the author or responsible authority of the item from the link provided in each of the items detail entitled Request a Copy (where applicable).
For printed collection, you can obtain the material from the Special Collection at Level 3 (Floor 2), New Library building.
For electronic collection, you may directly access at: http://etd.uum.edu.my/
How to search printed theses and dissertations? (PRINTED)
STEP 1 : Sea rch theses and dissertations through LibSearch by using keyword, title, author or subject. ( https://library.uum.edu.my/ )
STEP 2 : The result shows the lists of theses and dissertations that hit the keyword.
STEP 3 : Ch eck the bibliographic information such as title, author, date of publication, subject whether it related with your needs or not. If yes, note the call number of the theses to search the printed theses on the shelves.
STEP 4 : Go to Special Collection (Theses & Dissertation) at level 2 (New Building) and search printed theses on the shelves by using call number.
How to search electronic theses and dissertations? (ONLINE)
STEP 1 : Go to https://library.uum.edu.my/uum-resources/ OR Direct access at http://etd.uum.edu.my/
STEP 2 : Y ou can browse the thesis's title by author, subject, division or year of publication or search directly at the search bar.
STEP 3: If the thesis with the status Restricted to Repository Staff Only means that the author didn't give the permission to publish his/her thesis online. You may click at ' Request a copy' button to request a full-text version from the author.
STEP 4 : If the thesis with the Download button, means that it can be downloaded by anyone without username and password. It called as O PEN ACCESS thesis.
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25 Thesis Statement Examples That Will Make Writing a Breeze
Understanding what makes a good thesis statement is one of the major keys to writing a great research paper or argumentative essay. The thesis statement is where you make a claim that will guide you through your entire paper. If you find yourself struggling to make sense of your paper or your topic, then it's likely due to a weak thesis statement.
Let's take a minute to first understand what makes a solid thesis statement, and what key components you need to write one of your own.
A thesis statement always goes at the beginning of the paper. It will typically be in the first couple of paragraphs of the paper so that it can introduce the body paragraphs, which are the supporting evidence for your thesis statement.
Your thesis statement should clearly identify an argument. You need to have a statement that is not only easy to understand, but one that is debatable. What that means is that you can't just put any statement of fact and have it be your thesis. For example, everyone knows that puppies are cute . An ineffective thesis statement would be, "Puppies are adorable and everyone knows it." This isn't really something that's a debatable topic.
Something that would be more debatable would be, "A puppy's cuteness is derived from its floppy ears, small body, and playfulness." These are three things that can be debated on. Some people might think that the cutest thing about puppies is the fact that they follow you around or that they're really soft and fuzzy.
All cuteness aside, you want to make sure that your thesis statement is not only debatable, but that it also actually thoroughly answers the research question that was posed. You always want to make sure that your evidence is supporting a claim that you made (and not the other way around). This is why it's crucial to read and research about a topic first and come to a conclusion later. If you try to get your research to fit your thesis statement, then it may not work out as neatly as you think. As you learn more, you discover more (and the outcome may not be what you originally thought).
Additionally, your thesis statement shouldn't be too big or too grand. It'll be hard to cover everything in a thesis statement like, "The federal government should act now on climate change." The topic is just too large to actually say something new and meaningful. Instead, a more effective thesis statement might be, "Local governments can combat climate change by providing citizens with larger recycling bins and offering local classes about composting and conservation." This is easier to work with because it's a smaller idea, but you can also discuss the overall topic that you might be interested in, which is climate change.
So, now that we know what makes a good, solid thesis statement, you can start to write your own. If you find that you're getting stuck or you are the type of person who needs to look at examples before you start something, then check out our list of thesis statement examples below.
Thesis statement examples
A quick note that these thesis statements have not been fully researched. These are merely examples to show you what a thesis statement might look like and how you can implement your own ideas into one that you think of independently. As such, you should not use these thesis statements for your own research paper purposes. They are meant to be used as examples only.
- Vaccinations Because many children are unable to vaccinate due to illness, we must require that all healthy and able children be vaccinated in order to have herd immunity.
- Educational Resources for Low-Income Students Schools should provide educational resources for low-income students during the summers so that they don't forget what they've learned throughout the school year.
- School Uniforms School uniforms may be an upfront cost for families, but they eradicate the visual differences in income between students and provide a more egalitarian atmosphere at school.
- Populism The rise in populism on the 2016 political stage was in reaction to increasing globalization, the decline of manufacturing jobs, and the Syrian refugee crisis.
- Public Libraries Libraries are essential resources for communities and should be funded more heavily by local municipalities.
- Cyber Bullying With more and more teens using smartphones and social media, cyber bullying is on the rise. Cyber bullying puts a lot of stress on many teens, and can cause depression, anxiety, and even suicidal thoughts. Parents should limit the usage of smart phones, monitor their children's online activity, and report any cyber bullying to school officials in order to combat this problem.
- Medical Marijuana for Veterans Studies have shown that the use of medicinal marijuana has been helpful to veterans who suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Medicinal marijuana prescriptions should be legal in all states and provided to these veterans. Additional medical or therapy services should also be researched and implemented in order to help them re-integrate back into civilian life.
- Work-Life Balance Corporations should provide more work from home opportunities and six-hour workdays so that office workers have a better work-life balance and are more likely to be productive when they are in the office.
- Teaching Youths about Consensual Sex Although sex education that includes a discussion of consensual sex would likely lead to less sexual assault, parents need to teach their children the meaning of consent from a young age with age appropriate lessons.
- Whether or Not to Attend University A degree from a university provides invaluable lessons on life and a future career, but not every high school student should be encouraged to attend a university directly after graduation. Some students may benefit from a trade school or a "gap year" where they can think more intensely about what it is they want to do for a career and how they can accomplish this.
- Studying Abroad Studying abroad is one of the most culturally valuable experiences you can have in college. It is the only way to get completely immersed in another language and learn how other cultures and countries are different from your own.
- Women's Body Image Magazines have done a lot in the last five years to include a more diverse group of models, but there is still a long way to go to promote a healthy woman's body image collectively as a culture.
- Cigarette Tax Heavily taxing and increasing the price of cigarettes is essentially a tax on the poorest Americans, and it doesn't deter them from purchasing. Instead, the state and federal governments should target those economically disenfranchised with early education about the dangers of smoking.
- Veganism A vegan diet, while a healthy and ethical way to consume food, indicates a position of privilege. It also limits you to other cultural food experiences if you travel around the world.
- University Athletes Should be Compensated University athletes should be compensated for their service to the university, as it is difficult for these students to procure and hold a job with busy academic and athletic schedules. Many student athletes on scholarship also come from low-income neighborhoods and it is a struggle to make ends meet when they are participating in athletics.
- Women in the Workforce Sheryl Sandberg makes a lot of interesting points in her best-selling book, Lean In , but she only addressed the very privileged working woman and failed to speak to those in lower-skilled, lower-wage jobs.
- Assisted Suicide Assisted suicide should be legal and doctors should have the ability to make sure their patients have the end-of-life care that they want to receive.
- Celebrity and Political Activism Although Taylor Swift's lyrics are indicative of a feminist perspective, she should be more politically active and vocal to use her position of power for the betterment of society.
- The Civil War The insistence from many Southerners that the South seceded from the Union for states' rights versus the fact that they seceded for the purposes of continuing slavery is a harmful myth that still affects race relations today.
- Blue Collar Workers Coal miners and other blue-collar workers whose jobs are slowly disappearing from the workforce should be re-trained in jobs in the technology sector or in renewable energy. A program to re-train these workers would not only improve local economies where jobs have been displaced, but would also lead to lower unemployment nationally.
- Diversity in the Workforce Having a diverse group of people in an office setting leads to richer ideas, more cooperation, and more empathy between people with different skin colors or backgrounds.
- Re-Imagining the Nuclear Family The nuclear family was traditionally defined as one mother, one father, and 2.5 children. This outdated depiction of family life doesn't quite fit with modern society. The definition of normal family life shouldn't be limited to two-parent households.
- Digital Literacy Skills With more information readily available than ever before, it's crucial that students are prepared to examine the material they're reading and determine whether or not it's a good source or if it has misleading information. Teaching students digital literacy and helping them to understand the difference between opinion or propaganda from legitimate, real information is integral.
- Beauty Pageants Beauty pageants are presented with the angle that they empower women. However, putting women in a swimsuit on a stage while simultaneously judging them on how well they answer an impossible question in a short period of time is cruel and purely for the amusement of men. Therefore, we should stop televising beauty pageants.
- Supporting More Women to Run for a Political Position In order to get more women into political positions, more women must run for office. There must be a grassroots effort to educate women on how to run for office, who among them should run, and support for a future candidate for getting started on a political career.
Still stuck? Need some help with your thesis statement?
If you are still uncertain about how to write a thesis statement or what a good thesis statement is, be sure to consult with your teacher or professor to make sure you're on the right track. It's always a good idea to check in and make sure that your thesis statement is making a solid argument and that it can be supported by your research.
After you're done writing, it's important to have someone take a second look at your paper so that you can ensure there are no mistakes or errors. It's difficult to spot your own mistakes, which is why it's always recommended to have someone help you with the revision process, whether that's a teacher, the writing center at school, or a professional editor such as one from ServiceScape .
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Remarks by secretary of the treasury janet l. yellen at inter-american development bank responsible investment forum.
As Prepared for Delivery
Thank you to the IDB Group for hosting this Forum. And President Goldfajn, thank you for your remarks and for your leadership. I’m very pleased to open this event with you. And welcome to our distinguished guests.
The 12 countries in the Americas Partnership for Economic Prosperity, or APEP, are bound not just by our geography but also by our commitments to democracy, our shared values, and our aspirations of inclusive and resilient growth and regional security. APEP offers our countries a key vehicle through which to deepen economic integration, increase the competitiveness of our region, drive private sector investment, and foster inclusive and sustainable development. For the United States, APEP, and this Forum in particular, allow us to further deepen our partnerships with the IDB Group and with other APEP members and make concrete progress on our shared goals.
Let me touch on one area where we have a unique opportunity to work much more closely together: efforts to diversify supply chains. The United States is working with partners on what I’ve called “friendshoring,” meaning diversifying our supply chains with a range of trusted partners and allies. This has tremendous potential benefits for fueling growth in Latin America and the Caribbean.
And diversification provides not just the opportunity for a significant increase in trade, but also for innovation—in sectors from renewables, to medical supplies, to semiconductors. Businesses from Latin America and the Caribbean—already important partners to the United States in the manufacturing of solar and wind technologies—will increasingly have the chance to lead in new areas of clean energy, for example, helping create vertical supply chains by using locally extracted lithium in local battery production. In the health sector, medical equipment and pharmaceutical companies can grow and innovate to meet increased demand. And in the semiconductor sector, the region’s skilled workers can scale up production of advanced materials, including the automotive chips necessary for the current and next generations of electric vehicles.
As a result of APEP, the United States and the IDB have committed to work together to support the region’s supply chain integration through comprehensive efforts. We will help provide low-cost financing, support knowledge sharing and worker upskilling, and engage with stakeholders from across the public and private sectors, academia, and civil society to identify and tackle bottlenecks, thereby bolstering the region’s competitiveness in priority sectors. We are confident this work will help to further the outcomes of the Forum and the conversations you will all be having here today.
For this supply chain integration work and across many other priorities, APEP countries are fortunate to have a vital partner dedicated to serving our region: the IDB Group. As the largest source of development finance for the Latin America and Caribbean region, the IDB Group provides critical support to countries to create the conditions necessary for private sector-led growth to take off in the region. This leads to increased opportunity, more jobs, and greater economic wellbeing.
I am proud to reaffirm the Biden-Harris Administration’s firm commitment to working with the IDB Group, under Ilan Goldfajn’s excellent leadership, to support strong, sustainable, and inclusive economic growth undergirded by commitments to democracy, equality, transparency, anti-corruption, and the rule of law. As the IDB’s largest shareholder, the United States has also led the call for ambitious systemic and structural reforms that will position the IDB Group to evolve to better take on pressing regional and global challenges. We know the IDB Group can deliver better and deliver more through investments that are high-quality, competitive, and demonstrate results.
The United States is also strongly committed to an IDB Invest capital increase. We are working closely with our fellow shareholders and with our Congress to support IDB Invest. We believe the additional capital would help increase IDB Invest’s impact and ability to better mobilize private capital to the region, including to APEP members. An IDB Invest armed with more risk capital, a refreshed business model, new incentives, and new financial products will be even more effective at promoting private sector-led, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth and development. IDB Invest CEO James Scriven’s originate-to-share approach, as one example, is pioneering a new way for MDBs to leverage private sector capital. Other MDBs are closely watching.
Again, thank you to the IDB Group and to President Goldfajn for hosting this Forum. The United States supports your vision of an institution that will continue to be an engine for growth, change, and progress across Latin America and the Caribbean, and a key partner for achieving APEP’s goals. I am confident the Forum today will enable productive dialogue and lead to constructive next steps to drive the integration and cooperation that will fuel the region’s inclusive growth.
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Formatting Your Thesis with Microsoft Word
- Copyright Page
- Dedication, Acknowledgements, & Preface
- Headings and Subheadings
- Citations and Bibliography
- Page Numbers
- Tables and Figures
- Rotated (Landscape) Pages
- Table of Contents
- Lists of Tables and Figures
- List of Abbreviations
- Some Things to Watch For
- PDF with Embedded Fonts
UM-Deaborn has specific requirements for a thesis title page. An example of what this page should look like can be found on the last page of the Master's Thesis Format Guidelines . There are many ways to use Microsoft Word to create this page; one way to do this is demonstrated in the video below.
Note for dissertations: The order in which you list your committee members differs from the order on the title page of the thesis. All committee members (other than the chair or co-chairs) are listed in alphabetical order based on last name.
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