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An argument or proposition, which may be opposed by an antithesis; or a scholarly essay defending some proposition, usually a dissertation submitted for an academic degree. The thesis of a literary work is its abstract doctrinal content, that is, a proposition for which it argues. For ‘thesis novel’, see roman à thèse; for ‘thesis play’, see problem play.

From:   thesis   in  The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms »

Subjects: Linguistics

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synonyms for thesis

  • proposition
  • supposition
  • contestation
  • postulation
  • presumption
  • presupposition

antonyms for thesis

Most relevant

Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition Copyright © 2013 by the Philip Lief Group.

How to use thesis in a sentence

“The Saudis have been proving the thesis of the film — they do in fact have an army,” said Thor Halvorssen, founder and chief executive of the nonprofit Human Rights Foundation, which funded the movie.

It’s a hypothesis that Bush pursued in her master’s thesis , and last year she began attending virtual Goth parties in a final round of field work before defending her doctoral thesis later this year.

While this partnership was planned prior to the coronavirus outbreak, co-founder Jordana Kier said the pandemic instantly proved out the expansion thesis .

They’ve had to defend that thesis for a very, very long time in front of a variety of different customers and different people.

Over the past decade, In-Q-Tel has been one of the most active investors in the commercial space sector, with a broad investment thesis that touches many aspects of the sector.

In “Back Home,” Gil also revisits the nostalgia for the South explored in his Johns Hopkins thesis , “Circle of Stone.”

At least father and son were in alignment on this central thesis : acting “gay”—bad; being thought of as gay—bad.

Her doctoral thesis , says Ramin Takloo at the University of Illinois, was simply outstanding.

Marshall McLuhan long ago argued the now accepted thesis that different mediums have different influences on thinking.

He wrote his Master's thesis  on the underrepresentation of young people in Congress.

And indeed for most young men a college thesis is but an exercise for sharpening the wits, rarely dangerous in its later effects.

It will be for the reader to determine whether the main thesis of the book has gained or lost by the new evidence.

But the word thesis , when applied to Systems, does not mean the 'position' of single notes, but of groups of notes.

This conclusion, it need hardly be said, is in entire agreement with the main thesis of the preceding pages.

Sundry outlying Indians, with ammunition to waste, took belly and knee rests and strengthened the thesis to the contrary.

Choose the synonym for platform

Words Related To thesis

  • expectation
  • understanding
  • dissertation


  • arrangement
  • literary work
  • short story


  • arrangements
  • dissertations
  • expositions
  • literary works
  • manuscripts
  • short stories
  • advancement
  • affirmation
  • asseveration
  • declaration
  • explanation
  • maintaining
  • predication
  • communication
  • conversation
  • disquisition
  • verbalization
  • Synonyms For
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thesis noun

  • Show all quotations

What does the noun thesis mean?

There are eight meanings listed in OED's entry for the noun thesis . See ‘Meaning & use’ for definitions, usage, and quotation evidence.

thesis has developed meanings and uses in subjects including

Entry status

OED is undergoing a continuous programme of revision to modernize and improve definitions. This entry has not yet been fully revised.

How common is the noun thesis ?

How is the noun thesis pronounced, british english, u.s. english, where does the noun thesis come from.

Earliest known use

Middle English

The earliest known use of the noun thesis is in the Middle English period (1150—1500).

OED's earliest evidence for thesis is from before 1398, in the writing of John Trevisa, translator.

thesis is a borrowing from Greek.

Etymons: Greek θέσις .

In other dictionaries

  • thē̆sis, n. in Middle English Dictionary

Nearby entries

  • thesaurus, n. 1823–
  • thesaury, n. a1639–1708
  • these, n. a1600–48
  • these, pron. & adj. Old English–
  • Thesean, adj. 1815–
  • Theseid, n. 1725–
  • Theseium, n. 1819–
  • these-like, adj. 1644–
  • thesial, adj. 1654
  • thesicle, n. 1863–
  • thesis, n. a1398–
  • thesis-novel, n. 1934–
  • thesis-play, n. 1902–
  • thesmophilist, n. 1644–
  • Thesmophorian, adj. 1891–
  • Thesmophoric, adj. 1788–
  • thesmothete, n. 1603–
  • thesocyte, n. 1887–
  • thesp, n. 1962–
  • Thespian, adj. & n. 1675–
  • Thespianism, n. 1914–

Meaning & use

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Compounds & derived words, entry history for thesis, n..

thesis, n. was first published in 1912; not yet revised

thesis, n. was last modified in September 2023

Revision of the OED is a long-term project. Entries in oed.com which have not been revised may include:

  • corrections and revisions to definitions, pronunciation, etymology, headwords, variant spellings, quotations, and dates;
  • new senses, phrases, and quotations which have been added in subsequent print and online updates.

Revisions and additions of this kind were last incorporated into thesis, n. in September 2023.

Earlier versions of thesis, n. were published in:

OED First Edition (1912)

  • Find out more

OED Second Edition (1989)

  • View thesis, n. in Second Edition

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Citation details

Factsheet for thesis, n., browse entry.

Cambridge Dictionary

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Meaning of thesis in English

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  • I wrote my thesis on literacy strategies for boys .
  • Her main thesis is that children need a lot of verbal stimulation .
  • boilerplate
  • composition
  • dissertation
  • essay question
  • peer review

You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics:

thesis | American Dictionary

Examples of thesis, collocations with thesis.

These are words often used in combination with thesis .

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Translations of thesis

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thesis synonym oxford

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Definition of thesis

Did you know.

In high school, college, or graduate school, students often have to write a thesis on a topic in their major field of study. In many fields, a final thesis is the biggest challenge involved in getting a master's degree, and the same is true for students studying for a Ph.D. (a Ph.D. thesis is often called a dissertation ). But a thesis may also be an idea; so in the course of the paper the student may put forth several theses (notice the plural form) and attempt to prove them.

Examples of thesis in a Sentence

These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'thesis.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.

Word History

in sense 3, Middle English, lowering of the voice, from Late Latin & Greek; Late Latin, from Greek, downbeat, more important part of a foot, literally, act of laying down; in other senses, Latin, from Greek, literally, act of laying down, from tithenai to put, lay down — more at do

14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 3a(1)

Dictionary Entries Near thesis

the sins of the fathers are visited upon the children

thesis novel

Cite this Entry

“Thesis.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/thesis. Accessed 4 Nov. 2023.

Kids Definition

Kids definition of thesis, more from merriam-webster on thesis.

Nglish: Translation of thesis for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of thesis for Arabic Speakers

Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about thesis

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Education: research guide: Theses/dissertations

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Theses outside Oxford

Searchable abstracts of theses & dissertations from around the world are available via   ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global  - many are available for full text download.

The  EThoS  service from the British Library contains information about UK doctoral theses and there is increasing availability of full-text downloads, which are available once a library or individual has paid for digitisation.

Oxford University theses are not available in full online format via EThos but some are available in ORA  (the Oxford Research Archive) - these will show in your SOLO search results, you do not need to search ORA separately.

Copyright and dissertations & theses

When consulting an Oxford thesis or dissertation recognise that the copyright of the thesis rests with the author and that no quotation from it or information derived from it may be published without the prior consent of the author.

A thesis or dissertation is an unpublished work therefore no copyright exceptions apply which let you copy. However, for the MSc dissertations held in the Education Library, the authors have agreed to permit limited copying of their thesis by individuals (no more than 5% or one chapter) for personal research use. 

Obtaining copies of or from Oxford dissertations & theses

Dphil theses.

Copying from an Oxford thesis, even of a single page, may require the author's written permission. For more information about the copyright of Oxford theses and how to obtain copies of or from an Oxford thesis please follow the links or  ask us .

MSc dissertations

Limited copying is possible (no more than 5% or one chapter) for personal research use. No quotation or information derived from an MSc dissertation may be published without the written consent of the author of the dissertation. The Higher Degrees office may be able to help you wish to contact an author, but usually you can find possible contact details via an internet search.

Theses & dissertations

To find theses and dissertations in oxford.

On SOLO - just add the word thesis  to your searches. For instance, if you search for oxford thesis education  and then use the Resource Type filter to choose Theses (Oxford) , you will get a large selection of theses & dissertations on educational topics. The results will include both Masters dissertations and Doctoral theses and come from various departments including the Department of Education.

If you add "department of education*"  then the search will bring back theses & dissertations produced in the Department of Education prior to 2020. The asterisk at the end of 'education*' ensures the results will include older theses dissertations from when the Department was called Educational Studies. NB. More recent dissertations are not tagged with information about the Department

You could try adding particular research methods, but be aware that most older dissertations have not been catalogued with any information about research methods used. 

A growing number of Oxford theses & dissertations are available online. These will be included in the results of your SOLO searches once the thesis or dissertation has been deposited into ORA . You can also search ORA directly using course codes, e.g. ALSLA, CIE2021 etc.

  • Theses submitted recently may take a while to be processed and to appear on SOLO - you may need to check back periodically to see new additions.

MSc Dissertations in the Education Library

On the open shelves in the Education Library you will find older printed copies of MSc Education, ALSLA and ALLT dissertations. Some years we were able to indicate which dissertations which received distinctions by marking these with a red dot on the spine. Please note that very few dissertations are available from 2020 as the restrictions of the Covid-19 pandemic meant the requirement for students to submit a hard copy was waived (and only a few students chose to submit online copies to the library). Since 2021 dissertations are primarily submitted online with optional donation of a hard copy to the library shelves. Submission is voluntary so the library does not have every dissertation submitted each year.

MSc dissertations are shelved on the far wall of the Front Reading Room. These are for consultation in the library only and cannot be borrowed.

MSc dissertations are grouped first by course, e.g. ALSLA, Higher Education, and within each course are arranged alphabetically by author’s surname.

To search for MSc dissertations on SOLO type:   "department  of education*"  thesis M.Sc.  using the  Oxford Collections  search filter. Most of the results will be our dissertations.

You could also include author surnames or keywords in your search.

A list of the titles, authors and supervisors of the more recent Department of Education MSc Education and ALSLA dissertations is available from this page. A printed list is also available within the library.

Older MSc dissertations are stored offsite in the Collections Storage Facility. They can be requested to the Education Library (or any other Bodleian Library) and consulted there (not borrowed). 

MSc dissertations from other courses

MSc Learning & Teaching (MLT), MSc Teacher Education (MTed), MSc Educational Assessment (MEA) and MSc Medical Education (MedEd)  students are asked to submit an online copy of their dissertation. Exemplar dissertations are chosen to be made available online via  ORA  - simply type the course code, e.g.  MLT

Lists of recent theses & dissertations

  • List of departmental DPhil theses Updated Apr 2023
  • Departmental MSc Education & ALSLA dissertations in print A list of which dissertations from our full time courses are available in the library. Updated Dec 2021
  • MSc dissertations on ORA A list of MSc Education, ALSLA and ALLT dissertations available online. Updated Mar 2023.
  • List of recommended MSc dissertations and DPhil theses Recommended by supervisors across the Departent of Education. Updated Oct 2021

Please note that very few dissertations are available from 2020.

DPhil Theses

DPhil theses are stored offsite in the Collections Storage Facility. They can be requested to the Weston Library and consulted there (not borrowed).

To search for departmental DPhil theses on SOLO  type:  "department  of education*" thesis D Phil  using the  Oxford Collections  search filter.

Note that it is important to include a space between the 'D' and the 'Phil'. You could also include author surnames or keywords in your search.

In recent years DPhil candidates have been required to deposit an online copy of their thesis with ORA. These can be found via SOLO . Occasionally a thesis may be embargoed so that the full text is not available for a few years.

A list of the titles, authors and supervisors of the more recent Department of Education DPhil theses is available from this page. A printed list is also available within the library.

Supervisors in the Department have also made a short list of ‘recommended theses’ that students can draw on for inspiration about layout, format and more substantive issues. The list includes some DPhil and MSc theses with the reason for recommendation, e.g. substantive, methodological, well written etc.

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Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences Division

  • Graduate school
  • Information for postgraduate research students
  • Submitting your thesis

This section contains essential information and guidance for the preparation and submission of your thesis.

Preparation and Submission of your Thesis

IMPORTANT - When preparing your thesis please ensure that you have taken into account any copyright or sensitive content issues, and dealt with them appropriately. 

COVID-19  Additional academic support – Supporting Students to Submission

Additional academic support is available for postgraduate research students impacted by the pandemic. If your research has been disrupted by COVID-19, it will now be possible to have this taken into account in viva examinations.

Tips on planning your thesis

At an early stage you should:

  • Prepare a detailed work plan for your research in consultation with your supervisor.
  • Build some flexibility into your plan. It is difficult to give general advice about the allocation of time on theory‑oriented projects, because the nature of these is so variable. In the case of experiment‑based research projects, you should normally allow up to six months to write a DPhil thesis, or three to four months for a corresponding MSc by Research thesis.
  • Consider attending available skills training courses, for example  Thesis and Report Writing .

It is not advisable to leave all the writing to the end, for several reasons:

  • You will need practice at writing over a period of time in order to develop a good style.
  • There will inevitably be hold‑ups in experimental work and it is better to use that time to work on part of your thesis, rather than to waste it. If you do some writing earlier the final completion of your thesis will not seem such a daunting task.
  • Approaching your submission date will become more stressful than necessary.

About your thesis

The best way to find out what is required for a successful thesis in your subject area is to look at some written in recent years. You should obviously look particularly closely at theses written by previous members of your own research group, which are available in the University library.

The formal requirements for obtaining your degree are set out in detail in the ‘ Examination Regulations ’. The standard required for success in the DPhil examination is defined as follows: that the student present a significant and substantial piece of research, of a kind which might reasonably be expected of a capable and diligent student after three or at most four years of full‑time study in the case of a full-time student, or eight years in the case of a part-time student. For the MSc by Research the standard required is that the candidate should have made a worthwhile contribution to knowledge or understanding of the relevant field of learning after a minimum of one year or two years of full-time study.

Thesis structure - Integrated Thesis

Students applying for confirmation of status in the following departments; Biology (nee Plant Sciences and Zoology) Chemical Biology, Earth Sciences, Engineering Science, Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Physical & Theoretical Chemistry and Statistics can now apply to submit their thesis in an alternative format, as an integrated thesis, including  those registered on the following Doctoral Training programmes: Future Propulsion and Power  CDT, Inorganic Chemistry for Future Manufacturing  CDT, Synthesis for Biology and Medicine  CDT, Theory and Modelling in Chemical Sciences CDT, Wind and Marine Energy Systems and Structures  CDT.  MSc by Research students in these departments may also apply to do this, and should submit a request direct to the Director of Graduate Studies.

An integrated thesis may either be a hybrid of conventional chapters and high-quality scientific papers, or be fully paper-based. Regardless of the format, the content of the thesis should reflect the amount, originality and level of work expected for a conventional thesis. It should not be assumed that the act of publication (in whatever form) means the work is of suitable academic quality and content for inclusion in a thesis, and students should discuss all papers in detail with their supervisor before including. It would be anticipated that the candidate would be a lead contributor, rather than a minor author, on at least some of the papers in order to consider this format. There is no minimum, or maximum, number of papers a candidate is expected/allowed to include as part of such a thesis and it will remain a matter for the examiners to conclude whether the contributions are equivalent to that which would be expected of a standard DPhil.

Any papers utilised must concern a common subject, constitute a continuous theme and conform to the following guidelines:

 (i) If a candidate for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy wishes to be examined through an integrated thesis (in the departments listed above), they should apply for permission to be examined in this way when they apply for confirmation of status, as detailed in the relevant departmental handbook. A candidate for the Degree of Master of Science by Research should normally apply to the DGS for permission to be examined in this way six months before submitting their papers for examination. To revert to being examined by a conventional thesis rather than an integrated thesis, the candidate must inform their department of the change as detailed in the relevant departmental handbook.

(ii) Work can be included regardless of its acceptance status for publication but candidates may be questioned on the publication status of their work by the examiners.

(iii) Any submitted/published papers should relate directly to the candidate’s approved field of study, and should have been written whilst holding the status of PRS or a student for the MSc (by Research), or DPhil.

(iv) The collection of papers must include a separate introduction, a full literature review, discussion and a conclusion, so that the integrated thesis can be read as a single, coherent document.

(v) The candidate must ensure all matters of copyright are addressed before a paper’s inclusion. A pre-print version of any published papers should be included as standard.

(vi) Joint/multi-authored papers are common in science based subjects and thus acceptable if the candidate can both defend the paper in full and provide a written statement of authorship, agreed by all authors, that certifies the extent of the candidate’s own contribution. A standard template is available for this purpose.

  • Download the Statement of Authorship template as a Word document
  • View the Statement of Authorship template as a webpage  

The length and scope of theses, including word limits for each subject area in the Division are set out in Departmental guidelines.

In all departments, if some part of the thesis is not solely your work or has been carried out in collaboration with one or more persons, you should also submit a clear statement of the extent of your contribution.

  • Download the guidance for submitting an Integrated Thesis as a Word document
  • View the guidance for submitting an Integrated Thesis as a webpage

Thesis page and word limits

Several departments place a word limit or page limit on theses. Details can be found in the  Examination Regulations  or  GSO.20a Notes of Guidance for Research Examinations .

Permission to exceed the page and word limits

Should you need to exceed your word/page limit you must seek approval from the Director of Graduate Studies in your department. You and your supervisor must submit a letter/email requesting approval, giving reasons why it is necessary to exceed the limit. This must be sent to the MPLS Graduate Office ( [email protected] ).


It is your responsibility to ensure your thesis has been adequately proof-read before it is submitted.  Your supervisor may alert you if they feel further proof-reading is needed, but it is not their job to do the proof-reading for you.  You should proof-read your own work, as this is an essential skill in the academic writing process. However, for longer pieces of work it is considered acceptable for students to seek the help of a third party for proof-reading. Such third parties can be professional proof-readers, fellow students, friends or family members (students should bear in mind the terms of any agreements with an outside body or sponsor governing supply of confidential material or the disclosure of research results described in the thesis).   Proof-reading assistance may also be provided as a reasonable adjustment for disability.    Your thesis may be rejected by the examiners if it has not been adequately proof-read.  

See the University’s Policy on the Use of Third Party Proof-readers . The MPLS Division offers training in proof-reading as part of its Scientific Writing training programmes.

Examiners and Submission Dates

You are strongly advised to apply for the appointment of examiners at least four to six weeks before you submit your thesis.

Appointing examiners for your thesis

Approval of the proposed names of examiners rests with the Director of Graduate Studies. Two examiners are normally appointed. It is usual for one of the examiners to be a senior member of Oxford University (the ‘internal examiner’) and the other to be from another research organisation (the ‘external examiner’). The divisional board will not normally appoint as examiners individuals previously closely associated with the candidate or their work, representatives of any organisation sponsoring the candidate’s research, or former colleagues of a candidate. Your supervisor will make suggestions regarding the names of possible examiners. Before doing so, your supervisor must consult with you, in order to find out if you have any special views on the appointment of particular examiners. Your supervisor is also allowed to consult informally with the potential examiners before making formal suggestions. Such informal consultation is usually desirable, and is intended to determine whether the people concerned are willing in principle to act, and if so, whether they could carry out the examination within a reasonable period of time. (For example, there may be constraints if you have to return to your home country, or take up employment on a specific date).

See information on examiner conflicts of interest , under section 7.3.3 Examiners.

What forms do I need to complete?

You will need to complete the online  GSO.3 form. Supervisors complete the section indicating names of the proposed examiners, and they should provide alternatives in case the preferred examiners decline to act.

Timing for appointment of examiners

You are advised to submit your appointment of examiners form in advance of submitting your thesis to avoid delays with your examination process. Ideally you should apply for the appointment of examiners at least 4-6 weeks before you expect to submit your thesis for examination.

There are currently no University regulations requiring examination to take place within a certain time limit after thesis submission. However, your examiners would normally be expected to hold your viva within 3 months. If you need to have your examination sooner than this, you may apply for an early viva , by completing the 'Application for a time specific examination' section on the appointment of examiners form, this section must be endorsed by your supervisor and DGS in addition to their approval in the main body of the form. The request must be made at the time of completing and submitting the appointment of examiners form, it cannot be done after this.

Please bear in mind that the examination date requested must not be earlier than one calendar month after the date on which the thesis has been received by the Research Degrees Team or after the date on which the examiners have formally agreed to act, whichever is the latest. The actual date of the examination will depend primarily on the availability of both examiners. In the Long Vacation, a longer time is normally required. It is therefore essential that you leave sufficient time for your forms to be formally approved, and for your examiners to be formally invited.  If sufficient time has not be given this could impact on your early examination request .

If, for any reason, examiners wish to hold a viva within four weeks of receiving their copy of the thesis, permission must be sought from the Director of Graduate Studies. The internal examiner will need to give details of the proposed arrangement and the reasons for the request. Under no circumstances will a viva be permitted to take place within 14 days of receipt of the thesis by the examiners.

Special considerations

Your supervisor is permitted to indicate to the Director of Graduate Studies if there are any special factors which should be taken into account in the conduct of your examination. For example, a scientific paper may have been produced by another researcher which affects the content of your thesis, but which was published too late for you to take into account. The Director of Graduate Studies will also need to be told of any special circumstances you may require or need to inform your examiners of which may affect your performance in an oral examination, or if any part of your work must be regarded as confidential. The Director of Graduate Studies will then forward (via the Graduate Office), any appropriate information that they think should be provided to the examiners. The Graduate Office will also seek approval from the Proctors Office if required.

Change of thesis title

If during your studies you want to change the title or subject of your thesis, you must obtain the approval of the Director of Graduate Studies using the online form GSO.6 . If you are requesting the change at the time of submitting your thesis, you may do this on the application for appointment of examiners form. A change of title is quite straightforward; it is common for students to begin with a very general title, and then to replace it with a more specific one shortly before submitting their thesis. Providing your supervisor certifies that the new title lies within the original topic, approval will be automatic. A change of the subject of your research requires more detailed consideration, because there may be doubt as to whether you can complete the new project within the original time‑scale.

If following your examination your examiners recommend that your thesis title be changed, you will need to complete a change of thesis title form to ensure that your record is updated accordingly.

From MT19 y ou must submit your digital examiners’ copy of your thesis online, via the Research Thesis Digital Submission (RTDS) portal, no later than the last day of the vacation immediately following the term in which your application for the appointment of examiners was made.   If you fail to submit by this date your application will be cancelled and you will have to reapply for appointment of examiners when you are ready to submit. Y our thesis should not be submitted until your application for confirmation of status has been approved (this applies to DPhil students only) . For MSc by Research students you should ensure that your transfer of status has been completed .

If you are funded on a research council studentship, you will have a recommended end-date before which your thesis must be submitted. If you do not know this date, please consult your supervisor.

Please note that you must not submit copies of your thesis directly to your examiners as this could result in your examinations being declared void and you could be referred to the University Proctors.

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Writing a Thesis or Dissertation

A course for students who are either writing, or preparing to write, a dissertation or thesis for their degree course at oxford, course timetable: michaelmas term 2023.

Enrolment will close at 12 noon on Wednesday of Week 1 of term (11 October 2023).

To ensure that we have time to set you up with access to our Virtual Learning Environment (Canvas), please make sure you have enrolled and paid no later than five working days before your course starts. 

MT = Michaelmas Term (October - December); HT = Hilary Term (January - March); TT = Trinity Term (April-June)

Course overview

This course is designed for students who are either writing, or preparing to write, a dissertation or thesis for their degree course at Oxford. Each lesson focuses on a different part of the thesis/dissertation/articles (Introductions, Literature Reviews, Discussions etc.), as well as the expected structure and linguistic conventions. Building upon the foundational understanding provided by our other Academic English courses (particularly Introduction to Academic Writing and Grammar, and Key Issues), this course prepares students for the challenges of organising, writing and revising a thesis or dissertation.

Learning outcomes

  • Gain an understanding of the different organisational structures used within Humanities, Social Sciences and Natural Sciences dissertations and theses
  • Consider works of previous Oxford students in order to understand the common structural, linguistic and stylistic issues that arise when drafting a research project
  • Increase competence in incorporating citations into texts, including choosing appropriate tenses and reporting verbs   
  • Learn how to structure the various parts of a dissertation or thesis (Introduction, Literature Review, Discussion, Conclusion and Abstract)

Enrolment information

For Learners with an Oxford University SSO (Single Sign-On) simply click on the enrol button next to the class that you wish to join. 

For Learners without an Oxford University SSO, or who are not members of the University, once enrolment opens , please email  [email protected]  with the following details:

  • Email address and phone number
  • The name of the course you wish to study
  • The start date and time of the course
  • Your connection to Oxford University, if any (to determine course fee)

We will then provisionally enrol you onto the course and send you a link to the Oxford University Online Store for payment. Once payment is received we will confirm your place on the course. Please note that we will be unable to assist you until enrolment has opened, so please do not send us your enrolment details in advance.

Course structure

  • Taught in Weeks 2-8 of term
  • Seminars per week: 1
  • Length of seminar: 2 hours
  • Academic English tutor will provide all materials

Intensive course structure

  • One week intensive course
  • Taught in week 9 of term (Monday - Friday)
  • Number of classes throughout the week: 5
  • Length of class: 2-3 hours
  • Total hours of tuition over the week: 14

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Example of Oxford PhD Thesis format

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Example of Oxford PhD Thesis format

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Oxford PhD Thesis

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Approved by publishing and review experts on SciSpace, this template is built as per for Oxford PhD Thesis formatting guidelines as mentioned in University of Oxford author instructions. The current version was created on and has been used by 849 authors to write and format their manuscripts to this journal.

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SciSpace is a very innovative solution to the formatting problem and existing providers, such as Mendeley or Word did not really evolve in recent years.

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With SciSpace, you do not need a word template for Oxford PhD Thesis.

It automatically formats your research paper to University of Oxford formatting guidelines and citation style.

You can download a submission ready research paper in pdf, LaTeX and docx formats.

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Frequently asked questions

1. can i write oxford phd thesis in latex.

Absolutely not! Our tool has been designed to help you focus on writing. You can write your entire paper as per the Oxford PhD Thesis guidelines and auto format it.

2. Do you follow the Oxford PhD Thesis guidelines?

Yes, the template is compliant with the Oxford PhD Thesis guidelines. Our experts at SciSpace ensure that. If there are any changes to the journal's guidelines, we'll change our algorithm accordingly.

3. Can I cite my article in multiple styles in Oxford PhD Thesis?

Of course! We support all the top citation styles, such as APA style, MLA style, Vancouver style, Harvard style, and Chicago style. For example, when you write your paper and hit autoformat, our system will automatically update your article as per the Oxford PhD Thesis citation style.

4. Can I use the Oxford PhD Thesis templates for free?

Sign up for our free trial, and you'll be able to use all our features for seven days. You'll see how helpful they are and how inexpensive they are compared to other options, Especially for Oxford PhD Thesis.

5. Can I use a manuscript in Oxford PhD Thesis that I have written in MS Word?

Yes. You can choose the right template, copy-paste the contents from the word document, and click on auto-format. Once you're done, you'll have a publish-ready paper Oxford PhD Thesis that you can download at the end.

6. How long does it usually take you to format my papers in Oxford PhD Thesis?

It only takes a matter of seconds to edit your manuscript. Besides that, our intuitive editor saves you from writing and formatting it in Oxford PhD Thesis.

7. Where can I find the template for the Oxford PhD Thesis?

It is possible to find the Word template for any journal on Google. However, why use a template when you can write your entire manuscript on SciSpace , auto format it as per Oxford PhD Thesis's guidelines and download the same in Word, PDF and LaTeX formats? Give us a try!.

8. Can I reformat my paper to fit the Oxford PhD Thesis's guidelines?

Of course! You can do this using our intuitive editor. It's very easy. If you need help, our support team is always ready to assist you.

9. Oxford PhD Thesis an online tool or is there a desktop version?

SciSpace's Oxford PhD Thesis is currently available as an online tool. We're developing a desktop version, too. You can request (or upvote) any features that you think would be helpful for you and other researchers in the "feature request" section of your account once you've signed up with us.

10. I cannot find my template in your gallery. Can you create it for me like Oxford PhD Thesis?

Sure. You can request any template and we'll have it setup within a few days. You can find the request box in Journal Gallery on the right side bar under the heading, "Couldn't find the format you were looking for like Oxford PhD Thesis?”

11. What is the output that I would get after using Oxford PhD Thesis?

After writing your paper autoformatting in Oxford PhD Thesis, you can download it in multiple formats, viz., PDF, Docx, and LaTeX.

12. Is Oxford PhD Thesis's impact factor high enough that I should try publishing my article there?

To be honest, the answer is no. The impact factor is one of the many elements that determine the quality of a journal. Few of these factors include review board, rejection rates, frequency of inclusion in indexes, and Eigenfactor. You need to assess all these factors before you make your final call.

13. What is Sherpa RoMEO Archiving Policy for Oxford PhD Thesis?


  • Pre-prints as being the version of the paper before peer review and
  • Post-prints as being the version of the paper after peer-review, with revisions having been made.

14. What are the most common citation types In Oxford PhD Thesis?

15. how do i submit my article to the oxford phd thesis, 16. can i download oxford phd thesis in endnote format.

Yes, SciSpace provides this functionality. After signing up, you would need to import your existing references from Word or Bib file to SciSpace. Then SciSpace would allow you to download your references in Oxford PhD Thesis Endnote style according to Elsevier guidelines.

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Copying Oxford theses

Anyone consulting an Oxford thesis is required to sign a copyright declaration. This states that you recognise that the thesis’ copyright rests with the author and that no quotation from it or information derived from it may be published without the author’s prior consent. Some Oxford theses cannot be consulted without the author's permission. Permission may be in the form of a signed letter, or an email sent from a verifiable (ie institutional) email address.

Copies and copying  

Self-service copying of theses is not permitted. You must order copies of Oxford theses through the staff-mediated copying service .  

Copying of Oxford theses, even of a single page, may require the author's written permission. This must be submitted to reading room staff before such an order can be accepted. Digital copies of theses and copies made for library or institutional use always require the author's written permission. For individual copies, permission may in the form of a signed letter, or an email if sent from a verifiable (ie institutional) email address. If the thesis is to be placed in the Oxford University Research Archive (ORA), a permission form signed by the author is required.

You can often find author contact information online. College development or alumni offices try to retain contact details for old members and can generally forward letters or emails. The author’s college can often be found in the thesis catalogue record. You can also check the annual successful candidates list in the Weston Library's Rare Books & Manuscripts Reading Room which gives the author's college.

There are no conservation restrictions on the amount that you may copy. With the rights-holder's consent, theses may be copied in their entirety. For copyright reasons you may acquire only one purchase copy of a thesis, unless you obtain consent to acquire multiple copies.

thesis synonym oxford

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Oxford Thesis Template   134 comments


LaTeX and similar tools follow a “what you see is what you mean” model, unlike Microsoft Word, which is “what you see is what you get”. When you’re starting a new section in a LaTeX document, you don’t click bold and increase the font size. Instead, you type \section , and the engine automatically assigns a section number and format, updates the table of contents, and even adds within-document links. This all sounds complicated, but if you’ve written HTML, you know the idea. (Word power-users will reply that Word has similar tricks up its sleeve. This is true, but LaTeX explicitly separates text from layout, preventing a lot of the “gremlins” that creep into Word documents.)

Of course, this paradigm creates a significant disconnect between the text you type and the beautiful PDF document that results. This is where a good template comes in. It defines everything from how the title page is laid out to what the page header looks like in the bibliography. For a LaTeX user (and anyone writing a document as long as a thesis should be), a good template is everything. I was lucky enough to find a template that Sam Evans adapted for social sciences use based on the original maths template by Keith Gillow . I wound up making my own modifications, and re-packaged the template for posterity.

Download the Oxford thesis template here .

If you prefer, you can also view on GitHub .

Some of the features of this template are:

thesis synonym oxford

Fantastic chapter pages. The template retains Sam Evans’s use of the quotchap and minitoc packages to (optionally) include an epigraph and brief table of contents at the beginning of each chapter. I found this a great way to inject a bit of personality into the thesis (via the epigraph) and ensure that my reader wasn’t getting lost (table of contents). My modifications cleaned up some of the spacing, ensuring single-spaced tables and slightly more compact chapter headings.

Table of Contents refinements. Careful attention was paid to spacing and page headings in the table of contents as well as other heading sections. This can get tricky in documents using lots of packages. This template also inserts an “Appendices” page (and ToC entry) between chapters and appendices.

Table of abbreviations. Many science and engineering theses use lots of abbreviations. Humanities and social sciences theses often need glossaries. While there are some dedicated LaTeX classes that meet these needs in complex cases, I decided to create a simple list environment to handle the routine cases.

Highlighted corrections. Most Oxford theses go through a round of corrections, as time-honored a tradition as the viva itself. Minor corrections generally just involve sending a PDF of your revised thesis to your internal examiner. (Major corrections often require a more exacting process.) This class allows you to designate text (or figures, etc) as a correction. You can then toggle between generating a document in which these corrections are highlighted in blue (ideal for sending to your examiner for a quick read-through) and just printing them without any adornment (for generating your final copy).

Page layout, draft, and spacing options. In a few keystrokes, you can switch between a double-spaced, single-sided, binding-margin document (ideal for submission), a 1.5-spaced, double-sided document (for your parents’ copy), or a version with equal left and right margins (for submitting as a PDF). An optional draft notice (with date) can be included in the footer — just remember to turn it off before submitting!

Master’s thesis title page. Some masters’ degrees require title pages with a candidate number and word count rather than a name and college, to ensure anonymity for the examinees. They also require a statement of authenticity / originality on the title page. This template has a quick option to switch to this master’s submission format. And, just as importantly, it can be turned off when you want to print a version for yourself.

Posted 12 Jul 2015 by John McManigle in Technical

134 responses to Oxford Thesis Template

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Thanks very much to you and Sam Evans for developing this! I’m hoping to use it (or a slightly modified version) for my MSc thesis this year.

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Fantastic! I wonder if it would be worth putting this on GitHub or similar, so that as people make/suggest modifications, others can make use of it… Out of curiosity, what did you decide to modify?

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Did this ever go on github or no?

After much delay, it has been uploaded to GitHub at mcmanigle/OxThesis .

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Thanks very much for this. it’s amazing. I am trying to change the titles of the chapters though to align left rather than right..how do I do that? I have been trying all day!

Hi Anne, So unfortunately left-aligning chapter titles isn’t an option that the quotchap package (which my class uses to format chapter titles) contains by default. Which doesn’t mean what you’re asking for is impossible, just that it’s a little clumsy.

Probably the easiest way is to insert the following block of code in Oxford_Thesis.tex just above the line that says %%%%% THE ACTUAL DOCUMENT STARTS HERE (ie on line 97).

This should redefine the chapter-heading command to move both the grey number and the chapter title to the left side of the page. Hope it helps!

Thanks very much for this. With a bit of a clumsier tweak from me the script did exactly what I wanted as I also needed the “Chapter” word before the number.

Pingback: Structure your thesis – thesismathblog

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It is the most beautiful template which I have referred. But I would like to use “Chapter 1” instead of only number. HOW can I do, please? I am the beginner in Latex

Hi Le, Probably the easiest way is to insert the following block of code in Oxford_Thesis.tex just above the line that says %%%%% THE ACTUAL DOCUMENT STARTS HERE (ie on line 97).

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Hi John, great code! I’m having difficulty changing the position of the page numbers. I would like for the number to always be at the bottom centre of the page… Thanks in advance!

Hi Sandra, So sorry for the delay in responding! Add the following lines to Oxford_Thesis.tex just before THE ACTUAL DOCUMENT STARTS HERE (ie line 97):

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Hi John, thanks a lot! Well, the only problem for me is that my computer doesn’t seem to be able to find the figures/beltcrest.pdf file, so it’s always an empty square where the logo is supposed to be inserted..

Interesting… Is the figures/beltcrest.pdf file in the directory with the rest of your thesis? If you just download the thesis file, unzip it, and compile it, does the logo appear? I’m afraid this is one of those problems that’s probably specific to how the files are laid out on your computer, so you might be better off bribing a technically-minded friend to figure it out. I can’t debug it well without being at your computer…

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Hi John, thank you for sharing this brilliant template, I’ll be using it for my MSc dissertation. I have removed the quote and want the Section header i.e ‘Chapter 1’ to start where the quote started instead of mid page, can you assist ?

Hi William, Apologies for the late reply! There are no doubt more “correct” answers to this question in terms of modifying the chapter headings entirely, but the simplest answer to your question is to insert the following line:

into Oxford_Thesis.tex just above the line that reads THE ACTUAL DOCUMENT STARTS HERE (ie on line 97 in the template version). You can adjust the “-80pt” to your heart’s content. For your reference, setting it to (+) 40pt will match how the template already is. Setting it to 0 will leave a generous top margin that you might find looks appropriate even without a quote. But do play with it!

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Hello John, thanks for the template. How do I add my bibtex database i.e the reference list to my document?

I’m afraid there are so many different ways to configure BibTeX and other reference managers for LaTeX that I’m not able to provide help on any in particular. It also tends to involve pretty individual help depending on your setup. This template should work with whatever your preferred LaTeX referencing setup is, so I suggest getting in-person help from someone at your uni who has done it before.

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I was wondering how I could decrease the upper margin of the title page so that there is more space for additional subtitles below. Thank you for the amazing template!

Apologies for the late reply! Assuming you are writing a DPhil thesis, add a line to ociamthesis.cls after line 217 ( \begin{center} ) that adds a negative vertical space. Try: \vspace*{-3cm} . That section of the file would then look like:

If you are writing a master’s thesis, you should instead change line 201 ( \vspace*{-3ex} ) to have a larger space. Try -3cm .

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Thank you; and how do I then add a subtitle in a smaller font?

There are “better” ways to do this in order to actually modify the template to expect a subtitle, but for quick results you can modify the line where the title goes (line 76 in Oxford_Thesis.tex) to instead be two lines:

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Hi, thanks so much for publishing this!

I can’t figure some things out, though: 1. I was wondering is there a way for the examples not to start from 1 with the beginning of every chapter? This seems to be happening because of the chapters being in their separate .tex files. 2. There seems to be something weird happening with some of the formatting when I have a figure, a table or a big example. The text gets spread out. The LaTeX community online suggests adding \raggedbottom to the preamble but it does not seem to work. Any suggestions?

1. I didn’t use Examples myself; can you show me what your command is to start an example? That will help me answer this question.

2. Yes, raggedbottom will fix this, at the expense of not having the bottoms of your pages line up neatly. Instead of adding it to the preamble, change line 193 of Oxford_Thesis.tex (just before chapters are included) from \flushbottom to \raggedbottom .

Dear John, thanks so much for your answer.

It’s a linguistics thesis so I’m using \ex. and \exg.

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Hi, thanks for the template. I am using the original maths template.

Can you please help me to figure out to add a Glossary and a List of Publications in the preamble before ending the Roman pages?

Thanks, Rahman

Hi Rahman, I’m afraid that providing individual help for someone working with a different template is something the hospital keeps me too busy to do. I would suggest that looking at the relevant code in my template (specifically the text/abbreviations.tex file and lines 354 to 368 of ociamthesis.cls ), which will hopefully set you on the right track!

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Hello there, Just wanted to know what the font style was called for your thesis?

The template uses the Computer Modern font , which is the default in LaTeX and is widely used in technical publishing (partially for this reason).

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Thank you for the great template. I guess the font size that is used is 12. How can I change it? I tried to pass the parameter to \documentclass as follows: \documentclass[a4paper,twoside,12pt]{ociamthesis} but it does not seem to be working.

Hi Salah, You’ll need to change that on line 13 of ociamthesis.cls

Hope it helps!

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I am a bit confused as google returned to me another file with the same name first. https://www.maths.ox.ac.uk/members/it/faqs/latex/thesis-class

Why is the same material distributed at different places, with different versions and a clear copyright and license note? As there is no copyright and license, people in most jurisdictions are not allowed to make any changes to ociamthesis.cls.

Hi Johannes,

You are of course absolutely right; without a clear license it is very difficult to confidently make and distribute changes. I have had personal communication with Keith Gillow (author of the original maths template) who said “From my perspective you are very welcome to use and adjust this as the others have done before you, and also feel free to put it on github etc.” and Sam Evans (who modified it for social sciences use) who said “I’m also totally fine for this code to be as open as possible and live freely on the net.”

With that permission, Diego Vitali has adapted the same to suit the Roehampton University standard, which he published under a GNU license. Danny Price has developed a LyX version which is on Github with a statement stating “use responsibly” without specifying a license.

Given Keith Gillow and Sam Evans’ statements, I feel comfortable releasing this under an MIT license, and will update the files accordingly. Will also take this opportunity to upload to Github so that people can suggest updates and pull requests more easily.

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Running BibTex, i consistently get an error: “I found no \bibstyle command—while reading Oxford_Thesis.aux”

Any advice?

There are a couple of different processing programs that “do” bibliographies in LaTeX. Some of the more popular are with bibtex and biber. Some of the differences are described here: https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/25701/bibtex-vs-biber-and-biblatex-vs-natbib

This template is currently designed to use biber, since it is growing in popularity and is easier to make custom changes to without learning a whole new language. Most LaTeX packages should have an option to run biber, but more technical advice can be found here: https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/26516/how-to-use-biber

Of course, if you prefer natbib (the older / more traditional way of doing things) feel free to modify the template as necessary, particularly around lines 47-57.

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Hello, I have an issue, I am not able to find how to display the bibliography in this oxford template, how can I display it? Besides, I have citation but it is just like “nih_ct_2017” how can I add the [].

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Hi John! Thank you very much for opening up this template for others but I seem to have an error from it when trying to compile the bibtex as it is from the download, that says

– no \citation commands – no \bibdata commands – no \bibstyle commands

These usually come up if end \end{document} was too early, but I can see that is not the case. I just wondered if this problem had come up for anyone else and whether you might know what has gone wrong / what I am doing wrong? I am running it from texmaker.

Further to my last message, I discovered that it’s a problem with the preset compile commands I was using in TexMaker. Thanks!

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Hi John, I’m having the same issue. What did you change?

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Hi, this is a great template! My only question is how do I adjust the font to Times New Roman and the line spacing of all text to 1.5x line spacing? Also, is there a way to include the Supervisor Name on the Title Page?

Thank you in advance,

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I have stumbled across this having already written my masters dissertation. I would like to make my title page the same as the one in yours, but I have not managed to figure out how to do so. Any help would be appreciated! :)

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Just wanted to say thank you for sharing this template with the wider community. I’ve used a modified version of yours and I’ll be submitting my thesis next week.

I hope this message isn’t considered as spam.

Really! Thanks a lot! Much appreciated. Keep up the good work.

Cheers, Deyan

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Hi John, thank you so much for this brilliant template which is making my PhD life much easier! I’m stuck with trying to compile individual chapters (e.g. for submitting a chapter to a supervisor etc). I’m trying \includeonly{chaptername} after the documentclass but for some reason that is giving me only the bibliography! I’ve also tried commenting out the \include commands for individual chapters but that would typeset, e.g., chapter 5 as chapter 1. Can you assist?

Hi John, I managed to solve the problem in my last post – please ignore! I was wondering, however, how one could add in a `part’ structure above the chapter structure (i.e. Part 1 / chapter 1, 2, 3, Part 2 / chapter 4 5 6 or similar) – assistance would be greatly appreciated!

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Hi, Thank you so much for this template. May I ask how to change the option of double space and 1.5 space please? Thanks

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Hi John, Many thanks for this! I’m having trouble with the Bibtex as John Ylang had written previously. However, I’ve checked my preset compilers and all seems to be correct, yet I’m still getting error messages with bibtex: – no \citation commands – no \bibdata commands – no \bibstyle commands

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Many, many thanks for this template, it is so helpful. I am submitting my thesis in the form of journal articles for the different chapters. I was wondering if you could advise how I can create a small reference list per chapter (including only those references cited in that chapter)? Is it possible to also change the sub-section numbering within different chapters?

Thank you so very much, Isabel

Hi John, is the template still working? I installed TexWorks today and most of the template works apart from the bibliography/references – this is when trying to compile leaving everything unchanged from when it was unzipped.

The log shows: I found no \citation commands—while reading file Oxford_Thesis.aux I found no \bibdata command—while reading file Oxford_Thesis.aux I found no \bibstyle command—while reading file Oxford_Thesis.aux

…and all the citations are undefined. Not sure what’s going on here.

Update: I fixed the referencing problem using the following. You need to select Biber instead of Bibtex. From stackexchange:

“I’m a TeXstudio user and whenever I receive this error message, it’s because I’ve changed the default bibliography tool from biber to bibtex.

To change it back, I have to do Options > Configure TeXstudio > Build > Default Bibliography Tool and the process works again.

Even if this answer never helps anyone else ever, it’ll at least be good for me to have this here as a aide memoire next times this happens!”

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Thanks so much for making this available, I really like it! I’m new to latex and am trying to work out the best way of adding a list of equations. This seems like the kind of thing people would do all the time but I can’t seem to get anything to work. Any suggestions?

Cheers, Suzanne

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Thank you for the template, great job! However, as many complained about it, the refences page is missing. Is there anyone who can display the references page? I have experience with Latex, I worked on it a lot but still no results.

Hi and thank you very much for this template.

I wonder how I could fit in a subheading below the title on the front page, in a slightly smaller fonts size?

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The template is great, but I can’t seem to change the font size to 14, where do I control this?

On line 19 of ociamthesis.cls, change “12pt” to “14pt”.

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Thanks for this amazing template!

However what can I do to remove the empty page that occurs before each new chapter?

Masters are page count constrained so everyone counts!

I believe the “empty page that occurs before each new chapter” is added automatically to make sure each new chapter starts on the right-hand page in double-sided page layouts. So it will only be added if the new chapter would otherwise start on a left-facing page. In Oxford_Thesis.tex, look at lines 25-30. Specifically, you should probably add a percent sign at the beginning of line 26 and remove the one at the beginning of line 28 to change to one-sided binding, like so:

If you do want two-sided binding, but with chapters allowed to start on either side, change line 26 to:

Again, thank you for your continued help.

I am mostly using \parencite and \textcite for my citations. I am wondering when using multiple citations within the same parentheses, can I tell latex to order them? I would want them to be ordered, starting with the oldest publication.

Thank you, JOD

Hi, sorting of citations, and especially sorting them differently in the bibliography vs the in-text citations, is a big rabbit hole that you can dive down here if your resolve is firm.

Probably / hopefully the easiest solution (if you are using biblatex/biber for your bibliography, which is currently the default in the template) is:

  • look at whichever of line 55 or 59 in Oxford_Thesis.tex, beginning with \usepackage[style= , that does not have a % starting it
  • find the list of arguments between square brackets
  • you’ll notice either sorting=none or sorting=nyt or some other option controls how the bibliography is sorted. (‘nyt’ means first by author Name, then by Year, then by Title. ‘none’ means in order of appearance in your text.)
  • add the option (with a comma between options) sortcites=false . This will continue sorting the bibliography as described above, but will order the in-text multiple citation groups in whatever order you type them in the latex file.

The advantage of this solution is that it’s simple enough to type out here. The disadvantage is that it doesn’t really sort your in-text citations by year, it just doesn’t sort them, so whatever order you type is what you get.

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first of all thanks a lot for this amazing template. I’m using it currently for my master thesis in physics.

I have tinkered around and modified some things to my needs, but I am struggeling with one modification: I want a “List of Symbols” in my thesis. You already provided a list of abbrevations with two rows. For my List of Symbols I want an additional row, i.e. Symbol, Description, Unit. It should look like this:

h . . . . . Hight of tower [m]

Is there a way to modify the existing mclistof environment to achieve that, i.e. just add a row to the right?

Best regards, Tom

I make no promises, but try adding to ociamthesis.cls (I suggest around line 375, after the mclistof environment):

Then, you should be able to make the kind of list you’re asking for with a block like this in one of your text files:

Let me know how it goes!

Thanks a lot for your quick response. The proposed code works just as I wanted it to work. Thanks a lot for your help.

I am currently trying to cut words in my thesis; is it possible to change the references to

example: (Weber, 2010:5) ?

That would save me two words for each citation.

Thank you and best regards.

Also, currently my compiler (Overleaf) recognises this

urldate = {2019-05-01}

as citing it as (visited on 05/01/2019), while I want it to be

(visited on 01/05/2019)

Can I change that?

Yes, that is possible, but I don’t have any special knowledge on it. Assuming you are using biblatex (the default bibliography formatter used in the template), there are examples of many pre-defined styles here .

Basic ideas about customizing styles in more detail (which can get pretty complicated) are here , with one example here . If you decide to go this route, this cheatsheet might help.

Good luck! John

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Hello, Thanks so much for the amazing template. I’m currently struggling with recurrent Overfull \hbox errors in my section and subsection headers. If I insert a hypen or line break then this looks odd in my mini-toc. Is there a away to get round this? Perhaps by reducing the size of the section and subsection font?

Many thanks! Cat

So I can get an idea of what kind of errors you’re seeing, would you give an example or two of section or subsection headers you are using? (I’m trying to figure out if they are just long phrases, or very long single words, or what?)

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Hi John, thank you so much for the template! Just prepping for hard copy bod submission and wondering how to remove page numbers from the blank pages between chapters? Thanks in advance!

The blank pages between chapters are there to make sure that chapters open on right-hand facing pages when printing a two-sided thesis. If you want to remove them entirely, you can change “openright” on line 19 of ociamthesis.cls to “openany” (best if you are doing two-sided printing but want to be able to start a chapter on either side of the book), or switch to one of the one-sided binding options around line 25-30 of Oxford_Thesis.tex.

If you want the blank pages to be there, but want them to be truly blank, insert the following code to Oxford_Thesis.tex. I suggest adding it right after \begin{document} (around line 106):

For more details, look here and here .

Brilliant, that’s worked, thank you John! Really appreciate your help :-)

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Hi John – thank you for the template! I have an issue with some very long captions which run off the bottom boundary of the page. I would like to split them onto the next page (ideally on the page facing the figure, but overleaf would be fine too). I have tried putting the caption in a separate float but this doesn’t always appear immediately after the figure and it disrupts the figure numbering. Any suggestions would be great – thanks in advance!

There are a few different types of solution to this problem; I assume you’ve done a bit of googling already. The two I would suggest trying are:

Option 1, adapted from here , is to forego the float environment entirely and just do everything inline. The caption package (which Oxford_Thesis already includes) provides the \captionof command to facilitate this. The disadvantage is that without a float environment, you’ll have to put the figure exactly where you want it in text, so if you change the text around the figure, or change page layout or line spacing, you may have to move the picture manually to put it in the correct place on the page. Code to insert a figure would look like this:

Option 2, adapted from here , is to split the image/caption across two floats like you’ve been trying to do. I think that by using the [h] , [t] , and/or [b] options to the float environment judiciously you would be able to get good luck at where things appear. Try this to place your image:

If you want to be super fancy, you can throw this into Oxford_Thesis.tex , ideally just before \begin{document} :

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Hi John – this is great. Thank you very much! Option 2 worked for me with some careful placement parameters. I really appreciate it :)

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Is there any experience using the glossaries or acronym package together with this template?

Adding to oriamthesis.cls:


and to Oxford_Thesis.tex:

\makeglossaries \loadglsentries{text/frontmatter/glossary}

, then implementing glossary items in the chapters seems to break the PDFLateX compilation process. It gives a ” File ended while scanning use of \field.” error.

I don’t personally have any experience using these packages, but usually that error means that either you are missing a closing brace } somewhere, or that you have a percent sign % in your text, possibly hiding in a bibliography file. Remember that in LaTeX, a percent sign begins a comment, so if you have a line like:

\newglossaryentry{spec}{name={specificity},description={a measure of false positive rate, expressed in %}}

The % sign will prevent LaTeX from seeing the closing braces (as they will be a comment). You need to “escape” the percent sign by using \% instead.

Hi again, John.

I am trying to remove hyphenation from my section and sub-section titles. Nearly all the titles longer than one line are hyphenated, often very awkwardly.

I tried adding \usepackage[raggedright]{titlesec} to the preamble. This works but it breaks the chapter pages: instead of the nice grey number, it outputs eg., “Chapter 1”. I guess this is something to do with quotchap.

Is there a way to make section and subsection left flush (or at least change the tolerance) without affecting the chapter pages?

Thanks very much!

I’m a bit embarrassed to admit this, but after trying for a few minutes, I can’t figure out a chapter title that will made my version hyphenate. Would you tell me an example chapter title and page size so I can start testing? I think there should be a reasonably straightforward solution.

Thanks very much indeed. I haven’t changed any of the page size or font settings from your template.

For example, \sec{Homeobox genes and miRNAs: key regulators in MLLr leukemia} %hyphenates ‘regula- tors’

\subsec{MLL-rearranged leukemia is associated with poor treatment outcomes} %hyphenates ‘treat- ment’

Thanks; sorry I misread your original post and thought it was chapter titles, rather than section titles, that were being hyphenated.

You’re right both in that \usepackage[raggedright]{titlesec} fixes the problem, and breaks the quotchap package. The easiest solution is to add this not in the preamble, but to ociamthesis.cls at line 403 (immediately before \usepackage[grey,utopia]{quotchap} ). That way quotchap will override titlesec for chapters only.

It seems to work for me in brief testing; let me know if you encounter any issues!

Fantastic – thanks, John. This seems to work perfectly!

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For some reason, my minitoc is double-spaced, and I’m not quite sure why this is happening. I tried forcing it with single-spacing which seems okay. But in either case the minitoc spans across two pages when really it seems in your version the chapter title page is quite compact with even text beginning directly after. Any help would be so greatly appreciated.

Interesting. The version of this template that I modified had the minitoc double spaced, and one of my changes was to single space it. My biggest suggestion is that maybe your first paragraph just after the minitoc is a length that the system thinks would look bad without that extra spacing.

LaTeX does this weird thing where it judges the “badness” of different layouts — leaving one line of a paragraph dangling on a page, vs increasing line spacing in other places, vs overflowing a line beyond the margin, etc. If your (single spaced) minitoc would end in a place where the next paragraph would fall in a very odd place (ie with only one line on the page, or one line dangling off the next), LaTeX might have decided that it “knows best” and to fix the “issue” instead increased spacing on your minitoc.

One way to test this is to add \raggedbottom before that chapter, and see if that changes anything. Another way would be to compile the thesis with the example text that came with the template and see if that is single or double spaced.

If all of this doesn’t seem like the problem, feel free to email me your thesis and I’ll take a look.

Hi John, thanks very much for your input. I am very sorry, but it doesn’t seem to work. I toyed around with the following in the cls file

\renewcommand{\chapterheadstartvskip}{\vspace*{-30pt}} \renewcommand{\chapterheadendvskip}{\vspace{30pt}}

which seems to pull the chapter title pages up, so that the text starts immediately after the minitoc (which I ended up having to force into single with \setstretch) but what I didn’t realize was that changing this messed with the toc, list of figures, and list of tables. Basically all of these start way at the top of the page (including one of the chapters).

I think the easiest thing might be to make a copy of your whole thesis directory, remove all but one chapter and all figures, compile it to make sure it still has the problem, and then and email the directory to me ([email protected]) as a zip file. I’m happy to take a look. Unfortunately trying to debug something like this that depends on changes to multiple files is too hard to do on this kind of forum.

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Hopefully a quick question for you here – I’m trying to change the section level numbering in the minitocs to reflect what it is in the main toc. The maintoc section level is set in the main text fairly straightforwardly but i’m finding it hard to figure out what to amend to make the minitoc depth match it? Main TOC successfully shows numbers to subsubsection but minitoc stops at subsection. Thanks very much in advance!

Try \mtcsetdepth{minitoc}{3} in Oxford_Thesis.tex just before \begin{document} (around line 104). Let me know if it doesn’t work. For excruciating detail on minitocs, see here .

This worked a treat! Thanks so much John :)

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Is there any way the font can be changed with the current TeX?

Thank you so much for this, been a massive help!

This is surprisingly a more complicated question than it should be. For a first try, add to Oxford_Thesis.tex just before \begin{document} (around line 104) the command \renewcommand{\rmdefault}{phv} where “phv” is replaced by the code for the font you want. A list of codes is here , but a short list is: ptm for Times, ppl for Palatino, pbk for Bookman, phv for Helvetica, pcr for Courier.

If that doesn’t work for whatever font you’d like, my next step would be to add, just before that line, a \usepackage{helvet} to make sure the font is loaded. The list of font packages (in the same order as above) is mathptmx, palatino, bookman, helvet, courier.

Hope this helps!

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Thank you for the excellent template. I could not figure out how to change the colour of the chapter number headings to black instead of grey, and how to make chapter title to bold. Hope to hear from you soon. Thanks in advance.

Replace line 404 (the one that mentions quotchap) of ociamthesis.cls with these two lines:

You will get a few errors on compiling about “Undefined color ‘chaptergrey'” but that is expected and it should still compile fine.

Thanks John. This seems to work. But instead of using nogrey I redefined chaptergrey with a new color with a new command.

Hi John, To create a glossary the template uses \item to produce a list. Most of my terms are very long. It is possible to make the item automatically set a new line in their own space for glossary in the mclistof environment?

My little glossary area was designed to be a relatively quick-and-easy template for my minimal glossary. For a more “full-featured” glossary, look into the official glossary package in LaTeX. I’ll also take a look at how to modify my template to do what you’re asking, but it might take me a couple of days. What exactly do you mean by “make the item automatically set a new line in their own space”? Have the term on one line and the definition below?

I looked at most of the glossary style, there are mainly two ways to do for the long terms. First, the terms are combined with the definition lines but separated with a spacing ( https://www.dickimaw-books.com/gallery/index.php?label=long-descriptions ). The other one is like you said, term on one line and definition below. I am happy with either one. But I think I prefer the first one with an adjustment which is when a term longer than a certain length the definition start a new line below.

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Hi John, my thesis involves Chinese and I was thus hoping to use XeLaTeX to compile it; however, this breaks the savequotes (perhaps due to ‘incorrectly’ nested braces and begin/ends in the definition). Do you know how I might be able to resolve this issue?

Hi Al, I’m not sure exactly what is causing this issue, but I’ve verified that if you delete lines 384 – 394 (the part renewing the savequote environment) in ociamthesis.cls, it will compile under XeLaTeX. My only modifications (if I remember correctly) to the original quotchap package was to make the spacing for multi-line quotes a little more pleasant, so you might find you don’t notice a difference. If you decide to make further modifications yourself, it might help to refer to the source code for quotchap .

Hi John, it is possible to put the footnote at the bottom of the page? I want to put a footnote for the chapter heading. I tried to used direct \footnote{} but a lot of errors appeared. Do you have any idea?

For vaguely annoying reasons having to do with the internal ways LaTeX moves text around to the Table of Contents, if you are putting a \footnote{} inside a chapter or section title, you need to “protect” it with \protect . So your line would look like:

Notice that, in addition to the \protect\footnote{} and the \label{} tags, there is also an optional argument [Introduction] at the beginning of the chapter definition. This is the title as it will appear in the Table of Contents. You can leave that part out if you want, but then the footnote mark will appear in the ToC.

Hi John, thanks for your help earlier with XeLaTeX. Do you know how I might be able to use bold face small caps in my document? Thanks!

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Hi John, I will remove the red boxes (lines around the links) on the tableofcontents. I tried use the ‚hyperref‘, but I am wounder why there is no effect? How can I adjust the look and feel of the links behavior?

Hi Hermann, I apologize for the late reply! You will have to add your hyperref options to the oicamthesis.cls file on line 173. Any changes you make there should carry over to your complied thesis. Let me know if you need any help!

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Hi John, Thank you so much for sharing this wonderful template! I just wanted to check one thing with you. For some reason my chapter titles have changed font from the Computer Modern font they were before. Is a way to bring them back to match the rest of the text. Many thanks, Claire

Hi Claire, Glad it’s working for you! In order to answer your question, I would have to know exactly how you set your font to something different in the first place. A good thing to try first is to add the following lines to your Oxford_Thesis.tex file, just before \begin{document} , e.g. at line 102:

Replace \bfseries with whatever font command you are using; it will be used in the chapter titles.

Hi John, Thank you so much! This has fixed it and brought it back to the default (which I think is computer modern). Sadly I have no idea how I managed to change it from the default in the first place. Very much still learning with regards to Latex but your template has made it so much easier. Really appreciate you sharing it and for your help on this issue. All the best, Claire

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Thank you for producing such a brilliant template. I was wondering whether it’s possible to change the font size of just the bibliography, i.e., have chapters in 12pt and bibliography in 10pt? This would help with my page limit massively, while still being within the rules

Glad the template is helping! Believe it or not, the bibliography font size is already a little smaller in the default template. But you can fiddle with it more. Look at Oxford_Thesis.tex line 63:

You can replace \small with any of the standard LaTeX font size commands, which from largest to smallest are: \Huge, \huge, \LARGE, \Large, \large, \normalsize (same as thesis text), \small, \footnotesize, \scriptsize, and \tiny. You could theoretically do something fancier (like the last thing described here ) to get an exact font size if you needed it, but you can probably get satisfactory results sticking with those pre-made options.

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Thanks a lot, the template has been extremely useful! All the best, Benoit

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Thanks for the great template! I would like to remove the big chapter numbering, but unfortunately I cannot find the code for it. Can you help me?

Hi Virginia,

The same package, quotchap , does both the big chapter numbering and the quotes (epigraphs) at the beginning of each chapter. To turn this package off, open ociamthesis.cls and comment out (by putting a percent sign % at the beginning of each line): 1. Line 375 – which loads the quotchap package, 2. Lines 385-394 – which clean up chapter epigraph formatting, and 3. Lines 442-443 – which adjusts chapter heading spacing.

After that, you’ll just have to go through all of your chapter files, and the bibliography area of the main Oxford_Thesis.tex , and remove all savequote blocks. This will return you to the default LaTeX chapter headers. If you miss any of the above, don’t worry: you’ll get compile errors that point you at which line(s) you missed.

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This template is one of the most incredible things out there. Thanks for sharing it with the world! I’m using it for my dissertation with a few alterations here and there.

Question: in the list of abbreviations with

“\begin{mclistof}{List of Acronyms}{3.2cm}”

is there a way to turn off the dot leaders between the abbreviation and word? My graduate school says they want them removed (tbh I think they’re great though).

thanks for any help,

– [also] John

Oh wait! I realized I just need to comment out

\mkern\@dotsep mu$}\hfill}

in the ociamthesis.cls

thanks still all the same. The template our university provides isn’t nearly as nice as yours.

Glad the template was helpful and that you figured out the abbreviation list kerning. Best of luck finishing up!

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hello John,

Thank you for your template.

Can we insert figures with eps not only png?

If you want to insert EPS figures, add the line: \usepackage{epstopdf}

You can add it to Oxford_Thesis.tex anywhere before the \begin{document} , which is line 104. (The easiest would be to add it directly before that line.)

When you include images, do not include the .eps extension in the tex file; just use something like: \includegraphics{path/to/file_name_without_extension}

For a little more information, see this StackExchange question .

Pingback: Change the color of the chapter number (Oxford Thesis Template) ~ TeX - LaTeX ~ InsideDarkWeb.com

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Hello John,

Thank you vert much for the great template. I’m wondering how I can reduce the spacing at the beginning of every chapter (so that the chapter title moves closer to the top of the page)?

Try changing the “40pt” at the end of line 442 of ociamthesis.cls, which reads in full:

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Dear John, Many thanks for this template, it is very helpful! I have three unrelated chapters, at the end of which I would like to add separate references. At the moment I can only add references at the very end of the document. Do you know how to specify to add bibliography per chapter? Best wishes, Sam

Try adding refsection=chapter to line 55 of Oxford_Thesis.tex , which loads the biblatex package. The line should now look like:

You would then need to use \printbibliography at the end of each chapter file. There is a lot more you can customize about how exactly this behaves, which is explained in gritty detail in the biblatex documentation .

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Hello John, I would love to use your template. but I am having trouble getting it to work. I am not yet a pro at using LateX…. I saved the folder on my PC and just hit “Build an view” to see what happens. However, I get the message “Unfortunately, the package cbfonts-fd could not be installed.” and more errors are spit out. ( line 104 This NFSS system isn’t set up properly. \begin{document}). I would be happy if you could help me with this!

Hi Frances, What application are you using to compile the template? It seems like this error sometimes comes up when the program (based on a google search, maybe TexStudio and MiKTeX more than others) can’t find the LaTeX package repository to get all of the fonts installed. I wonder if the guidance at this Q&A page would help? If not, let me know what program you’re using and I’ll try to think of other answers. Thanks, John

thank you for your reply! I am using TexStudio and, unfortunately, i could not find the answer on the Q&A page :/

kind regards Frances

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Thanks for making this template available! It’s been super useful to write up my thesis.

Just a quick question for you. I want to display a minitoc, minilof and minilot for each appendix. The mini table of contents works fine, but the mini list of figures/tables appears in the wrong appendix (i.e. the ones from appendix B are listed in appendix A, and so on). Any idea what might the problem?

Best wishes,

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Thank you so much for your beautiful template, I just started working with it and it’s super easy to work with and adapt to ones own needs!

I had one question which I wasn’t able to find anywhere – I would need to insert a “Contribution” page in the roman pages, however I don’t know where I need to define a new environment (similar to acknowledgements), in order to do so?

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Hi John, Thank you so much for your nice template. But I have faced some issues. Can you help me to resolve these? I couldn’t call the references in the introduction section. How I should manage the bibliography? Please give a response.

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Hi! Thanks for the template!

How should I acknowledge using this template in my thesis?

The template is freely released, and may be used without any acknowledgement. If you are feeling particularly generous, you could put a sentence in your thesis Acknowledgement section that says something like “I would like to thank John McManigle, Sam Evans, and Keith Gillow for developing the template used to format this thesis.”

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Theme: Andrea by Lucian E. Marin .

Who Made the Oxford English Dictionary ?

A new book gives life to one of the world’s greatest crowdsourcing efforts.

photos of contributors to the Oxford English Dictionary on a row of book spines

The Oxford English Dictionary always seemed to me like the Rules from on high—near biblical, laid down long ago by a distant academic elite. But back in 1857, when the idea of the dictionary was born, its three founders proposed something more democratic than authoritative: a reference book that didn’t prescribe but instead described English, tracking the meaning of every word in the language across time and laying out how people were actually using each one.

As Sarah Ogilvie writes in her new book, The Dictionary People , the OED ’s founders realized that such a titanic task could never be accomplished by a small circle of men in London and Oxford, so they sought out volunteers. That search expanded when the eccentric philologist James Murray took the helm in 1879 as the Dictionary ’s third editor. Murray cast a far wider net than his predecessors had, circulating a call for contributors to newspapers, universities, and clubs around the globe. He instructed people to read the books they had on hand, fill 4-by-6-inch slips of paper with quotations that showed how words were used therein, and send them to his “Scriptorium” (the iron shed behind his house where he and a devoted crew worked on the Dictionary ). The wave of submissions was so overwhelming that the Royal Mail installed a red post box in front of his home in Oxford, which remains there today.

One of the greatest crowdsourcing efforts in history—“the Wikipedia of the nineteenth century,” as Ogilvie puts it—the OED would not have been possible without this army of volunteers. And yet, for years, most have remained unknown. In his exuberant 2003 history of the OED , The Meaning of Everything , Simon Winchester devoted a chapter to the Dictionary ’s contributors—not just the readers who sent in slips, but the subeditors who sorted submissions chronologically and by meaning, and the specialists who advised on specific terminology or etymologies. Winchester served up small biographies of a few key figures but lamented of the group that “their legacy … remains essentially unwritten.” In The Dictionary People , Ogilvie sets out to correct the record. A former editor at the Oxford English Dictionary , Ogilvie stumbled upon Murray’s address books while passing time in the Dictionary ’s archives. Upon learning that the number of volunteers wasn’t merely hundreds (as scholars long believed) but some 3,000, she became determined to track each of them down.

thesis synonym oxford

The resulting book is, like the Dictionary itself, a clear labor of love, both playful and doggedly researched. Ogilvie spent eight years trawling through libraries and dusty archives across the globe. She pored over the editors’ correspondence, mapped how news of the project spread across social clubs in Britain and beyond, and even recruited a handwriting expert to help determine who was behind scores of the raciest slips. She orders her history alphabetically, categorizing the keenest and quirkiest contributors into different groups—“I for Inventors,” “S for Suffragists,” “M for Murderers”—and offering bite-size biographies of dozens of figures.

Read: I can’t stand these words anymore

Under “Q for Queers,” we meet Katharine Bradley and Edith Cooper, an aunt and niece who, in the late 1800s, became lovers and literary collaborators, publishing plays and poetry under the pen name Michael Field. (Critics gushed about Field, comparing “him” to Shakespeare.) In her spare time, Katharine sent in quotations from John Ruskin and The Iliad . We meet the owner of the world’s largest collection of erotica at the time, who is thought to have supplied sentences for words related to genitalia, bondage, and flagellation—along with spicier quotations for otherwise-innocuous entries. We encounter Karl Marx’s daughter Eleanor, whose half-baked efforts exasperated Murray, and the much more devoted William Chester Minor, a former American Army surgeon who submitted 62,720 slips from the Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum, where he was sent after murdering a man. (Dr. Minor was allowed to keep a separate cell for his books.)

What starts out as a detective story quickly evolves into an ode to the outsider. Some famous figures make appearances in The Dictionary People —the photographer Eadweard Muybridge, known for his studies of animal motion, advised on entries, including the one for gallop ; and a young J. R. R. Tolkien was an editorial assistant for a year, during which time he worked on the letter W , puzzling over possible etymologies of the word walrus . But Ogilvie marvels that many of the Dictionary ’s key contributors were “on the edges of academia.” They were inventors and pioneers with radical ideas; women (at a time when many were denied higher education) and other autodidacts; asylum patients and recluses. This motley crew shared a hunger to be associated with the prestigious Oxford University, to be part of a project of national importance. Perhaps this desire for belonging powered their obsessive (often unpaid) devotion to the undertaking? Perhaps, for those cast aside by society, like Dr. Minor, their involvement was redemptive? Ogilvie doesn’t linger long on their motives, preferring instead to assemble surprising bits of trivia about each figure.

The most compelling portrait is that of Murray, the Dictionary ’s longest-serving editor, who emerges as the book’s protagonist. The son of a village tailor in Scotland, Murray left school at 14, eventually becoming a bank clerk and then a teacher at Mill Hill School in London. Over the years, he taught himself to read some 25 languages, including Tongan and Russian, and developed an interest in philology, writing books on Scottish dialects. In the late 1860s, he was invited to join the London Philological Society, where the idea for the OED had been born in 1857. But as a teetotaling Scot with little formal education, Murray was continually excluded from the indulgent academic establishment of Oxford. He was never made a fellow of a University college, and he wasn’t granted an honorary doctorate until 1914, the year before he died.

The OED ’s progress had stalled under Murray’s predecessor, Frederick Furnivall, whose involvement with various academic clubs left him little time to actually edit (but had the benefit, Ogilvie points out, of bringing in a steady stream of contributors). Murray revived the project. For 36 years, he devoted himself to an undertaking that, he noted late in life, “should have been the work of a celibate and ascetic.” He rose by five each morning and spent the day writing letters to volunteers, sorting words into their shades of meaning, and drafting definitions. He was often spotted delivering copy to the publisher by tricycle, his long white beard trailing behind him as he pedaled wildly about town. Murray’s wife, Ada, was instrumental, managing his finances and acting as his personal secretary. Even his kids were involved: Murray brought slips to the table to discuss over lunch and recruited each of his 11 children to sort submissions. For all this, he was paid a pitiful sum, which had to cover not just his wages but those of the Scriptorium staff and the Dictionary ’s expenses.

Over the years, Murray resisted calls from the publisher and reviewers to narrow the Dictionary’s scope. He was pressured to use quotations from only the “great authors,” eschew slang, and omit words deemed too scientific or vulgar or foreign. Murray refused, believing that all of the English language had a valid place in the Dictionary , just as all contributors who put in the work were welcome. As Ogilvie shows in her earlier, wonkier history of the OED , Words of the World , as an editor, Murray was particularly devoted to including foreign words that had entered into English—a stance that can be read as either inclusive or colonizing, though Ogilvie seems to lean toward the former.

Read: The small island where 500 people speak nine different languages

Murray died in 1915, shortly after finishing the entry for twilight , and 13 years before the OED ’s monumental first edition was completed. The Dictionary has continued to evolve with the world; its third edition, which Ogilvie worked on, has been in progress since 1993, and uses the editing process devised by Murray. (Recent additions include deepfake , teen idol , and textspeak .) In her final chapter, Ogilvie visits a man named Chris Collier from her hometown of Brisbane, Australia, who sent in 100,000 slips from 1975 to 2010. Collier cut quotations out of his local newspaper and pasted them directly onto slips, which arrived at the OED offices wrapped in old cornflakes packaging. “I thought to myself, imagine if I could help get one word into the dictionary,” he told Ogilvie. To his neighbors, he was the local nudist (he was known to take naked evening walks), but in certain Oxford circles he was practically famous, having supplied thousands of new words.

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English dictionaries stacked on a desk.

‘AI’ named most notable word of 2023 by Collins dictionary

Chosen from a list that includes ‘greedflation’, ‘nepo baby’ and ‘deinfluencing’, use of term has quadrupled this year

The technology that is set to dominate the future – for good or ill – is now the word of the year. “ AI ” has been named the most notable word of 2023 by the dictionary publisher Collins.

Defined as “the modelling of human mental functions by computer programs”, AI was chosen because it “has accelerated at such a fast pace and become the dominant conversation of 2023”, the publisher said. The use of the word (strictly an initialism) has quadrupled over the past year.

It was chosen from a list of new terms that the publisher said reflect “our ever-evolving language and the concerns of those who use it”. They include “ greedflation ”, defined as “the use of inflation as an excuse to raise prices to artificially high levels in order to increase corporate profits”, and “ debanking ”, “the act of depriving a person of banking facilities”.

“ Nepo baby ”, the term used to describe the sons and daughters of celebrities whose careers are assumed to have taken off thanks to their famous parent, and “ deinfluencing ” made the list. “ “ Deinfluencing ” is defined by Collins lexicographers as “the use of social media to warn followers to avoid certain commercial products, lifestyle choices, etc”.

The annual word of the year is selected by lexicographers monitoring a range of sources, including social media, according to the publisher. Last year’s term was “permacrisis”, while “NFT” was chosen the previous year. Perhaps unsurprisingly, 2020’s word of the year was “lockdown”.

Health concerns were prominent in 2023, according to the publisher. “ Ultra-processed ”, meaning food that is “prepared using complex industrial methods from multiple ingredients, often including ingredients with little or no nutritional value”, is listed, as is “ semaglutide ”, the appetite-suppressing medication. The use of the term has tripled in the past year.

The acronym “ Ulez ” made the cut – the term meaning ultra-low emissions zone that refers to an area of central London in which more polluting vehicles are restricted.

“ Bazball ”, a style of test cricket in which the batting side plays in a highly aggressive manner, was noted by the dictionary, named after the former New Zealand cricketer and coach, Brendon “Baz” McCullum. The term “ canon event” , “an episode that is essential to the formation of an individual’s character or identity”, became popular thanks to the movie Spider-Man: Across the Spider-Verse .

Alex Beecroft, the managing director of Collins, said there was “no question” that AI had been “the talking point of 2023”.

“We know that AI has been a big focus this year in the way that it has developed and has quickly become as ubiquitous and embedded in our lives as email, streaming or any other once futuristic, now everyday technology.”

  • Artificial intelligence (AI)
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