Key Arguments From Both Sides of the Abortion Debate
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Many points come up in the abortion debate . Here's a look at abortion from both sides : 10 arguments for abortion and 10 arguments against abortion, for a total of 20 statements that represent a range of topics as seen from both sides.
- Since life begins at conception, abortion is akin to murder as it is the act of taking human life. Abortion is in direct defiance of the commonly accepted idea of the sanctity of human life.
- No civilized society permits one human to intentionally harm or take the life of another human without punishment, and abortion is no different.
- Adoption is a viable alternative to abortion and accomplishes the same result. And with 1.5 million American families wanting to adopt a child, there is no such thing as an unwanted child.
- An abortion can result in medical complications later in life; the risk of ectopic pregnancies is increased if other factors such as smoking are present, the chance of a miscarriage increases in some cases, and pelvic inflammatory disease also increases.
- In the instance of rape and incest, taking certain drugs soon after the event can ensure that a woman will not get pregnant. Abortion punishes the unborn child who committed no crime; instead, it is the perpetrator who should be punished.
- Abortion should not be used as another form of contraception.
- For women who demand complete control of their body, control should include preventing the risk of unwanted pregnancy through the responsible use of contraception or, if that is not possible, through abstinence .
- Many Americans who pay taxes are opposed to abortion, therefore it's morally wrong to use tax dollars to fund abortion.
- Those who choose abortions are often minors or young women with insufficient life experience to understand fully what they are doing. Many have lifelong regrets afterward.
- Abortion sometimes causes psychological pain and stress.
- Nearly all abortions take place in the first trimester when a fetus is attached by the placenta and umbilical cord to the mother. As such, its health is dependent on her health, and cannot be regarded as a separate entity as it cannot exist outside her womb.
- The concept of personhood is different from the concept of human life. Human life occurs at conception, but fertilized eggs used for in vitro fertilization are also human lives and those not implanted are routinely thrown away. Is this murder, and if not, then how is abortion murder?
- Adoption is not an alternative to abortion because it remains the woman's choice whether or not to give her child up for adoption. Statistics show that very few women who give birth choose to give up their babies; less than 3% of White unmarried women and less than 2% of Black unmarried women.
- Abortion is a safe medical procedure. The vast majority of women who have an abortion do so in their first trimester. Medical abortions have a very low risk of serious complications and do not affect a woman's health or future ability to become pregnant or give birth.
- In the case of rape or incest, forcing a woman made pregnant by this violent act would cause further psychological harm to the victim. Often a woman is too afraid to speak up or is unaware she is pregnant, thus the morning after pill is ineffective in these situations.
- Abortion is not used as a form of contraception . Pregnancy can occur even with contraceptive use. Few women who have abortions do not use any form of birth control, and that is due more to individual carelessness than to the availability of abortion.
- The ability of a woman to have control of her body is critical to civil rights. Take away her reproductive choice and you step onto a slippery slope. If the government can force a woman to continue a pregnancy, what about forcing a woman to use contraception or undergo sterilization?
- Taxpayer dollars are used to enable poor women to access the same medical services as rich women, and abortion is one of these services. Funding abortion is no different from funding a war in the Mideast. For those who are opposed, the place to express outrage is in the voting booth.
- Teenagers who become mothers have grim prospects for the future. They are much more likely to leave school; receive inadequate prenatal care; or develop mental health problems.
- Like any other difficult situation, abortion creates stress. Yet the American Psychological Association found that stress was greatest prior to an abortion and that there was no evidence of post-abortion syndrome.
- Alvarez, R. Michael, and John Brehm. " American Ambivalence Towards Abortion Policy: Development of a Heteroskedastic Probit Model of Competing Values ." American Journal of Political Science 39.4 (1995): 1055–82. Print.
- Armitage, Hannah. " Political Language, Uses and Abuses: How the Term 'Partial Birth' Changed the Abortion Debate in the United States ." Australasian Journal of American Studies 29.1 (2010): 15–35. Print.
- Gillette, Meg. " Modern American Abortion Narratives and the Century of Silence ." Twentieth Century Literature 58.4 (2012): 663–87. Print.
- Kumar, Anuradha. " Disgust, Stigma, and the Politics of Abortion ." Feminism & Psychology 28.4 (2018): 530–38. Print.
- Ziegler, Mary. " The Framing of a Right to Choose: Roe V. Wade and the Changing Debate on Abortion Law ." Law and History Review 27.2 (2009): 281–330. Print.
“ Life Begins at Fertilization with the Embryo's Conception .” Princeton University , The Trustees of Princeton University.
“ Long-Term Risks of Surgical Abortion .” GLOWM, doi:10.3843/GLOWM.10441
Patel, Sangita V, et al. “ Association between Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Abortions .” Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS , Medknow Publications, July 2010, doi:10.4103/2589-0557.75030
Raviele, Kathleen Mary. “ Levonorgestrel in Cases of Rape: How Does It Work? ” The Linacre Quarterly , Maney Publishing, May 2014, doi:10.1179/2050854914Y.0000000017
Reardon, David C. “ The Abortion and Mental Health Controversy: A Comprehensive Literature Review of Common Ground Agreements, Disagreements, Actionable Recommendations, and Research Opportunities .” SAGE Open Medicine , SAGE Publications, 29 Oct. 2018, doi:10.1177/2050312118807624
“ CDCs Abortion Surveillance System FAQs .” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 25 Nov. 2019.
Bixby Center for Reproductive Health. “ Complications of Surgical Abortion : Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology .” LWW , doi:10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181a2b756
" Sexual Violence: Prevalence, Dynamics and Consequences ." World Health Organizaion.
Homco, Juell B, et al. “ Reasons for Ineffective Pre-Pregnancy Contraception Use in Patients Seeking Abortion Services .” Contraception , U.S. National Library of Medicine, Dec. 2009, doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.05.127
" Working With Pregnant & Parenting Teens Tip Sheet ." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Major, Brenda, et al. " Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence ." American Psychological Association, doi:10.1037/a0017497
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The Case Against Abortion
By Ross Douthat
A striking thing about the American abortion debate is how little abortion itself is actually debated. The sensitivity and intimacy of the issue, the mixed feelings of so many Americans, mean that most politicians and even many pundits really don’t like to talk about it.
The mental habits of polarization, the assumption that the other side is always acting with hidden motives or in bad faith, mean that accusations of hypocrisy or simple evil are more commonplace than direct engagement with the pro-choice or pro-life argument.
And the Supreme Court’s outsize role in abortion policy means that the most politically important arguments are carried on by lawyers arguing constitutional theory, at one remove from the real heart of the debate.
But with the court set this week to hear Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, a direct challenge to Roe v. Wade, it seems worth letting the lawyers handle the meta-arguments and writing about the thing itself. So this essay will offer no political or constitutional analysis. It will simply try to state the pro-life case.
At the core of our legal system, you will find a promise that human beings should be protected from lethal violence. That promise is made in different ways by the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence; it’s there in English common law, the Ten Commandments and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. We dispute how the promise should be enforced, what penalties should be involved if it is broken and what crimes might deprive someone of the right to life. But the existence of the basic right, and a fundamental duty not to kill, is pretty close to bedrock.
There is no way to seriously deny that abortion is a form of killing. At a less advanced stage of scientific understanding, it was possible to believe that the embryo or fetus was somehow inert or vegetative until so-called quickening, months into pregnancy. But we now know the embryo is not merely a cell with potential, like a sperm or ovum, or a constituent part of human tissue, like a skin cell. Rather, a distinct human organism comes into existence at conception, and every stage of your biological life, from infancy and childhood to middle age and beyond, is part of a single continuous process that began when you were just a zygote.
We know from embryology, in other words, not Scripture or philosophy, that abortion kills a unique member of the species Homo sapiens, an act that in almost every other context is forbidden by the law.
This means that the affirmative case for abortion rights is inherently exceptionalist, demanding a suspension of a principle that prevails in practically every other case. This does not automatically tell against it; exceptions as well as rules are part of law. But it means that there is a burden of proof on the pro-choice side to explain why in this case taking another human life is acceptable, indeed a protected right itself.
One way to clear this threshold would be to identify some quality that makes the unborn different in kind from other forms of human life — adult, infant, geriatric. You need an argument that acknowledges that the embryo is a distinct human organism but draws a credible distinction between human organisms and human persons , between the unborn lives you’ve excluded from the law’s protection and the rest of the human race.
In this kind of pro-choice argument and theory, personhood is often associated with some property that’s acquired well after conception: cognition, reason, self-awareness, the capacity to survive outside the womb. And a version of this idea, that human life is there in utero but human personhood develops later, fits intuitively with how many people react to a photo of an extremely early embryo ( It doesn’t look human, does it? ) — though less so to a second-trimester fetus, where the physical resemblance to a newborn is more palpable.
But the problem with this position is that it’s hard to identify exactly what property is supposed to do the work of excluding the unborn from the ranks of humans whom it is wrong to kill. If full personhood is somehow rooted in reasoning capacity or self-consciousness, then all manner of adult human beings lack it or lose it at some point or another in their lives. If the capacity for survival and self-direction is essential, then every infant would lack personhood — to say nothing of the premature babies who are unviable without extreme medical interventions but regarded, rightly, as no less human for all that.
At its most rigorous, the organism-but-not-person argument seeks to identify some stage of neurological development that supposedly marks personhood’s arrival — a transition equivalent in reverse to brain death at the end of life. But even setting aside the practical difficulties involved in identifying this point, we draw a legal line at brain death because it’s understood to be irreversible, the moment at which the human organism’s healthy function can never be restored. This is obviously not the case for an embryo on the cusp of higher brain functioning — and if you knew that a brain-dead but otherwise physically healthy person would spontaneously regain consciousness in two weeks, everyone would understand that the caregivers had an obligation to let those processes play out.
Or almost everyone, I should say. There are true rigorists who follow the logic of fetal nonpersonhood toward repugnant conclusions — for instance, that we ought to permit the euthanizing of severely disabled newborns, as the philosopher Peter Singer has argued. This is why abortion opponents have warned of a slippery slope from abortion to infanticide and involuntary euthanasia; as pure logic, the position that unborn human beings aren’t human persons can really tend that way.
But to their credit, only a small minority of abortion-rights supporters are willing to be so ruthlessly consistent. Instead, most people on the pro-choice side are content to leave their rules of personhood a little hazy, and combine them with the second potent argument for abortion rights: namely, that regardless of the precise moral status of unborn human organisms, they cannot enjoy a legal right to life because that would strip away too many rights from women.
A world without legal abortion, in this view, effectively consigns women to second-class citizenship — their ambitions limited, their privacy compromised, their bodies conscripted, their claims to full equality a lie. These kind of arguments often imply that birth is the most relevant milestone for defining legal personhood — not because of anything that happens to the child but because it’s the moment when its life ceases to impinge so dramatically on its mother.
There is a powerful case for some kind of feminism embedded in these claims. The question is whether that case requires abortion itself.
Certain goods that should be common to men and women cannot be achieved, it’s true, if the law simply declares the sexes equal without giving weight to the disproportionate burdens that pregnancy imposes on women. Justice requires redistributing those burdens, through means both traditional and modern — holding men legally and financially responsible for all the children that they father and providing stronger financial and social support for motherhood at every stage.
But does this kind of justice for women require legal indifference to the claims of the unborn? Is it really necessary to found equality for one group of human beings on legal violence toward another, entirely voiceless group?
We have a certain amount of practical evidence that suggests the answer is no. Consider, for instance, that between the early 1980s and the later 2010s the abortion rate in the United States fell by more than half . The reasons for this decline are disputed, but it seems reasonable to assume that it reflects a mix of cultural change, increased contraception use and the effects of anti-abortion legal strategies, which have made abortion somewhat less available in many states, as pro-choice advocates often lament.
If there were an integral and unavoidable relationship between abortion and female equality, you would expect these declines — fewer abortions, diminished abortion access — to track with a general female retreat from education and the workplace. But no such thing has happened: Whether measured by educational attainment, managerial and professional positions, breadwinner status or even political office holding, the status of women has risen in the same America where the pro-life movement has (modestly) gained ground.
Of course, it’s always possible that female advancement would have been even more rapid, the equality of the sexes more fully and perfectly established, if the pro-life movement did not exist. Certainly in the individual female life trajectory, having an abortion rather than a baby can offer economic and educational advantages.
On a collective level, though, it’s also possible that the default to abortion as the solution to an unplanned pregnancy actually discourages other adaptations that would make American life friendlier to women. As Erika Bachiochi wrote recently in National Review , if our society assumes that “abortion is what enables women to participate in the workplace,” then corporations may prefer the abortion default to more substantial accommodations like flexible work schedules and better pay for part-time jobs — relying on the logic of abortion rights, in other words, as a reason not to adapt to the realities of childbearing and motherhood.
At the very least, I think an honest look at the patterns of the past four decades reveals a multitude of different ways to offer women greater opportunities, a multitude of paths to equality and dignity — a multitude of ways to be a feminist, in other words, that do not require yoking its idealistic vision to hundreds of thousands of acts of violence every year.
It’s also true, though, that nothing in all that multitude of policies will lift the irreducible burden of childbearing, the biological realities that simply cannot be redistributed to fathers, governments or adoptive parents. And here, too, a portion of the pro-choice argument is correct: The unique nature of pregnancy means that there has to be some limit on what state or society asks of women and some zone of privacy where the legal system fears to tread.
This is one reason the wisest anti-abortion legislation — and yes, pro-life legislation is not always wise — criminalizes the provision of abortion by third parties, rather than prosecuting the women who seek one. It’s why anti-abortion laws are rightly deemed invasive and abusive when they lead to the investigation of suspicious-seeming miscarriages. It’s why the general principle of legal protection for human life in utero may or must understandably give way in extreme cases, extreme burdens: the conception by rape, the life-threatening pregnancy.
At the same time, though, the pro-choice stress on the burden of the ordinary pregnancy can become detached from the way that actual human beings experience the world. In a famous thought experiment, the philosopher Judith Jarvis Thomson once analogized an unplanned pregnancy to waking up with a famous violinist hooked up to your body, who will die if he’s disconnected before nine months have passed. It’s a vivid science-fiction image but one that only distantly resembles the actual thing that it describes — a new life that usually exists because of a freely chosen sexual encounter, a reproductive experience that if material circumstances were changed might be desired and celebrated, a “disconnection” of the new life that cannot happen without lethal violence and a victim who is not some adult stranger but the woman’s child.
One can accept pro-choice logic, then, insofar as it demands a sphere of female privacy and warns constantly against the potential for abuse, without following that logic all the way to a general right to abort an unborn human life. Indeed, this is how most people approach similar arguments in other contexts. In the name of privacy and civil liberties we impose limits on how the justice system polices and imprisons, and we may celebrate activists who try to curb that system’s manifest abuses. But we don’t (with, yes, some anarchist exceptions) believe that we should remove all legal protections for people’s property or lives.
That removal of protection would be unjust no matter what its consequences, but in reality we know that those consequences would include more crime, more violence and more death. And the anti-abortion side can give the same answer when it’s asked why we can’t be content with doing all the other things that may reduce abortion rates and leaving legal protection out of it: Because while legal restrictions aren’t sufficient to end abortion, there really are a lot of unborn human lives they might protect.
Consider that when the State of Texas put into effect this year a ban on most abortions after about six weeks, the state’s abortions immediately fell by half. I think the Texas law, which tries to evade the requirements of Roe v. Wade and Planned Parenthood v. Casey by using private lawsuits for enforcement, is vulnerable to obvious critiques and liable to be abused. It’s not a model I would ever cite for pro-life legislation.
But that immediate effect, that sharp drop in abortions, is why the pro-life movement makes legal protection its paramount goal.
According to researchers at the University of Texas at Austin, who surveyed the facilities that provide about 93 percent of all abortions in the state, there were 2,149 fewer legal abortions in Texas in the month the law went into effect than in the same month in 2020.
About half that number may end up still taking place, some estimates suggest, many of them in other states. But that still means that in a matter of months, more than a thousand human beings will exist as legal persons, rights-bearing Texans — despite still being helpless, unreasoning and utterly dependent — who would not have existed had this law not given them protection.
But, in fact, they exist already. They existed, at our mercy, all along.
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Abortion - List of Free Essay Examples And Topic Ideas
Abortion is a highly contentious issue with significant moral, legal, and social implications. Essays on abortion could explore the various aspects of the debate including the ethical dimensions, the legal frameworks governing abortion, and the social attitudes surrounding it. They might delve into historical changes in public opinion, the different arguments presented by pro-life and pro-choice advocates, and the impact of legal rulings on the accessibility and safety of abortion services. Discussions could also explore the intersection of abortion with issues like gender equality, religious freedom, and medical ethics. We have collected a large number of free essay examples about Abortion you can find at Papersowl. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.
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Abortion is a topic that is a controversial issues in the United States today. Abortion is the removal of an embryo from the female's uterus resulting to the end of pregnancy (dictionary.com). Weather abortion is legal or not women around the world have tried to end their pregnancies. Women having an abortion are jeporadizing their safety and health by self inducing or seeking illegal product. This procedure is done by a licensed healthcare professional. The procedure is done by a […]
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Singer looks at life from a perspective of what produces the best for the majority of people in any given situation. This is commonly known as a utilitarian perspective. Singer’s views on human life in general and that of abortion and infanticide come from a separation of the terms human being and person. When observing the natural law theory and the basic definition of common morality I feel as though these ideas of abortion and infanticide are refutable, at least […]
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Why is something that requires two people, almost always considered the woman's problem? Every answer to this question is different, more aggressive in some cases, but it narrows down to basic human rights. Now you may be asking "What the hell is she talking about?" and I can assure you, we will get to that. I'd like for you to first put yourself in a situation: You're given a puppy, yet you're allergic to dogs and absolutely do not have […]
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Research Paper FAQ
Why abortion is legal.
Due to the outcome of a Supreme Court hearing, abortion is completely legal. In 1973, the Supreme Court's ruling on Roe vs Wade provided people legal access to abortion across the entire country. While legal, some doctors will not perform abortions.
How Abortion Affects Economy?
Women who have access to legal abortion will have the ability to continue their education and careers. Women denied an abortion because of gestational limits are more than 80% more likely to experience bankruptcy or face eviction.
Where Abortion is Illegal?
Abortion is legal in the entire country of the US, but some states have restrictions based on gestational status, fetal fatal conditions, and even rape. Other countries around the world have different laws and some have completely outlawed abortion, including Honduras, the Dominican Republic, and El Salvador.
Will Abortion Affect Health?
Women who have an abortion by a medical professional are at no risk for future pregnancies and there are no risks to overall health. Abortions do not increase any risk of breast cancer or have any effect on fertility.
Is Abortion Morally Justifiable?
This will depend on the person and their beliefs. Many women find abortion to be moral and a choice they are allowed to make in regards to their own bodies. Some religions have a strict stance on abortion and deem it immoral, regardless of the reason.
The world is actively discussing the ban on abortions in the United States. In such a controversial situation, opinions are divided. Women’s rights activists stand against abortion laws, while religious organizations vote for a ban on the termination of pregnancy. Women are outraged that they are being deprived of the ability to control their own body state and plan their parenting. A social issue may often plant different discussions and create various informative abortion essay topics. In such papers on debate topics, students are supposed to present their own opinion backed by facts, reasons, and arguments. To write a perfect essay, one should start the introduction with a topic sentence being a good hook to attract everyone’s attention. It’s extremely important to get acquainted with speech and persuasive abortion essay example on our website to get a complete idea of how to structure a correct outline for the paper and pick catchy titles, how to write introduction, conclusion for abortion essays. A student must consider many facts about birth laws, elaborate an idea of whether abortions should be legal or illegal, and write a summary for a research paper on abortion based on the information. If you need something to base on, you can familiarize yourself with free argumentative essay on abortion and abortion thesis statement examples on our website.
Essay About Abortion Abortion is the act of ending a pregnancy by removing the fetus of the embryo before it survives outside the before it can survive outside the uterus. However, there is a different situation where abortion can occur. The first one is a miscarriage, where it happens spontaneously (Bennett, 2001). The other form is when deliberate steps are taken to remove the pregnancy, this is termed as induced abortion, or in other terms is an induced miscarriage. The most common technique used in abortion is the surgical technique applied is using the suction device or dilating the cervix. Theodosius & Mitchell (2015) reviewed that it is recommendable to use the drug mifepristone in combination with prostaglandin appears to be as safe and effective as surgery during the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Pills, intrauterine devices, and birth control can be used immediately after an abortion has been done. This act of abortion can lead to increased risks of long-term mental or physical problems when it is unsafely conducted. This is because these people involved perform it unskillfully with unsafe equipment, or in unsanitary facilities. According to statistics done, approximately 56 million abortions are done in each year in the whole world from this percentage only 45% done unsafely whereas the remaining portion is for the unsafe percentage. In the world’s abortion statistics conducted between the year 200 and the year 2008, it indicates that the rates of abortion have shifted due to the availability of family planning and birth control techniques. During the traditional days, abortions have been attempted using sharp tools, herbal medicines and by forceful massage, Abortion can be viewed from different perspectives in the world, it can be seen from cultural beliefs, religious beliefs or from the perspective around the globe. Theodosius & Mitchell (2015) reviewed that, different countries limit abortion depending on the situations like during rape cases, poverty, problems with the fetus, incest, or risk to a woman’s health. All through, there have been debate over, ethical, moral, and legal issues related to abortion. The obvious outcome is that there are those individuals who argue that an embryo is a human and therefore deserves a right to live, and consequently a person who performs an abortion has committed the same crime as the one who has murdered. On the other side, there are those who oppose arguing that women have a right to make their own decisions to carry the baby or to abort as it involves her own body. Abortions are either legal or illegal. They include vacuum aspiration, early Non-Surgical Abortion, vacuum aspiration, dilation and evacuation, partial-birth Abortion, labor induction, and hysterectomy. The illegal type of abortions is unsafe because it includes the termination of pregnancy by people without necessary skills or where there are minimal medical standards, due to there are abortion laws in countries for instance in the United States of America where it has a role in prohibiting, permits or restricts the availability of abortion. Abortion has ever been through the history of the United States it has been viewed from different perspectives, including moral, religious, practical, ethical and political grounds. Often, it has been regulated or entirely banned by law in various states. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the rates of abortion are almost equal in all the countries that consider it legal or illegal. Canada has also proved that no criminal law is practicable and acceptable. Sweden, as well as stating that abortions after 18 weeks can successfully be conducted provided excellent services (Miller 2016). Finally, web-based telemedicine services prove to us that clinic-based services are not essential to offer abortion pills safely and effectively. When women are given a right to abortion despite being contrary to the fundamentalist principles of the Christian religion and morality is a human right, which gives favor to women. The right to use contraception and to undergo a safe abortion cannot be discussed because they are known for their achievements of culture, which is related to battle related to the liberation of the women. According to Miller (2016), women’s right to comprehensive reproductive health services including abortion are rooted in international human rights standards guaranteeing the right to health, privacy and life, and non-discrimination. These rights are mostly violated when governments make abortion services inaccessible to the women who need them. Under international law, governments can be held accountable for highly restrictive abortion laws and for failure to ensure access to abortion when it is legal, for instance, in cases where a woman is sexually harassed. Governments also bear responsibility for high rates of death and injury among women forced to do unsafe abortions. Therefore, it is the government’s responsibility to ease restrictions and ensure access to safe services.
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- Rom J Morphol Embryol
- v.61(1); Jan-Mar 2020
A research on abortion: ethics, legislation and socio-medical outcomes. Case study: Romania
Andreea mihaela niţă.
1 Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Craiova, Romania
Cristina Ilie Goga
This article presents a research study on abortion from a theoretical and empirical point of view. The theoretical part is based on the method of social documents analysis, and presents a complex perspective on abortion, highlighting items of medical, ethical, moral, religious, social, economic and legal elements. The empirical part presents the results of a sociological survey, based on the opinion survey method through the application of the enquiry technique, conducted in Romania, on a sample of 1260 women. The purpose of the survey is to identify Romanians perception on the decision to voluntary interrupt pregnancy, and to determine the core reasons in carrying out an abortion.
The analysis of abortion by means of medical and social documents
Abortion means a pregnancy interruption “before the fetus is viable” [ 1 ] or “before the fetus is able to live independently in the extrauterine environment, usually before the 20 th week of pregnancy” [ 2 ]. “Clinical miscarriage is both a common and distressing complication of early pregnancy with many etiological factors like genetic factors, immune factors, infection factors but also psychological factors” [ 3 ]. Induced abortion is a practice found in all countries, but the decision to interrupt the pregnancy involves a multitude of aspects of medical, ethical, moral, religious, social, economic, and legal order.
In a more simplistic manner, Winston Nagan has classified opinions which have as central element “abortion”, in two major categories: the opinion that the priority element is represented by fetus and his entitlement to life and the second opinion, which focuses around women’s rights [ 4 ].
From the medical point of view, since ancient times there have been four moments, generally accepted, which determine the embryo’s life: ( i ) conception; ( ii ) period of formation; ( iii ) detection moment of fetal movement; ( iv ) time of birth [ 5 ]. Contemporary medicine found the following moments in the evolution of intrauterine fetal: “ 1 . At 18 days of pregnancy, the fetal heartbeat can be perceived and it starts running the circulatory system; 2 . At 5 weeks, they become more clear: the nose, cheeks and fingers of the fetus; 3 . At 6 weeks, they start to function: the nervous system, stomach, kidneys and liver of the fetus, and its skeleton is clearly distinguished; 4 . At 7 weeks (50 days), brain waves are felt. The fetus has all the internal and external organs definitively outlined. 5 . At 10 weeks (70 days), the unborn child has all the features clearly defined as a child after birth (9 months); 6 . At 12 weeks (92 days, 3 months), the fetus has all organs definitely shaped, managing to move, lacking only the breath” [ 6 ]. Even if most of the laws that allow abortion consider the period up to 12 weeks acceptable for such an intervention, according to the above-mentioned steps, there can be defined different moments, which can represent the beginning of life. Nowadays, “abortion is one of the most common gynecological experiences and perhaps the majority of women will undergo an abortion in their lifetimes” [ 7 ]. “Safe abortions carry few health risks, but « every year, close to 20 million women risk their lives and health by undergoing unsafe abortions » and 25% will face a complication with permanent consequences” [ 8 , 9 ].
From the ethical point of view, most of the times, the interruption of pregnancy is on the border between woman’s right over her own body and the child’s (fetus) entitlement to life. Judith Jarvis Thomson supported the supremacy of woman’s right over her own body as a premise of freedom, arguing that we cannot force a person to bear in her womb and give birth to an unwanted child, if for different circumstances, she does not want to do this [ 10 ]. To support his position, the author uses an imaginary experiment, that of a violinist to which we are connected for nine months, in order to save his life. However, Thomson debates the problem of the differentiation between the fetus and the human being, by carrying out a debate on the timing which makes this difference (period of conception, 10 weeks of pregnancy, etc.) and highlighting that for people who support abortion, the fetus is not an alive human being [ 10 ].
Carol Gilligan noted that women undergo a true “moral dilemma”, a “moral conflict” with regards to voluntary interruption of pregnancy, such a decision often takes into account the human relationships, the possibility of not hurting the others, the responsibility towards others [ 11 ]. Gilligan applied qualitative interviews to a number of 29 women from different social classes, which were put in a position to decide whether or not to commit abortion. The interview focused on the woman’s choice, on alternative options, on individuals and existing conflicts. The conclusion was that the central moral issue was the conflict between the self (the pregnant woman) and others who may be hurt as a result of the potential pregnancy [ 12 ].
From the religious point of view, abortion is unacceptable for all religions and a small number of abortions can be seen in deeply religious societies and families. Christianity considers the beginning of human life from conception, and abortion is considered to be a form of homicide [ 13 ]. For Christians, “at the same time, abortion is giving up their faith”, riot and murder, which means that by an abortion we attack Jesus Christ himself and God [ 14 ]. Islam does not approve abortion, relying on the sacral life belief as specified in Chapter 6, Verse 151 of the Koran: “Do not kill a soul which Allah has made sacred (inviolable)” [ 15 ]. Buddhism considers abortion as a negative act, but nevertheless supports for medical reasons [ 16 ]. Judaism disapproves abortion, Tanah considering it to be a mortal sin. Hinduism considers abortion as a crime and also the greatest sin [ 17 ].
From the socio-economic point of view, the decision to carry out an abortion is many times determined by the relations within the social, family or financial frame. Moreover, studies have been conducted, which have linked the legalization of abortions and the decrease of the crime rate: “legalized abortion may lead to reduced crime either through reductions in cohort sizes or through lower per capita offending rates for affected cohorts” [ 18 ].
Legal regulation on abortion establishes conditions of the abortion in every state. In Europe and America, only in the XVIIth century abortion was incriminated and was considered an insignificant misdemeanor or a felony, depending on when was happening. Due to the large number of illegal abortions and deaths, two centuries later, many states have changed legislation within the meaning of legalizing voluntary interruption of pregnancy [ 6 ]. In contemporary society, international organizations like the United Nations or the European Union consider sexual and reproductive rights as fundamental rights [ 19 , 20 ], and promotes the acceptance of abortion as part of those rights. However, not all states have developed permissive legislation in the field of voluntary interruption of pregnancy.
Currently, at national level were established four categories of legislation on pregnancy interruption area:
( i ) Prohibitive legislations , ones that do not allow abortion, most often outlining exceptions in abortion in cases where the pregnant woman’s life is endangered. In some countries, there is a prohibition of abortion in all circumstances, however, resorting to an abortion in the case of an imminent threat to the mother’s life. Same regulation is also found in some countries where abortion is allowed in cases like rape, incest, fetal problems, etc. In this category are 66 states, with 25.5% of world population [ 21 ].
( ii ) Restrictive legislation that allow abortion in cases of health preservation . Loosely, the term “health” should be interpreted according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition as: “health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” [ 22 ]. This type of legislation is adopted in 59 states populated by 13.8% of the world population [ 21 ].
( iii ) Legislation allowing abortion on a socio-economic motivation . This category includes items such as the woman’s age or ability to care for a child, fetal problems, cases of rape or incest, etc. In this category are 13 countries, where we have 21.3% of the world population [ 21 ].
( iv ) Legislation which do not impose restrictions on abortion . In the case of this legislation, abortion is permitted for any reason up to 12 weeks of pregnancy, with some exceptions (Romania – 14 weeks, Slovenia – 10 weeks, Sweden – 18 weeks), the interruption of pregnancy after this period has some restrictions. This type of legislation is adopted in 61 countries with 39.5% of the world population .
The Centre for Reproductive Rights has carried out from 1998 a map of the world’s states, based on the legislation typology of each country (Figure (Figure1 1 ).
The analysis of states according to the legislation regarding abortion. Source: Centre for Reproductive Rights. The World’s Abortion Laws, 2018 [ 23 ]
An unplanned pregnancy, socio-economic context or various medical problems [ 24 ], lead many times to the decision of interrupting pregnancy, regardless the legislative restrictions. In the study “Unsafe abortion: global and regional estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated mortality in 2008” issued in 2011 by the WHO , it was determined that within the states with restrictive legislation on abortion, we may also encounter a large number of illegal abortions. The illegal abortions may also be resulting in an increased risk of woman’s health and life considering that most of the times inappropriate techniques are being used, the hygienic conditions are precarious and the medical treatments are incorrectly administered [ 25 ]. Although abortions done according to medical guidelines carry very low risk of complications, 1–3 unsafe abortions contribute substantially to maternal morbidity and death worldwide [ 26 ].
WHO has estimated for the year 2008, the fact that worldwide women between the ages of 15 and 44 years carried out 21.6 million “unsafe” abortions, which involved a high degree of risk and were distributed as follows: 0.4 million in the developed regions and a number of 21.2 million in the states in course of development [ 25 ].
Case study: Romania
Legal perspective on abortion
In Romania, abortion was brought under regulation by the first Criminal Code of the United Principalities, from 1864.
The Criminal Code from 1864, provided the abortion infringement in Article 246, on which was regulated as follows: “Any person, who, using means such as food, drinks, pills or any other means, which will consciously help a pregnant woman to commit abortion, will be punished to a minimum reclusion (three years).
The woman who by herself shall use the means of abortion, or would accept to use means of abortion which were shown or given to her for this purpose, will be punished with imprisonment from six months to two years, if the result would be an abortion. In a situation where abortion was carried out on an illegitimate baby by his mother, the punishment will be imprisonment from six months to one year.
Doctors, surgeons, health officers, pharmacists (apothecary) and midwives who will indicate, will give or will facilitate these means, shall be punished with reclusion of at least four years, if the abortion took place. If abortion will cause the death of the mother, the punishment will be much austere of four years” (Art. 246) [ 27 ].
The Criminal Code from 1864, reissued in 1912, amended in part the Article 246 for the purposes of eliminating the abortion of an illegitimate baby case. Furthermore, it was no longer specified the minimum of four years of reclusion, in case of abortion carried out with the help of the medical staff, leaving the punishment to the discretion of the Court (Art. 246) [ 28 ].
The Criminal Code from 1936 regulated abortion in the Articles 482–485. Abortion was defined as an interruption of the normal course of pregnancy, being punished as follows:
“ 1 . When the crime is committed without the consent of the pregnant woman, the punishment was reformatory imprisonment from 2 to 5 years. If it caused the pregnant woman any health injury or a serious infirmity, the punishment was reformatory imprisonment from 3 to 6 years, and if it has caused her death, reformatory imprisonment from 7 to 10 years;
2 . When the crime was committed by the unmarried pregnant woman by herself, or when she agreed that someone else should provoke the abortion, the punishment is reformatory imprisonment from 3 to 6 months, and if the woman is married, the punishment is reformatory imprisonment from 6 months to one year. Same penalty applies also to the person who commits the crime with the woman’s consent. If abortion was committed for the purpose of obtaining a benefit, the punishment increases with another 2 years of reformatory imprisonment.
If it caused the pregnant woman any health injuries or a severe disablement, the punishment will be reformatory imprisonment from one to 3 years, and if it has caused her death, the punishment is reformatory imprisonment from 3 to 5 years” (Art. 482) [ 29 ].
The criminal legislation from 1936 specifies that it is not considered as an abortion the interruption from the normal course of pregnancy, if it was carried out by a doctor “when woman’s life was in imminent danger or when the pregnancy aggravates a woman’s disease, putting her life in danger, which could not be removed by other means and it is obvious that the intervention wasn’t performed with another purpose than that of saving the woman’s life” and “when one of the parents has reached a permanent alienation and it is certain that the child will bear serious mental flaws” (Art. 484, Par. 1 and Par. 2) [ 29 ].
In the event of an imminent danger, the doctor was obliged to notify prosecutor’s office in writing, within 48 hours after the intervention, on the performance of the abortion. “In the other cases, the doctor was able to intervene only with the authorization of the prosecutor’s office, given on the basis of a medical certificate from hospital or a notice given as a result of a consultation between the doctor who will intervene and at least a professor doctor in the disease which caused the intervention. General’s Office Prosecutor, in all cases provided by this Article, shall be obliged to maintain the confidentiality of all communications or authorizations, up to the intercession of any possible complaints” (Art. 484) [ 29 ].
The legislation of 1936 provided a reformatory injunction from one to three years for the abortions committed by doctors, sanitary agents, pharmacists, apothecary or midwives (Art. 485) [ 29 ].
Abortion on demand has been legalized for the first time in Romania in the year 1957 by the Decree No. 463, under the condition that it had to be carried out in a hospital and to be carried out in the first quarter of the pregnancy [ 30 ]. In the year 1966, demographic policy of Romania has dramatically changed by introducing the Decree No. 770 from September 29 th , which prohibited abortion. Thus, the voluntary interruption of pregnancy became a crime, with certain exceptions, namely: endangering the mother’s life, physical or mental serious disability; serious or heritable illness, mother’s age over 45 years, if the pregnancy was a result of rape or incest or if the woman gave birth to at least four children who were still in her care (Art. 2) [ 31 ].
In the Criminal Code from 1968, the abortion crime was governed by Articles 185–188.
The Article 185, “the illegal induced abortion”, stipulated that “the interruption of pregnancy by any means, outside the conditions permitted by law, with the consent of the pregnant woman will be punished with imprisonment from one to 3 years”. The act referred to above, without the prior consent from the pregnant woman, was punished with prison from two to five years. If the abortion carried out with the consent of the pregnant woman caused any serious body injury, the punishment was imprisonment from two to five years, and when it caused the death of the woman, the prison sentence was from five to 10 years. When abortion was carried out without the prior consent of the woman, if it caused her a serious physical injury, the punishment was imprisonment from three to six years, and if it caused the woman’s death, the punishment was imprisonment from seven to 12 years (Art. 185) [ 32 ].
“When abortion was carried out in order to obtain a material benefit, the maximum punishment was increased by two years, and if the abortion was made by a doctor, in addition to the prison punishment could also be applied the prohibition to no longer practice the profession of doctor”.
Article 186, “abortion caused by the woman”, stipulated that “the interruption of the pregnancy course, committed by the pregnant woman, was punished with imprisonment from 6 months to 2 years”, quoting the fact that by the same punishment was also sanctioned “the pregnant woman’s act to consent in interrupting the pregnancy course made out by another person” (Art. 186) [ 26 ].
The Regulations of the Criminal Code in 1968, also provided the crime of “ownership of tools or materials that can cause abortion”, the conditions of this holding being met when these types of instruments were held outside the hospital’s specialized institutions, the infringement shall be punished with imprisonment from three months to one year (Art. 187) [ 32 ].
Furthermore, the doctors who performed an abortion in the event of extreme urgency, without prior legal authorization and if they did not announce the competent authority within the legal deadline, they were punished by imprisonment from one month to three months (Art. 188) [ 32 ].
In the year 1985, it has been issued the Decree No. 411 of December 26 th , by which the conditions imposed by the Decree No. 770 of 1966 have been hardened, meaning that it has increased the number of children, that a woman could have in order to request an abortion, from four to five children [ 33 ].
The Articles 185–188 of the Criminal Code and the Decree No. 770/1966 on the interruption of the pregnancy course have been abrogated by Decree-Law No. 1 from December 26 th , 1989, which was published in the Official Gazette No. 4 of December 27 th , 1989 (Par. 8 and Par. 12) [ 34 ].
The Criminal Code from 1968, reissued in 1997, maintained Article 185 about “the illegal induced abortion”, but drastically modified. Thus, in this case of the Criminal Code, we identify abortion as “the interruption of pregnancy course, by any means, committed in any of the following circumstances: ( a ) outside medical institutions or authorized medical practices for this purpose; ( b ) by a person who does not have the capacity of specialized doctor; ( c ) if age pregnancy has exceeded 14 weeks”, the punishment laid down was the imprisonment from 6 months to 3 years” (Art. 185, Par. 1) [ 35 ]. For the abortion committed without the prior consent of the pregnant woman, the punishment consisted in strict prison conditions from two to seven years and with the prohibition of certain rights (Art. 185, Par. 2) [ 35 ].
For the situation of causing serious physical injury to the pregnant woman, the punishment was strict prison from three to 10 years and the removal of certain rights, and if it had as a result the death of the pregnant woman, the punishment was strict prison from five to 15 years and the prohibition of certain rights (Art. 185, Par. 3) [ 35 ].
The attempt was punished for the crimes specified in the various cases of abortion.
Consideration should also be given in the Criminal Code reissued in 1997 for not punishing the interruption of the pregnancy course carried out by the doctor, if this interruption “was necessary to save the life, health or the physical integrity of the pregnant woman from a grave and imminent danger and that it could not be removed otherwise; in the case of a over fourteen weeks pregnancy, when the interruption of the pregnancy course should take place from therapeutic reasons” and even in a situation of a woman’s lack of consent, when it has not been given the opportunity to express her will, and abortion “was imposed by therapeutic reasons” (Art. 185, Par. 4) [ 35 ].
Criminal Code from 2004 covers abortion in Article 190, defined in the same way as in the prior Criminal Code, with the difference that it affects the limits of the punishment. So, in the event of pregnancy interruption, in accordance with the conditions specified in Paragraph 1, “the penalty provided was prison time from 6 months to one year or days-fine” (Art. 190, Par. 1) [ 36 ].
Nowadays, in Romania, abortion is governed by the criminal law of 2009, which entered into force in 2014, by the section called “aggression against an unborn child”. It should be specified that current criminal law does not punish the woman responsible for carrying out abortion, but only the person who is involved in carrying out the abortion. There is no punishment for the pregnant woman who injures her fetus during pregnancy.
In Article 201, we can find the details on the pregnancy interruption infringement. Thus, the pregnancy interruption can be performed in one of the following circumstances: “outside of medical institutions or medical practices authorized for this purpose; by a person who does not have the capacity of specialist doctor in Obstetrics and Gynecology and the right of free medical practice in this specialty; if gestational age has exceeded 14 weeks”, the punishment is the imprisonment for six months to three years, or fine and the prohibition to exercise certain rights (Art. 201, Par. 1) [ 37 ].
Article 201, Paragraph 2 specifies that “the interruption of the pregnancy committed under any circumstances, without the prior consent of the pregnant woman, can be punished with imprisonment from 2 to 7 years and with the prohibition to exercise some rights” (Art. 201, Par. 1) [ 37 ].
If by facts referred to above (Art. 201, Par. 1 and Par. 2) [ 37 ] “it has caused the pregnant woman’s physical injury, the punishment is the imprisonment from 3 to 10 years and the prohibition to exercise some rights, and if it has had as a result the pregnant woman’s death, the punishment is the imprisonment from 6 to 12 years and the prohibition to exercise some rights” (Art. 201, Par. 3) [ 37 ]. When the facts have been committed by a doctor, “in addition to the imprisonment punishment, it will also be applied the prohibition to exercise the profession of doctor (Art. 201, Par. 4) [ 37 ].
Criminal legislation specifies that “the interruption of pregnancy does not constitute an infringement with the purpose of a treatment carried out by a specialist doctor in Obstetrics and Gynecology, until the pregnancy age of twenty-four weeks is reached, or the subsequent pregnancy interruption, for the purpose of treatment, is in the interests of the mother or the fetus” (Art. 201, Par. 6) [ 37 ]. However, it can all be found in the phrases “therapeutic purposes” and “the interest of the mother and of the unborn child”, which predisposes the text of law to an interpretation, finally the doctors are the only ones in the position to decide what should be done in such cases, assuming direct responsibility [ 38 ].
Article 202 of the Criminal Code defines the crime of harming an unborn child, pointing out the punishments for the various types of injuries that can occur during pregnancy or in the childbirth period and which can be caused by the mother or by the persons who assist the birth, with the specification that the mother who harms her fetus during pregnancy is not punished and does not constitute an infringement if the injury has been committed during pregnancy or during childbirth period if the facts have been “committed by a doctor or by an authorized person to assist the birth or to follow the pregnancy, if they have been committed in the course of the medical act, complying with the specific provisions of his profession and have been made in the interest of the pregnant woman or fetus, as a result of the exercise of an inherent risk in the medical act” (Art. 202, Par. 6) [ 37 ].
The fact situation in Romania
During the period 1948–1955, called “the small baby boom” [ 39 ], Romania registered an average fertility rate of 3.23 children for a woman. Between 1955 and 1962, the fertility rate has been less than three children for a woman, and in 1962, fertility has reached an average of two children for a woman. This phenomenon occurred because of the Decree No. 463/1957 on liberalization of abortion. After the liberalization from 1957, the abortion rate has increased from 220 abortions per 100 born-alive children in the year 1960, to 400 abortions per 100 born-alive children, in the year 1965 [ 40 ].
The application of provisions of Decrees No. 770 of 1966 and No. 411 of 1985 has led to an increase of the birth rate in the first three years (an average of 3.7 children in 1967, and 3.6 children in 1968), followed by a regression until 1989, when it was recorded an average of 2.2 children, but also a maternal death rate caused by illegal abortions, raising up to 85 deaths of 100 000 births in the year of 1965, and 170 deaths in 1983. It was estimated that more than 80% of maternal deaths between 1980–1989 was caused by legal constraints [ 30 ].
After the Romanian Revolution in December 1989 and after the communism fall, with the abrogation of Articles 185–188 of the Criminal Code and of the Decree No. 770/1966, by the Decree of Law No. 1 of December 26 th , 1989, abortion has become legal in Romania and so, in the following years, it has reached the highest rate of abortion in Europe. Subsequently, the number of abortion has dropped gradually, with increasing use of birth control [ 41 ].
Statistical data issued by the Ministry of Health and by the National Institute of Statistics (INS) in Romania show corresponding figures to a legally carried out abortion. The abortion number is much higher, if it would take into account the number of illegal abortion, especially those carried out before 1989, and those carried out in private clinics, after the year 1990. Summing the declared abortions in the period 1958–2014, it is to be noted the number of them, 22 037 747 exceeds the current Romanian population. A detailed statistical research of abortion rate, in terms of years we have exposed in Table Table1 1 .
The number of abortions declared in Romania in the period 1958–2016
Source: Pro Vita Association (Bucharest, Romania), National Institute of Statistics (INS – Romania), EUROSTAT [ 42 , 43 , 44 ]
Data issued by the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) in June 2016, for the period 1989–2014, in matters of reproductive behavior, indicates a fertility rate for Romania with a continuous decrease, in proportion to the decrease of the number of births, but also a lower number of abortion rate reported to 100 deliveries (Table (Table2 2 ).
Reproductive behavior in Romania in 1989–2014
Source: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), Transformative Monitoring for Enhanced Equity (TransMonEE) Data. Country profiles: Romania, 1989–2015 [ 45 ].
By analyzing data issued for the period 1990–2015 by the International Organization of Health , UNICEF , United Nations Fund for Population Activity (UNFPA), The World Bank and the United Nations Population Division, it is noticed that maternal mortality rate has currently dropped as compared with 1990 (Table (Table3 3 ).
Maternal mortality estimation in Romania in 1990–2015
Source: World Health Organization (WHO), Global Health Observatory Data. Maternal mortality country profiles: Romania, 2015 [ 46 ].
Opinion survey: women’s opinion on abortion
Argument for choosing the research theme
Although the problematic on abortion in Romania has been extensively investigated and debated, it has not been carried out in an ample sociological study, covering Romanian women’s perception on abortion. We have assumed making a study at national level, in order to identify the opinion on abortion, on the motivation to carry out an abortion, and to identify the correlation between religious convictions and the attitude toward abortion.
Examining the literature field of study
In the conceptual register of the research, we have highlighted items, such as the specialized literature, legislation, statistical documents.
Formulation of hypotheses and objectives
The first hypothesis was that Romanian women accept abortion, having an open attitude towards this act. Thus, the first objective of the research was to identify Romanian women’s attitude towards abortion.
The second hypothesis, from which we started, was that high religious beliefs generate a lower tolerance towards abortion. Thus, the second objective of our research has been to identify the correlation between the religious beliefs and the attitude towards abortion.
The third hypothesis of the survey was that, the main motivation in carrying out an abortion is the fact that a woman does not want a baby, and the main motivation for keeping the pregnancy is that the person wants a baby. In this context, the third objective of the research was to identify main motivation in carrying out an abortion and in maintaining a pregnancy.
Another hypothesis was that modern Romanian legislation on the abortion is considered fair. Based on this hypothesis, we have assumed the fourth objective, which is to identify the degree of satisfaction towards the current regulatory provisions governing the abortion.
The research method is that of a sociological survey by the application of the questionnaire technique. We used the sampling by age and residence looking at representative numbers of population from more developed as well as underdeveloped areas.
Determination of the sample to be studied
Because abortion is a typical women’s experience, we have chosen to make the quantitative research only among women. We have constructed the sample by selecting a number of 1260 women between the ages of 15 and 44 years (the most frequently encountered age among women who give birth to a child). We also used the quota sampling techniques, taking into account the following variables: age group and the residence (urban/rural), so that the persons included in the sample could retain characteristic of the general population.
By the sample of 1260 women, we have made a percentage of investigation of 0.03% of the total population.
The Questionnaires number applied was distributed as follows (Table (Table4 4 ).
The sampling rates based on the age, and the region of residence
Source: Sample built, based on the population data issued by the National Institute of Statistics (INS – Romania) based on population census conducted in 2011 [ 47 ].
Data collection was carried out by questionnaires administered by 32 field operators between May 1 st –May 31 st , 2018.
The analysis of the research results
In the next section, we will present the main results of the quantitative research carried out at national level.
Almost three-quarters of women included in the sample agree with carrying out an abortion in certain circumstances (70%) and only 24% have chosen to support the answer “ No, never ”. In modern contemporary society, abortion is the first solution of women for which a pregnancy is not desired. Even if advanced medical techniques are a lot safer, an abortion still carries a health risk. However, 6% of respondents agree with carrying out abortion regardless of circumstances (Table (Table5 5 ).
Opinion on the possibility of carrying out an abortion
Although abortions carried out after 14 weeks are illegal, except for medical reasons, more than half of the surveyed women stated they would agree with abortion in certain circumstances. At the opposite pole, 31% have mentioned they would never agree on abortions after 14 weeks. Five percent were totally accepting the idea of abortion made to a pregnancy that has exceeded 14 weeks (Table (Table6 6 ).
Opinion on the possibility of carrying out an abortion after the period of 14 weeks of pregnancy
For 53% of respondents, abortion is considered a crime as well as the right of a women. On the other hand, 28% of the women considered abortion as a crime and 16% associate abortion with a woman’s right (Table (Table7 7 ).
Opinion on abortion: at the border between crime and a woman’s right
Opinions on what women abort at the time of the voluntary pregnancy interruption are split in two: 59% consider that it depends on the time of the abortion, and more specifically on the pregnancy development stage, 24% consider that regardless of the period in which it is carried out, women abort a child, and 14% have opted a fetus (Table (Table8 8 ).
Abortion of a child vs. abortion of a fetus
Among respondents who consider that women abort a child or a fetus related to the time of abortion, 37.5% have considered that the difference between a baby and a fetus appears after 14 weeks of pregnancy (the period legally accepted for abortion). Thirty-three percent of them have mentioned that the distinction should be performed at the first few heartbeats; 18.1% think it is about when the child has all the features definitively outlined and can move by himself; 2.8% consider that the difference appears when the first encephalopathy traces are being felt and the child has formed all internal and external organs. A percentage of 1.7% of respondents consider that this difference occurs at the beginning of the central nervous system, and 1.4% when the unborn child has all the features that we can clearly see to a newborn child (Table (Table9 9 ).
The opinion on the moment that makes the difference between a fetus and a child
We noticed that highly religious people make a clear association between abortion and crime. They also consider that at the time of pregnancy interruption it is aborted a child and not a fetus. However, unexpectedly, we noticed that 27% of the women, who declare themselves to be very religious, have also stated that they see abortion as a crime but also as a woman’s right. Thirty-one percent of the women, who also claimed profound religious beliefs, consider that abortion may be associated with the abortion of a child but also of a fetus, this depending on the time of abortion (Tables (Tables10 10 and and11 11 ).
The correlation between the level of religious beliefs and the perspective on abortion seen as a crime or a right
The correlation between the level of religious beliefs and the perspective on abortion procedure conducted on a fetus or a child
More than half of the respondents have opted for the main reason for abortion the appearance of medical problems to the child. Baby’s health represents the main concern of future mothers, and of each parent, and the birth of a child with serious health issues, is a factor which frightens any future parent, being many times, at least theoretically, one good reason for opting for abortion. At the opposite side, 12% of respondents would not choose abortion under any circumstances. Other reasons for which women would opt for an abortion are: if the woman would have a medical problem (22%) or would not want the child (10%) (Table (Table12 12 ).
Potential reasons for carrying out an abortion
Most of the women want to give birth to a child, 56% of the respondents, representing also the reason that would determine them to keep the child. Morality (26%), faith (10%) or legal restrictions (4%), are the three other reasons for which women would not interrupt a pregnancy. Only 2% of the respondents have mentioned other reasons such as health or age.
A percentage of 23% of the surveyed people said that they have done an abortion so far, and 77% did not opted for a surgical intervention either because there was no need, or because they have kept the pregnancy (Table (Table13 13 ).
Rate of abortion among women in the sample
Most respondents, 87% specified that they have carried out an abortion during the first 14 weeks – legally accepted limit for abortion: 43.6% have made abortion in the first four weeks, 39.1% between weeks 4–8, and 4.3% between weeks 8–14. It should be noted that 8.7% could not appreciate the pregnancy period in which they carried out abortion, by opting to answer with the option “ I don’t know ”, and a percentage of 4.3% refused to answer to this question.
Performing an abortion is based on many reasons, but the fact that the women have not wanted a child is the main reason mentioned by 47.8% of people surveyed, who have done minimum an abortion so far. Among the reasons for the interruption of pregnancy, it is also included: women with medical problems (13.3%), not the right time to be a mother (10.7%), age motivation (8.7%), due to medical problems of the child (4.3%), the lack of money (4.3%), family pressure (4.3%), partner/spouse did not wanted. A percentage of 3.3% of women had different reasons for abortion, as follows: age difference too large between children, career, marital status, etc. Asked later whether they regretted the abortion, a rate of 69.6% of women who said they had at least one abortion regret it (34.8% opted for “ Yes ”, and 34.8% said “ Yes, partially ”). 26.1% of surveyed women do not regret the choice to interrupted the pregnancy, and 4.3% chose to not answer this question. We noted that, for women who have already experienced abortion, the causes were more diverse than the grounds on which the previous question was asked: “What are the reasons that determined you to have an abortion?” (Table (Table14 14 ).
The reasons that led the women in the sample to have an abortion
The majority of the respondents (37.5%) considered that “nervous depression” is the main consequence of abortion, followed by “insomnia and nightmares” (24.6%), “disorders in alimentation” and “affective disorders” (each for 7.7% of respondents), “deterioration of interpersonal relationships” and “the feeling of guilt”(for 6.3% of the respondents), “sexual disorders” and “panic attacks” (for 6.3% of the respondents) (Table (Table15 15 ).
Opinion on the consequences of abortion
Over half of the respondents believe that abortion should be legal in certain circumstances, as currently provided by law, 39% say it should be always legal, and only 6% opted for the illegal option (Table (Table16 16 ).
Opinion on the legal regulation of abortion
Although the current legislation does not punish pregnant women who interrupt pregnancy or intentionally injured their fetus, survey results indicate that 61% of women surveyed believe that the national law should punish the woman and only 28% agree with the current legislation (Table (Table17 17 ).
Opinion on the possibility of punishing the woman who interrupts the course of pregnancy or injures the fetus
For the majority of the respondents (40.6%), the penalty provided by the current legislation, the imprisonment between six months and three years or a fine and deprivation of certain rights for the illegal abortion is considered fair, for a percentage of 39.6% the punishment is too small for 9.5% of the respondents is too high. Imprisonment between two and seven years and deprivation of certain rights for an abortion performed without the consent of the pregnant woman is considered too small for 65% of interviewees. Fourteen percent of them think it is fair and only 19% of respondents consider that Romanian legislation is too severe with people who commit such an act considering the punishment as too much. The imprisonment from three to 10 years and deprivation of certain rights for the facts described above, if an injury was caused to the woman, is considered to be too small for more than half of those included in the survey, 64% and almost 22% for nearly a quarter of them. Only 9% of the respondents mentioned that this legislative measure is too severe for such actions (Table (Table18 18 ).
Opinion on the regulation of abortion of the Romanian Criminal Code (Art. 201)
After analyzing the results of the sociological research regarding abortion undertaken at national level, we see that 76% of the Romanian women accept abortion, indicating that the majority accepts only certain circumstances (a certain period after conception, for medical reasons, etc.). A percentage of 64% of the respondents indicated that they accept the idea of abortion after 14 weeks of pregnancy (for solid reasons or regardless the reason). This study shows that over 50% of Romanian women see abortion as a right of women but also a woman’s crime and believe that in the moment of interruption of a pregnancy, a fetus is aborted. Mostly, the association of abortion with crime and with the idea that a child is aborted is frequently found within very religious people. The main motivation for Romanian women in taking the decision not to perform an abortion is that they would want the child, and the main reason to perform an abortion is the child’s medical problems. However, it is noted that, in real situations, in which women have already done at least one abortion, most women resort to abortion because they did not want the child towards the hypothetical situation in which women felt that the main reason of abortion is a medical problem. Regarding the satisfaction with the current national legislation of the abortion, the situation is rather surprising. A significant percentage (61%) of respondents felt as necessary to punish the woman who performs an illegal abortion, although the legislation does not provide a punishment. On the other hand, satisfaction level to the penalties provided by law for various violations of the legal conditions for conducting abortion is low, on average only 25.5% of respondents are being satisfied with these, the majority (average 56.2%) considering the penalties as unsatisfactory. Understood as a social phenomenon, intensified by human vulnerabilities, of which the most obvious is accepting the comfort [ 48 ], abortion today is no longer, in Romanian society, from a legal or religious perspective, a problem. Perceptions on the legislative sanction, moral and religious will perpetual vary depending on beliefs, environment, education, etc. The only and the biggest social problem of Romania is truly represented by the steadily falling birth rate.
Conflict of interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
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How To Create A Best Abortion Argumentative Essay?
Table of Contents
The topic of abortion is highly debated among various groups of people all around the world. Abortion is a synthetic way of ending a pregnancy by extraction or removal of an embryo before it can live outside the womb.
Because of the moral subsoil of the question, it is fiercely discussed even in the countries where such medical procedure is allowed by the government.
Argumentative essay on abortion: what’s the thing about?
First and foremost you need to remember that the topic which has a medical aspect requires a careful and attentive approach to the research and presentation. Examine the question diligently in order to operate with the terminology you may need freely.
Keep in mind that many people are sensitive to your abortion argumentative essay topic, so be careful with the word choice in your essay not to offend anybody.
The structure for the essay on abortion is the same as for any of a kind.
You begin your essay with the introduction . Here you give the main definitions in case the reader is not aware of the topic. You also include some background information on the problem, describe the reason for your work and end the entry with a thesis. As a rule, a thesis contains your point of view on the subject.
A useful hint: to write a good thesis statement for abortion, you definitely have to be well acquainted with the topic, but also you need to be honest with what you write.
In the main body of your college research paper, you express all the points for and against the abortions. That means you will have two paragraphs for each group of statements. In this part, you place all the ideas you have.
Finally, you write a conclusion for the essay. Here you have to sum up all the thoughts you’ve already written, without adding anything new. Express your own point of view on the question of abortion.
In some cases, you may be asked to write an outline for your essay. It is a table of contents where you enumerate the paragraphs of your essay.
To make it as well-directed as possible, select the main ideas of every paragraph and note them down. It may look like this:
Introduction: The problem of abortions.
Main body: Everything considered on the topic of abortions, namely
- Paragraph 1: Advantages an abortion can provide.
- Paragraph 2: Disadvantages and negative consequences of an abortion.
Conclusion: Inference and personal point of view on the problem.
Argumentative essay on abortion examples and ideas
How about some examples and ideas for your research paper writing needs? Try one of the following topics:
- Will abortion illegalization increase the number of backstreet abortions?
- The attitude to abortion in different cultures.
- What are the effects of abortion on a woman’s health?
- What should be the lowest age for abortion?
- What are the reasons behind the decision of married couples to do an abortion?
- Can the unborn fetus feel pain during the procedure of abortion?
- Should abortion be considered as a murder?
- Why women do abortions?
A general argumentative essay on abortion pro-choice which fits the outline above may have the following structure:
- The definition of an abortion.
- The analysis of the social aspect.
- Thesis: “Should society’s disapproval break not only the women’s, but also the families and unwanted children’s lives?”
- Paragraph 1. An argument in favor of abortion (two, three, or more).
- Paragraph 2: An argument against abortion (same as in the previous paragraph).
- A general deduction that confirms the thesis in the introduction.
- Expression of a personal vision of a problem.
What’s more, it may be of great help for you to search for some full free argumentative essays on abortion. This will help you to get a complete picture of an essay.
Supporting arguments for abortion
Here are some ideas of pro-abortion thesis statements. You may use them in your essay or make up your unique arguments.
- Everybody has a basic fundamental right to do anything with own body.
- It is crucial for a woman’s independence to decide whether she wants to have a child.
- Some scientists claim that personhood starts when a fetus is able to live outside the womb, so after the birth.
- Most neuroscientists believe that fetuses can’t feel pain when the abortion is done.
- Legal and professional abortions reduce women’s injury or even death from illegal backstreet abortions.
- Modern methods of abortion won’t cause infertility and other lasting health problems.
- Abortion is the chance not to give birth to a child with deviations.
- Women who can’t do an abortion may become unemployed, live below the poverty line, or become a victim of domestic violence.
- A child may not come to the world unwanted.
- Abortion is considered to be one of the methods of population control.
What to say against abortion?
If you’ve decided to adhere to the opposite side, here are some useful arguments against abortion. Take one of these or come up with own.
- Abortion is a murder of the innocent creature.
- Life begins in the womb of a woman, so the unborn child is a human who has the right to live.
- Many scientists believe that fetuses feel sufferings while abortion is done.
- Abortion contradicts God’s commandments.
- Abortion causes psychological problems.
- Abortions may reduce the number of children available for adoption.
- Abortion, because of the embryo’s abnormalities, can be regarded as discrimination of a physical feature.
- Abortion is not a form of contraception.
- Women have to accept the responsibilities that come with pregnancy.
- Originally, the Hippocratic Oath forbids abortion.
- Abortion popularizes the disrespect of life.
- According to the investigations of a Guttmacher Institute, black women are doing abortions more frequently than white, which means that it violates the balance of African babies.
- Abortion destroys the possible social contribution of an unborn child.
- Abortion may cause future health problems of a woman.
The topic of abortion is highly discussed nowadays so it won’t be too difficult to make up your mind about the issue you’d want to cover in your essay.
No inspiration to write another essay? Hand it to one of our writers and enjoy the free time. Your top-notch paper would be crafted for you by the deadline!
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Abortion Research Paper: Example, Outline, & Topics
The long-standing debate surrounding abortion has many opponents and advocates. Groups known as Pro-Choice and Pro-Life argue which approach is better, with no easy solution in sight. This ethical complexity is what makes abortion a popular topic for argumentative writing. As a student, you need to tackle it appropriately.
Our specialists will write a custom essay on any topic for 13.00 10.40/page
If this task sounds daunting, read this guide by our custom-writing experts to get excellent writing tips on handling this assignment. You will also find here:
- abortion topics and prompts,
- a research paper outline,
- a free essay sample.
- 🤔 Why Is Abortion a Good Topic?
- ☑️ Research Paper Prompts
- 👨⚕️ Abortion Research Questions
- 📚 Research Topics
- 🔬 Before You Start
- ✍️ Step-by-Step Writing Guide
📋 Abortion Research Paper Example
🔍 references, 🤔 why is abortion a good research topic.
Abortion studies are a vast area of research and analysis. It touches upon numerous domains of life, such as politics, medicine, religion, ethics, and human rights perspectives.
Like gun control or euthanasia, the abortion debate offers no evident answers to what kind of regulation is preferable. According to a recent survey, 61% of US adults are in favor of abortion , while 37% think it should be illegal. The arguments from both sides make sense, and there is no “yes-no” solution.
All this makes investigating the abortion debate a valuable exercise to hone your critical analysis skills. It will teach you to back up your claims with sound evidence while giving credit to counterarguments. Besides, expanding the body of abortion research is beneficial for the American community and women’s rights.
☑️ Abortion Research Paper Prompts
The first step to writing a successful paper is choosing an appropriate topic. Abortion is surrounded by numerous legal, medical, ethical, and social debates. That’s why the choice of ideas is virtually endless.
Don’t know where to start? Check out the prompts and creative titles below.
Should Abortion Be Legal: Research Paper Prompt
You can approach this question from several perspectives. For example, propose a new legal framework for regulating eligibility for abortion. Some states allow the procedure under certain circumstances, such as a threat to a woman’s health. Should it be made legal in less extreme situations, too?
Anti-Abortion Research Paper Prompt
The legal status of abortions is still disputed in many countries. The procedure’s most ardent opponents are Catholic religious groups. In an anti-abortion paper, you may list ethical or faith-based claims. Focus on the right-to-life arguments and give scientific evidence regarding embryo’s rights.
Abortion and Embryonic Stem Cell Research Prompt
Stem cell research is a dubious issue that faces strong opposition from ethical and religious activists. Here are some great ideas for an essay on this topic:
- Start by explaining what stem cells are.
- Outline the arguments for and against their use in research.
- Link this discussion to the status of abortion.
Abortion Law Research Paper Prompt
If you get an abortion-related assignment in your Legal Studies class, it’s better to take a legislative approach to this issue. Here’s what you can do:
Receive a plagiarism-free paper tailored to your instructions.
- Study the evolution of abortion laws in the US or other countries.
- Pinpoint legal gaps.
- Focus on the laws’ strengths and weaknesses.
Abortion Breast Cancer Research Prompt
Increasing research evidence shows the link between abortion and breast cancer development . Find scholarly articles proving or refuting this idea and formulate a strong argument on this subject. Argue it with credible external evidence.
Abortion Ethics Research Paper Prompt
Here, you can focus on the significance of the discussion’s ethical dimension. People who are against abortion often cite the ethics of killing an embryo. You can discuss this issue by quoting famous thinkers and the latest medical research. Be sure to support your argument with sound evidence.
👨⚕️ Questions about Abortion for Research Paper
- How does technology reframe the abortion debate ?
- Is there new ethics of abortion in the 21 st century?
- How did the abortion debate progress before the Roe v. Wade decision?
- How is the abortion debate currently being shaped on social media?
- How do abortion rights advocates conceptualize the meaning of life ?
- Can the abortion debate be called a culture war?
- What are women’s constitutional abortion rights ?
- How does abortion reshape the concept of a person?
- How does the abortion debate fit in the post-Socialist transition framework of the European community?
- Where does the abortion debate stand in the politics of sexuality?
📚 Abortion Topics for Research Paper
- The changing legal rhetoric of abortion in the US .
- Constructing abortion as a legal problem .
- Regendering of the US’ abortion problem .
- Evolution of public attitudes to abortion in the US.
- Choice vs. coercion in the abortion debate.
- Abortion and sin in Catholicism.
- Artificial wombs as an innovative solution to the abortion debate.
- Religious belief vs. reason in the abortion debate.
- Introduction of pregnant women’s perspectives into the abortion debate: dealing with fetal abnormalities .
- The role of ultrasound images in the evolution of women’s abortion intentions.
🔬 Research Papers on Abortions: Before You Start
Before discussing how to write an abortion paper, let’s focus on the pre-writing steps necessary for a stellar work. Here are the main points to consider.
Abortion Research Design
Before you start exploring your topic, you need to choose between a qualitative and quantitative research design:
💬 Qualitative studies focus on words and present the attitudes and subjective meanings assigned to the concept of abortion by respondents.
Just 13.00 10.40/page , and you can get an custom-written academic paper according to your instructions
🧪 Quantitative studies , in turn, focus on numbers and statistics. They analyze objective evidence and avoid subjective interpretations.
Pick a research design based on your research skills and the data you’re planning to analyze:
- If you plan to gain insight into people’s opinions, attitudes, and life experiences related to abortion, it’s better to go for an interview and qualitative analysis.
- If you have a survey and want to focus on descriptive statistics, it’s better to stick to quantitative methods .
Abortion Research Paper Outline Format
Next, it’s time to choose the format of your paper’s outline. As a rule, students use one of the 3 approaches:
You can learn more about these formats from our article on how to write an outline .
Choosing Headings & Subheadings
A strong title can save your paper, while a poor one can immediately kill the readers’ interest. That’s why we recommend you not to underestimate the importance of formulating an attention-grabbing, exciting heading for your text.
Here are our best tips to make your title and subheadings effective:
- A good title needs to be brief. It’s up to 5 words, as a rule. Subheadings can be longer, as they give a more extended explanation of the content.
- Don’t be redundant. Make sure the subheadings are not duplicating each other.
- Mind the format. For instance, if your paper is in the APA format, you need to use proper font size and indentation. No numbering of headings and subheadings is necessary as in the outline. Ensure the reader understands the hierarchy with the help of heading level distinctions.
Components of an Effective Outline
According to academic writing conventions, a good outline should follow 4 essential principles:
- Parallelism . All components of your outline need to have a similar grammatical structure. For example, if you choose infinitives to denote actions, stick to them and don’t mix them with nouns and gerunds.
- Coordination . Divide your work into chunks with equal importance. This way, you will allocate as much weight to one point as to all the others. Your outline’s sections of similar hierarchy should have equal significance.
- Subordination . The subheadings contained within one heading of a higher order should all be connected to the paper’s title.
- Division . The minimum number of subheadings in each outline heading should be 2. If you have only one point under a heading, it’s worth adding another one.
Use this list of principles as a cheat sheet while creating your outline, and you’re sure to end up with well-organized and structured research!
Abortion Research Paper Outline Example
To recap and illustrate everything we’ve just discussed, let’s have a look at this sample abortion outline. We’ve made it in the decimal format following all effective outlining principles—check it out!
- History of abortion laws in the USA.
- Problem: recent legal changes challenge Roe vs. Wade .
- Thesis statement: the right to abortion should be preserved as a constitutional right
- The fundamental human right to decide what to do with their body.
- Legal abortions are safer.
- Fetuses don’t feel pain at the early stages of development.
- Abortion is murder.
- Fetuses are unborn people who feel pain at later stages.
- Abortion causes lifelong psychological trauma for the woman.
- Roe vs. Wade is a pro-choice case.
- The constitutional right to privacy and bodily integrity.
✍️ Abortion Research Paper: How to Write
Now, let’s proceed to write the paper itself. We will cover all the steps, starting with introduction writing rules and ending with the body and conclusion essentials.
Abortion Introduction: Research Paper Tips
When you begin writing an abortion paper, it’s vital to introduce the reader to the debate and key terminology. Start by describing a broader issue and steadily narrow the argument to the scope of your paper. The intro typically contains the key figures or facts that would show your topic’s significance.
For example, suppose you plan to discuss the ethical side of abortion. In this case, it’s better to structure the paper like this:
- Start by outlining the issue of abortion as a whole.
- Introduce the arguments of pro-choice advocates, saying that this side of the debate focuses on the woman’s right to remove the fetus from her body or leave it.
- Cite the latest research evidence about fetuses as living organisms, proceeding to debate abortion ethics.
- End your introduction with a concise thesis statement .
Thesis on Abortion for a Research Paper
The final part of your introduction is a thesis—a single claim that formulates your paper’s main idea. Experienced readers and college professors often focus on the thesis statement’s quality to decide whether the text is worth reading further. So, make sure you dedicate enough effort to formulate the abortion research paper thesis well!
Don’t know how to do it? These pro tips will surely help you write a great thesis:
Abortion Research Paper Body
Now, it’s time to proceed to the main body of your paper. It should expand on the main idea in more detail, explaining the details and weighing the evidence for and against your argument.
The secret of effective writing is to go paragraph by paragraph . Your essay’s body will have around 2-5 of them, and the quality of each one determines the value of the whole text.
Here are the 4 easy steps that can help you excel in writing the main part of your essay:
- Start each paragraph with a topic sentence. It functions as a mini-thesis statement and communicates the paragraph’s main idea.
- Then, expand it with additional facts and evidence. It’s better to back that information with external sources, showing that it’s not your guesswork. Make sure you properly analyze the citations and show how they fit into your broader research.
- A paragraph should end with a concise wrap-up. Write a concluding sentence restating the topic sentence or a transition linking to the next section.
Research Papers on Abortions: Conclusion
The conclusion of an abortion paper also plays a major role in the overall impression that your paper will produce. So, how do you make it interesting?
Instead of simply restating the thesis and enumerating your points, it’s better to do the following:
- Focus on the broader implications of the issue you’ve just discussed.
- Mention your study’s limitations and point out some directions for further research.
- It’s also a good idea to include a call to action , which can help create a sense of urgency in the readers.
Abortion Articles for Research Paper & Other Sources
Every research paper ends with “works cited” or a reference page enumerating the sources used for the assignment. A rule of thumb is to cite credible, authoritative publications from governmental organizations and NGOs and academic articles from peer-reviewed journals. These sources will make your research more competent and professional, supporting your viewpoint with objective scientific information.
Here are some databases that can supply top-quality data to back the abortion-related claims in a research paper:
Feel free to check these databases for studies related to your subject. It’s best to conduct preliminary research to see whether your topic has enough supporting evidence. Also, make sure there are plenty of new studies to back your arguments! Abortion is a fast-changing field of research, so it’s best only to use publications no more than 5 years old.
To learn more about credible research sources, check out our guide on choosing reliable websites .
We’ve taught you all you need to write a well-researched and thoughtful abortion paper. Finally, we want to give you an example of an essay on the topic “ Should Abortion Rights Be Preserved? ” Check it out to gain inspiration.
Now you know all the details of abortion paper writing. Use our tips to choose a topic, develop sound arguments, and impress your professor with a stellar piece on this debatable subject!
❓ Abortion Research Paper FAQs
- First, you need to pick a debatable topic about abortion and develop a thesis statement on that subject.
- Next, choose the arguments to support your claim and use external evidence to back them up.
- End the paper with a concise wrap-up.
- Begin your introduction with a catchy fact or shocking statistics on the issue of abortion.
- Ask a rhetorical question to boost your readers’ interest.
- Cite a famous person’s words about the pros and cons of legal abortion.
To compose a strong opening for your abortion essay, make sure to provide some background and context for further discussion. Explain why the debate about abortions is so acute and what the roots of the problem are.
There are many interesting topics related to abortion, spanning the areas of sociology, ethics, and medicine. You can focus on the progression of the abortion debate along with civil rights or discuss abortion from a feminist perspective.
You can choose between qualitative and quantitative approaches for your abortion research. Hold a survey among women and report the findings of your qualitative study in a short report. Or, you can measure factual information in numbers and conduct quantitative research.
- The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Research Paper: Grammarly
- Scholarly Articles on Abortion: Gale
- Unintended Pregnancy and Abortion Worldwide: Guttmacher Institute
- Why Abortion Should Be Legal: News 24
- Pro and Con: Abortion: Britannica
- Organizing Academic Research Papers: The Introduction: Sacred Heart University
- How to Write a Thesis Statement for a Research Paper: Steps and Examples: Research.com
- Abortion: American Psychological Association
- Writing a Research Paper: University of Wisconsin-Madison
- Writing a Research Paper: Purdue University
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Argumentative Essay on Abortion – Sample Essay
Published by gudwriter on October 24, 2017 October 24, 2017
A Break Down of my Abortion Argumentative Essay
Styling format: APA 6th Edition
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Title: Abortion Should Be Legal
The introduction paragraph of an argumentative essay constitutes of 4 parts. Topic introduction, a reason why the topic is important, accepting there is a difference of opinion on this topic and lastly a statement that gives the writer’s main premises, popularly known as a thesis statement.
The body of my abortion argumentative essay contains reasons + evidence to support my thesis. I have also included opposing arguments to show the reader that I have considered both sides of the argument and that am able to anticipate and criticize any opposing arguments before they are even stated. I have made sure to show the reader that though I have written opposing arguments and that I do not agree with them.
The conclusion paragraph of this abortion essay constitutes of three main parts. The first part restates the main premises: The decision to terminate a pregnancy should generally lie with pregnant women. The second part presents 1 – 2 sentences which summarizes the arguments that support my thesis. And lastly my personal position.
I tried to use credible resources for this essay. Books from respectable publishers on this subject. Peer reviewed articles and journals are also acceptable.
Argumentative Essay on Abortion
The abortion debate is an ongoing controversy, continually dividing Americans along moral, legal, and religious lines. Most people tend to assume one of two positions: “pro-life” (an embryo or fetus should be given the right to gestate to term and be born. Simply put, women should not be given the right to abort as that constitutes murder) or “pro-choice” (women should be given the right to decide whether or not to terminate a pregnancy).
When you are writing an abortion argumentative essay , you are free to support any side that you want. Whichever position you take, make sure you have good points and supporting facts.
In this abortion essay, I have decided to take the pro-choice position: a woman carrying a fetus should be given the right to abort it or carry the baby to term. In fact, my thesis statement for this argumentative essay is abortion should be legal and women should have the right to decide whether or not to terminate a pregnancy.
My essay is divided into three basic parts, the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. Read till the end to find the brief analysis of the parts /sections.
Here is my abortion argumentative essay. Enjoy!
Abortion Should Be Legal
A heated debate continues to surround the question of whether or not abortion should be legal. Those who feel it should be legal have branded themselves “pro-choice” while those opposed to its legality fall under the banner of “pro-life.” In the United States of America, not even the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court case (Parker, 2017) that declared abortion as a fundamental human right has served to bring this debate to an end. The pro-choice brigade front an argument that abortion is a right that should be enjoyed by all women and one that should not be taken away by religious authority or even governments. They claim that this right cannot be superseded by the perceived right that should be enjoyed by a fetus or embryo. If not legalized, the pro-choice claim, women would resort to unsafe means. However, to pro-life, the life of a human being begins at fertilization and therefore abortion condemns an innocent human being to immoral murder. They further argue that the practice exposes the unborn human to pain and suffering. This paper argues that abortion should be legal and women should have the right to decide whether or not to terminate a pregnancy.
Perhaps you may find comparing and contrasting the higher education between England and Kenya interesting .
Just as was observed by the US Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade, an individual should be allowed certain privacy zones or areas. The decision of a pregnant woman to terminate her pregnancy or not should fall within this fundamental right (Parker, 2017). Interfering with this right is a kin to deciding for a person the kind of people they may associate with or the kind of a person they may fall in love with. These kinds of private matters are very sensitive and any decision touching on them should be left at the discretion of an individual. After all, it is the woman who knows why they would want to terminate a pregnancy. It could be that seeing the pregnancy to its maturity and eventual delivery would endanger the life of the bearer. It could also be that a woman is not comfortable with having a baby due to some reason(s). Whatever reason a woman might have, it is their private affair; they should be left to handle it in private.
On the same note, women get empowered by reproductive choice as they get the opportunity to freely exercise control over their bodies. Just like male members of the society, women should be allowed to be independent and be able to determine their future. This includes the freewill of determining whether or not to have children. The ability to control their productive lives would ensure that women are well placed to take part equally in the social and economic matters of the society (Mooney, 2013). It should not be that upon conceiving, a woman has no otherwise but to deliver the baby. What if the conception was accidental? Even if it was not accidental, a woman can realize or determine before delivery that she is just not ready to have the baby as she might have initially planned. At that point, they should have the freedom to terminate the pregnancy.
The pro-life’s argument that abortion is murder is a bit far fetched. The fetus or embryo may be innocent as they claim. However, it is noteworthy that it is only after the fetus becomes able to survive outside the womb that personhood begins (Ziegler, 2015). This is definitely after birth and not during the pregnancy or at conception. In this respect, the claim that abortion kills innocent human beings is actually not valid. On the contrary, this stance or statement culminates in the victimization of innocent women who have committed no wrong but exercised their right of controlling their reproductive life. Ideally, an embryo or fetus should not be considered a human being just yet. There should thus be nothing like “unborn babies” but fetuses or embryos.
Legal abortion also ensures that women may avoid maternal injury or death by securing professional and safe means of performing abortion. The point here is that illegalizing abortion would compel some women to resort to unsafe abortion means. In the process, they might sustain life threatening injuries or even lose their lives (Schwarz & Latimer, 2012). Whether legal or not, a woman would make up their mind and terminate her pregnancy! The only difference is that in a “legal” environment, she would be safe. Why then endanger the lives of pregnant women who may like to have an abortion by illegalizing the practice? In addition, the pro-life argument that a fetus feels pain during the procedure of abortion is less convincing. It may be that the reason a mother is terminating a pregnancy is to prevent the yet to be born child from facing the pains of the world. If a mother feels she may not accord her child all the necessities of life, she would be right to subject the child to the “short-term pain” during abortion.
Those opposed to abortion further argue that the practice brews a traumatic experience for women as it involves the death of a human being. Specifically, they contend that the experience emanates from a woman witnessing how she intentionally and violently condemns her unborn child to death by physically destroying it. They hold that it also subjects the woman to unacknowledged grief and thoughts of severed maternal attachments and as well violates her parental responsibility and instinct (Major et al., 2009). According to this argument, this experience can be as traumatic as to plunge a woman into serious mental health problems, in what may be called post-abortion syndrome (PAS). This syndrome may attract symptoms similar to those of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), they say. Anti-abortion crusaders further contend that the aftermath of undergoing the procedure may see a woman experience such PTSD related symptoms as substance abuse, guilt, shame, anger, grief, depression, denial, and flashbacks (Major et al., 2009). While all these may seem to be sensible to some extent, they fail to recognize that a woman who willfully secures an abortion would not have to worry about having “killed” her unborn baby. Instead, she would appreciate that she was able to successfully terminate the pregnancy before it could grow to maturity.
The decision to terminate a pregnancy should generally lie with pregnant women. It is a private decision that should not be interfered with. Women should be able to determine when to have a child. If she deems it not yet time, she should be allowed to abort. A woman actually kills nobody by aborting but rather prevents the fetus from being able to survive outside the womb. The reason for aborting should not be questioned, whether medical, involving incest or rape, or just personal. Whatever reason it might be, it falls within the right of a woman to determine and control their productive life.
Major, B. et al. (2009). Abortion and mental health. American Psychologist , 64 (9), 863-890.
Mooney, C. (2013). Should abortion be legal? San Diego, CA: ReferencePoint Press, Incorporated.
Parker, W. (2017). Life’s work: a moral argument for choice . New York City, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Schwarz, S. D., & Latimer, K. (2012). Understanding abortion: from mixed feelings to rational thought . Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Ziegler, M. (2015). After Roe . Cambridge , MA: Harvard University Press.
Argumentative Essay against Abortion 2, with Outline
Abortion argumentative essay outline.
Thesis: Abortion is wrong and should not be legalized since its disadvantages far outweigh its advantages, if any.
It is wrong to condemn an innocent human being to murder.
- Human life begins at conception and this implies that at whatever stage a pregnancy may be terminated, an innocent being would have been killed.
- The fetus is a human being and should be allowed to grow and be born and live their life to the fullest.
- A fetus has a unique genetic code and thus it is a unique individual person.
It is wrong to deliberately cause pain.
- Whatever process is used to secure an abortion subjects the developing human to untold suffering before they eventually die.
- By 18 weeks, a fetus has undergone sufficient development to feel pain.
- Aborting a fetus is the same as physically attacking an innocent person and causing them fatal physical bodily harm.
Abortion increases tolerance of killing which is a wrong precedence for the human race.
- To legalize abortion and to view it as being right is like to legalize killing and see nothing wrong with it.
- The respect people have for human life would be reduced if killing would be legalized.
- Loss of society’s respect for human life may result into increased murder rates, genocide, and euthanasia.
Abortion is can seriously harm a woman’s body and in some cases lead to the death of that woman.
- It yields both anticipated physical side effects as well as potentially more serious complications.
- In other instances, a woman may experience serious complications that may even threaten her life as a result of having an abortion.
People who believe abortion is not morally wrong argue that the fetus should not necessarily be considered a person with the right to life.
- This is wrong because the collection of human cells that is the fetus, if given the opportunity to grow, eventually becomes a complete human being.
- The beginning of human life should be considered to be at conception.
- A conceived human should be allowed to see out their life.
The pro-choice group argues that pregnant women have moral rights too and that these rights may override the right of the fetus to live.
- This argument fails to acknowledge that the moral rights of one human being should not deny another human being their moral rights.
- Both the woman and fetus’ rights should be respected.
Abortion is absolutely wrong and no arguments can justify its morality or legality. It kills innocent human beings before they can develop and experience life. It also causes untold pain and suffering to an innocent fetus. It further increases tolerance to killing.
Argumentative Essay against Abortion Example 2
People across the world have strong opinions for and against abortion. Those who argue for its legalization fall under the “pro-choice” group while those who oppose its legalization are under the “pro-life” group. Even after the practice was declared a fundamental human right in the United States by the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court case, the debate about it is still going on in the country. According to pro-choice arguments, all women should enjoy abortion as a human right and no religious and/or government authorities should take that away from them. On the other hand, pro-life brigade argue that abortion immorally murders innocent human beings since the life of a human being begins at fertilization. This paper argues that abortion is wrong and should not be legalized since its disadvantages far outweigh its advantages, if any.
The major reason why abortion is wrong is because it is wrong to condemn an innocent human being to murder. Human life begins once they are conceived and this implies that at whatever stage a pregnancy may be terminated, an innocent being would have been killed. The fetus is in itself a human being and should be allowed to grow and be born and live their life to the fullest. As pointed out by Kaczor (2014), a fetus has a unique genetic code and thus it is a unique individual person. It is a potential human being with a future just like people who are already born. It would be wrong to destroy their future on the account of being killed through abortion.
Abortion is also wrong because it is wrong to deliberately cause pain. Whatever process is used to secure an abortion subjects the developing human to untold suffering before they eventually die. By 18 weeks, a fetus has undergone sufficient development to feel pain (Meyers, 2010). Thus, aborting it would be the same as physically attacking an innocent person and causing them fatal physical bodily harm. Under normal circumstances, such an attack would attract condemnation and the person or people involved would be punished accordingly as per the law. This is the exact same way abortion should be viewed and treated. It should be legally prohibited and those who do it should be punished for causing pain on an innocent person.
Further, abortion increases tolerance of killing and this is a wrong precedence being created for the human race. Just as Kershnar (2017) warns, to legalize abortion and to view it as being right is like to legalize killing and see nothing wrong with it. The respect people have for human life would be reduced if killing was legalized. It would be wrong and detrimental to reduce society’s respect for human life as it may result in increased murder rates, genocide, and euthanasia. Just like such measures as vaccination and illegalization of murder are taken to preserve human life, prohibiting abortion should be considered an important way of increasing human respect for life. Society should not tolerate killing in whatever form and should discourage it through every available opportunity.
Another detrimental effect of abortion is that it can seriously harm a woman’s body and in some cases lead to the death of that woman. It yields both anticipated physical side effects as well as potentially more serious complications. Some of the side effects a woman is likely to experience after securing an abortion include bleeding and spotting, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, and cramping and abdominal pain. Worse is that these side effects can continue occurring two to four weeks after the procedure is completed (“Possible Physical Side Effects,” 2019). In other instances, a woman may experience serious complications that may even threaten her life as a result of having an abortion. These complications may include damage to other body organs, perforation of the uterus, the uterine wall sustaining scars, the cervix being damaged, sepsis or infection, and persistent or heavy bleeding. In the worst case scenario, a woman undergoing the abortion process might lose her life instantly (“Possible Physical Side Effects,” 2019). While such cases are rare, it is still not sensible to expose a woman to these experiences. A practice that has the potential to endanger human life in this manner should be considered wrong both legally and morally. It is the responsibility of individuals to care for and not expose their lives to harm.
People who believe abortion is not morally wrong argue that the fetus should not necessarily be considered a person who has the right to life. They hold that the fetus is just a collection of human cells and thus does not deserve the express right to live (Bailey, 2011). This argument is misinformed because the fact is that this collection of human cells that is the fetus, if given the opportunity to grow, eventually becomes a complete human being. This is why the beginning of human life should be considered to be at conception and not at birth or after some time after conception. A conceived human should be allowed to see out their life and only die naturally.
Another argument by the pro-choice group is that pregnant women have moral rights too and that these rights may override the right of the fetus to live under certain circumstances. These rights, according to this argument, include the right to take decision without legal or moral interference, the right to decide one’s own future, the right to ownership of one’s own body, and the right to life (Bailey, 2011). This argument fails to acknowledge that the moral rights of one human being should not deny another human being their moral rights. Even in cases where carrying a pregnancy to delivery would endanger the life of a pregnant woman, the fetus should be separated from the mother and be allowed to grow through such other mechanisms as being placed in an incubator.
Abortion is absolutely wrong and no arguments can justify its morality or legality. It kills innocent human beings before they can develop and experience life. It also causes untold pain and suffering to an innocent fetus. It further increases tolerance to killing, a precedence that would make people throw away their respect to human life and kill without a second thought. Even worse is that the practice exposes aborting women to serious bodily harm and could even claim their lives. Those who do not consider the fetus as a moral person who deserves to live are wrong because upon complete development, the fetus indeed becomes a human being. Similarly, those who feel the moral rights of a pregnant woman should override those of the fetus ignore the fact that both the woman and the fetus are human beings with equal rights.
Bailey, J. (2011). Abortion . New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group.
Kaczor, C. (2014). The ethics of abortion: women’s rights, human life, and the question of justice . New York, NY: Routledge.
Kershnar, S. (2017). Does the pro-life worldview make sense?: Abortion, hell, and violence against abortion doctors . New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Meyers, C. (2010). The fetal position: a rational approach to the abortion issue . Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
“Possible Physical Side Effects after Abortion”. (2019). In American Pregnancy Association , Retrieved July 5, 2020.
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142 Abortion Research Paper Topics To Write Your Thesis About
The word abortion gets thrown around quite a bit in the present day and age and has often become a cause of concern amongst political parties, religious leaders, and believers of different ideologies. Some believe that it’s unethical and push for strict laws to ban it, while others support free choice and stand behind ideas that don’t involve any legalities when it comes to something like this.
Besides being a significant point of contention between conservatives and liberals across the world, it is also known for how multidimensional it is, as it’s spoken about in a variety of different circles. Being as “controversial” as it is, it also results in engaging debate, with points of information made by both parties, giving it the divisiveness that makes for an excellent research paper. You may be asked to write one as part of an English class in high school for a debate or an ethics class in college, and searching for the perfect abortion research paper topic can be tricky, so here’s a comprehensive list of abortion research paper topics to explore and create the one that fits you best.
Trigger Warning : The following topics could include rape, sexual assault, and other sensitive discourse.
Structure Of Good Thesis About Abortion
Abstract : A highly integral part of a research paper is the abstract, which is essentially a summary of your dissertation or research paper. It is responsible for conveying details like the purpose of research, the relevance of work and topic, and what your research will cover. It also elaborates on any main results if any primary data-driven studies were undertaken as part of the research paper. The abstract is formatted after the paper’s title and precedes the introduction to your actual research paper. Introduction : One of the essential components of academic writing is the introduction, especially regarding contentious issues such as abortion. Starting with a strong beginning allows you to give the reader the exact details of your stance and the specification of your topic. An incredible strategy to effectively communicate all the details you need in an introduction is to jot down the five W’s + one H (Where, When, Who, What, Why, and How), and be sure to inculcate them within the paragraph. Body : After the introduction successfully conveys the thesis statement and hooks the reader, you have the job of keeping them connected throughout the body paragraphs. Following the one-idea, one-paragraph rule as the baseline will allow you to provide evidence behind each argument, inculcate counterarguments, and enable the paper to have an easy flow. In addition to an in-depth outline, you can also chalk up meaningful transitory sentences to go from one paragraph to the other to make the overall piece more engaging and easy to read. Be sure to include headings and sub-headings, take data from primary sources (and give due credit) and quotes from experts on the subject to strengthen your opinion, and give your research paper credibility. Make sure that you logically present all your data without involving too many variables and confusing the reader. Conclusion : Again, an essential part of a successful research paper is the end because the end is most remembered. A well-written conclusion will summarize all the arguments you make, restate the thesis statement, and cause the readers to introspect, more so in the case of such a debatable topic as abortion. Bibliography : Not only will a bibliography with all your sources in the appropriate format (e.g., MLA, APA, etc.) safeguard you against any coincidence that comes up during plagiarism checks and provide credibility to your claims. It’ll allow your professor to feel like you’ve done your in-depth research and due diligence and that you’re confident in your paper and your opinions about the cause.
Characteristics Of Well-written Paper About Abortion
- Evidence-backed arguments : With a topic as polarizing as abortion, it is vital to have well-thought-out opinions supported by sufficient evidence
- Flow : An essential for every piece of academic writing, mainly when deadline with heavier topics such as this, having well-connected paragraphs and overall similarity in tone makes for an intriguing and easy read
- Conciseness : Another critical skill is to say more with lesser words, and once you do that, your points will become sharper and your opinions more pronounced in your work
- Voice : One of the essential parts of any form of writing is your voice and style, especially when researching papers on issues like abortion. Let your opinions (backed with piles of evidence) shine through to truly make your writing a world apart
- Good grammar and style : Basic for any successful writing, correct grammar, syntax, and tone that fits the nature of the conversation
Good Abortion Argumentative Topics
With a vast topic like abortion, it can be easy to stray away from your specific thesis and go into the surface level of many arguments surrounding abortion. If you feel too sensible to explore any of this topics, you can hire professional thesis writer to do it for you. However, here are some topics to delve deep into for your following essay:
- Abortion after-care: Is it available?
- A study of accessibility to abortion clinics
- Mental health resources post-abortion
- Abortion laws in African countries
- The perception of abortion in Asia
- Southeast Asian families’ and their views on abortion
- The future of abortion law and policy
- Abortion Rights: The for and the against
- Judith Thompson’s perspectives on abortion
- Abortion and the trajectory of Abby Johnson’s anti-abortion stance
- Activism in the pro-choice space
- Is abortion an act of violence?
- The foster-care and adoption center system in the US
- Attitudes towards adoption and foster kids
- The intricacies of abortion law
- A study of abortion and teenage pregnancies
- Is the world’s opinion on abortion nuanced enough?
Interesting Abortion Paper Titles
There is so much to learn and understand about abortion, the reasons such a private matter has become a public matter of concern, and to unpack those concepts, here are some engaging titles for your next assignment:
- The physical effects of an abortion
- The mental turmoil of getting an abortion
- The disconnect between a woman’s body and a woman’s choice
- Is the social discussion on abortion warranted?
- Abortion as an aftermath of sexual assault
- Abortion through a feminist lens
- Should the government fund planned parenthood?
- Do abortions qualify as an essential medical service?
- The study of abortion laws in Poland
- The position of abortion in China’s goal of gender equality
- Are gender equality and abortions connected?
- Pro-life and battles of quality of life after birth
- Parenting responsibilities and financial distress: A projection of a future where abortion is criminalized
- The morality behind abortion decisions
- Abortion amongst minors
- The ethical dilemma of abortion
- The era of reproductive politics
- Infanticide v/s abortion
Creative Topics For Abortion Research Paper
With so many opinions about the issue, abortion is indeed a gray area, so here are some topics to help you out for your next research paper:
- Perspectives on unwanted pregnancies; there’s no winner
- Healing from an abortion: Physically and mentally
- Regional disparities among US states on abortion
- The difference in views on abortion from Boomers to Millenials
- Is the argument on abortion solvable?
- Abortion amongst AAPI
- The long-term health effects of an abortion
- Abortion in the Dominican Republic
- The economics of an abortion
- Does legalizing abortion lead to lower crime rates?
- The psychological impact of an abortion
- Abortion and its repercussions
- The impending decision of an abortion
- Abortion in the case of incest
- Is abortion brave or weak?
- The multi-dimensions of the abortion argument
- Is your personal opinion on abortion also your political one?
Engaging Topics On Abortion For Research Paper
If you’re struggling to find the perfect topic for your following essay on a segment of the entire abortion debate, here’s a list of topics for you:
- Abortions in US states with restrictions
- Our views on abortion are black-and-white?
- Perspectives on abortion: generalized or circumstantial?
- The role of men in the abortion decision
- Is abortion considered a form of birth control?
- Are pro-choice people anti-life?
- Freedom and free will: A study of abortion
- Are abortions celebrated?
- The political involvement in abortion law
- The history of abortion practices
- The types of medical procedures involved in abortions
- Are abortionists at fault?
- Responsibility of child: On woman, man, or doctor?
- Is abortion safe for the body?
- Medical responsibility to protect life: Doctors on abortion
- Abortions through the experience of people of color (POC)
- Abortions through the views of indigenous peoples
- Hormonal effects on an abortion
Religion-based Topics On Abortion
Religion and abortion seem fairly intertwined as it’s something that comes up in several debates about pregnancy termination. While both are incredibly precarious topics to talk about and are ingrained so heavily in people’s personal lives, abortion becoming political has caused the connection between the two ideas to rise to fame. Here are some topics for your next religion-related abortion essay:
- Views on abortion as per major religions
- Does Christianity view abortion as a sin?
- Does religion play a role in abortion policy?
- The history of abortions from a Christian lens
- How does Judaism view abortions?
- The discourse of abortions in Islamic circles
- The spiritual discussion on abortions
- Major religions’ beliefs about human life
- Anti-Abortion: Science v/s Religion
- Is abortion irreligious?
- Are all atheists on the same page about abortion?
- Orthodox Jews on abortion
- Faith and accessibility to abortion resources
- The divisive religion argument in the abortion debate
- Personal stand v/s political stand: which one to take on abortion?
- Religious women and their pro-stance on abortion
- Religion as a substitute for science in the abortion conversation
- Christianity and abortion amongst US women
Broad Abortion Topics For Research Paper
There’s so much to cover about abortion because it’s such a personal event that has made its way into the public sphere and the debate is unfortunately here to stay. There are a variety of myths about abortions, and perspectives on it differ across the globe and are ever-changing. Here are some topics that broadly examine the intricacies of the issue:
- Abortion and its role in the feminist movement
- Abortion and its depiction in the media
- The journey of a fetus: When is it a life?
- The part of financial responsibility in abortions
- Company insurance and its support of abortions
- Difficult pregnancies and abortion
- Misconceptions about abortions: Explained
- Should abortions be kept confidential?
- Global demonstrations against abortion: A closer look
- Is not wanting kids looked down upon?
- Planned pregnancies v/s unplanned pregnancies
- The societal need to have the desire to procreate and its role in the pro-life argument
- A case study on abortion and its use in different circumstances
- Abortion in Ireland: Laws & Practice
- Political icons and their contributions to the anti-abortion movement
- The sound of a heartbeat: Texas’ argument against abortion
- The underground abortion network of the 1960s
- How do movies position abortion?
Ethical And Law-related Topics For Research Paper
Abortion is such a multifaceted issue and has penetrated the ethics and law world since a lot of the discussion on abortion is about abortion policy and legality. While it’s a very polarised scenario, civil discourse is always encouraged. So here are some significant cases to write your research paper on:
- Abortion: Should it be illegal?
- Are abortions morally incorrect?
- A study on countries without abortion laws
- The survey of abortions since Roe v. Wade
- Should abortion be talked about in the law?
- Private v/s Public matter: Where does abortion lie?
- Abortions in the case of sexual assault and rape
- Does the women’s choice have to be taken away for her to have one?: On sexual assault and abortion
- Is abortion murder?
- Why should abortion be legal?
- Why is abortion legal in Canada?
- A study of abortion data from countries where it is criminalized
- Who determines morally right or wrong in terms of abortion policy?
- Is voice divided equally between males and females when it comes to childbirth?
- Analysis of legislations until Roe V. Wade
- The morality of a fetus’ life
- Decisions on abortion and how the law perceives them
- The supreme court’s place in abortion as a medical practice
Captivating Research Paper Topics
One of the most contentious issues plaguing the world due to its extreme polarity, writing about abortion certainly isn’t easy. That being said, with so much debate, you’re bound to wind up with some stellar arguments that make or break your case. Here are some intriguing topics that you can consider for your next research paper on abortion:
- Abortion as a policy issue
- Will criminalizing abortions decrease them?
- How are women who get abortions viewed?
- The history protests against abortion
- Does everyone who gets an abortion think the same?
- Abortion perspectives in the Middle East
- The culture clash between views on abortion
- The repercussions of criminalizing abortion
- Subsidies for abortion pills and other methods of pregnancy termination
- Society’s views on abortions and miscarriages
- Is abortion the taking of human life?
- Abortion laws and perspectives in India
- Is abortion the murder of innocence?
- Political figures and their role in the abortion movement
- The abortion movement in Japan
- Colombia’s historic abortion laws
- The 1900 feminists and their take on abortion
- Abortion defined by black feminists
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How To Write Abortion Thesis Statement
Essays, research papers and other academic papers should all have a central message or main point, with the arguments written in the paper revolving around this message. This one sentence that shows your stand on the topic at hand is what we can loosely describe as a thesis statement. It identifies the issue being discussed and is on most occasions written to a targeted audience. Since it is what defines your stand about a particular topic, it should be placed in the introductory paragraph of the paper. A good thesis statement should target the following:
Create a direction for the paper
Breaks down the topic at hand to a specific point of discussion
Gives a guide to the writer`s conclusion
Shows the stand of the writer and allows room for further study.
Note that a thesis statement should not be a statement that is factual. It should be argumentative to ensure that the reader engages with the paper. The statement should take the writer`s stand then evolve into a discussion to justify the position.
Abortion can be loosely defined as the deliberate process to terminate a pregnancy before it comes to term. Abortion is arguably one of the most controversial topics in most cultures and societies since the days of old. It is an issue that can be approached from multiple aspects and angles like medical, ethical, moral, legal and religious aspects. To say the least, it is one of the societal issues that have supporters and haters in equal measure, and it is accurate to state that everyone has an opinion about abortion. There are different types of essays that can be written about abortion, and the kind of essay is what determines the kind of approach a student will take when seeking to write a thesis statement about abortion.
What Determines an Abortion Thesis Statement?
An abortion thesis statement is determined by the type of paper the writer publishes. Different types of publications require different approaches when stating the abortion thesis statement. We will go through a just few of the common types of essays and how to write a thesis statement with an example for each, in an attempt to guide writers on the direction to take when approaching this topic. Some of the types that shall be discussed below, in no specific order, include research papers, argumentative essays, expository essays, satirical essays, cause and effect essays, and persuasive essays.
Persuasive essays can be described as essays where the writer has a clear stand from the beginning and attempts to coerce the target audience to take the same position with them on a particular issue. A persuasive essay is best written when the writer is a firm believer of what they are writing about, which makes it easier for them to persuade the reader. It is also critical for the writer to have a good knowledge base of the subject, else, they should try to get information from as many sources as possible. Also note, in a persuasive essay, the writer has to take a specific stand on the subject.
Abortion is a subject that has two distinct opposing sides, with little to no middle ground between the two. As such, a student writing a persuasive essay about abortion must have their facts well laid out and take one side of the divide. For this type of essay, this is what lays the basis of how to write a thesis statement for abortion. Here is an example of a thesis statement:
A majority of the people who have anti abortion arguments would be swayed in favor of therapeutic abortions only.”
Argumentative essays can be described as a type of essay where the writer takes a stand and presents the reader with facts to support their views. They require the writer to undertake extensive research and investigation of a topic, gather information and get a stand on the subject. In most cases, this involves the writer combing through previously published papers and articles in depth to ensure they pick up as much information as they can from the texts.
Afterward, the writer can use that information to write their own publication and provide factual support as they gathered from the research they carried out. These facts can be statistics, prominent figures, tables, graphs, medical evidence and so on. The main difference between argumentative and persuasive essays is that in the former, the writer takes a stand as a result of extensive investigation, while for the later, the user takes a position because of their beliefs.
A writer who uses this approach should declare their stand through their abortion theses statement, as they lay the foundation for the reader to proceed further into the text and read the writer`s factual arguments defending their stand. If for instance, a writer takes the position that abortion should not be legalized, an abortion thesis statement sample that would set the pace for their anti abortion arguments would be something in tune to the following:
Regardless of the beliefs of an individual, there are undeniable physical, psychological and medical consequences that are not risks worth taking in exchange for the human life through legalization of abortion.
Cause and Effect Essays
This type of essay can be described as a publication where ideas are placed in an order detailing the reason why an event would occur, the cause of the occurrence and what possible effects the occurrence would have. In some situations, there could be multiple causes to a single occurrence, or on the other hand, we could have a single cause dictating multiple occurrences.
For a writer seeking to talk about abortion, one would have to decide if they are looking at abortion from the point of view of a cause, then they would base their arguments on the effects of abortion. If the writer approaches abortion on the basis of it being an effect, they can base their arguments on the causes of abortion. These different viewpoints guide the user to align their thesis statements accordingly.
For writers who take the view that abortion is a cause of multiple occurrences, here is an example of what could be a thesis statement for abortion:
In consideration to medical complications linked to abortion, it is necessary to evaluate the viewpoint of legalizing abortions as it poses more threats than benefits.”
For writers who can take the view that abortion is an effect of multiple causes, the following is an abortion thesis statement example:
Abortion is not necessarily a reaction to a situation; it can be a result of a situation!
This is an essay where the writer makes good use of ridicule or satire to make their points about the topic of asking. As much as it is meant to bring humor for the reader on an otherwise delicate subject, it is also intended to ensure that the reader is intrigued enough to keep reading to the end, which gives the writer an opportunity to strike a home run with their views. These kinds of papers and essays use irony and exaggeration throughout the text as it allows for a writer to be more effective and creative in their delivery. It is also critical for writers to ensure that they do not cross the line, especially when it comes to sensitive issues like abortion. For writers who decide to go this route, here is an abortion thesis statement sample that incorporates the use of satire that sets the stage for pro abortion arguments:
Abortion the government owns your pregnancy; after all, that is a future taxpayer!
Tips in Writing Your Thesis Statement for Abortion
Regardless of the different types of essays a user can write to get their points across, there are some pointers that writers need to keep in mind as they are bare minimums on an excellent abortion thesis statement. They are listed as follows:
Your thesis statement should be kept short: Keep it one or two sentences short as it aims to introduce the user to your point of view. Allow the user to get the rest of the information from the rest of the paper.
Your thesis statement should be provided early in your article. It should be placed in the middle or end of the introductory paragraph.
Your thesis statement should be as clear and as specific as possible. Use language that everyone can understand. Jargon should be avoided as much as possible.
Your thesis should include your stand on the topic at hand
Your thesis should be as original as possible. Ensure that you run checks against plagiarism.
Abortion is a broad and trendy topic that gives the user a lot of room to negotiate and be creative. A lot of research has been done already, and there are plenty of published papers and articles that detail the effects of abortion. As such, some factors are to be considered when writing a thesis statement on abortion, depending on the approach that the writer decides to use. As shown above, whether the writer stands with pro abortion arguments or anti abortion arguments, you really cannot go wrong with writing an essay on abortion.
Abortion Thesis Statements
Abortion, being an issue of extreme controversy, arouses strong feelings on the two sides of the debate. Those that oppose the discussion call it murder and condemn any idea whatsoever of a woman “playing God” with the life of a human. On the other hand, those who advocate for it claim that it is a person`s right to do what she deems best for her own body (womb) and child.
Deciding who gets to live and who dies and whether the unborn baby constitutes life is still a subject of question. Undoubtedly, a pregnant woman has the right to choose whether or not to have a child. The truth is that the laws are meant to govern the citizens in a civilized way, but yet again, most people who support pro abortion arguments state that it is a woman’s choice to do whatever she wants with her body.
Tips on How to Write an Abortion Thesis Statement
Having in mind the controversy that surrounds this topic, it is no surprise that coming up with a good thesis statement presents some challenge for a number of students. Here are some tips on how to write an abortion thesis statement:
Searching Widely and Deeply
Once you start a thesis statement for abortion, it is very crucial to search for information. When you open a new tab, stop for a moment or two and think about the books and other kinds of dependable sources which can be used. Even though it takes more time to find the information you have, make sure that it is not made up. You need to decipher what kind of data from the internet is not fictional.
You need to be sure to understand the concept of your future essay. Through notes, you will find a few things that you do not need or by a twist of fate duplicated. You need to reread the material so that you may gain an idea of what introduction you might want or that will prompt you to do more concerning searching.
Have a Sturdy Introduction
It is always hard to begin writing a thesis statement about abortion. Firstly, you would want your words and sentences to be well structured as well as make the content comprehensive.
The trick is for you to add some political and moral aspects of information but to be safe, keep away from mentioning the religious element and its role. This will allow you to dodge numerous disputes and avoid annoying some readers.
However, you can specify these pieces of information later in one of your paragraphs to show your readers how serious you are to the matter. Another way of showing the reader your seriousness is by bringing up statistics concerning abortion. You can do this by finding a source that is worth trusting so that it can easily give you real numbers to make your abortion thesis statement as exciting and persuasive as possible.
Be Factual and Not Fictional
Every paper writing service knows that in every essay, there are two sides which sit on opposite ends. Describe them in such a way that you are not biased and for you to do so, ensure that you write your thesis statement about abortion when your head is clear. This is because it puts you in a position of only recalling concrete facts. Even when you dislike the argument because it shows the point of view which you do not support, desist from trying to twist data to suit your opinion for this will prove that you are unprofessional.
Relate the Knowledge Gained
After you come up with non-identical points of view, you’re now ready to begin writing a thesis statement for abortion. A lot of information can be contained here, so the best thing to do is to carefully read. Most sources of information suggest “my body my choice” but one should be careful since a fetus is not part of a woman’s body. Therefore, it is wise to begin your thesis statement about abortion with medical facts about the reasons as to why abortion should be made legal.
Here are some of the pro abortion arguments:
- A high risk of death as one delivers, be it woman or fetus, but in this case it may vary depending on the ailments and the traumas.
- The fetus might be suffering from a disease that is genetic or any other abnormality hence there might be a possibility of the child suffering after birth.
- Some women get pregnant through rape or incest. This can cause a woman to live a stressful life, and in delivery, it can lead to depression or even worse suicidal attempts.
- Some women can be mentally ill, and they are not capable of taking care of children more so, the disease can be passed down to the child.
- The woman might be too young to be a mother and due to lack of financial resources, the child might not get basic needs, education and worst of all, lose all opportunities for the future.
- The world has become overpopulated and bearing unwanted children will make the situation worse – This argument is ill-mannered as much as it is true, but one must be very cautious when using it.
The list above is just a simple example of the pro abortion arguments that have covered a wide range.
As a writer, you also need to cover the anti abortion arguments. These arguments are merely against abortion and drive towards eradicating the act from the society. Here are some of the examples of anti abortion arguments:
- Abortion can lead to severe cases of depression caused by regret in not giving childbirth.
- Risks that are serious such as damage to the cervix and excessive bleeding can lead to infertility in a woman.
- Aborting a child can be a living proof that the life of a human being is meaningless but on that account of philosophy remember to stay on track with the subject at hand.
- The fetus inside a mother is alive and killing it is no different than killing a child or even kicking a pregnant woman in the belly.
- Abortion according to the aspect of religion is a huge sin but this argument is not valid to an atheist, but it is still useful.
- Women can abort to avoid delivering unwanted children as a result of the irresponsible act of failing to use contraceptives.
Choosing a Side
Here, you must have enough information so that you get the chance to choose between the pro-choice and pro-life. In the beginning, search the data and the material that has never come across to you and completely change your mindset and reassess the questions which you had thought to be controversial. Try to be sure of the point that you would like to support and revise it in a way which will enable you to understand the choice you have made.
On closing your abortion thesis statement sample, be precise on what to say. Make your readers savvy as to why you are supporting a particular side. Do not mention all the arguments in the abortion thesis statement but bring something remarkable and genuine into your explanation.
A writer should be at all times ready to give their information to their readers, and one part that must be mentioned is the abortion thesis statement examples. Here are some of the cases that can aid you:
- The psychological dangers that are brought about by the legalization and the availability of abortion facilities.
- The physiological problems associated with abortion requires the consent of the parent or guardian before an underage can undergo an abortion.
- Many people choose therapeutic abortion since it supports pro-life
Wrapping Things Up
The conclusion to the thesis statement of abortion has the summary of the entire project, and this is where a person should revise their sentences, major and minor ideas. Here are some of the examples of topics one can choose from:
- Should women be forced to go through the procedure in some case by the law?
- Should the grandparents take part whether the child should be terminated or not?
- Throughout their lives, should women have a restricted number of possible terminations?
The most excellent way to learn is to come up with a brilliant essay on abortion and follow the instructions in conjunction with the best essay examples from our essay writers . At the same time, ensure that your basic principles of writing are well represented in a way that the required type of work is well understood and the line of work is well conversant.
One can demonstrate how pieces of evidence and arguments correlate with the thesis statement of abortion. People can wonder how good endings sound like. This can be answered by how one reinvents their work to make it look legit, bright and most importantly, unique. This is mainly viewed by the language and supporting evidence. With the correct combination of literary devices and insight, you can be in a position to write a masterpiece that can aid you in the winning of the attention of one’s audience hence achieving the coveted effect.
We hope that these instructions have aided you greatly. The best way to grasp coming up with such statements is by practicing; so just go ahead and write a couple of statements and improve from there. All the best!
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You are at: Thesis Writing Thesis Writing Tips Articles For and Against Abortion Thesis Statements
For and against abortion thesis statements.
Abortion has been a debatable topic for decades. One can neither believe abortion to be good nor evil. Different societies have got distinct controversies about the issues involved in abortion. Moreover, the risks of lives make this social issue more debatable. Almost seventeen percent pregnancies end in abortion killing hundreds of innocent lives per year. Writing abortion thesis in colleges & universities is a great way to emphasize facts entailed in abortion.
It’s a choice of students whether to go for a pro or anti abortion thesis; however, they have to back up their thesis with the aid of strong arguments and evidences to prove their viewpoint. Abortion thesis statement is what that gives an idea to a reader about the viewpoint of author; thus, students should write abortion thesis statements in a way that persuade their target audience.
Here is one example each for and against abortion thesis statement with guidelines to help students in creating a persuasive thesis statement on abortion:
Pro Abortion Thesis Statement Example:
“ Idea of Individuality and human life is not quite the same. Idea of a human life has come from conception; simultaneously on the other hand, fertilized eggs used for in vitro fertilization are also human lives but eggs unable to implant are routinely thrown away. Would you like to call it a murder and if not, then how is abortion a murder? ”
- It is right of a woman whether to give up or adopt her child for adoption.
- Abortion is a safe medical procedure for women who do it in their first trimester.
- It is better for a woman to go for adoption if she has become a victim of rape or incest to avoid any further psychological harm.
Anti Abortion Thesis Statement Example:
“ Abortion is badly affecting our society today. People in huge numbers feel it to be evil as it kills an unborn for no reason. Conversely, others believe that it is a woman’s legal right to choose abortion especially in case of incest, rape, or health issues threatening life of a mother. To kill unborn using dreadful procedures is not only wrong for the doctors to perform, but morally wrong too ” .
- Abortion is same as the murder of an innocent.
- Abortion gives rise to an intense psychological pain to a woman.
- End result of late abortion may lead the woman to bear several medical complications.
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The Safety and Quality of Abortion Care in the United States (2018)
Chapter: 5 conclusions, 5 conclusions.
This report provides a comprehensive review of the state of the science on the safety and quality of abortion services in the United States. The committee was charged with answering eight specific research questions. This chapter presents the committee’s conclusions by responding individually to each question. The research findings that are the basis for these conclusions are presented in the previous chapters. The committee was also asked to offer recommendations regarding the eight questions. However, the committee decided that its conclusions regarding the safety and quality of U.S. abortion care responded comprehensively to the scope of this study. Therefore, the committee does not offer recommendations for specific actions to be taken by policy makers, health care providers, and others.
1. What types of legal abortion services are available in the United States? What is the evidence regarding which services are appropriate under different clinical circumstances (e.g., based on patient medical conditions such as previous cesarean section, obesity, gestational age)?
Four legal abortion methods—medication, 1 aspiration, dilation and evacuation (D&E), and induction—are used in the United States. Length of gestation—measured as the amount of time since the first day of the last
1 The terms “medication abortion” and “medical abortion” are used interchangeably in the literature. This report uses “medication abortion” to describe the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved prescription drug regimen used up to 10 weeks’ gestation.
menstrual period—is the primary factor in deciding what abortion procedure is the most appropriate. Both medication and aspiration abortions are used up to 10 weeks’ gestation. Aspiration procedures may be used up to 14 to 16 weeks’ gestation.
Mifepristone, sold under the brand name Mifeprex, is the only medication specifically approved by the FDA for use in medication abortion. The drug’s distribution has been restricted under the requirements of the FDA Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy program since 2011—it may be dispensed only to patients in clinics, hospitals, or medical offices under the supervision of a certified prescriber. To become a certified prescriber, eligible clinicians must register with the drug’s distributor, Danco Laboratories, and meet certain requirements. Retail pharmacies are prohibited from distributing the drug.
When abortion by aspiration is no longer feasible, D&E and induction methods are used. D&E is the superior method; in comparison, inductions are more painful for women, take significantly more time, and are more costly. However, D&Es are not always available to women. The procedure is illegal in Mississippi 2 and West Virginia 3 (both states allow exceptions in cases of life endangerment or severe physical health risk to the woman). Elsewhere, access to the procedure is limited because many obstetrician/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) and other physicians lack the requisite training to perform D&Es. Physicians’ access to D&E training is very limited or nonexistent in many areas of the country.
Few women are medically ineligible for abortion. There are, however, specific contraindications to using mifepristone for a medication abortion or induction. The drug should not be used for women with confirmed or suspected ectopic pregnancy or undiagnosed adnexal mass; an intrauterine device in place; chronic adrenal failure; concurrent long-term systemic corticosteroid therapy; hemorrhagic disorders or concurrent anticoagulant therapy; allergy to mifepristone, misoprostol, or other prostaglandins; or inherited porphyrias.
Obesity is not a risk factor for women who undergo medication or aspiration abortions (including with the use of moderate intravenous sedation). Research on the association between obesity and complications during a D&E abortion is less certain—particularly for women with Class III obesity (body mass index ≥40) after 14 weeks’ gestation.
A history of a prior cesarean delivery is not a risk factor for women undergoing medication or aspiration abortions, but it may be associated
2 Mississippi Unborn Child Protection from Dismemberment Abortion Act, Mississippi HB 519, Reg. Sess. 2015–2016 (2016).
3 Unborn Child Protection from Dismemberment Abortion Act, West Virginia SB 10, Reg. Sess. 2015–2016 (2016).
with an increased risk of complications during D&E abortions, particularly for women with multiple cesarean deliveries. Because induction abortions are so rare, it is difficult to determine definitively whether a prior cesarean delivery increases the risk of complications. The available research suggests no association.
2. What is the evidence on the physical and mental health risks of these different abortion interventions?
Abortion has been investigated for its potential long-term effects on future childbearing and pregnancy outcomes, risk of breast cancer, mental health disorders, and premature death. The committee found that much of the published literature on these topics does not meet scientific standards for rigorous, unbiased research. Reliable research uses documented records of a prior abortion, analyzes comparable study and control groups, and controls for confounding variables shown to affect the outcome of interest.
Physical health effects The committee identified high-quality research on numerous outcomes of interest and concludes that having an abortion does not increase a woman’s risk of secondary infertility, pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders, abnormal placentation (after a D&E abortion), preterm birth, or breast cancer. Although rare, the risk of very preterm birth (<28 weeks’ gestation) in a woman’s first birth was found to be associated with having two or more prior aspiration abortions compared with first births among women with no abortion history; the risk appears to be associated with the number of prior abortions. Preterm birth is associated with pregnancy spacing after an abortion: it is more likely if the interval between abortion and conception is less than 6 months (this is also true of pregnancy spacing in general). The committee did not find well-designed research on abortion’s association with future ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage or stillbirth, or long-term mortality. Findings on hemorrhage during a subsequent pregnancy are inconclusive.
Mental health effects The committee identified a wide array of research on whether abortion increases women’s risk of depression, anxiety, and/or posttraumatic stress disorder and concludes that having an abortion does not increase a woman’s risk of these mental health disorders.
3. What is the evidence on the safety and quality of medical and surgical abortion care?
Safety The clinical evidence clearly shows that legal abortions in the United States—whether by medication, aspiration, D&E, or induction—are
safe and effective. Serious complications are rare. But the risk of a serious complication increases with weeks’ gestation. As the number of weeks increases, the invasiveness of the required procedure and the need for deeper levels of sedation also increase.
Quality Health care quality is a multidimensional concept. Six attributes of health care quality—safety, effectiveness, patient-centeredness, timeliness, efficiency, and equity—were central to the committee’s review of the quality of abortion care. Table 5-1 details the committee’s conclusions regarding each of these quality attributes. Overall, the committee concludes that the quality of abortion care depends to a great extent on where women live. In many parts of the country, state regulations have created barriers to optimizing each dimension of quality care. The quality of care is optimal when the care is based on current evidence and when trained clinicians are available to provide abortion services.
4. What is the evidence on the minimum characteristics of clinical facilities necessary to effectively and safely provide the different types of abortion interventions?
Most abortions can be provided safely in office-based settings. No special equipment or emergency arrangements are required for medication abortions. For other abortion methods, the minimum facility characteristics depend on the level of sedation that is used. Aspiration abortions are performed safely in office and clinic settings. If moderate sedation is used, the facility should have emergency resuscitation equipment and an emergency transfer plan, as well as equipment to monitor oxygen saturation, heart rate, and blood pressure. For D&Es that involve deep sedation or general anesthesia, the facility should be similarly equipped and also have equipment to provide general anesthesia and monitor ventilation.
Women with severe systemic disease require special measures if they desire or need deep sedation or general anesthesia. These women require further clinical assessment and should have their abortion in an accredited ambulatory surgery center or hospital.
5. What is the evidence on what clinical skills are necessary for health care providers to safely perform the various components of abortion care, including pregnancy determination, counseling, gestational age assessment, medication dispensing, procedure performance, patient monitoring, and follow-up assessment and care?
Required skills All abortion procedures require competent providers skilled in patient preparation (education, counseling, and informed consent);
TABLE 5-1 Does Abortion Care in the United States Meet the Six Attributes of Quality Health Care?
a These attributes of quality health care were first proposed by the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Quality of Health Care in America in the 2001 report Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century.
b Elsewhere in this report, effectiveness refers to the successful completion of the abortion without the need for a follow-up aspiration.
clinical assessment (confirming intrauterine pregnancy, determining gestation, taking a relevant medical history, and physical examination); pain management; identification and management of expected side effects and serious complications; and contraceptive counseling and provision. To provide medication abortions, the clinician should be skilled in all these areas. To provide aspiration abortions, the clinician should also be skilled in the technical aspects of an aspiration procedure. To provide D&E abortions, the clinician needs the relevant surgical expertise and sufficient caseload to maintain the requisite surgical skills. To provide induction abortions, the clinician requires the skills needed for managing labor and delivery.
Clinicians that have the necessary competencies Both trained physicians (OB/GYNs, family medicine physicians, and other physicians) and advanced practice clinicians (APCs) (physician assistants, certified nurse-midwives, and nurse practitioners) can provide medication and aspiration abortions safely and effectively. OB/GYNs, family medicine physicians, and other physicians with appropriate training and experience can perform D&E abortions. Induction abortions can be provided by clinicians (OB/GYNs,
family medicine physicians, and certified nurse-midwives) with training in managing labor and delivery.
The extensive body of research documenting the safety of abortion care in the United States reflects the outcomes of abortions provided by thousands of individual clinicians. The use of sedation and anesthesia may require special expertise. If moderate sedation is used, it is essential to have a nurse or other qualified clinical staff—in addition to the person performing the abortion—available to monitor the patient, as is the case for any other medical procedure. Deep sedation and general anesthesia require the expertise of an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist to ensure patient safety.
6. What safeguards are necessary to manage medical emergencies arising from abortion interventions?
The key safeguards—for abortions and all outpatient procedures—are whether the facility has the appropriate equipment, personnel, and emergency transfer plan to address any complications that might occur. No special equipment or emergency arrangements are required for medication abortions; however, clinics should provide a 24-hour clinician-staffed telephone line and have a plan to provide emergency care to patients after hours. If moderate sedation is used during an aspiration abortion, the facility should have emergency resuscitation equipment and an emergency transfer plan, as well as equipment to monitor oxygen saturation, heart rate, and blood pressure. D&Es that involve deep sedation or general anesthesia should be provided in similarly equipped facilities that also have equipment to monitor ventilation.
The committee found no evidence indicating that clinicians that perform abortions require hospital privileges to ensure a safe outcome for the patient. Providers should, however, be able to provide or arrange for patient access or transfer to medical facilities equipped to provide blood transfusions, surgical intervention, and resuscitation, if necessary.
7. What is the evidence on the safe provision of pain management for abortion care?
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are recommended to reduce the discomfort of pain and cramping during a medication abortion. Some women still report high levels of pain, and researchers are exploring new ways to provide prophylactic pain management for medication abortion. The pharmaceutical options for pain management during aspiration, D&E, and induction abortions range from local anesthesia, to minimal sedation/anxiolysis, to moderate sedation/analgesia, to deep sedation/
analgesia, to general anesthesia. Along this continuum, the physiological effects of sedation have increasing clinical implications and, depending on the depth of sedation, may require special equipment and personnel to ensure the patient’s safety. The greatest risk of using sedative agents is respiratory depression. The vast majority of abortion patients are healthy and medically eligible for all levels of sedation in office-based settings. As noted above (see Questions 4 and 6), if sedation is used, the facility should be appropriately equipped and staffed.
8. What are the research gaps associated with the provision of safe, high-quality care from pre- to postabortion?
The committee’s overarching task was to assess the safety and quality of abortion care in the United States. As noted in the introduction to this chapter, the committee decided that its findings and conclusions fully respond to this charge. The committee concludes that legal abortions are safe and effective. Safety and quality are optimized when the abortion is performed as early in pregnancy as possible. Quality requires that care be respectful of individual patient preferences, needs, and values so that patient values guide all clinical decisions.
The committee did not identify gaps in research that raise concerns about these conclusions and does not offer recommendations for specific actions to be taken by policy makers, health care providers, and others.
The following are the committee’s observations about questions that merit further investigation.
Limitation of Mifepristone distribution As noted above, mifepristone, sold under the brand name Mifeprex, is the only medication approved by the FDA for use in medication abortion. Extensive clinical research has demonstrated its safety and effectiveness using the FDA-recommended regimen. Furthermore, few women have contraindications to medication abortion. Nevertheless, as noted earlier, the FDA REMS restricts the distribution of mifepristone. Research is needed on how the limited distribution of mifepristone under the REMS process impacts dimensions of quality, including timeliness, patient-centeredness, and equity. In addition, little is known about pharmacist and patient perspectives on pharmacy dispensing of mifepristone and the potential for direct-to-patient models through telemedicine.
Pain management There is insufficient evidence to identify the optimal approach to minimizing the pain women experience during an aspiration procedure without sedation. Paracervical blocks are effective in decreasing procedural pain, but the administration of the block itself is painful, and
even with the block, women report experiencing moderate to significant pain. More research is needed to learn how best to reduce the pain women experience during abortion procedures.
Research on prophylactic pain management for women undergoing medication abortions is also needed. Although NSAIDs reduce the pain of cramping, women still report high levels of pain.
Availability of providers APCs can provide medication and aspiration abortions safely and effectively, but the committee did not find research assessing whether APCs can also be trained to perform D&Es.
Addressing the needs of women of lower income Women who have abortions are disproportionately poor and at risk for interpersonal and other types of violence. Yet little is known about the extent to which they receive needed social and psychological supports when seeking abortion care or how best to meet those needs. More research is needed to assess the need for support services and to define best clinical practice for providing those services.
Abortion is a legal medical procedure that has been provided to millions of American women. Since the Institute of Medicine first reviewed the health implications of national legalized abortion in 1975, there has been a plethora of related scientific research, including well-designed randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, and epidemiological studies examining abortion care. This research has focused on examining the relative safety of abortion methods and the appropriateness of methods for different clinical circumstances. With this growing body of research, earlier abortion methods have been refined, discontinued, and new approaches have been developed.
The Safety and Quality of Abortion Care in the United States offers a comprehensive review of the current state of the science related to the provision of safe, high-quality abortion services in the United States. This report considers 8 research questions and presents conclusions, including gaps in research.
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Abortion Essay Example
05 January, 2020
11 minutes read
Author: Elizabeth Brown
Composing essays is a must during your college studies. Sometimes, you might get a topic that you aren’t fully aware of. Or, you can fail to grasp the idea of what a particular essay topic requires you to reveal in your essay. An abortion essay, for example, has become one of the very on-going issues these days. Professors believe that elaborating an essay on such a topic can help a student learn how to develop appropriate arguments and ideas, even in the most sensitive essays. If you experience any difficulty with the abortion essay writing, you just need to take a few points into account. Regardless of your title, which can be either why abortion should be supported or why abortion should be illegal essay, you can master your writing just by acknowledging several essential facts about it.
Abortion Essay: Definitions, Goals & Topics
An abortion argumentative essay reveals the arguments for or against pregnancy termination. The main peculiarity of such an essay is that one can write it from different points of view. While one may strongly feel like composing an abortion arguments essay and advancing their positioning in terms of healthcare and research, others may think of this essay in terms of psychology and sociology. Regardless of the stance, it is necessary to carry out some preliminary research and make sure you operate on both your arguments and data accurately.
Abortion essays require the essay writer to stay tolerant and open-minded. The topic, the selection of arguments, vocabulary – all of these indicators should not offend people who are sensitive to the outlined topic.
All in all, the ultimate goal of an argumentative essay on abortion is to present the topic and provide arguments for and against it. It is likewise essential to give an insight into the subject, reveal its current state, and include most recent findings.
Abortion Essay Titles
When composing a title for an abortion essay, the first critical thing to keep in mind is transparency. The title should not create confusion or offend the reader. To select a title you would like to develop in your essay, decide whether you know why abortion is wrong essay, or if you favor supporting the topic. Here are some of the topics that will be easy to elaborate on in your essay about abortion:
- Reasons why women in underdeveloped countries are inclined to abortions
- Potential health hazard as a consequence of abortion
- How different countries approach abortions
- The reasons why calling abortion murder is inappropriate
- Depriving a woman of the right to make an abortion is equal to depriving a woman of her freedom
Abortion Essay Structure
As you have already learned, a classical essay comprises three parts: an introduction, several body paragraphs (3-5), and concluding remarks. The abortion essay isn’t an exception. But a structure of an abortion essay should be very specific as it contains several fundamental points that differ from other essay types.
First, you need to define abortion as soon as you start writing an abortion essay. Even though almost everyone in the world knows what abortion is, it is essential to state its interpretation. Later, you can mention recent findings or events that fairly make an abortion a topic of heated debate. At the end of an introduction, your primary task is to demonstrate your attitude to the topic. Namely, you need to write a short thesis statement that will mention your opinion. For instance, a thesis statement can be: “Should society decide for women what to do with their lives and bodies?”.
If you decide to support abortion in the essay, you may write the body part in the following way: 2-3 paragraphs supporting abortion + one counter-argument against abortion. Remember to provide arguments and support them, not just admit that abortion is good or bad.
When writing a conclusion, briefly summarize everything you mentioned in the text. You should come back to the thesis you mentioned in the introduction while writing it. Don’t forget to mention your own vision and attitude to a problem.
Best Tips For Writing Abortion Essay
Research comes first.
First of all, explore what is already said and written on the topic of abortions. Namely, don’t just read what people say and don’t make conclusions based on what image abortion has in the media. Instead, you may refer to recent research, speeches, and scientific papers by people whose findings are objective and not based on their subjective, emotional perception. Afterward, try to figure out what your attitude on the topic of abortions is. Are you an opponent of the topic, or would you rather support it?
Pay attention to introduction
An introduction is the most fundamental part of the whole paper. If writing an introduction seems to be too complicated, just refer to scientific papers. Find an attention-grabbing statement and feel free to use it in your paper. If possible, try to paraphrase it.
Think of the implications
Suppose you decided to write an essay as an opponent of abortions. Think of some possible implications that termination of pregnancy may have. Also, consider the hazard of continuing an unwanted pregnancy. Doing so is essential if you want to strengthen your arguments.
Since such a topic might be extremely sensitive, it is vital not to be critical. It isn’t a good idea to get emotional or, what is worse, judgemental in your paper. Demonstrate that even though you support a particular argument, you don’t exclude that the opposite argument may also hold true.
Abortion Essay Examples
Abortion implies a termination of pregnancy by removing the embryo from a woman’s uterus prior to its birth. Uncountable controversies and criticism have increasingly surrounded the topic of abortion. Even though most developed countries officially carry out a lot of abortions annually, this medical procedure is actively discussed in many countries. Today, a lot of people believe that pregnancies are terminated by women who are either underaged, poor, or promiscuous. A woman who terminates her pregnancy can also be mature, having kids already, married, happy, and wealthy. Women make this step due to multiple reasons. Should society take control over a female body and decide her and her kid’s fate, and does the prohibition of abortion indeed decrease the abortion rate?
Official prohibition of abortions isn’t likely to reduce the abortion rate. For example, gambling and prostitution have long ago been prohibited in many countries in the world. However, this doesn’t mean that the people don’t gamble and that particular women don’t make their living by engaging in prostitution. The same concerns abortions. Once abortions are prohibited on a state level, women will be left with nothing but a decision to find a person who will carry out an abortion illegally. Or, what is worse, women might induce a miscarriage on their own if they can’t find a specialist. While a medical abortion procedure is a safe way to terminate pregnancy, the latter is not. The risk of terminating pregnancy elsewhere or even at home might be incompatible with life. A lot of women die because of an unsuccessful pregnancy termination, which is way worse than a safe abortion in a medical institution.
A lot of infants in the US die during the first years, months, if not days of their life. This happens as a result of an inborn pathology. Pathology is usually diagnosed during pregnancy screenings. Since such screenings are performed at an early pregnancy phase, a woman can terminate pregnancy once such pathology is identified. The fact of the matter is that many pathologies are incompatible with life too. For each mother, watching her kid dying and knowing that she cannot help, even if she had all the money in the world, is devastating. And that’s even worse for a suffering child. This leads to the conclusion that terminating a pregnancy is the most humane decision in such a situation.
Prohibiting abortions often equals to forcing a woman to give birth to a child she does not want. The reasons for such an unwillingness are uncountable. First, a woman might not be mature enough, she might have kids already and no money to afford this child. Besides, her pregnancy might be a mistake not because of her fault. Indeed, 2 in 1000 women in the US are raped annually. Why should a woman be judged by her decision to terminate pregnancy which is a result of a sexual assault? Even in cases when no sexual assault took place, it is still irrelevant to shame a woman and criticize her for knowing what will be better for her. It is better to terminate a pregnancy than to give life to a child who will never be loved and secure and be an unsuitable fit for a woman at the same time.
Terminating pregnancy, on the other hand, is not just depriving an unborn child of a right to live a life he or she deserves. Regardless of the woman’s motives, she imposes risks on her health. First of all, an abortion undermines a woman’s emotional and mental health. Additionally, it might set risks for her physical health. Indeed, she might reduce her chances of getting pregnant again or increase further pregnancy complications. Besides, 7 in every 100 women face a risk of having parts of a fetus remaining in her womb.
Overall, abortion is solely a woman’s issue. It should not have anything to do with politics, religion, and disgrace. Bringing a child to the world is the responsibility of a woman who has enough grounds for making an appropriate decision. Although terminating a pregnancy might bring severe health risks, it erases the problems that might be even more severe, such as watching a child suffer and not being able to give them a childhood they deserve.
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