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  • Published: 04 September 2021

Employee motivation and job performance: a study of basic school teachers in Ghana

  • Joseph Ato Forson   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-5997-5713 1 ,
  • Eric Ofosu-Dwamena 2 ,
  • Rosemary Afrakomah Opoku 3 &
  • Samuel Evergreen Adjavon   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-2713-3327 4  

Future Business Journal volume  7 , Article number:  30 ( 2021 ) Cite this article

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Motivation as a meaningful construct is a desire to satisfy a certain want and is a central pillar at the workplace. Thus, motivating employees adequately is a challenge as it has what it takes to define employee satisfaction at the workplace. In this study, we examine the relationship between job motivation factors and performance among teachers of basic schools in Ghana. The study employs a quantitative approach on a sample of 254 teachers from a population of 678 in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana, of which 159 questionnaires were duly answered and returned (representing 62.6% return rate). Using multiple regression and ANOVA, the study finds compensation package, job design and environment and performance management system as significant factors in determining teacher’s motivation in the municipality. Thus, these motivation factors were significant predictors on performance when regressed at a decomposed and aggregated levels. These findings support the self-determination theory, more specifically on the explanations advanced under the controlled and autonomous motivation factors. Significant differences were also observed in teachers’ performance among one of the age cohorts. The study urges the municipal directorate of education to make more room for young teacher trainees and interns who are at the formative stage of their careers to be engaged to augment the experienced staff strength. More should be done to make the profession attain some level of autonomy in the discharge of duty to breed the next genre of innovative educators in the municipality.


Motivation as a meaningful construct is a central pillar at the workplace. Thus, motivating employees adequately is a challenge as it has what it takes to define employee satisfaction at the workplace. Quite a number of studies have been devoted to the link between motivation and its constituent factors and employee performance in different organizations [ 7 , 46 ]. Our study draws inspiration from the self-determination theory (SDT) advanced by Deci et al. [ 14 ] as a framework that can be applied to teachers motivation and performance in basic schools in Ghana. It is worth noting that SDT differentiates between controlled motivation and autonomous motivation. The latter is evident when individuals are faced with pressure and control. The former on the other hand emphasizes on the volitional nature of the behavior of individuals. The SDT provides evidence that suggests that motivation fuels performance [ 14 , 57 ].

In Ghana, the subject of motivation has always been at the apex of national agenda and is evident in the number of strike actions in the public service. In the early part of the 2000s, teachers were part of the public servants whose agitation for improved condition of service did not go unnoticed. Forson and Opoku [ 16 ] had stated that teachers’ emolument accounted for less than 35% of the public service wage bill although teachers were perceived to be in the majority in terms of numbers. This phenomenon did spark a wave of attrition of trained teachers to other sectors of the Ghanaian economy. The teaching profession as a matter of fact became a launched pad for the youth. It should be said that the nature of the school setting is basically a function of internal management and leadership. The head teacher or director of education as the Chief Executive needs to appreciate and recognize that results can be obtained through people. In today’s world, organizations are concerned with what should be done to achieve sustained high level of performance through people who are innovative thinkers [ 4 , 17 , 41 ]. These include paying more attention to how individuals can best be motivated and provision of an atmosphere that helps individuals to deliver on their mandates in accordance with the expectations of management [ 25 ]. This means that an educational manager or an individual engaged as a teacher cannot do this job without knowing what motivates people. The building of motivating factors into organizational roles and the entire process of leading people should be contingent on knowledge of motivation. Koontz and Weinrich [ 25 ] agree that the educational managers’ job is not to manipulate people but rather to recognize what motivates people.

A national debate ensued on the significant role played by teachers in nation building and the need to address the shortfall in the condition of service of teachers to motivate them to perform. Wider consultative meetings were held with stakeholders in the teaching fraternity and the outcome and the panacea was the introduction of a uniform pay structure based on qualification. The legislative arm of government passed Act 737 in 2007 that saw the birth of the Fair Wages Salary Commission (FWSC). The mandate of the commission was to ensure a fair and systematic implementation of government pay policy [ 18 ]. Although this has stabilized the teaching profession in terms of the level of attrition, concerns on how this inducement translate into teacher’s performance seem to dominate national discourse especially in the face of fallen standard of education in Ghana. Such concerns have raised questions such as the following: (1) Does pay rise correlate with performance? (2) Are there other factors that ought to be considered in the nexus between motivation and performance? (3) Are there any significant differences in the level of performance among various age cohorts (4) Do educational background motivate teachers to perform better? These and other questions are addressed in this study.

The objective of this paper is to examine the link between job motivation factors and performance among basic school teachers in Ghana. This is against the backdrop that teachers have for some time now complained about condition of service and with the passage of FWSC bill, one would have thought that would have impacted on performance of teachers as it has been proven that motivation leads to satisfaction and ultimately to high performance. The standard of education continues to be a major concern in the educational setup of Ghana.

We organize the paper as follows: section one is the introduction that sets the tone for the paper. The problem is defined in this section, and the necessary questions that warrant redress are asked. We continue with a brief literature review on the concept of motivation, leading to the development of a conceptual framework and hypothesis based on the self-determination theory (SDT). Section two focuses on the method deployed, with emphasis on the aim, design and setting of the study. The theoretical equation for the multiple regression is brought to the fore here. Section three is the results and discussion, and section four concludes with policy implications.

The concept of motivation and self-determination theory (SDT)

Maslow [ 33 ] is credited for being part of the early contributors of human motivation concept. Maslow classifies human needs that motivate them into two: (1) homeostasis and (2) finding that appetites (preferential choices among foods). The former refers to the body’s automatic efforts to maintain a constant, normal state of the blood stream. The latter concept, on the other hand, is of the view that if the body lacks some chemical, the individual will tend (in an imperfect way) to develop a specific appetite or partial hunger for that missing food element. Thus, Maslow was of the view that any of the physiological needs and the consummatory behavior involved with them serve as channels for all sorts of other needs. Relating this assertion to teachers and the need for a salary pay rise, it should be pointed out that a person who thinks he is hungry may actually be seeking more for comfort, or dependence and managers in the educational sector ought to know this. Contemporary researches have expanded on the theory of motivation as advanced by Maslow [ 33 , 34 ]. For an organization to thrive and be efficient, certain conditions ought to be available in order for managers to get the best out of its human resources (workers/employees). Employees of an organization are the greatest asset in a dynamic and competitive environment [ 49 ]. In the words of Martin [ 32 ], if an organization wants to be effective and aims to sustain the success for a longer period of time, it is important for it to have a motivated workforce made up of employees ready to learn. The last three decades have witnessed an avalanche of studies that emphasizes on the point that employee motivation is essential for the success of a business [ 2 ].

In exploring further on this connection, Mifflin [ 35 ] delved into the fundamental meaning of the word “motivation” and pointed out that it is a Latin word which means to move. Therefore, it is near impossible to move peoples’ behavior in an organization unless such move is triggered by certain incentives. Robins and Coulter [ 49 ] explained the term motivation as the desire and willingness to exert high level of inspiration to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual need. In this study, we define motivation simply as the act of moving people triggered by the provision of some incentives to achieve a desired goal.

In the words of Deci and Ryan [ 13 ], the SDT focuses on human beings inherent desire to bring change and progress as they advance to their fullest potential. Several studies have applied the SDT in various research areas that includes education, medicine and other organizational context. The SDT is of the view that individuals are by nature active entities who will do everything possible to be integrated into the wider social environment in an attempt to be responsive to the behavior consistent with existing self. The theory according to Trépanier et al. [ 57 ] defines social context as the workplace which facilitate or frustrate ones striving toward self-determination.

The SDT theory has two major forms of motivation which may be differentiated on the basis of its nature and quality according to Howard et al. [ 22 ]. When employees engage in interesting activities or in pursuance of their needs, such a form of motivation is ascribed as autonomous motivation. Such a form of motivation facilitates employees’ vitality and energy including satisfaction and well-being [ 14 ]. When employees engage in activities out of pressure as a result of external factors such as attaining rewards including threat of being punished, or even endogenous sources of such pressure as maintaining self-esteem, want of approval, image management or avoiding guilt, such a form of motivation can be ascribed as controlled motivation. Gillet et al. [ 20 ] explain that people with controlled motivational behavior do so out of reason as long as these contingencies exist and thus it predicts maladaptive work outcomes (e.g., exhaustion of personal energy) and turnover intentions.

SDT and job performance

According to Motowildo et al. [ 38 ], job performance is a construct that elicits behavior related to achievement with evaluative components. Most studies on this relationship have emphasized on the role of autonomous and intrinsic motivation on performance with the argument that individuals autonomously motivated have certain inherent values and behaviors and thus give off optimal performance. The theory of self-determination explains that autonomous motivation should be the necessary ingredient for better performance. That is, when individuals are better informed about the purpose of their job and have a sense of ownership and the degree of freedom to operate (autonomy), the possibility of they performing better at work may be high. The source of such motivation according to Deci et al. [ 14 ] may be from one’s interest and values. It is purpose-driven, amplifies energy, enjoyable and provides enough rationalization for tasks to be accomplished effectively. Moreover, the intrinsic component of autonomous motivation has been linked with job performance in related literature and types of performance [ 7 ].

Empirically, there are evidence to suggest that autonomous motivation is linked with performance. Evidence pertaining to controlled motivation is less dispositive. Proponents of the SDT have argued that controlled motivation (e.g., performance management systems) could reduce employee functioning because action derived from personal values and interest may be disconnected, therefore leading to negative effects on performance [ 48 ]. Counter argument posits that controlled motivation may foster employee willingness to complete tasks in an attempt to avoid guilt or punishment or to earn external reward which may come in the form of compensation package [ 27 ]. In this study, we focus on both the controlled and autonomous motivational factors. More specifically, we focus on Herzberg et al. [ 21 ] motivators validated by Harvard Business Review in 2003 which were made up of two motivators: (1) intrinsic factors such as achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, growth, responsibility and advancement, and (2) extrinsic factors such as supervision, working conditions, payment, interpersonal relationship, appreciation and company policy. Therefore, the bundle of motivators used in this study are similar to the aforementioned ones and may include performance management systems, external rewards that come in the form of compensation packages, job environment and training and development [ 30 ]. We explain these constructs further with the empirical evidence leading to the development of the conceptual framework.

  • Compensation package

Rasheed et al. [ 44 ] posit that package of compensation offered to teachers in institutions of higher learning has to be made based on several factors that may include the experience that underpins the abilities of the teacher, qualifications and perhaps market rates. This is supported by Bohlander et al. [ 6 ] who argued that teachers compensation ought to be the most central concern for managers and administrators of schools in stimulating them. Most of these research studies are premised on the fact that compensation should be designed to meet the needs of teachers and has be fashioned in the form of tangible rewards. In corroborating this assertion, Marlow et al. [ 31 ] observed that low condition of service defined by salary creates stress among teachers in schools. Thus, teachers’ condition of service should be market competitive in order to get higher motivation and to maintain them. Other studies have found that salary levels have been the main challenge for education managers and are the reason for the high attrition and that education planners and managers should pay attention to the design of compensation packages.

Job design and working environment

The needs of teachers on the job ought to be planned properly. The workload on teachers should not be such that it will de-motivate [ 44 ], p. 103. Teachers at all levels should have a learning environment, and educational administrators should make a point to treat existing human resource (teachers) with maximum respect devoid of any discrimination.

Nowadays, job design is the central focus of managers and human resource researchers. Thus, a well-designed job has what it takes in getting interest of employees. On the contrary, poorly designed job breeds boredom among employees. Davidson [ 12 ] makes an important observation and remarked in his research that when teachers are overloaded and burdened with so many non-teaching activities, it portends as a hindrance in the job design. Other scholars such as Clarke and Keating [ 9 ] have argued that the working environment of an educational institution affects teachers’ motivation. Clarke and Keating [ 9 ] found students to be the main reason why teachers are motivated in schools. His emphasis was on talented and hardworking students who boost the morale of teachers. Students who do not produce the desired results, on the other hand, de-motivate teachers. Moreover, class size is another important consideration in motivating teachers. Other variants of the job design and environment are captured in Ofoegbu [ 39 ] research in which he argued that institutions provide support in the form of resources to the teachers in the form of computers with Internet connections. Moreover, other factors such as the provision of e-libraries and research equipment, and other logistics for students may also serve as an effective motivator for teachers.

Performance management system

Management of teachers and educational administrators in all levels of education should focus on implementing basic performance management systems to continually appraise teachers’ accomplishments. For instance, the use of a so-called 360-degree feedback system is important where students’ feedback is attended to with the attention it deserves.

Stafyarakis [ 53 ] corroborated this and asserted that ‘Annual Confidential Reports’ have become obsolete. Yet there has been an emergence of a scientific approach on the field of performance management as time goes on. In discussing this further, Milliman [ 37 ] is of the view that although there are many practices available in this field, but a performance management system based on 360-degree feedback approach is the most effective.

Contrary to the norm that teachers are most motivated by the intrinsic factors and least motivated by the monetary aspects of teaching, Rao [ 43 ] demonstrates that poor appraisal systems, lack of recognition and lack of respect from the head and other co-workers are some common reasons of distress and de-motivation among teachers in educational institutions. The lack of recognition from supervisors is one of the many reasons why teachers would want to leave the teaching profession Stafyarakis [ 53 ].

Moreover, Rasheed et al. [ 45 ] points out that teachers are much concerned about students’ feedback; hence, feedback from the students should be given a proper weightage and in appraising and managing teachers’ performance in the institutions of higher education. Jordan [ 23 ] stressed that the feedback of students is a major issue of that motivates teachers and therefore teachers should be given feedback from their students in scientific manners.

Training and development

It is of significance that educational administrators focus on training activities as an essential means of both motivating employees and sustaining the survival of that organization according to Photanan [ 42 ] and Bohlander et al. [ 6 ]. Leslie [ 28 ] identified professional growth as basic motivator for teachers. He stressed that the professional learning platform available to a teacher is the basic path of his/her career development [ 29 ].

Conceptual framework and hypothesis development

In this section, the study harmonizes the components of the SDT theory into a conceptual framework on motivation and performance connection. The framework developed in this research may be useful as a guide by academicians and practitioners in understanding the mechanisms through which motivational factors affect job performance among teachers in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana. On elucidating on what a framework is, Chinn and Kramer [ 8 ] explained that a framework can be seen as a complex mental formulation of experience. Further clarification was given to distinguish conceptual framework from a theoretical framework. They assert that while theoretical framework is the theory on which the study is based, the conceptual framework deals with the operationalization of the theory. Put in another way, it represents the position of the researcher on the problem at hand and at the same time gives direction to the study. It may be entirely new, or an adoption of, or adaptation of, a model used in previous research with modification to fit the context of the inquiry [ 8 ].

The framework developed in this research has three components: the first component looks at the factors necessary to induce motivation among teachers. The second component focuses on motivation as a concept. The last component which is on job performance looks at the link between the aggregate motivational factors and performance. The extant literature survey on motivational factors and performance provides all the necessary ingredients for the construction of the framework. First, the extant literature shows that motivation as a concept is simply the act of moving people triggered by the provision of some incentives to achieve a desired goal. The triggers of motivation may include such factors such as compensation packages, job design and working environment, performance management system and training and development which are controlled and autonomous factors as crucial elements for motivation.

The second component of the framework is the aggregate motivation, which is the interaction of the controlled and autonomous factors of motivation. Motivation according to Reeve (2001) refers to the excitement level, the determination and the way a person works hard at his work setting. Ricks et al. [ 47 ] explicating on the thesis of motivation was of the view that motivation is an internal aspiration of a man that compels him to reach an objective or the goal set for him.

The third component of the framework is performance. According to Culture IQ [ 11 ] and Motowildo et al. [ 38 ], job performance is the assessment of whether an employee has done their job well. It is an individual evaluation (one measured based on a single person’s effort). In the words of Viswesvaran and Ones [ 58 ], p. 216, the term job performance is used in reference to actions that are scalable, behavior and outcomes that employees engage in or bring about that are linked with and contribute to the goals of an organization. It is linked to both employee- and organizational-level outcomes. A distinctive feature of the framework developed in this research is that it shows the interaction between autonomous and controlled factors and motivation and how it affects the performance of teachers in Fig.  1 .

figure 1

Source : Created by the authors

A Conceptual model of the relationship between Motivation and Teachers’ Performance.

It can be visibly seen from the framework that teachers motivation may be defined by both controlled and intrinsic motivational factors that may include those that fall under compensation packages, working environment, performance management system and training and development of teachers [ 44 ]. Yet the performance of teachers in itself motivates management and policy makers to institute compensation packages, improved psychological aura through enhanced working environment and job design and implementing appropriate performance management policy for a continued performance enhancement. It should also be emphasized here that these job satisfaction factors may pass as job motivational factors and theorize that a highly motivated teacher may be related to the level of satisfaction.

Scholars such as Thus Milda et al. [ 36 ] and Spector [ 52 ] collectively share the opinion that teachers differ from typical employees in various ways. Therefore, instruments that usually measure such job satisfaction and motivation dimensions as appreciation, communication, coworkers, fringe benefits, job conditions, nature of work, organization itself, organizations’ policies and procedures, pay, personal growth, promotion opportunities, recognition, security, supervision may not always match with teachers’ motivation aspects on the teaching field. However, some of these factors according to some researchers can be used in understanding motivation and performance among teachers. The consensus on these dimensions is especially on supervision, work itself, promotion and recognition being important dimensions of teachers’ motivation at work [ 50 , 51 , 56 ]. In addition, several researchers have used the same measurement or dimension but with different wording (synonym). For instance, Kreitner and Kinici [ 26 ] define job satisfaction with the synonym “motivation” which they argue contains “those psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed” Motivation depends on certain intrinsic, as well as extrinsic factors which in collaboration results in fully committed employees. Based on this relationship, we hypothesize that:

Hypothesis 1

Teachers’ compensation package, job environment and design, performance management systems, training and development significantly affect teachers’ motivation.

In a similar manner, Board [ 5 ] asserted that tangible incentives are effective in increasing performance for task not done before, to encourage “thinking smarter” and to support both quality and quantity to achieve goals. Incentives, rewards and recognitions are the prime factors that impact on employee motivation. Aarabi et al. [ 1 ] confirmed this assertion by making use of factors such as payment, job security, promotion, freedom, friendly environment, and training and employee job performance to measure the term organizational motivation with positive relationship found on these factors. On rewards (which comes in various forms, e.g., income/pay, bonus, fringe benefits among others ) and recognition/appreciation, according to other researchers keep high spirit among employees which boost employee’s morale which may have a direct impact on performance and output. The study hypothesizes that:

Hypothesis 2

Teacher’s motivation positively affects their performance.

The aim, design and setting of the study

The paper aims to examine the link between motivation factors and performance among basic school teachers in Ghana. Data for this study were collected from primary. Primary data were sourced from the field of study through questionnaire administration. The researchers sought for permission from the municipal directorate of education to engage with teachers within the municipality. A written permission was granted, and questionnaires were administered to all basic schools’ teachers in the municipality.

At the preparatory stage, the questionnaires designed were tested to make sure participants understood the demands of the questions in the questionnaires. Informal interviews method has been adopted to make sure that additional information that could not have been gathered through the use of questionnaires was captured. The formal interviews using questionnaires ensured that we stayed focused on the background objective that formed the basis of the study.

Sampling technique and data analysis

On the determination of the sample size, different authors have differing views, but in most cases, the recommendation is that it should be large. Stevens [ 54 ] recommends at least 15 participants per predictor for reliable equation in the case of factor analysis. Tabachnick and Fidel [ 55 ] provides a formula for calculating sample size requirements, taking into consideration the number of independent variables that one wish to use: N  > 50 + 8  m (where m  = number of independent variables). In line with these and other requirements like Yamane [ 60 ], the exact sample size will be determined and questionnaires distributed accordingly to the selected public and private schools in the Effutu Municipality.

The human resource unit of the educational directorate of education in the municipality has indicated that there are over 678 teachers teaching at various levels in the municipality [ 15 ]. Thus, the 678 teachers become the population in the municipality. Using Yamane [ 60 ] and validating with other sampling size technique, a sample size of 254 has been adopted with a 0.5 level of precision. Thus, 254 questionnaires were distributed among the various schools, but 159 were filled and returned (representing 62.6% return rate).

Quantitative data are analyzed by means of a software called Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20). This is necessitated by the fact that the analyzed quantitative data ought to be presented by graphs to give quick visual impression of what it entails.

The scale measurement of the questionnaires included nominal scale, ordinal and intervals. Questionnaires used were segmented to capture the demographic characteristics of the respondents and the constructs that feeds into the multi-level latent variables using a five-point Likert scale (see [ 19 , 24 ]). A verification was done to assess the suitability of the data for factor analysis with the expectation that Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy ( \({\mathrm{i.e}}., {\rm KMo}\ge 0.6)\) and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity value are significant ( p  = 0.05), which was the case for our sample data. In measuring some of the latent variables, the study developed a 9-scale item on compensation package with the following loadings (e.g., how high is your qualification and pay ( \(\alpha =0.72)\) , “is your experience linked to your current pay?” ( \(\alpha =0.80)\) , “are you satisfied with the market premium” ( \(\alpha =0.75)\) etc.). All items were rated on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = “not important” to 5 = “very important.” A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicates that the hypothesized correlated 3-factor structure fits well with the responds of the participants ( \({\chi }^{2}/df = 2.01, {\rm RMR}=0.05,{\rm RMSEA}=0.06,{\rm TLC}=0.94,{\rm CFI}=0.94)\) .

Job design and working environment was measured by a 7-item scale based on questions such as “how do you perceive your workload” ( \(\alpha =0.88)\) , “does your work type offer learning environment?” ( \(\alpha =0.83),\) “Are you inspired by your working environment?” ( \(\alpha =0.87)\) , “Talented student boost morale” ( \(\alpha =0.84)\) etc. Similarly, all items were rated on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = “not important” to 5 = “very important.” A confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the hypothesized one-factor structure fits well with the data ( \({\chi }^{2}/df = 3.06, {\rm RMR}=0.05,{\rm RMSEA}=0.06,{\rm TLC}=0.94,{\rm CFI}=0.94)\) .

Performance management system was assessed using a 9-item scale based on these inferences (e.g., “number of times supervisor visits” ( \(\alpha =0.69)\) , “how often are you visited by the municipal director of education” ( \(\alpha =0.78)\) , “work recognition” ( \(\alpha =0.72)\) , etc.). All constructs were rated as 1 = “not important” to 5 = “very important.” A confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the hypothesized two-factor structure was in line with the data ( \({\chi }^{2}/df=2.86, {\rm RMR}=0.05,{\rm RMSEA}=0.06,{\rm TLC}=0.94,{\rm CFI}=0.94)\) .

The last but not the least concept explored was job performance. It was assessed on a 12-item scale based on the inferences such as (e.g., “are pupils treated with respect?” ( \(\alpha\) =0.77), “do you help pupils work on their social-emotional skills?” ( \(\alpha\) = 0.69), “are you fair and consistent with pupils” ( \(\alpha\) = 0.87), etc.). All items were rated on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = “not important” to 5 = “very important.” A confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the hypothesized two-factor structure was in line with the data ( \({\chi }^{2}/df = 2.06, {\rm RMR} = 0.05,{\rm RMSEA} = 0.06,{\rm TLC} = 0.94,{\rm CFI} = 0.93)\) . The study proceeds to make use of the proposed measurement models to assess the relationship outlined in the conceptual model in Fig.  1 .

Hypothesized theoretical equation

Based on the conceptual model in Fig.  1 , the study makes a number of hypothesis on the relation between motivational factors and motivation itself and subsequently the link between motivation and performance. Consequently, the study model leads to two structural equations as presented below:

where JM = job motivation, CP = compensation package, JDWE = job design and working environment, PMS = performance management system, TD = training and development, JP = job performance.

Results and discussion

The study begins with a frequency distribution and descriptive statistics to capture the responses of teachers regarding the itemized construct identified in the conceptual model. Beginning with these two is borne out of the fact that the data category used in the study included categorical, ordinal and nominal variables which may be difficult to have a summary descriptive statistic.

With the understanding that every statistical approach is guided by certain principles or in most cases what has come to be known as assumptions, a diagnostic check was undertaken. Multicollinearity and singularity, for instance, look at the relationship among the independent variables. Thus, multicollinearity exists when the independent variables are highly correlated (r = 0.5 and above). The study was particular about these assumptions because multiple regression abhors them (singularity and multicollinearity). Issues concerning outliers (i.e., very high and low scores) was dealt with given the fact that multiple regression is sensitive to them. On normality, the results of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov statics were used to assess the distribution of scores. The test result was insignificant (i.e., sig. value of more than 0.05), which pointed to normality. Having done these, the study was sure there were no errors in the data and that the descriptive phase of the data used can begin.

Consistent with the general distribution of gender in the demographic characteristics of Ghana, about 63 of the teachers were female (39.6%) with 59.1% made up of male and 1.3% being transgender. The transgender teachers were foreign teachers who were here on an exchange program. Most of the teachers in the sample taught at the primary level (46.5%), followed by junior high level (43.4%) and kindergarten (8.8%), respectively. About 34.6% of the respondent responded they have taught between 6 and 10 years and 22.0% had spent between 11 and 20 years teaching. In terms of educational background, about 50.3% of the respondent have had first degree, with the remaining 49.7% being holders of teachers Cert. A or Diploma from the training colleges, and master’s degree of the returned samples. The average number of years participants have taught was observed to be 2.34 years with a corresponding standard deviation of 1.010. We present the demographic characteristics of our participants in Table 1 .

As shown in Table 2 , the compensation package scale has good internal consistency, with a Cronbach alpha coefficient reported to be around 0.725. According to Pallant [ 40 ], Cronbach alpha values above 0.7 are considered acceptable; however, values above 0.8 are preferable. Therefore, the threshold value of 0.725 means our scale is internally consistent and acceptable. Similarly, the job design and working environment scale recorded a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.793.

Performance management on the other hand had a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.70, yet training and development recorded a lower Cronbach alpha of 0.53, which meant it lacked internal consistency. The study had to drop training and development as factor for job motivation and proceed with the others. Job performance, however conspicuously recorded a Cronbach alpha of 0.83. In terms of the output from the correlation matrix, it can be visibly seen that the scales computed were not highly correlated and fallen below the threshold of 0.8 as recommended (see [ 40 ], p. 56). Both the assumption of singularity and multicollinearity by extension have not been violated (see Durbin Watson results) and thus the study can proceed to run the regression as per the set objectives and the conceptual model.

We go further to examine the causal effect of the factors identified as triggers of motivation on teachers’ level of motivation using ordinary least square method with multiple regression as the exact approach. Having gained credence from the test of reliability and validity, examining the causal effect becomes imperative. Using the baseline model in Eq. ( 1 ), the study concurrently runs the regression with the output shown in Tables 2 , 3 and 4 .

In model one, the study regresses compensation package with the dependent variable without controlling for other related factors. By implication what the results in model (1) seeks to explain is that, as the value of compensation package for teachers increases by 73 percentage points in the municipality, the mean of job motivation increases by that same margin. The high compensation is evidenced by government of Ghana reform in salary structure and bolstered by the effort of the Member of Parliament (MP) through the sharing of teaching and learning materials (TLMs) in the municipality. By this gesture by the MP, teachers feel appreciated and derive high motivation. Moreover, the presence of a university (University of Education, Winneba) has helped to deepen the level of motivation. The model has cross-variable variance of 52 percentage and with close to about 48 percentage unexplained as inferred from the coefficients of both coefficient of determination ( R 2 ) and adjusted coefficient of determination. Generally, the model is jointly significant ( F  = 170, p  < 0.01) with a corresponding tolerance and variable inflationary factor (VIF) of 1.

In model (2), the study varies the variables used with the inclusion of job design and working environment to examine how well the model can be through it cross-variable variance. Controlling for job design and environment shows a significant drop in the coefficient of compensation package from 0.73 to 0.53 although highly significant. Job design and environment recorded a coefficient of 0.49 which meant this indicator increases teachers’ satisfaction and thus motivation by 49 percentage points. In explaining this phenomenon, one would say that jobs that are rich in positive behavioral essentials such as autonomy, task significance and identity and feedback contribute to employees’ motivation. Government has since the introduction of its flagship program on free senior high education emphasized the significance of education across all the strata. The autonomy of heads of unit was by this directive curtailed. Heads of unit were barred from initiating policies to ease their operations. This finding is supported in the literature [ 7 , 30 , 46 ] and is aligned with the SDT. For example, head teachers who had levied pupils with printing fees were sanctioned for such initiative. Thus, by this gesture, the autonomy of the profession was in doubt and this explains why the level of motivation when this parameter is mentioned is low. With this addition, model (2) marginally sees an improvement of 0.73 in the cross-variable variance which is a significant. Model (2) was jointly significant ( F  = 170, p  < 0.01).

All the identified job motivation variables are concurrently used in model (3) to infer whether there was going to be a significant increase in the coefficient of determination and a drop in the residue. As a confirmation to the priori assumption, there was a marginal improvement of the explanatory strength of the model (R 2  = 0.88). However, the model witnessed significant drop in the coefficients. Thus, compensation package dropped further from 0.53 to 0.42 and job design and environment from 0.49 to 0.34.

It is important to note that the value of Durbin Watson test results when all the identified factors are brought together in model (3) indicate a no autocorrelation in the model which validates the earlier point of having dealt with critical assumptions that borders on autocorrelation. Moreover, both our VIF and tolerance were within the acceptable level. For instance, models (1)–(3) had a VIF score less than or equal to 1, which meant there were no issues concerning a possibility of high multicollinearity. For tolerance, there are no clear-cut cut-off point, but there is a suggestion of a tolerance greater than 0.40 according to Allison [ 3 ]. Yet Weisburd and Britt [ 59 ] are of the view that anything below 0.2 is an indication of serious multicollinearity. Inferring from these, it therefore goes to suggest that the tolerance levels of above 1 meant no multicollinearity.

In examining the relationship between the aggregated motivational factors and performance, the study brings to the fore the following findings as shown in Table 3 . The study presents four (4) different models on the relationship between motivation and performance. Model (1) regresses the aggregate motivational factors on job performance, and the findings are quite interesting to note. The job performance indicator is increased by 46% for every unit increase in motivation. This relationship can further be explained to mean a teacher within the municipality with a sense of satisfaction with his/her teaching job may feel more inclined to be at post no matter what the prevailing circumstances are. The snowball effect of this phenomenon is the reduction in absenteeism with a corresponding curb on teachers’ turnover. Although the coefficient of determination which explains the cross-variable variance is by far lower than expected ( R 2  = 0.214), the model is jointly significant ( F  = 41.44, p  < 0.01). The VIF and tolerance levels are within acceptable threshold with a Durbin Watson of 2.04 that signals a no concern of autocorrelation in the model.

Models (2)–(4) regress the decomposed job motivation factors on performance to ascertain their level of significance, and indeed, as theorized, these factors were positively significant except with lower coefficient of determinations ( R 2 ). To explain the relation in model (2), it is important to note that compensation is the output and the benefit that a teacher within the municipality receives in the form of pay, or even any form of exchanges (in kind or in cash) to increase performance. The Member of Parliament for the area as part of effort to ensure teachers are well compensated shared over 700 laptops to teachers within the municipality for effective teaching and learning. This certainly explains why the attrition rate in the municipality is low vis-à-vis high morale of teachers which largely explains the level of motivation and satisfaction.

Model (3) touches on the psychological state the teacher finds him or herself owed to the nature and state of the job. This may include the job environment and the degree of specialization. Yet in model (4), there is an exponential increase in the coefficient of performance management systems as it increases job performance within the municipality by 51 percentage point. It should be noted that performance management sets expectations for teachers’ performance and thus motivates them to work harder in ways expected by the municipal directorate of education under GES. The results in model (5) confirm earlier ones, but the inclusion of the other variables as control seems to have increased the coefficients of the various motivational factors. This partly explains the performance of the municipality in the central region in successive BECE.

Further investigation is made to understand which of the age groups is responsible for the ensuing level of performance in the municipality. To do this, the study relies on one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Here, the mean scores of more than two groups are compared using a continuous variable as the dependent variable. Having transformed the ordinal variables to continuous, it makes it quite straightforward to do this. Using the categorical independent variable of age which has more than three categories and the job performance variable which we have transformed to be continuous variable, the study undertakes a one-way between groups ANOVA with post hoc tests. Teachers were divided into four groups according to their ages (group 1: 20–30 yrs.; group 2: 31–40 yrs.; group 3: 41–50 yrs.; group 4: above 51 yrs.). There was a statistically significant difference at the \(p<0.10\) level in job performance scores for the four age groups: F (4, 159) = 0.042, p  = 0.10. Despite reaching statistical significance for one of the groups, the actual difference in mean scores between the groups was quite small. The effect size was calculated using eta squared (eta squared = 179.1/8513 = 0.02) which in Cohen’s ([ 10 ], pp. 248–7) terms is considered far too small a size. Note should be taking that Cohen categorizes 0.01 as a small effect, 0.06 as a medium effect and 0.14 as a large effect. Post hoc comparisons using the Tukey HSD test indicated that the mean score for group 1 (56.12, SD = 4.26) is significantly different from the other three groups which were insignificant. The result has theoretical soundness. Group 1 was made up of young teachers who had either returned from training colleges after completion or on internship and thus had cause to perform for a possibility of being retained or given a very good report since internship supervision forms part of the trainees’ assessment.

In this study, we examined among a host of autonomous and controlled motivational factors and their relationship to performance among basic schools’ teachers in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana. A conceptual model was developed with the necessary hypotheses formulated. Using multiple regression and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the causal effect as shown in the model is tested.

The study finds compensation package, job design and environment and performance management system to be positively significant factors in explaining teacher’s motivation in the municipality. These job motivation factors were significant predictors on job performance. The aggregated job motivation indicator when regressed on job performance reveals a positive and significant effect. Based on the results from the ANOVA, the study recommends the municipal directorate of education to make more room for young teacher trainees who are at the formative stage of their career to be engaged to augment the experienced staff strength. More should be done to make the profession attain some level of autonomy in the discharge of duty to breed the next genre of innovative educators in the municipality. A limitation of the study is its inability to treat job motivation as a mediatory variable as captured in the framework. The study recommends future research to explore this connection.

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Analysis of variance

Self-determination theory

Single spine salary structure

Fair wages salary commission

Teaching and learning materials

Member of parliament

Job motivation

Job performance


Confirmatory factor analysis

Standardized root mean square residual

Root mean square error of approximation

Statistical package for social science

Variable inflationary factor

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The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the Effutu Directorate of Education, particularly the Municipal Director of Education for the support during the data collection stage. We thank all the basic school teachers in the municipality who devoted time to fill and return questionnaires sent to them. We are also grateful to the Directorate for the secondary materials given to the team.

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JAF contributed 50%, EOD contributed 25%, RAO contributed 20%, and SEA contributed 5%, respectively. All authors have read and approved the manuscript.

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Forson, J.A., Ofosu-Dwamena, E., Opoku, R.A. et al. Employee motivation and job performance: a study of basic school teachers in Ghana. Futur Bus J 7 , 30 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s43093-021-00077-6

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  • Performance
  • Performance management systems
  • Single spine salary structure (SSSS)

JEL Classification

thesis on motivation and employee performance

School Thesis

The Impact of Motivation on Employees Performance

The Impact of Motivation on Employees Performance

Chapter One of The Impact of Motivation on Employees Performance

Background to the study.

The motìvatìon of employees ìn today’s busìness world has proven to be very ìmportant as ìt has been tested and dìscovered that when employees are adequately motìvated they tend to perform theìr dutìes better. Thìs study wìll go to show the ìmpact motìvatìon has on several banks ìn Nìger state. Motìvatìon mìght be taken lìghtly but those who are aware of ìts ìmpact on the performance of employees have taken advantage of ìt.

Today organìzatìon can easìly change theìr materìal, needs, goods and servìces to other organìzatìon, or to other countrìes. But the only one resource whìch ìs not easìly exchangeable ìs human resources. So we can say that human resources ìs ìmportant or the most competìtìve assets of any organìzatìon that cannot be exchangeable. Human resources or human assets mean the workers or the employee of any organìzatìon. So motìvatìon ìs maìn factor that affect the human resources of the organìzatìon. The organìzatìon should be motìvatìng theìr employees for the best performance or for achìevìng the organìzatìonal goals. In fact motìvatìon ìs the best tool for best performance. Today there are many dìscussìons about motìvatìon and the relatìonshìp of employee’s competence and the organìzatìonal effìcìencìes. Motìvatìon wìll lead to the fact that workers or employees of the organìzatìon wìll serìously do hìs dutìes and responsìbìlìtìes (Azar and Shafìghì, 2013). Attractìve Salarìes or pay are also Valuable tools and play an ìmportant role to ìncrease employee’s performance and also ìncrease the output of an organìzatìon (Muogbo, 2013).

Accordìng to Iqbal  et al.  (2012), Employee’s motìvatìon and theìr abìlìty collectìvely partìcìpate ìnto employee’s performance and ìn the dìffìcult tasks gìven by the manger are for the purpose of gettìng maxìmum productìvìty. Now a day’s researchers are more concerned wìth ìncreased performance, perfectìon and workìng abìlìty therefore gìvìng rìse to the need for employees’ motìvatìon .Motìvatìon ìs the one of the most ìmportant term of psychology and most of the managers who strìve to obtaìn maxìmum output and performance are aware of thìs.

Motìvatìon can be understood as the process by whìch organìzatìons tend to boost theìr employees’ performance on the job through several ìncentìves. Thìs ìs done to explore the maxìmum potentìal of employees. After knowìng thìs fact, Frank Hawkìns (1993) defìnes motìvatìon as “what drìves or encourages a person to behave ìn a partìcular fashìon, the ìnternal and external force whìch ìnìtìates, guìdes, sustaìns and termìnates all ìmportant actìvìtìes. It ìnfluences the level of performance, the effìcìency achìeved and the tìme spent on an actìvìty. It ìs therefore safe to say that motìvatìon ìs external as well as ìnternal. Internal motìvatìon comes from wìthìn an ìndìvìdual that ìs hìs/her ìnner drìve, whìle external motìvatìon ìs affected by several factors ìn the envìronment or ìn thìs case the organìzatìon.

Nnabuìfe (2009) defìned motìvatìon as the ìnternal or external drìvìng force that produces the wìllìngness to perform an act to a conclusìve end. Therefore, motìvatìon ìs the process of stìrrìng behavìor, sustaìnìng behavìoral progress, and channelìng the saìd behavìor ìnto a specìfìc course of actìon.

The art of motìvatìng workers rests on the strength of theìr motìves. Motìves are need, wants, desìre, or ìmpulses wìthìn the ìndìvìdual and these determìne human behavìor. Therefore, motìvatìon ìs the process of stìrrìng behavìor, sustaìnìng behavìor progress, and channelìng behavìor ìnto a specìfìc course of actìon. Thus, motìves (needs, desìre) ìnduce employees to act. Motìvatìon therefore ìs the ìnner state that energìes people, channels and sustaìns human behavìor.

In most organìzatìons, motìvatìon ìs needed to achìeve the varìous goals and objectìves set. In order for these objectìves to be realìzed, human resource must be encouraged to carry out theìr actìvìtìes effìcìently and effectìvely. Human beìngs ìn general tend to work ìn condìtìons that suìt them comfortably. Organìzatìons however tend to ìgnore the fact that theìr staffs need to be motìvated ìn order to get the best out of them.


Over the years, ìt has been observed that the morale of workers ìs very low whìch often affects theìr performance ìn the organìzatìon. Besìdes, there have been cases of workers crossìng from one job to another ìn search of hìgher pay or better ìncentìves.

Increase ìn wages and bonus of employees seem to be a very popular method of motìvatìon fìrms have adopted. Thìs study wìll go to examìne ìf fìnancìal motìvatìon ìs the only form of motìvatìon that can be employed by fìrms; ìf ìt has been successful over tìme; ìf the management has employed other forms of motìvatìon; the possìble outcome and also to suggest alternatìve forms of motìvatìon.

Workers leave organìzatìons due to the fact that they are not motìvated enough. Some are not wìllìng to leave because they are enjoyìng some benefìts ìn terms of promotìon, whìch leads to ìncrease ìn salarìes and wages, bonus and other ìncentìves.

In vìew of thìs, the problem ìdentìfìed ìs that employers and manager of organìzatìons tend to only motìvate theìr employee fìnancìally therefore ìgnorìng other forms of motìvatìon, thìs ìs the gap whìch thìs study wìll try to fìll.


The maìn aìm of thìs research ìs to examìne the ìmpact of motìvatìon on employee performance. Other specìfìc objectìves of the study are:

1.      To ìnvestìgate ìf fìnancìal bonuses lead to hìgher employees’ performance ìn the selected banks.

2.      To ascertaìn ìf recognìtìon has any effect of the level of employees’ performance


1. Are fìnancìal bonuses the only form of motìvatìon that can be used to achìeve hìgher employee performance?

2. Does recognìtìon have a sìgnìfìcant relatìonshìp wìth employees’ performance ìn the selected banks?

The study ìs based maìnly on the ìmpact motìvatìon has on employee performance. Ìn order to evaluate the sìgnìfìcance, these hypotheses wìll be put ìnto test;

i.                    Hₒ: Fìnancìal bonuses are not the only form of motìvatìon that can be used ìn ìncreasìng employee performance

ii.                  Hₒ: There ìs no relatìonshìp between recognìtìon and employees’ performance


The scope of the study ìs lìmìted to the employees of four (4) banks ìn Mìnna, Nìger state. These banks are; Eco bank, Access bank, Guaranty trust bank and Skye bank.


Thìs research ìs beìng carrìed out to address the ìssue of motìvatìon ìn organìzatìons and to analyze the ìmpact of motìvatìon ìn achìevìng organìzatìonal objectìves.

Motìvatìon not only ìnvolves the stìmulatìon of employees to achìeve the organìzatìons set goals but also to help them achìeve personal goals, therefore thìs research ìs carrìed out to examìne how motìvatìon helps ìn achìevìng both organìzatìonal and ìndìvìdual goals.


It ìs observed that most corporate organìzatìons are lackìng ìn the aspect of employee motìvatìon thereby causìng employees to be less satìsfìed and look for other job opportunìtìes whìch ìn turn leads to hìgh employee turnover.

Thìs study ìs ìntended to advìse CEO’S and managers of how to properly motìvate employees ìn order to maxìmìze theìr potentìals effectìvely and effìcìently.

Motìvatìon ìs a worldwìde concept used ìn corporate organìzatìons today ìn order to get the best out of theìr employees, but stìll most organìzatìons have not adopted thìs strategy whìle others have not learnt the proper motìvatìonal technìque to use ìn theìr organìzatìons.

Thìs research wìll also benefìt educatìonal ìnstìtutìons as ìt wìll brìng ìnto vìew other forms of motìvatìon that can be used to ìncrease employee performance. Most ìnstìtutìon already teaches motìvatìon, but thìs research wìll go further to broaden the understandìng ìndìvìduals have about motìvatìon.


The lìmìtatìons of thìs study ìs the busy schedule of bank employees who were to assìst by fìllìng the questìonnaìres.


Mìnna was chosen for thìs study due to the fact that ìt ìs the capìtal of the largest state ìn Nìgerìa and the customer base of banks here ìs quìte hìgh.

Geographical Description of Minna

Mìnna ìs a cìty ìn west central Nìgerìa, the capìtal of Nìger state; one of Nìgerìa’s 36 federal states and the headquarters of Chanchaga local government. The estìmated populatìon of Mìnna stands at 304,113 as at the 2007 general census.

The geographìcal coordìnates of Mìnna are; latìtude 9°36’50’’N, longìtude 623’24’’E. elevatìon above sea level: 299m=980ft, coordìnates of Mìnna ìn degree and decìmal mìnutes are; latìtude 9°36.8334’N, longìtude 623.4164E.

All coordìnates gìven are ìn the WGS84 coordìnate reference system. Thìs ìs the latest versìon of the world geodetìc system whìch ìs used ìn mappìng and navìgatìon, ìncludìng GPS satellìte navìgatìon system (the global posìtìonìng system).

Geographìc coordìnates (latìtude and longìtude) defìnes a posìtìon on the earth surface, coordìnates are angular unìts. The canonìcal form of latìtude and longìtude representatìon uses degrees(°), mìnutes(‘) and seconds(‘’). GPS systems are wìdely used coordìnates ìn degrees and decìmal mìnutes, or ìn decìmal degrees. Latìtude varìes from -90° to 90°. The latìtude of the equator ìs 0°, whìle that of the south pole ìs -90° and that of the north pole ìs 90°. Posìtìve latìtude values correspond to the geographìc locatìon north of the equator (N), negatìve latìtude values correspond to the geographìc locatìon south of the equator (S).

Longìtude ìs counted from the prìme merìdìan and varìes -180° to 180°. Posìtìve longìtude value corresponds to the geographìc locatìon’s east of the prìme merìdìan (E), negatìve longìtude values correspond to the geographìc locatìon’s west of the equator (W) and elevatìon above sea level ìs a measure of a geographìc locatìon’s heìght.

Historical Development

Archeologìcal evìdence suggests settlement ìn the area dates back to about 47000 – 37000 years ago. Muslìm culture fìltered ìnto Mìnna by way of the ancìent Saharan trade routes and the cìty contaìns many mosques and Muslìm organìzatìons. Chrìstìanìty ìs a major populatìon ìn Nìger state where sharìa ìs valìd. Mìnna has lìvìng faìth churches, Baptìst churches, nupe calvary churches, Anglìcan churches and apostolìc churches. Mìnna ìs home of nìgerìa’s former mìlìtary presìdent Gen. Ìbrahìm B. Babangìda and former head of state, Gen. Abdusalamì Abubakar.

Administrative Structure

Nìger state wìth Mìnna as ìts capìtal ìs admìnìstered through three tìers of government; state, local and emìrate councìls. At the state level, there are three levels of authorìty;

Fìrst, there ìs the government whìch ìs elected on party basìs and headed by the executìve governor of the state. He ìs assìsted by the deputy governor, specìal advìser, the secretary, the government and head of servìces, and the commìssìoners whìch head dìfferent mìnìstrìes. All these form the executìve arm of government. They are responsìble for the day to day admìnìstratìon of state.

Secondly, there ìs the legìslature, membershìp of whìch ìs also elected on a party basìs the legìslature ìs symbolìzed ìn the state house of assembly and headed by a speaker, deputy speaker, majorìty and mìnorìty leaders and party leaders, among others. The legìslature ìs organìzed around commìttees wìth a chaìrman as the head of each commìttee.

Thìrdly, there ìs judìcìary whìch ìs the ìndependent arm of government and headed by the chìef judge of the state. The local government area ìs headed by a chaìrman who heads the local government councìl made up of councìlors and an admìnìstratìve secretary posted to ìt by the local government servìce commìssìon.

Economic Base

Cotton, guìnea corn and gìnger are the maìn agrìcultural products of the cìty; yam ìs also extensìvely cultìvated throughout the cìty. The economy also supports cattle tradìng, brewìng, sheanuts processìng and gold mìnìng.

Tradìtìonal ìndustry and crafts ìn Mìnna ìnclude leather work and metal works.

Manager;  a manager can be descrìbed as an ìndìvìdual who has acquìred the necessary knowledge needed to effìcìently and effectìvely utìlìze resources both human and capìtal ìn order to maxìmìze theìr potentìals.

Financial bonuses;  thìs can be seen as extra reìmbursements gìven to employees aìde the normal salarìes/wages. Thìs can be used as a means of rewardìng employees for achìevìng certaìn goals and to motìvate employees’ to work effectìvely and effìcìently

Recognition;  thìs can be seen as acknowledgìng employees’ for doìng somethìng exceptìonal ìn the organìzatìon.

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Expertly Crafted Research Proposal On Motivation And Employees Performance

Type of paper: Research Proposal

Topic: Motivation , Workplace , Employee , Company , Theory , Employees , Online , Employment

Words: 3750

Published: 03/08/2023


References 12 Introduction As we know, the labor resources are the main resource of enterprises. The results of the company and its competitiveness depend largely on the quality and effectiveness of the above mentioned resources. The difference between the labor force and other types of resources lies in the fact that each employee may waive the conditions offered to him and can require changes in working conditions, retraining or even voluntary redundancy. The concept of “labor resources of the enterprise” characterizes its potential workforce. Employees can be organized in labor unions and to act as a separate subject of negotiations with the administration on working conditions and payments. In this case, the employee motivation plays the significant role in the company’s performance. Each big company has the human resources department in its organizational structure. This department aims to maximize employee performance and help to reach satisfaction. A well-organized human resources department can be the main key to success. One of the most important functions of such department is to support the necessary level of motivation among employees, because it impacts on the whole employee performance. Thus, the main issue of the work is how motivation can impact on the employee performance and why employee performance is so important for the companies? Context Let’s analyze some facts about how different companies motivate their employees. It can be companies from different businesses, small or big, which characterize by strong financial performance. I have chosen such companies as Coca-Cola, Nestle, Procter & Gamble, Luxoft, EPAM, Barclays, British Airways, Ryanair, Phillip Morris and Mayo Clinic. As we can see, companies represent different sectors of activity. Most of them use both material and non-material incentives in order to increase company’s performance and employee satisfaction. At the same time, companies usually provide their employees some benefits, which are connected to the company’s specialization. It can be the discounts on the company’s products (Coca-Cola, Nestle, P&G), free air tickets (British Airways, Ryanair), some free services (Mayo Clinic) and others. At the same time, modern companies are competing with each other in a variety of ways to non-financial motivation to attract and retain employees. The organizations often have to show remarkable ingenuity, providing more and more intangible benefits, to somehow stand out from the others. The number of bonuses, which a few years ago could be considered a significant advantage when employee chose a job, have already not represent effective tools in motivating force due to their high prevalence. In this case, it needs to analyze some extra benefits or special methods, which companies use to increase the employee motivation. For example, Coca-Cola provides employees the special total benefits package together with the annual and long-term incentives (Official Site of the Coca-Cola Company, 2016). One more factor is directly positive image of the stable company that brings joy and gladness to people. If the people are proud of their place of work, they will work effectively. Another example is Nestle. It uses the similar strategy: positive image of the company is the crucial factor thanks to which employees are motivated. One of the elements of the Total Reward Policy is providing convenient work-life environment (Official Site of Nestle, 2016). The next company, Procter & Gamble actively uses the program of challenges for all employees (from specialist level and higher) in order to develop their professional skills and strongly motivate them to achieve more complicated tasks (Procter & Gamble. Career, 2016). IT-companies (Luxoft, EPAM) do not actively promote their image. They motivate employees through their participation in the complicated and interesting projects (Official Site of Luxoft, 2016). IT-specialists appreciate the cohesive team and project attractiveness more than any other benefits (Official Site of EPAM, 2016). Bank institution (Barclays) provides their employees a flexible working schedule with the opportunity to work from the home and balance their home and work life (Official Site of Barclays, 2016). British Airways and Ryanair provide employees great opportunities for travelling and have an active rest (Official Site of Ryanair, 2016). The employees of these companies can also have discounts at various hotels and retail outlets. As we know, air transport becomes more popular in our world. In this case, employment at the airline company is considered as prestigious, well-paid work. Such company as Phillip Morris provides regular challenges and complicated tasks for employees in order improve their professional skills and increase their motivation (like P&G). At the same time, this company practices often rotations of employees (Official Site of Philip Morris, 2016). Mayo Clinic is one of the best medical institutes in the US in accordance with the different rankings (Official Site of Mayo Clinic, 2016). The strong requirements during hiring process help to choose the most motivated employees initially. In this case, the company only supports required level of motivation through comfortable working conditions, modern equipment and other useful services. It also provides their employees special system of online services through which they can plan their travel, know expense reimbursement and receive other useful information. Thus, the investigation will be based on the motivation strategies, which are used in the above mentioned companies and their impact on the company’s performance. Theoretical background Nowadays, there is no unanimity among scholars in understanding the definition “motivation”. The educational and scientific literature provides different definitions. One of them is the following: motivation is the process of inducement yourself and others to achieve personal goals and objectives of the organization (Zeiger, 2016). Motivation is the internal state that determines human behavior (Filatova, 2012). The literature is widely represented the materials of theoretical study of motivation and, in particular, judgments about it as a comprehensive phenomenon associated with cognitive, emotional and volitional functions of the person (Mohr, Goulet and Heller, 2004). There is also information about the features of the origin, formation and manifestations of motives; about the role of psychological factors, which are involved in a particular motivational process and define the adoption patterns of behavior by one or another person (Staying Challenged, 2016). Numerous studies have shown that effective work is unthinkable without proper motivation. Moreover, its strength should be adequate to the goal of the company’s activity. If it is insufficient, the goal of the activities will not be reached (Manzoor, 2012). At the same time, the excessive motivation may occur errors in the work, violations of security measures, ethical standards and others (Sankaran and Bui, 2001). There are at least nine theories, which connect with the motivation: the theory of needs (Maslow), the theory of existence, communication and growth (Alderfer), the theory of acquired needs (McClelland), the theory of two factors (Herzberg), theory of expectations (Vroom), theory of justice (Adams), the theory of Porter-Lawler, theory of goal setting (Locke) and the concept of participatory governance. The majority of the motivation theories considers the necessity for a person to meet any needs (Selvarajah et al., 2010). It should be noted that the need is a condition of the individual that is created by the desire in facilities, which are required for his existence and development; they are also of his activity (Battistella and Nonino, 2012). The need causes a person to work when his satisfaction falls below an acceptable level (McDaniel, 2011). Satisfied need can reduce or completely lose its motivating potential for individuals. At the same time, need related to a specific subject, which able to satisfy demand, becomes a motive (Hitka and Balazova, 2015). The content theories (for example, theories of Taylor, Maslow, Alderfer, McClelland, Herzberg) focus on the identification of human motives list, the construction of their hierarchy, allocation of motive typology and other issues (Dargahi and Mousavi, 2015). The role of needs in the labor motivation has been investigated by the founder of scientific management, Frederick Taylor. He has formulated the classical theory of motivation. It states that acts of people are motivated by their desire to meet the growing needs, so they are interested to earn money. Based on this idea, Taylor has created a labor stimulation system, which implies an increased reward for exceeding output norms and reduced reward – in case of default. It can force the majority of people to work at full capacity. Another motivation theory is based on the Maslow pyramid of needs (Wachter, 2013). Specialist Maslow has identified five groups of needs and has arranged them in a pyramid (Martin, 2007). This form (pyramid) is explained by the following: the needs, which are at the higher place in the hierarchy, can be real motivators of behavior for smaller number of people (Ugah and Arua, 2011). D. McClelland has identified three types of needs: need in succession, in the power and need of being involved. The first is expressed in the human desire to achieve his goals more efficiently than before (Royle and Hall, 2012). The second is the desire to have an impact on the people’s behavior and to take responsibility for their actions. In this case, it is the power of authority and talent. Some managers need power to address urgent organizational problems which they understand better than others and are ready to charge themselves with hardships, which are related to the decisions of the above mentioned problems. The third group of the needs is realized through search and establishing good relationships with others and getting their support (Beugelsdijk and Smeets, 2008). Specialist Herzberg has shown that not only satisfaction influences on the people’s behavior, but also the dissatisfaction or other needs can affect on it. He divided the needs into two groups: motivational and hygienic (related to working conditions) (Magloff, 2016). He has shown that the ability to meet the needs of motivational factors can improve employees’ productivity (Siemens, 2005). But when the needs are satisfied, their effects disappear. Dissatisfaction in hygienic factors can cause considerable discontent and sharply reduces incentives to activity (Duffy, 2004). At the same time, the satisfaction of the above mentioned factors does not cause great labor enthusiasm and only creates the preconditions for it. Specialist Herzberg claimed that it is impossible to motivate employees only through the wages. It is necessary to include the motivational factors in order to encourage labor efforts. Another specialist, Vroom, considered that people are driven by the hope for a fair remuneration in addition to the conscious needs (Vroom and Deci, 1983). In this case, the definition “expectation” is considered as how people understand to what extent their actions will lead to certain results (Scholl, 2016). It can refer to the possibility of performing some work and receive fair remuneration for it. Expectation depends on the psychology of the individual, his experience, intuition and the ability to assess the situation. It has a significant impact on the activity of employees and their desire to achieve set goals. One more motivation theory is connected with the specialist Adams. He claimed that the fairness of activity and results evaluation largely influence the human motivation (Sengupta, 2011). Fairness is defined by comparing the current evaluation with the previous ones as well as with evaluation of similar achievements of other employees. If the employee sees that all staff is estimated through the same measures, he will feel satisfied and will be proactive and motivated (Gambrel and Cianci, 2003). Specialist Locke has pointed out that people perceive the purpose of the organization as their own and strive to achieve it. If the goals are realistic, clear and acceptable to the employee, he will strive harder for their achievement (Thoreau, 2016). At the same time, he will be satisfied with the process performance and, in spite the complexity, he will be able to achieve great results with it. The achievement of above mentioned results can increase employee motivation, and failure can reduce it (Moller et al., 2005). The last important motivation theory is called a participative management concept. It proceeds from that employee gets satisfaction from participating in the affairs of the company. In this case, the employee works not only with increased efficiency, but also maximally shows their abilities and opportunities (Kudadjie-Gyamfi, 2006). After analyzing the most important motivation theories, one can say that employee behavior in the workplace is controlled by his needs, which are caused by lifestyle, personal characteristics and other factors. Research Assumptions The main goal of the paper is to analyze the impact of employee motivation on his efficiency in the work and to what extent people should be motivated in order to achieve high performance. The theoretical study of the problem can allow formulating two main assumptions (hypothesis) of the work: the process of employee motivation is significantly influenced by his personal characteristics: anxiety, emotional balance / irritability as well as his motivation to succeed or protection; directly clear goals strongly contribute to the high employee performance. It should be noted that methods of material and non-material incentives should be combined in a well-balanced proportion in order to increase employee motivation. Precisely this combination is used in the majority of companies. Methodologies Staff assessment is a system that allows researcher to measure the overall level of the work results and the level of professional competence of the employees, their potential in the context of the company’s strategic goals. Current investigation needs to use two groups of methods: common scientific methods and specific ones. The first group of methods includes analysis and synthesis, comparison, observation and also generalization method. The group of specific methods allows to research the process of employee motivation in more detail. This group includes experimental and qualitative methods. It should be noted that the most commonly used methods for the study of motivation are the following: interview, testing, expert assessment, survey and observation. Qualitative methods allow to test existing hypotheses and assumptions in conversation with employees at different levels from different companies. At the same time, there are several technologies of formalized assessment, which are used in the majority of the US companies. Examples of them are the following: management by objectives, performance management, “360 grades” and assessment center (Filatova, 2012). The first technique allows evaluating personal achievements of each employee who works in the company. The second one provides performance management. It assesses not only the results, but also specific ways to achieve them. The technique “360 degrees” involves a systematic survey of employees at different levels, including line managers, their subordinates, colleagues and clients. The last technique can be useful in the evaluation of senior management in the context of the staff competencies. All these methods should be used in the analysis the employee motivation in the above mentioned companies, and the impact of motivation to the employee performance. Plan of work After analyzing a lot of literary sources and forming the hypothesis for research, it is possible to form the plan for work. It consists of three main stages: stage 1: preparations for the research, secondary source readings; stage 2: data collection; stage 3: analysis of research findings, making conclusions, paper writing, preparation of articles and conference presentations. The paper will be divided into six chapters and appendix section. The first chapter of the work will be devoted to the investigation of the main principles of employee motivation, types of motivation and the structure of the need-motivational sphere. The second chapter will represent the process of employee motivation (based on the particular companies): examples of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Analysis of the motivational impact on the both employees’ and companies’ performance will be presented in the next chapters. The paper will be finished by conclusions, which summarize the main results of the investigation and their practical importance and also analyze opportunities for further research of employees’ motivation. References Battistella, C. and Nonino, F. 2012. Open Innovation Web-Based Platforms: The Impact of Different Forms of Motivation on Collaboration. Innovation : Management, Policy & Practice, [online] 14(4), p.557. Available at: https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1P3-2926847221/open-innovation-web-based-platforms-the-impact-of [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Beugelsdijk, S. and Smeets, R. 2008. Entrepreneurial Culture and Economic Growth: Revisiting McClelland's Thesis. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 67(5), pp.915-939. Dargahi, H. and Mousavi, S. 2015. Ethnic Differences and Motivation Based on Maslow's Theory on Iranian Employees. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 42(5). Duffy, J. 2004. Work Motivation: History, Theory, Research, and Practice. Canadian Psychology, 48(4). Filatova, A. 2012. Essence and Main Motivation Theory of Efficiency of Work Staff. Fundamentals of Economics, Management and Law, 1(1). Gambrel, P. and Cianci, R. 2003. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Does It Apply in A Collectivist Culture. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 8(2). Hitka, M. and Balazova, Z. 2015. The Impact of Age, Education and Seniority on Motivation of Employees. Business: Theory and Practice, [online] 16(1), p.113. Available at: https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-410770997/the-impact-of-age-education-and-seniority-on-motivation [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Kudadjie-Gyamfi, E. 2006. The Impact of Imposed Patterning, Intrinsic Motivation, and Cognition on Random and Simple Outcomes in Choice Behavior. The Behavior Analyst Today, [online] 7(4), p.481. Available at: https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-170115019/the-impact-of-imposed-patterning-intrinsic-motivation [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Magloff, L. 2016. Herzberg & Taylor's Theories of Motivation. [online] Smallbusiness.chron.com. Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/herzberg-taylors-theories-motivation-704.html [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Manzoor, Q. 2012. Impact of Employees Motivation on Organizational Effectiveness. Business Management and Strategy, [online] 3(1), p.1. Available at: https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1P3-2485742121/impact-of-employees-motivation-on-organizational-effectiveness [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Martin, A. 2007. Examining a multidimensional model of student motivation and engagement using a construct validation approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(2), pp.413-440. McDaniel, L. 2011. A Comparison of the Impact of Acceptance and Support on the Motivation to Use Information Systems. Business Renaissance Quarterly, [online] 6(3), p.50. Available at: https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1P3-2609848951/a-comparison-of-the-impact-of-acceptance-and-support [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Mohr, E., Goulet, L. and Heller, J. 2004. Mastering Motivational Theories. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 8(1). Moller, L., Huett, J., Holder, D. and Young, J. 2005. Examining the Impact of Learning Communities on Motivation. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, [online] 6(2), p.137. Available at: https://www.questia.com/article/1P3-975609581/examining-the-impact-of-learning-communities-on-motivation [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Official Site of Barclays, 2016. Key Time Working. [online] Barclays Bank Jobs and Careers. Available at: https://jobs.barclays.co.uk/our-roles/personal-banking/key-time-working/ [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Official Site of British Airways, 2016. BA Careers - Rewards in BA. [online] Britishairways.com. Available at: http://www.britishairways.com/careers/ba_rewards.shtml [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Official Site of EPAM, 2016. Leadership. [online] Epam.com. Available at: https://www.epam.com/about/company/leadership [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Official Site of Luxoft, 2016. Luxoft benefits. [online] Luxoft. Available at: http://www.luxoft.com/luxoft-benefits/ [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Official Site of Mayo Clinic, 2016. About Mayo Clinic. [online] Mayoclinic.org. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/about-mayo-clinic [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Official Site of Nestle, 2016. Rewards. [online] Nestle.com. Available at: http://www.nestle.com/jobs/your-career-at-nestle/rewards [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Official Site of Philip Morris, 2016. PMI.com Your Career. [online] Pmi.com. Available at: http://www.pmi.com/eng/careers/pages/your_career.aspx [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Official Site of Ryanair, 2016. Ryanair Careers. [online] Careers.ryanair.com. Available at: https://careers.ryanair.com/ [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Official Site of the Coca-Cola Company, 2016. Why Work at The Coca-Cola Company. [online] The Coca-Cola Company. Available at: http://www.coca-colacompany.com/careers/why-work-at-the-coca-cola-company/#10 [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Procter & Gamble. Career., 2016. Procter & Gamble. Our People.. [online] Pgcareers.com. Available at: http://pgcareers.com/our-people/ [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016] Royle, T. and Hall, A. 2012. The Relationship Between McClelland’s Theory of Needs, Feeling Individually Accountable, and Informal Accountability for Others. International Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 51). Sankaran, S. and Bui, T. 2001. Impact of Learning Strategies and Motivation on Performance: A Study in Web-Based Instruction. Journal of Instructional Psychology, [online] 283), p.191. Available at: https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-79370574/impact-of-learning-strategies-and-motivation-on-performance [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Scholl, R. 2016. Motivation: Expectancy Theory. [online] Web.uri.edu. Available at: http://web.uri.edu/lrc/scholl/motivation_expectancy/ [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Selvarajah, C., Chelliah, J., Meyer, D., Pio, E. and Anurit, P. 2010. The Impact of Social Motivation on Cooperative Learning and Assessment Preferences. Journal of Management and Organization, [online] 161), p.113. Available at: https://www.questia.com/article/1P3-2044376091/the-impact-of-social-motivation-on-cooperative-learning [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Sengupta, S. 2011. Growth in Human Motivation: Beyond Maslow. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 471). Siemens, L. 2005. Motivation in a global economy: Lessons from Herzberg. Canadian Public Administration/Administration publique du Canada, 483), pp.413-419. Staying Challenged, 2016). Staying Challenged: Stepping Outside of Your Comfort Zone. [online] Mindtools.com. Available at: https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/staying-challenged.htm [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Thoreau, H. 2016. Locke's Goal-Setting Theory: Understanding SMART Goal Setting. [online] Mindtools.com. Available at: https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_87.htm [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Ugah, A. and Arua, U. 2011. Expectancy Theory, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, and Cataloguing Departments. Library Philosophy and Practice. [online] Available at: https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-256863787/expectancy-theory-maslow-s-hierarchy-of-needs-and [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016]. Vroom, V. and Deci, E. 1983. Management and Motivation. Penguin. Wachter, K. 2013. Rethinking Maslow's Needs. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 952). Zeiger, S. 2016. Theories on Motivation in Organizations and Management. [online] Smallbusiness.chron.com. Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/theories-motivation-organizations-management-25221.html [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016].


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Employees may be motivated on the job by many things, such as a sense of achievement, recognition, enjoyment of the job, promotion opportunities, responsibility, and the chance for personal growth. Employee motivation and performance are tied directly to the style of management that is applied and to principles of positive or negative reinforcement. Employee engagement is the level of commitment and involvement an employee has towards their organization and its values. An engaged employee is aware of business context, and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization. It is a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization and its values. The present paper focuses to analyze the employee engagement concept in the light of prominant motivation Theories.

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  4. Employee Motivation and its Effects on Employee Productivity/ Performance a

    This research report examines employee motivation and its impact on employee performance. The study examines some common theories of motivation that can be used in an organization to...


    THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE Authors: Thabani Nyoni University of Zimbabwe Abstract and Figures This article evaluated the impact of motivation on employee...

  6. PDF Assessing the Relationship Between Employee Motivation and Employee

    organizations to persuade motivation of their employees Kalimullah et al, (2010). Employee motivation is a greatest asset to the organization for significantly higher performance, motivation of employees can affect the performance of employees which in turn can affect the business, goodwill and reputation of the organization. Lilian.

  7. Employee motivation and job performance: a study of basic school

    The SDT provides evidence that suggests that motivation fuels performance [ 14, 57 ]. In Ghana, the subject of motivation has always been at the apex of national agenda and is evident in the number of strike actions in the public service.

  8. PDF The Impact of Motivation on Employee Performance: by Name: Mohamed

    employee motivation, the challenge organization face as they implement motivation and the effect motivation has on employees' performance. The study reviewed literature written by scholars in relation to employees' motivation and their performance in Kenya Red Cross society at Garissa branch. Among the scholar,


    2.1 The concept of motivation Motivation can be specified as a management process, which encourage people to work better for the overall benefit of the organization, by providing them motives, which are based on their unfulfilled needs. The matters arising is: "why managers need to motivate employees?" (Herzberg, 1959).

  10. Research Proposal on the Impact of Motivation on Employee Job Performance

    In the implementation of the motivation across the organization, it allows the individuals to focus on the development of their work, in terms of behavior, skills and knowledge, ethics, and effectiveness.It is also defined that motivational approaches tend to energize the workforce which can result in their expected job performance (Byham and Moyer, 2005).


    Employee motivation describes an employee's intrinsic enthusiasm about and drives to accomplish work. Every employee is motivated about something in his or her life. Motivating employees about work is the combination of fulfilling the employee's needs and expectations from work and workplace factors that enable employee motivation or not.

  12. The Impact of Motivation on Employees Performance


  13. PDF Factors Influencing Employee Motivation and Its Impact on Employee

    FACTORS INFLUENCING EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND ITS IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE Keksi-Pohjanmaan Kirjapaino Oyj Thesis CENTRIA UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES Master's Thesis November 2017 ABSTRACT Centria University of Applied Sciences Date November 2017 Author Samson Owoyele

  14. Employee Motivation and Performance: Do the Work Environment and The

    EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE: DO THE WORK ENVIRONMENT AND THE TRAINING MATTER? Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues DOI: 10.9770/jssi.2020.9.J (4) Authors: Luedech Girdwichai...

  15. Motivation And Employees Performance: Free Research ...

    Check out this awesome Great Research Proposals About Motivation And Employees Performance From Expert Writers for writing techniques and actionable ideas. Regardless of the topic, subject or complexity, we can help you write any paper!

  16. Thesis On Motivation And Employee Performance

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    the thesis studied organizational performance and tried to bring about some aspect the organization needs to improve on to have a better output from its employees. Key words Employee commitment, Motivation, Organizational Performance, Extrinsic and Intrinsic, Satisfaction.

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  22. Thesis employee motivation and performance

    Thesis employee motivation and performance Darlington Chikumba This bachelor thesis is focused on the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and employee performance. The thesis is a literature research and thus a review by the work of others. See Full PDF Download PDF Related Papers

  23. Bachelor Thesis: Employee Motivation and Performance

    Bachelor Thesis: Employee Motivation and Performance Mario Gacho This bachelor thesis is focused on the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and employee performance. The thesis is a literature research and thus a review by the work of others. See Full PDF Download PDF Related Papers DAS.DESERT david alpha Download Free PDF