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Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore needs your careful analysis of the evidence to understand how you arrived at this claim. You arrive at your thesis by examining and analyzing the evidence available to you, which might be text or other types of source material.
A thesis will generally respond to an analytical question or pose a solution to a problem that you have framed for your readers (and for yourself). When you frame that question or problem for your readers, you are telling them what is at stake in your argument—why your question matters and why they should care about the answer . If you can explain to your readers why a question or problem is worth addressing, then they will understand why it’s worth reading an essay that develops your thesis—and you will understand why it’s worth writing that essay.
A strong thesis will be arguable rather than descriptive , and it will be the right scope for the essay you are writing. If your thesis is descriptive, then you will not need to convince your readers of anything—you will be naming or summarizing something your readers can already see for themselves. If your thesis is too narrow, you won’t be able to explore your topic in enough depth to say something interesting about it. If your thesis is too broad, you may not be able to support it with evidence from the available sources.
When you are writing an essay for a course assignment, you should make sure you understand what type of claim you are being asked to make. Many of your assignments will be asking you to make analytical claims , which are based on interpretation of facts, data, or sources.
Some of your assignments may ask you to make normative claims. Normative claims are claims of value or evaluation rather than fact—claims about how things should be rather than how they are. A normative claim makes the case for the importance of something, the action that should be taken, or the way the world should be. When you are asked to write a policy memo, a proposal, or an essay based on your own opinion, you will be making normative claims.
Here are some examples of possible thesis statements for a student's analysis of the article “The Case Against Perfection” by Professor Michael Sandel.
Descriptive thesis (not arguable)
While Sandel argues that pursuing perfection through genetic engineering would decrease our sense of humility, he claims that the sense of solidarity we would lose is also important.
This thesis summarizes several points in Sandel’s argument, but it does not make a claim about how we should understand his argument. A reader who read Sandel’s argument would not also need to read an essay based on this descriptive thesis.
Broad thesis (arguable, but difficult to support with evidence)
Michael Sandel’s arguments about genetic engineering do not take into consideration all the relevant issues.
This is an arguable claim because it would be possible to argue against it by saying that Michael Sandel’s arguments do take all of the relevant issues into consideration. But the claim is too broad. Because the thesis does not specify which “issues” it is focused on—or why it matters if they are considered—readers won’t know what the rest of the essay will argue, and the writer won’t know what to focus on. If there is a particular issue that Sandel does not address, then a more specific version of the thesis would include that issue—hand an explanation of why it is important.
Arguable thesis with analytical claim
While Sandel argues persuasively that our instinct to “remake” (54) ourselves into something ever more perfect is a problem, his belief that we can always draw a line between what is medically necessary and what makes us simply “better than well” (51) is less convincing.
This is an arguable analytical claim. To argue for this claim, the essay writer will need to show how evidence from the article itself points to this interpretation. It’s also a reasonable scope for a thesis because it can be supported with evidence available in the text and is neither too broad nor too narrow.
Arguable thesis with normative claim
Given Sandel’s argument against genetic enhancement, we should not allow parents to decide on using Human Growth Hormone for their children.
This thesis tells us what we should do about a particular issue discussed in Sandel’s article, but it does not tell us how we should understand Sandel’s argument.
Questions to ask about your thesis
- Is the thesis truly arguable? Does it speak to a genuine dilemma in the source, or would most readers automatically agree with it?
- Is the thesis too obvious? Again, would most or all readers agree with it without needing to see your argument?
- Is the thesis complex enough to require a whole essay's worth of argument?
- Is the thesis supportable with evidence from the text rather than with generalizations or outside research?
- Would anyone want to read a paper in which this thesis was developed? That is, can you explain what this paper is adding to our understanding of a problem, question, or topic?
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What this handout is about.
This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft.
Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.
What is a thesis statement?
A thesis statement:
- tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
- is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
- directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
- makes a claim that others might dispute.
- is usually a single sentence near the beginning of your paper (most often, at the end of the first paragraph) that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.
If your assignment asks you to take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you may need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement near the beginning of your draft. The assignment may not explicitly state that you need a thesis statement because your instructor may assume you will include one. When in doubt, ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement. When an assignment asks you to analyze, to interpret, to compare and contrast, to demonstrate cause and effect, or to take a stand on an issue, it is likely that you are being asked to develop a thesis and to support it persuasively. (Check out our handout on understanding assignments for more information.)
How do I create a thesis?
A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a “working thesis” that presents a basic or main idea and an argument that you think you can support with evidence. Both the argument and your thesis are likely to need adjustment along the way.
Writers use all kinds of techniques to stimulate their thinking and to help them clarify relationships or comprehend the broader significance of a topic and arrive at a thesis statement. For more ideas on how to get started, see our handout on brainstorming .
How do I know if my thesis is strong?
If there’s time, run it by your instructor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback. Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following :
- Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question. If the prompt isn’t phrased as a question, try to rephrase it. For example, “Discuss the effect of X on Y” can be rephrased as “What is the effect of X on Y?”
- Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it’s possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.
- Is my thesis statement specific enough? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like “good” or “successful,” see if you could be more specific: why is something “good”; what specifically makes something “successful”?
- Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? If a reader’s first response is likely to be “So what?” then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.
- Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.
- Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? If a reader’s first response is “how?” or “why?” your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.
Suppose you are taking a course on contemporary communication, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: “Discuss the impact of social media on public awareness.” Looking back at your notes, you might start with this working thesis:
Social media impacts public awareness in both positive and negative ways.
You can use the questions above to help you revise this general statement into a stronger thesis.
- Do I answer the question? You can analyze this if you rephrase “discuss the impact” as “what is the impact?” This way, you can see that you’ve answered the question only very generally with the vague “positive and negative ways.”
- Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not likely. Only people who maintain that social media has a solely positive or solely negative impact could disagree.
- Is my thesis statement specific enough? No. What are the positive effects? What are the negative effects?
- Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? No. Why are they positive? How are they positive? What are their causes? Why are they negative? How are they negative? What are their causes?
- Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? No. Why should anyone care about the positive and/or negative impact of social media?
After thinking about your answers to these questions, you decide to focus on the one impact you feel strongly about and have strong evidence for:
Because not every voice on social media is reliable, people have become much more critical consumers of information, and thus, more informed voters.
This version is a much stronger thesis! It answers the question, takes a specific position that others can challenge, and it gives a sense of why it matters.
Let’s try another. Suppose your literature professor hands out the following assignment in a class on the American novel: Write an analysis of some aspect of Mark Twain’s novel Huckleberry Finn. “This will be easy,” you think. “I loved Huckleberry Finn!” You grab a pad of paper and write:
Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel.
You begin to analyze your thesis:
- Do I answer the question? No. The prompt asks you to analyze some aspect of the novel. Your working thesis is a statement of general appreciation for the entire novel.
Think about aspects of the novel that are important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children. Now you write:
In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore.
- Do I answer the question? Yes!
- Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not really. This contrast is well-known and accepted.
- Is my thesis statement specific enough? It’s getting there–you have highlighted an important aspect of the novel for investigation. However, it’s still not clear what your analysis will reveal.
- Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? Not yet. Compare scenes from the book and see what you discover. Free write, make lists, jot down Huck’s actions and reactions and anything else that seems interesting.
- Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? What’s the point of this contrast? What does it signify?”
After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write:
Through its contrasting river and shore scenes, Twain’s Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave “civilized” society and go back to nature.
This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation.
We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.
Anson, Chris M., and Robert A. Schwegler. 2010. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers , 6th ed. New York: Longman.
Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.
Ramage, John D., John C. Bean, and June Johnson. 2018. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing , 8th ed. New York: Pearson.
Ruszkiewicz, John J., Christy Friend, Daniel Seward, and Maxine Hairston. 2010. The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers , 9th ed. Boston: Pearson Education.
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Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Writing a Thesis and Making an Argument
Almost every assignment you complete for a history course will ask you to make an argument. Your instructors will often call this your "thesis"– your position on a subject.
What is an Argument?
An argument takes a stand on an issue. It seeks to persuade an audience of a point of view in much the same way that a lawyer argues a case in a court of law. It is NOT a description or a summary.
- This is an argument: "This paper argues that the movie JFK is inaccurate in its portrayal of President Kennedy."
- This is not an argument: "In this paper, I will describe the portrayal of President Kennedy that is shown in the movie JFK."
What is a Thesis?
A thesis statement is a sentence in which you state an argument about a topic and then describe, briefly, how you will prove your argument.
- This is an argument, but not yet a thesis: "The movie ‘JFK’ inaccurately portrays President Kennedy."
- This is a thesis: "The movie ‘JFK’ inaccurately portrays President Kennedy because of the way it ignores Kennedy’s youth, his relationship with his father, and the findings of the Warren Commission."
A thesis makes a specific statement to the reader about what you will be trying to argue. Your thesis can be a few sentences long, but should not be longer than a paragraph. Do not begin to state evidence or use examples in your thesis paragraph.
A Thesis Helps You and Your Reader
Your blueprint for writing:
- Helps you determine your focus and clarify your ideas.
- Provides a "hook" on which you can "hang" your topic sentences.
- Can (and should) be revised as you further refine your evidence and arguments. New evidence often requires you to change your thesis.
- Gives your paper a unified structure and point.
Your reader’s blueprint for reading:
- Serves as a "map" to follow through your paper.
- Keeps the reader focused on your argument.
- Signals to the reader your main points.
- Engages the reader in your argument.
Tips for Writing a Good Thesis
- Find a Focus: Choose a thesis that explores an aspect of your topic that is important to you, or that allows you to say something new about your topic. For example, if your paper topic asks you to analyze women’s domestic labor during the early nineteenth century, you might decide to focus on the products they made from scratch at home.
- Look for Pattern: After determining a general focus, go back and look more closely at your evidence. As you re-examine your evidence and identify patterns, you will develop your argument and some conclusions. For example, you might find that as industrialization increased, women made fewer textiles at home, but retained their butter and soap making tasks.
Strategies for Developing a Thesis Statement
Idea 1. If your paper assignment asks you to answer a specific question, turn the question into an assertion and give reasons for your opinion.
Assignment: How did domestic labor change between 1820 and 1860? Why were the changes in their work important for the growth of the United States?
Beginning thesis: Between 1820 and 1860 women's domestic labor changed as women stopped producing home-made fabric, although they continued to sew their families' clothes, as well as to produce butter and soap. With the cash women earned from the sale of their butter and soap they purchased ready-made cloth, which in turn, helped increase industrial production in the United States before the Civil War.
Idea 2. Write a sentence that summarizes the main idea of the essay you plan to write.
Main Idea: Women's labor in their homes during the first half of the nineteenth century contributed to the growth of the national economy.
Idea 3. Spend time "mulling over" your topic. Make a list of the ideas you want to include in the essay, then think about how to group them under several different headings. Often, you will see an organizational plan emerge from the sorting process.
Idea 4. Use a formula to develop a working thesis statement (which you will need to revise later). Here are a few examples:
- Although most readers of ______ have argued that ______, closer examination shows that ______.
- ______ uses ______ and ______ to prove that ______.
- Phenomenon X is a result of the combination of ______, ______, and ______.
These formulas share two characteristics all thesis statements should have: they state an argument and they reveal how you will make that argument. They are not specific enough, however, and require more work.
As you work on your essay, your ideas will change and so will your thesis. Here are examples of weak and strong thesis statements.
- Unspecific thesis: "Eleanor Roosevelt was a strong leader as First Lady." This thesis lacks an argument. Why was Eleanor Roosevelt a strong leader?
- Specific thesis: "Eleanor Roosevelt recreated the role of the First Lady by her active political leadership in the Democratic Party, by lobbying for national legislation, and by fostering women’s leadership in the Democratic Party." The second thesis has an argument: Eleanor Roosevelt "recreated" the position of First Lady, and a three-part structure with which to demonstrate just how she remade the job.
- Unspecific thesis: "At the end of the nineteenth century French women lawyers experienced difficulty when they attempted to enter the legal profession." No historian could argue with this general statement and uninteresting thesis.
- Specific thesis: "At the end of the nineteenth century French women lawyers experienced misogynist attacks from male lawyers when they attempted to enter the legal profession because male lawyers wanted to keep women out of judgeships." This thesis statement asserts that French male lawyers attacked French women lawyers because they feared women as judges, an intriguing and controversial point.
Making an Argument – Every Thesis Deserves Its Day in Court
You are the best (and only!) advocate for your thesis. Your thesis is defenseless without you to prove that its argument holds up under scrutiny. The jury (i.e., your reader) will expect you, as a good lawyer, to provide evidence to prove your thesis. To prove thesis statements on historical topics, what evidence can an able young lawyer use?
- Primary sources: letters, diaries, government documents, an organization’s meeting minutes, newspapers.
- Secondary sources: articles and books from your class that explain and interpret the historical event or person you are writing about, lecture notes, films or documentaries.
How can you use this evidence?
- Make sure the examples you select from your available evidence address your thesis.
- Use evidence that your reader will believe is credible. This means sifting and sorting your sources, looking for the clearest and fairest. Be sure to identify the biases and shortcomings of each piece of evidence for your reader.
- Use evidence to avoid generalizations. If you assert that all women have been oppressed, what evidence can you use to support this? Using evidence works to check over-general statements.
- Use evidence to address an opposing point of view. How do your sources give examples that refute another historian’s interpretation?
Remember -- if in doubt, talk to your instructor.
Thanks to the web page of the University of Wisconsin at Madison’s Writing Center for information used on this page. See writing.wisc.edu/handbook for further information.
Aman Ahuja garners 2023 Innovative Student Thesis Award from Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
The Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) has awarded its 2023 Innovative Student Thesis Award to Aman Ahuja , who was a Ph.D. student in computer science at the Sanghani Center for Artificial Intelligence and Data Analytics .
Ahuja defended his dissertation this past summer and is currently an applied scientist at DocuSign in Seattle, Washington. His advisor was Edward Fox .
The organization’s annual award supports student efforts to transform the genre of the dissertation through the use of innovative research data management techniques and software to create multimedia Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs). It includes a cash award and travel scholarship funds to attend a future ETD Symposium.
Following is an excerpt from the email Ahuja received from the chair of the NDLTD Awards Committee notifying him of this honor:
“Your thesis, “Analyzing and Navigating Electronic Theses and Dissertations,” provides a technical framework to expand the access to the content of millions of published theses, like yours, which are constrained in their usability and usefulness by the portable document format. Current digital libraries are institutional repositories with the objective being content archiving, they often lack end-user services needed to make this valuable data useful for the scholarly community. To effectively utilize such data to address the information needs of users, digital libraries should support various end-user services such as document search and browsing, document recommendation, as well as services to make navigation of long PDF documents easier and accessible. Your research and dissertation directly addresses these concerns in creative and beneficial ways.”
Ahuja earned a bachelor’s degree in information systems from Birla Institute of Technology & Science, India , where, as part of his undergraduate studies, he was also a visiting scholar at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
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- How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples
How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples
Published on January 11, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on August 15, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan.
A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . It usually comes near the end of your introduction .
Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you’re writing. But the thesis statement should always clearly state the main idea you want to get across. Everything else in your essay should relate back to this idea.
You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps:
- Start with a question
- Write your initial answer
- Develop your answer
- Refine your thesis statement
Table of contents
What is a thesis statement, placement of the thesis statement, step 1: start with a question, step 2: write your initial answer, step 3: develop your answer, step 4: refine your thesis statement, types of thesis statements, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about thesis statements.
A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay. It is a signpost telling the reader what the essay will argue and why.
The best thesis statements are:
- Concise: A good thesis statement is short and sweet—don’t use more words than necessary. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences.
- Contentious: Your thesis shouldn’t be a simple statement of fact that everyone already knows. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up.
- Coherent: Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper.
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The thesis statement generally appears at the end of your essay introduction or research paper introduction .
The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts and among young people more generally is hotly debated. For many who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.
You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis , early in the writing process . As soon as you’ve decided on your essay topic , you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.
You might already have a question in your assignment, but if not, try to come up with your own. What would you like to find out or decide about your topic?
For example, you might ask:
After some initial research, you can formulate a tentative answer to this question. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the research process and writing process .
Now you need to consider why this is your answer and how you will convince your reader to agree with you. As you read more about your topic and begin writing, your answer should get more detailed.
In your essay about the internet and education, the thesis states your position and sketches out the key arguments you’ll use to support it.
The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education because it facilitates easier access to information.
In your essay about braille, the thesis statement summarizes the key historical development that you’ll explain.
The invention of braille in the 19th century transformed the lives of blind people, allowing them to participate more actively in public life.
A strong thesis statement should tell the reader:
- Why you hold this position
- What they’ll learn from your essay
- The key points of your argument or narrative
The final thesis statement doesn’t just state your position, but summarizes your overall argument or the entire topic you’re going to explain. To strengthen a weak thesis statement, it can help to consider the broader context of your topic.
These examples are more specific and show that you’ll explore your topic in depth.
Your thesis statement should match the goals of your essay, which vary depending on the type of essay you’re writing:
- In an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should take a strong position. Your aim in the essay is to convince your reader of this thesis based on evidence and logical reasoning.
- In an expository essay , you’ll aim to explain the facts of a topic or process. Your thesis statement doesn’t have to include a strong opinion in this case, but it should clearly state the central point you want to make, and mention the key elements you’ll explain.
If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!
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A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.
The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:
- It gives your writing direction and focus.
- It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.
Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.
Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement :
- Ask a question about your topic .
- Write your initial answer.
- Develop your answer by including reasons.
- Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.
The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction .
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a proposition stated or put forward for consideration, especially one to be discussed and proved or to be maintained against objections: He vigorously defended his thesis on the causes of war.
a subject for a composition or essay.
a dissertation on a particular subject in which one has done original research, as one presented by a candidate for a diploma or degree.
Music . the downward stroke in conducting; downbeat. : Compare arsis (def. 1) .
a part of a metrical foot that does not bear the ictus or stress.
(less commonly) the part of a metrical foot that bears the ictus. : Compare arsis (def. 2) .
Philosophy . See under Hegelian dialectic .
Origin of thesis
Word story for thesis, other words for thesis, words that may be confused with thesis.
- 1. antithesis , synthesis , thesis
- 2. dissertation , thesis
Words Nearby thesis
- shit will hit the fan, the
- shoe is on the other foot, the
- short end of the stick, the
- The show must go on
- thesis play
- thesis statement
- Sketch Book, The
- Skin of Our Teeth, The
- sky's the limit, the
Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2023
How to use thesis in a sentence
“The Saudis have been proving the thesis of the film — they do in fact have an army,” said Thor Halvorssen, founder and chief executive of the nonprofit Human Rights Foundation, which funded the movie.
It’s a hypothesis that Bush pursued in her master’s thesis , and last year she began attending virtual Goth parties in a final round of field work before defending her doctoral thesis later this year.
While this partnership was planned prior to the coronavirus outbreak, co-founder Jordana Kier said the pandemic instantly proved out the expansion thesis .
They’ve had to defend that thesis for a very, very long time in front of a variety of different customers and different people.
Over the past decade, In-Q-Tel has been one of the most active investors in the commercial space sector, with a broad investment thesis that touches many aspects of the sector.
In “Back Home,” Gil also revisits the nostalgia for the South explored in his Johns Hopkins thesis , “Circle of Stone.”
At least father and son were in alignment on this central thesis : acting “gay”—bad; being thought of as gay—bad.
Her doctoral thesis , says Ramin Takloo at the University of Illinois, was simply outstanding.
Marshall McLuhan long ago argued the now accepted thesis that different mediums have different influences on thinking.
He wrote his Master's thesis on the underrepresentation of young people in Congress.
And indeed for most young men a college thesis is but an exercise for sharpening the wits, rarely dangerous in its later effects.
It will be for the reader to determine whether the main thesis of the book has gained or lost by the new evidence.
But the word thesis , when applied to Systems, does not mean the 'position' of single notes, but of groups of notes.
This conclusion, it need hardly be said, is in entire agreement with the main thesis of the preceding pages.
Sundry outlying Indians, with ammunition to waste, took belly and knee rests and strengthened the thesis to the contrary.
British Dictionary definitions for thesis
/ ( ˈθiːsɪs ) /
a dissertation resulting from original research, esp when submitted by a candidate for a degree or diploma
a doctrine maintained or promoted in argument
a subject for a discussion or essay
an unproved statement, esp one put forward as a premise in an argument
music the downbeat of a bar, as indicated in conducting
(in classical prosody) the syllable or part of a metrical foot not receiving the ictus : Compare arsis
philosophy the first stage in the Hegelian dialectic, that is challenged by the antithesis
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
Cultural definitions for thesis
The central idea in a piece of writing, sometimes contained in a topic sentence .
The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Regents OK Building New State Emergency Operations Center
The Texas A&M University System Board of Regents voted Thursday to begin construction on the $370 million State Emergency Operations Center and agency headquarters for the Texas Division of Emergency Management just east of Austin’s Bergstrom International Airport.
“This project will allow TDEM to consolidate its staff and coordinate statewide emergency response efforts from a single location,” said Chancellor John Sharp. “Right now, TDEM staff are scattered across multiple locations and in rented office spaces.”
The $370 million total includes $9.7 million for land acquisition and just over $360 million to build the 295,978 square foot facility, which includes a five-story office building and the State Emergency Operations Center.
“With this investment by the Legislature and the support of the Governor and Board of Regents, Texas will increase its capabilities to better prepare for, respond to, recover from and mitigate against any disaster we face,” said Texas Emergency Management Chief Nim Kidd. “Communication and coordination are cornerstones of emergency management, and our new facilities will provide TDEM and our emergency management partners with the space and technology to more effectively serve our communities across Texas.”
The modern, flexible, state-of-the-art new State Emergency Operations Center will be 90,068 square feet and is designed to withstand 200 miles-per-hour windstorms. It will comfortably seat 300 people and will provide ample meeting rooms, space for a joint information center, a press conference room, a GIS workroom and space for food service. The new facility also provides adequate space to facilitate coordination between TDEM and its partner agencies and local community representatives, improving critical response operations and minimizing impacts to the state’s citizens and economy.
TDEM’s headquarters will be a combination of traditional steel-framed construction and mass timber.
The current State Operations Center in Austin was originally constructed in the 1950’s in an underground 13,855 square-foot bunker and the 70-year-old facility is no longer suitable to support emergency response operations for a growing state.
While the design phase of this project has been underway for a few years, construction is set to begin in November, with substantial completion expected in August 2026.
An artist’s rendering of the complex can be downloaded at https://www.tamus.edu/wp-content/uploads/2023/11/IMG_0738-scaled.jpeg
In other action, the Regents authorized construction of a $43.4 million STEM Education Center at Texas A&M-RELLIS in Bryan and a $49.9 million Nursing Education and Research Center at the Texas A&M University Health Sciences Center in McAllen.
Texas A&M System Wins Award for National Security Leadership, Counterintelligence Excellence
System Chancellor John Sharp was presented with the Jack Donnelly Award for Excellence in Counterintelligence.
Regents Approve Texas A&M Space Institute
The $200 million facility will be built at the Johnson Space Center in Houston to help ensure Texas remains a leader in space exploration.
Texas A&M-Fort Worth Breaks Ground On First Building
Aerospace giant Lockheed Martin is exploring participation with the new campus.
From Combat Pilot To College Professor
Russell McGee’s career has been shaped by the Marine Corps and Texas A&M's Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering.
Multidisciplinary Engineering Doctoral Student Wins 2023 Three Minute Thesis Finals
Andrea Porter will represent Texas A&M in the Regional 3MT® Research Presentation Competition with her design for ballistic vests for women in the military.
Maroon Out Celebrates 25 Years
The student organization has been outfitting Aggie fans since 1998, raising funds for scholarships and campus traditions.
Subscribe to the Texas A&M Today newsletter for the latest news and stories every week.
Iron Mountain: All Eyes On The Near-Term Trajectory Of Generative AI
- It is unsurprising that IRM has failed to break out of its resistance levels, thanks to its mixed FQ3'23 performance, intensified capex, growing debt, and the elevated interest rate environment.
- With demand still gated by supply, the REIT has not been able to ramp up fast enough to meet the insatiable demand, with most of its pre-lease contract under construction.
- We believe the key to the generative AI investment thesis directly hinges on NVDA's upcoming earnings call on November 20, 2023, with Mr. Market likely waiting with bated breath.
- For now, IRM has exceeded its FY2023 data center lease guidance with higher projected returns, as the management strategically repurposes its records management facility to data centers.
- Bottom fishing investors may consider waiting for a little longer and adding only if the stock's support level of $57s hold for an improved margin of safety.
Pofuduk Images/iStock via Getty Images
We previously covered Iron Mountain Incorporated ( NYSE: IRM ) in August 2023, discussing its highly promising data center prospects, thanks to the generative AI boom.
With growing backlog, expanded capacity, and higher service base prices, we believed that its Data Center segment might be a long-term top and bottom line driver.
In this article, we will be discussing IRM's mixed prospects in the near term, as the management aggressively expands its data center capacity at a time of elevated interest rate environment, triggering its increased reliance on debt.
While its dividend income investment thesis remains robust, investors may want to temper their near-term expectations, with the Fed expecting a normalized economy only by 2026.
The IRM Investment Thesis Remains Robust Here
For now, IRM reported an underwhelming FQ3'23 revenues of $1.38B ( +2.2% QoQ / +7.9% YoY) and AFFO per share of $0.99 (+5.3% QoQ/ +1% YoY), missing the consensus estimates.
Perhaps part of the pessimism is also attributed to the REIT's slower revenue growth of $127.53M ( +8% QoQ / +27.1% YoY) in the Data Center business, with its top line driver still tied to the Global RIM Business at $1.18B (+2.6% QoQ/ +8.2% YoY).
Despite all the generative AI hype, IRM's bottom line driver remains in the legacy business as well, at $516.54M (+3.5% QoQ/ +6.7% YoY) or the equivalent of 90.6% (+0.4 points QoQ/ -1.2 YoY) its overall adj EBITDA generation in the latest quarter.
Despite the projected improved cash-on-cash returns for its data center segment, it is apparent that the REIT has not been able to ramp up fast enough to meet demand, with much of its pre-lease contract currently under construction.
IRM 3Y Stock Price
Perhaps this is why the IRM stock has failed to break out of its H2'23 resistance levels, with it likely to retest its critical support levels of $57 in the near term.
Naturally, it remains to be seen if the stock is able to sustain its upward momentum, with the stock already trading sideways since July 2023.
On the one hand, we believe the key to the generative AI investment thesis directly hinges on NVDA's upcoming earnings call on November 20, 2023, with Mr. Market likely waiting with bated breath.
With multiple semi chip companies reporting mixed data center sales results, including Intel Corporation ( INTC ) at $3.8B ( -5% QoQ / -11.6% YoY) and Advanced Micro Devices at $1.59B (+20.4% QoQ/ inline YoY), it remains to be seen how things may develop in the near term.
On the other hand, it is apparent that the appetite for cloud services and generative AI remains insatiable, with multiple cloud providers already guiding intensified capital expenditure and investments in FY2024.
For example, Amazon.com, Inc. ( AMZN ) expects "increased infrastructure CapEx to support growth of our AWS business, including additional investments related to generative AI and large language model efforts," with the same sentiments echoed by Microsoft Corporation ( MSFT ) and Alphabet Inc. ( GOOG ) ( GOOGL ) in the recent earnings calls.
Meta Platforms, Inc. ( META ) has already gone ahead and offered an aggressive capex guidance of up to $35B in FY2024, up drastically from the FY2023 range of between $27B and $29B, "with growth driven by investments in servers, including both non-AI and AI hardware, and in data centers as we ramp up construction on sites with the new data center architecture we announced late last year."
These forward commentaries continue to imply IRM's near-term tailwinds as a data center REIT, especially since it caters to over 1.1K customers , including cloud providers, global enterprises, and local market organizations.
Most importantly, Gartner already expects the global public cloud services spending to grow by +21.3% YoY from $597.32B in 2023 to $724.56B in 2024.
In addition, IRM already exceeds its FY2023 leasing projection of 80 MWs (+19.4% YoY), with 120 MWs leased YTD. The insatiable demand for cloud capacity is apparent indeed, especially since 60 MWs of the 65 MWs leased in FQ3'23 carries a 15-year term, way longer than the company's weighted average lease expiration of 8.1 years.
Therefore, while the REIT stock's trajectory may have temporarily stalled, we believe that its long-term prospects remain excellent, with the management looking to aggressively expand its intermediate-term capacity.
IRM is already acquiring additional land and power to eventually grow its overall data center capacity from the current operation of 225 MWs to over 860 MWs, while also repurposing its previous records management facility in Miami and other locations for data center purposes.
With the momentum surrounding cloud computing and generative AI unlikely to stall, we believe that the stock's recent correction is only temporal.
For now, while IRM may boast a sustainable FWD AFFO Dividend Payout Ratio of 64.03% and a growing Interest Coverage ratio of 1.85x, investors may want to monitor its increased debt at $11.54B (+6.4% QoQ/ +15.9% YoY) by the latest quarter.
With an intensified FY2023 capex guidance of $1.3B (+48.5% YoY), we believe the management may further rely on debt to finance its growth in the data center segment, with it likely to pose headwinds to its near-term profitability as the elevated interest rate environment triggers higher interest expenses.
So, Is IRM Stock A Buy , Sell, or Hold?
As a result of these promising developments, we believe that IRM deserves its premium FWD Price/ AFFO valuations of 15.60x, compared to its 3Y pre-pandemic mean of 11.86x and sector median of 13.32x.
The same premium continues to be observed with its data center REIT peers as well, with IRM still trading well below Digital Realty Trust, Inc. ( DLR ) at 21.71x and Equinix, Inc. ( EQIX ) at 23.80x.
Based on the IRM management's FY2023 AFFO per share guidance of $3.955 (+4% YoY) and its FWD Price/ AFFO valuation of 15.60x, it appears that the stock is trading near its fair value of $61.69 as well.
The Consensus Forward Estimates
Based on the consensus FY2025 AFFO estimates of $4.56, it appears that there is an excellent upside potential of +20.2% to our long-term price target of $71.13 as well.
As a result of the attractive risk/ reward ratio, we continue to rate the IRM stock as a Buy, with no specific entry point, since it depends on individual investors' dollar cost average and risk appetite.
Bottom fishing investors may consider waiting for a little longer and adding only if the stock's support level of $57s holds for an improved margin of safety.
This article was written by
Analyst’s Disclosure: I/we have a beneficial long position in the shares of AMZN, MSFT, GOOG, META, INTC, NVDA, AMD either through stock ownership, options, or other derivatives. I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article. The analysis is provided exclusively for informational purposes and should not be considered professional investment advice. Before investing, please conduct personal in-depth research and utmost due diligence, as there are many risks associated with the trade, including capital loss.
Seeking Alpha's Disclosure: Past performance is no guarantee of future results. No recommendation or advice is being given as to whether any investment is suitable for a particular investor. Any views or opinions expressed above may not reflect those of Seeking Alpha as a whole. Seeking Alpha is not a licensed securities dealer, broker or US investment adviser or investment bank. Our analysts are third party authors that include both professional investors and individual investors who may not be licensed or certified by any institute or regulatory body.
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Clay N. Hixson Student Success Center
The Bulletin for Nov. 7, 2023
- Published Monday Nov 6, 2023
Informational Session for College of Engineering
- Interested in getting a Masters in possibly only one more year?
- Interested in learning more about the Fast Track programs in the College of Engineering?
- Do you understand the process for applying to the Fast Track program?
- Do you know how to get both undergraduate and graduate credits while an undergraduate student?
There will be a Fast Track Informational Session for College of Engineering students Thursday, Nov. 9th at 11 a.m. in BRUN 228.
Whether you are currently not in the program, or newly accepted into the program, this is a good place to come get all your questions answered.
Add it to your calendar!
Grand Challenge Scholars Program (GCSP) Presents Dr. Seymur Hasanov
Join Dr. Seymur Hasanov, Assistant Director of Undergraduate Studies, Harvard University, John A. Paulsen School of Engineering and Applied Sciences this Thursday, Nov. 9 from 5 to 6:30 p.m. in the iMakerSpace as he presents Engineering at Harvard: A Glimpse into Student Life & Tips for Success. Lear more here.
Brought to you by Grand Challenge Scholars Program at Tech.
FALL 2023 Graduates: Induction into the Profession Ceremony registration is NOW OPEN.
If you wish to accept this invitation, please come by Clement 201, no later than Dec. 5, 2023 , to select your ring size, specify how you wish your name to appear on the certificate, and pay the fee. Bring the exact amount or pay by check.
Registration closes Dec. 5th. Ceremony will be held Dec. 7 at 3:30 p.m. in Bell Hall Auditorium (Room 282). Order of the Engineer - $15 , Pledge of the Computing Professional - $10, Order of Engineering Technology - $10
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TODAY - Tuesday, Nov. 7, 2023
Native american history month event: student presentations – reflections on community immersion.
› Location: Roaden University Center (RUC) Tech Pride Room
› Time: 11 a.m. – noon
Employer Spotlight: TN Army National Guard
› Location: Lobby - Roaden University Center
› Time: 11 a.m. – 1 p.m.
Purple Career Readiness Event: Success Factors on My New Job ( Juniors & Seniors)
› Location: Roaden University Center, Multipurpose Room
› Time: 11 – 11:45 a.m.
Michael Miner Thesis Defense
› Location: Brown Hall, 208
› Time: 3 – 4 p.m.
Wednesday, Nov. 8, 2023
› Location: iMakerSpace
› Time: 7 – 8 p.m.
Thursday, Nov. 9, 2023
Fast track information session, tn dept of environment and conservation (state parks division).
› Time: 11:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.
GCSP Presents: Engineering at Harvard: A Glimpse into Student Life & Tips for Success
› Time: 5 – 6:30 p.m.
Native American History Month Event: Annual First Nations Circle of Music
› Location: Bryan Fine Arts Building (BFA) Wattenbarger Auditorium
› Time: 6:30 – 8:30 p.m.
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Letovo Schoolcampus / atelier PRO
- Curated by Fernanda Castro
- Architects: atelier PRO
- Area Area of this architecture project Area: 39000 m²
- Year Completion year of this architecture project Year: 2018
- Photographs Photographs: NARODIZKIY , Dmitry Voinov , atelier PRO
- Interior Design : Atelier PRO , Thijs Klinkhamer
- Landscape Designer : Buro Sant en Co
- Client: Letovo
- Project Architects: Dorte Kristensen, Pascale Leistra, Karho Yeung
- Design Team: Thijs Klinkhamer, Abel de Raadt, Alessia Topolnyk
- Russian Co Architect: Atrium, Moscow
- City: Moscow
- Country: Russia
- Did you collaborate on this project?
Text description provided by the architects. The official grand opening of a special school, Letovo School , took place in Moscow last September. The assignment entailed a 20 hectare schoolcampus with educational facilities, student housing and school staff housing. The school campus offers extended outdoor sports facilities with a soccer stade, a running track, tennis courts and basketball courts. In addition there is a greenhouse, a treeyard and ample space for wandering and relaxation in the green.
While the architecture and interior of the school were designed by atelier PRO, the landscape design was developed by Buro Sant en Co landscape architecture. Russian firm Atrium Architectural Studio was responsible for the technical execution. In 2014 Atelier PRO had won the international design competition, the construction began mid-2016 and the campus was taken into use by mid-2018.
Letovo, a dream come true Letovo School is a special school for gifted and motivated children aged 12 to 17. The idea to create the school came from entrepreneur and philanthropist Vadim Moshkovich: ‘My dream was to offer talented children from all over the country access to high-quality education, regardless of their parents’ financial means. This school makes it possible for them to continue their studies at the 10 best universities in the country or at one of the top 50 universities in the world.’
Landscape-inspired design and shape Located in Novaya Moskva,southwest of Moscow ,the campus sits atop a beautiful plot of land that slopes down to a forest-lined river. Distinctive level variations were applied in and around the school to integrate the architecture into the landscape.
The shape of the large complex brings it down to a human scale for the children: the building appears to dance across the landscape due to its dynamic design. Due to the perspective effect one only ever sees part of the building's full size when walking around, which gives the impression of a refined scale. The building’s contours and flowing curves create surprising indoor and outdoor spaces as well.
The heart of the school: the central hub The central hub is the place where day-to-day life at the school unfolds. This flexible, transformable space will be used throughout the day as an informal meeting place. The dance studio on the ground floor can be transformed through a few simple adjustments into a theatre with a stage, a cosy living room or an auditorium that can accommodate 1,000 people for special events such as graduation ceremonies and large celebrations, as seen at the grand opening. This central hub connects the building’s three wings: the art wing, the south wing with science- and general-use rooms and the sports wing
Learning environment with a diversity in working spaces Letovo envisioned an innovative and modern take on existing education in Russia. In the spatial design, this perspective translates into space for theoretical education as well as special areas for group work and independent study in the tapered building wings. In the library wing there are silence spaces workshop spaces and a debating room. These are all supportive to the student’s personal development.
Sports programme In addition to the extended sports outdoor facilities, the indoor supply of sports facilities is substantial. These cover fitness rooms, martial arts rooms, a swimming pool, a small and a large sports hall. Around the sports hall there’s an indoor running track which can be used throughout the year. It is available to school staff and external users as well.
The interior, also designed by atelier PRO, is tailored to the aims of the ambitious programme. The design of the interior also focuses extensively on the various spaces where students can go to chill and meet up with friends. The extreme cold in this area makes the school’s indoor atmosphere important for relaxation.
Ambitous learning environment The Russian client has established a private, non-profit school which aims to be the most prestigious school in the country and to offer the best educational programme through a Russion and an IB (International Baccalaureate) curriculum. Students’ personal development is paramount, with the school adopting a holistic approach. It is a true learning environment that provides scope for a range of disciplines, areas of interest and recreational opportunities to foster children’s development. This aim is supported by the campus facilities and functions.
Address: zimenkovskaya street, sosenskoye settlement, moscow, russia.
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Creating a Character Animation-based Interactive Frailty Model to Support Better Primary Care Implementation and Planning for Older Adults
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Synonyms of thesis
- as in argument
- as in hypothesis
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Cite this entry.
“Thesis.” Merriam-Webster.com Thesaurus , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/thesaurus/thesis. Accessed 11 Nov. 2023.
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