Sociology Essays

Sociology in sociology.

At first I didn’t know what to really expect from taking an online sociology class for class. To be completely honest, I thought I would be reading a lot of boring articles and then writing about them. It turned out that I was wrong. I was able to see what sociology pertains to and how it relates to our lives. It’s funny to think that almost everything in your life is controlled by someone else. Your interests, hobbies, and even clothes aren’t really solely your decision. You may be thinking “no

Culture has been considered throughout the history of sociology as a major factor. Weber examines and tries to explain the origin and development of capitalism. He links the origin of capitalism to cultural background. Weber also searches for growing profits using rationally and calculated the means of production

Sociology Of Sociology

VUNGHOISIAM VAIPHEI ROLL NO: 14 SOCIOLOGY OF INDIA APPROACH AND PERSPECTIVE Sociology is the product of the intellectual response of the Indians to the western interpretation of Indians to the Western interpretation of Indian society and culture mainly after the beginning of British colonial rule in India. The early sociological beginning can be started from Karl Marx, Max Weber as well as Durkheim who depend on the British writing on India for analysis of Indian society and culture. Intensive field

Sociology Is Sociology

Chapter One: What is Sociology? Sociology has become very prevalent in our everyday lives. Almost anything that anyone can think of involves Sociology in some way. Since Sociology plays a big role in everyday life, even when some people might not know it, that leaves many wondering what exactly Sociology is. Where did it come from? How has it become what it is today? The main reasons for Sociology being around today are the questions that are being asked Sociology, along with other social sciences

Sociology is the study of human society and social behavior from large institutions to small groups and individual interactions. Sociology plays a major part in everyone’s everyday life the roles that have helped me become the person that I am today are race, social class, gender, & culture. The agent of socialization that has had a great impact on me has been my family. Sociological imagination is a quality of the mind that allows us to understand the relationship between our individual circumstances

perspectives and at different levels. However, they do all share the fact they all contributed something to sociology. August Comte is credited with coining the term sociology. Emile Durkheim had a lot to do with the term sociology, and he was a major part of structural functionalism. Also Herbert Spencer was one of the major figures in the intellectual life of the Victorian era. When talking about sociology, there is a micro level analysis of small social patterns and a macro level of analysis of large social

Sociology Definition Sociology

This Essay aims to define what is meant by the term sociology by examining the perspectives of key sociologists, attempts to outline what makes sociology different from other social sciences and explains what is meant by the sociological perspective and how this can be used to think sociologically, and finally how sociology is changing within modern society due to the processes of globalisation. Sociology, in the broadest sense, attempts to study all aspects of society as a whole and the relationships

Essay On Sociology In Sociology

What Do Sociologists Do? Education: This section of sociology focuses on the impact society has on the educational facilities and also how schooling affects individuals. Some of the well-known people for this branch include Durkheim, Sumner, and A.W.Green. Durkheim believes that the younger generation is conceived by education, in that it teaches a child to act, see, and feel in a way it would not have developed on its own. Durkheim also believed that educational institutions taught specifically

Examples Of Sociology In Sociology

I have not realized that sociology was big part of my everyday life. For instance, a sociologist job is to examine the everyday interactions of a society. My society can be examined at a macro level and can be dissected into pieces. If this information were to be closely study, our society can begin to evolve a quick rate. But there may be cases of how each society operates under various perspective. I had no idea that there four different types of perspectives. The first perspective is the functionalist

Why Sociology Is Sociology

WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY? Sociology is a broad social science that studies the behavior of human beings, social relationships and social institutions through the use of systematic processes. Firstly, Sociology is an extensive subject since it covers several different areas of social life from traditional aspects such as religion, family, race, crime, and gender to modern social concerns like social movements, the environment, and technology. The study of Sociology is not static due to the fact it changes

Essay On Sociology And Sociology

can use to change the world,”-Nelson Mandela. In our world, full of endless savagery and pure demise, how can we, as a society, move forward and look past our ample amount of both cultural and ethnic differences? Education: more specifically, Sociology. Sociology, by definition, is “the study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society.” Development. Structure. Function. How are people as a whole changing and adapting to their specific sense of circumstances? Furthermore, how are

be explaining the definition of sociology, the sociological factors of obesity using Symbolic Interactionism Theory and the Functionalism Theory and a description of the medical condition obesity and how it may affect individuals suffering from it. Sociology cannot be clearly explained as there are many different theories and theorists; so far none of them have been defined as a correct answer. Although with all this information of theories and theorists sociology is relatively explained as agreed

Sociology And Sociology Essay

sociological perspective, the topics I have chosen to explore is Marxism, functionalism, education and class, feminism and the last topic is a very general topic which enhances our understanding of sociology and the world we live in. I chose the topics above as they offer an interesting viewpoint of education and sociology; also the topics above interlink this makes it easier to understand the contributions from a sociological perspective. Furthermore, to enhance my understanding of the topics I have found

Sociology: The Four Functions Of Sociology

Quinton Harris Sociology There are three ways to do sociology. The first way to do it is positivist sociology. The study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior. There are three important components the concepts, variables, and measurement. Sociologists use concepts to identify elements of society. A concept is a mental construct that represents a part of the world. A variable is a concept whose value changes from case to case. Measurement is the process of determining

Sociology Essay On Sociology

Beuys Dorminvil Sociology 31 Final Essay Being someone who had no prior knowledge of sociology before attending college. This particular subject was extremely fascinating. It did in fact force me to think outside of the box. Allowing me to become aware of myself and my contributions to my society, as well as becoming more mindful of other cultures and their societies. Because we are so much a custom to our traditional norms and values, we often believe that what we Americans do in our everyday

Sociology is a field which developed over a millennia ago, but it was not until the nineteenth century that it came into the fore as a bona fide social science, in need of its own classification apart from other social sciences. Sociology, 'the study of the process of companionship';(pg.396, Ambercrombie,Hill,Turner), is a discipline, which is not exclusively independent in and of its self, yet borrows from many other disciplines such as: history, geography, and anthropology. 'American sociology

Sociology Monopoly In Sociology

*Every semester I teach college Sociology classes I always have my students play a game of Monopoly. They don't play normal Monopoly though but one with special rules designed to teach them about how social class and wealth impact success and failure in life.* # The name of the game is Sociopoly or Sociological Monopoly ## The game's rules were designed by Catherine L. Coghlan and Denise W. Huggin. The purpose of the game is to change a familiar game like Monopoly that most students know into a

Sociology Miss Rowbotham Education Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the contribution of functionalist sociology to an understanding of the role of education in society A) Explain what is meant by ‘streaming’. (2 marks) Streaming is when you organise children into different classes in school depending on their ability. B) Give two examples of ways in which the school curriculum may be seen as ethnocentric. (4 marks) The school curriculum may be

Sociology is the complex study of the development, structure, and function of human society. Unlike many of the other social sciences, the study of Sociology utilizes impersonal empirical and critical analysis to develop an understanding of human social interactions. Through distinguishable methods from notable sociologists such as C. Wright Mills- whose concept The Sociological Imagination, known as, “...the vivid awareness of the relationship between experience and the wider society,” is used when

Sociological Perspective: Sociology And Sociology

What is sociology and what does the sociological perspective entail? How does a mastery of the sociological perspective help you better understand your social world and your personal life? Sociology has been around since the Age of Enlightenment, as both the French and other European men desired to learn more about society. This widespread desire to evaluate the science of society led to sociology, which is now officially defined as the study of the development, structure and functioning of human

Sociology is the study of human relations and behavior within society, and society itself – its origins, development, structures and institutions. Sociology seeks to understand and analyze religion, race, family, crime, gender, social movements, and more. To achieve the goals of sociology, sociologists use methods like surveys, experiments, interviews and historical documentation.

Sociology considers not just society as a whole but an individual within a society and how individuals are affected by the beliefs that govern a society. This is what C. Wright Mills called the sociological imagination – the space where personal experiences are impacted by social conditions.

Auguste Comte - Father of Sociology

Though sociology was an overarching theme in Greek philosopher Plato’s teaching, it was the French philosopher of Science, Auguste Comte, who defined sociology. Comte studied society through a scientific lens by unifying history, economics, and psychology. According to the author of A History of Philosophy: IX Modern Philosophy 1974, Frederick Copleston, “Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the later decades of the nineteenth century. Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science”.

Positivism and antipositivism, functionalism, structuralism, and conflict theory are some of the popular classical theories governing the study of sociology. By understanding the theories in sociology, one can follow the the history of sociology, and the ways in which sociology unpacks the workings of society, the social order, and an individual’s role in it. Comte, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Harriet Martineau, Antonio Gramsci are some of the famous sociologists to have ever walked the earth.

Curious to know more about sociology? Check out our collection of sociology essays and research papers below:

Sociology Essay

sociology definition essay

Sociology In Sociology

Sociology is the study of groups of people and how society interacts with them. There are many people out there that have done research or contributed in some way to sociology. Not just on people, but things like religions, countries, genders, race, and many more. Many things play in the role to form us and our society. Here in America, we have Trump as our president and we eat burgers and french fries, but over in japan they grow lots of their own food and eat it like potatoes with vegetables and

According to Durkheim, Social fact or social phenomenon are the main subject matter of sociology. He said in one of his pieces that social fact must be studied distinct from the biological and psychological phenomenon. Social order is the trend of behavior being used to exercise power over another person. It has become rules and regulations that have been set up by some authorities to be obeyed by another group of people who are being undermined in a society, it is a situation that oppressed people

Social structure and social interaction are based on two levels of analysis: Macrosociology and microsociology. Macrosociology, like its name describes, is focused on the broad view of society and how it studies society’s behavior. Theorists can analyze and distinguish the different social classes and groups in society. Microsociology is focused on social interaction, how people react and what they do when they are together. Theorists can examine people’s behaviors and how they communicate to one

Sociology : Sociology, Sociology And The Industrial Revolution

1. Describe the historical and social context from which sociology developed. Sociology as it is known today is very different to how it once was. During the eighteenth century, a series of events sparked a change in thinking, often referred to as The Enlightenment. The Enlightenment “was a broad European intellectual movement that sought to sweep away the prejudices of previous generations, and replace them with a more rational basis for social life.” (Haralambos & Holborn, 2000, p. 1069).

Sociology Of Sociology Essay

this topic. The department of Sociology Unc (2016) indicates sociology is the study of human social relationships and organisations. Sociology can range from crime to religion it is a very diverse subject. It refers to the family to the state, diversity of race and social class to the beliefs in common cultures. The study of sociology is to understand how human action and consciousness both shape and are shaped by surrounding cultural and social structures. Sociology you do not realise how much the

Importance Of Sociology In Sociology

want for knowledge, sociologist investigate and study the origin, development, development and the functioning of groups. This involves many interviews with people and putting out questionnaires, surveys, public and personal historical records. Sociology originates from the 19th century, Emile durkheim, a french sociologist supported sociological theories in the 20th century. A everyday experience a sociologists go thru is reading newspaper articles on how someone on a state's death row, the sociologist

Sociology : The Function Of Sociology

Sociology Observation Essay Sociology is the study of development and functioning of humans in society, in other words how a person reacts in a certain situation. Although hard to understand, sociology has many important points that add into the development of someones personality, values, religion, education, etc. As Pierre Bourdieu once said “The function of sociology, as of every science, is to reveal that which is hidden.” In this case, the social group that I had studied for 24 hours had many

Social, Sociology, And Sociology

individuals who need that extra support. Social work as a subject area includes elements of psychology, law and sociology. Social policy is the study of various areas of policy, within political or governmental setting, and is concerned with everything from the welfare state, to social services. Social policy is an academic study of theory, rather than current policies and draws from psychology, sociology, philosophy, and economics. What A Levels do I need? Each university will ask for varying grades and tariff

The concept of sociology had been recognized by independent philosophers since the dawn of organized civilization. Philosophers such as Confucius and Xenophanes in their works had hinted at the clash of cultures and social hierarchy. Later, in the 14th century, Arab scholars such as Al Jahiz and Ibn Khaldun's compliled books on the history of society itself. These works are known to be forerunners of sociology. In fact, books written by Ibn Khaldun on social cohesion and conflict were translated

“In the world we now live, divisions into class are meaningless. We are all working people now.”(Margaret Thatcher in 1988) The discussion that if Britain is becoming a classless society last for a long time. Britain was a typical manufacturing country because of industrial revolution in 18 century. Then the class structure of Britain was changed due to the globalization and economic system which changed from industrial to service during 19th and 20th century. In this easy, we focus on the change

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Essay on sociology: the meaning of sociology (800 words).

sociology definition essay


This article provides information about the meaning of Sociology as a science:

Sociology as a science and particularly as a separate field of study is of recent origin. It is the youngest of the social sciences. August Comte, the father of sociology, first of conceived the word ‘sociology’ in, 1839. He had intended to name the new science social physics, but he rejected this term after a Belgian scholar, Adolphe Quetelet, began to make statistical studies of society and to call his area of Endeavour social physics.


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The word sociology is a barbaric combination of Latin word ‘socius’ and Greek word Logus, Logus connotes study on a high level and socius points to society. Thus, etymologically, sociology means the study of society on a highly generalised or abstract level. In other words, the etymological meaning of sociology is the ‘science of society’.

In a primary way, society may be defined as men or human beings in interdependence. Men in interdependence therefore may be taken as the subject matter of sociology. Other sciences study men as individuals or as collections of individuals but do not study their interdependence.

Sociology is the science of society as a whole. No other social science endeavours to study society in totality. Social sciences like history, economics, political science, anthropology, psychology etc. deal with particular aspect of society. Political science deals with political institutions and political activities.

History deals with unique events relating to past. Economic is concerned with activities relating to production and consumption. These social sciences do not give a complete picture of the society. Sociology on the other hand, studies society in its entirety.

It essentially and fundamentally deals with that network of social relationships we call society. Science has been defined as a body of knowledge. Sociology is also a body of knowledge about society. Sociology as science of society refers to a body of knowledge about society which has been empirically tested. Society may be defined as the complicated network and ever-changing pattern of social relationships. Sociology is the science of society, thus defined.

Sociology has been defined in number of ways by different scholars. There are as many definitions of sociology as there are sociologists. To understand more fully what sociology is about some of its definitions may be cited as follows:

In 1839, Comte defined sociology as the science of human association or the study of gregarious life. In 1851, he attempted to give more flesh and blood to the said definition in his work System of Positive Politics. He conceived of sociology as an abstract theoretical science of social phenomena. According to him it is the business of sociology to discover and abstract social laws and thereby to explain the social phenomena.

Sociology is the study of groups. According to many sociologists, sociology studies man as a member of the -group and as a participant in culture. Man is never an individual in isolation. It has been said that the group is the datum of sociology, not the individual human being. Sociology studies human beings in their group relations, human behaviour in terms of groups and groupings.

Harry M. Johnson writes,” Sociology is the science that deals with social groups: their internal forms or modes of organisation, the processes that tend to maintain or change these forms of organisation, and the relations between groups.”

Sociology is the study of social relationships. Small defines sociology as “the science of social relations”. According to R.E. Park and F.W. Burgess, “Sociology is the science of collective behaviour. Sociology may be defined as a body of scientific knowledge about human relationships, says J. F. Cuber.

“In the broadest sense, sociology is the study of human interactions and interrelations, their conditions and consequences”, says Morris Ginsberg.

According to Maclver and Page “sociology is ‘about’ social relationships, the network of relationship we call society”.

F.H. Giddings defines sociology as “the science of social phenomena”

Max Weber defines Sociology as “the science which attempts the interpretative understanding of social action in order thereby to arrive at a causal explanation of its cause and effects”.

A careful examination of definitions shows that sociologist differ in their opinion about the definitions of sociology. However, we may find following views about its definitions.

1. Sociology is a science of society.

2. Sociology is the study of groups or social system.

3. Sociology is the study of social relationships.

4. Sociology is the study of human interactions and interrelations, their conditions and consequences.

5. Sociology is the study of social action.

6. Sociology is the study of social phenomena.

Sociology is the scientific study of human social life and groups. It is study of societies, giving special emphasis on modern societies. Sociology is the systematic study of social institutions; their nature, functions and interactions, sequences of continuity and change.

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Essay on sociology: top 6 essays on sociology.

sociology definition essay


Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Sociology’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Sociology’ especially written for school and college students.

Essay on Sociology

Essay Contents:

  • Essay on the Scope and Applications of Sociology

Essay # 1. Definition of Sociology :

Sociology (from Latin: socius,’companion; and the suffix -ology, ‘the study of’, from Greek logos, ‘knowledge’) is the scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture i.e. the scientific study of society and human behavior. Thus, society is used to interpret human behavior by using theories to understand human behavior by using scientific methods of research.

Sociology emerged as a discipline in the 19 th century as an academic response to the challenge of modernization. Sociologists hoped not only to understand what held social groups together, but also to develop an ‘antidote’ to the social disintegration that was rapidly resulting from modernization.

Sociology is a social science that studies human societies, their interactions, and the processes that preserve and change them. Sociology also studies social status or stratification, social movements, and social change, as well as societal disorder in the form of crime, deviance, and revolution.

As the organizations play an important role in influencing human action, it is sociology’s task to discover how organizations affect the behavior of persons, how they are established, how organizations interact with one another, how they decay, and, ultimately, how they disappear.

Among the most basic organizational structures are economic, religious, educational, and political institutions, as well as more specialized institutions such as the family, the community, the military, peer groups, clubs, and volunteer associations.

Sociologists depend on quantitative methods of social search to describe large patterns in social relationships, and to develop models that can help predict social change and how people will respond to social change as well as qualitative methods—such as focused interviews, group discussions and ethnographic methods for a better understanding of social processes.

Sociology is a relatively new study among other social science disciplines including economics, political science, anthropology, psychology. The term ‘Sociology’ was coined by Auguste Comte, who hoped to unify all studies of humankind—including history, psychology and economics.

He believed all human life had passed through the same distinct historical stages and that, if one could grasp this progress, one could prescribe the remedies for social ills. Sociology did not replace the other social sciences, but aimed to be another of them, with its own particular emphases in terms of subject matter and methods.

Essay # 2. History of Sociology:

Industrial sociology’s origins lie in the ideas of Marx, Weber and Durkheim, and perhaps beyond. It was recognized as a discrete subject only between the world wars, developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and subsequently fragmented into myriad forms such as the sociology of work and organizational behavior, or has become merged along with some elements of industrial relations into Human Resource Management.

The history of industrial sociology can be read against the changing backdrop of the founding authorities. During the interwar period, when mass unemployment and economic crisis prevailed, Marx, with his theory of proletarian revolution generated by alienation and exploitation, was expected to prevail, but in fact Marx’s influence was minimal: the limited success of the communist revolutions shifted the focus of many Marxists from industry to culture.

In modern industrialized societies work tasks are increasingly carried out within bureaucratized corporations and formally structured enterprises that employ people to work under the instructions of organizational managers. Organizations are at ‘the center of gravity of contemporary society’.

Essay # 3.  Sociology related to Other Social Sciences:

Sociology is related with other disciplines that also deal with the study of society. The fields of economics, psychology, and anthropology have influenced and have been influenced by sociology and these fields share a great amount of history and common research interests. Unlike sociology, psychology and anthropology have forensic components within these disciplines that deal with anatomy and other types of laboratory research.

Sociobiology is the study of how social behavior and organization has been influenced by evolution and other biological processes. The field blends sociology with a number of other sciences, such as anthropology, biology, zoology, and others. Sociology is also widely used in management science, especially in the field of organizational behavior.

The broad nature of sociological inquiry causes it to overlap with other social sciences such as economics, political science, psychology, geography, education, and law. Sociology’s distinguishing feature is its practice of drawing on a larger societal context to explain social phenomena.

Sociologists also utilize some aspects of these other fields. Psychology and sociology, for instance, share an interest in the subfield of social psychology, although psychologists traditionally focus on individuals and their mental mechanisms. Sociology devotes most of its attention to the collective aspects of human behavior, because sociologists place greater emphasis on the ways external groups influence the behavior of individuals.

Psychology examines more of the workings of the human mind why persons think and behave as they do. Sociology tends to examine groups of persons (societies), communities, and nations. So psychology is more about the individual or small group, and sociology is more about communities and larger groups of persons.

Psychology helps the individual to function independently in personal relationships and within the community whereas Sociology intervenes and assists individuals and families through the hardships and crises they face through continuous support as needed. Simply, Psychology may be perceived as a goal toward independence, while Sociology might be perceived as the support necessary to sustain families and society.

The field of social anthropology has been historically quite close to sociology. Until about the first quarter of the 20th century, the two subjects were usually combined in one department. Anthropology and Sociology both deal with society but the only difference is that Social Anthropology mainly considers small states and their culture, but their area of studies is basically the same.

Two other social sciences, Political Science and Economics, developed largely from the practical interests of nations have also recognized the utility of sociological concepts and methods. Sociology and Political Science are related in the sense that they are both concerned with the welfare of people in a society. Political Science basically deals with the distribution of power and the exercise of power, democracy, dictatorship, and communism, how people vote etc.

Sociology and Economics are related in the sense that Economics deals with the production of goods and services and how they are distributed to people just like Sociology which also consider how the goods are distributed to members of the society.

History is another social science which is related to Sociology. History primarily deals with past events and how they affected society, e.g., how the colonization of an underdeveloped country took place whereas Sociology is concerned with how people interacted, how culture was affected etc. during the colonization and the present.

Geography can also be a social science which deals with society just like Sociology. Population studies, demography, health and environment are all geographical studies which deal with society which are also inter-related to sociology as a field of study. Fields like law, education, and religion and even such contrasting fields as engineering and architecture can benefit from the study of institutions and social interaction.

Sociologists have increasingly borrowed statistical methods from other disciplines such as Statistics and mathematical analysis. Statistician Karl Pearson’s ‘coefficient of correlation,’ for example, introduced an important concept for measuring associations between continuous variables without necessarily defining the nature of the connection.

Later, statistical estimates of causal relations were probed by “multiple regression analysis,” employing techniques that estimate the degree to which any particular variable influences a particular outcome. Patterns of responses to interview questions, once thought to be purely qualitative, have also been subject to mathematical scaling.

Many other statistical methods have been devised to suit the purposes of such specialties as demography, ecology, social stratification, organizational analysis, mass communication, and social movements.

Computers have accelerated the application of complex measures that were previously limited by the amount of time required for performing the mathematics. Further progress requires greater resources, larger research teams, and special research agencies comparable to the increased complexity of research organization that occurred in the older sciences. Large-scale sociological research is greatly enhanced by the availability of computers, by complex statistical techniques, and by the storage capacity of data banks.

Essay # 4. Methods of Sociological Research :

The basic goal of sociological research is to understand the social world in its many forms. Quantitative methods and qualitative methods are two main types of sociological research methods. Quantitative methods—such as social statistics or network analysis are used by Sociologists for investigating the structure of a social process or describe patterns in social relationships and Qualitative methods—such as focused interviews, group discussions and ethnographic methods for investigating social processes. Sociologists also use applied research methods such as evaluation research and assessment.

Various types of social research methods include:

i. Historical Method:

This involves a continuous and systematic search for the information and knowledge about past events related to the life of a person, a group, society, or the world.

ii. Archival Research:

Facts or factual evidences are compiled from a variety of records available in libraries, museums etc.

iii. Content Analysis:

The contents of books and mass media are analyzed to study how people communicate.

iv. Experimental Research:

A single social process or social phenomena is isolated by the researcher and the data is used to either confirm or construct social theory. Due to its extremely high internal validity the experiment is the best method for testing theory.

Participants, or subjects, are randomly assigned to various conditions or ‘treatments’, and then analyses are made between groups. Randomization ensures that the effect on group differences is because of the treatment and not some other extraneous factor.

v. Observation by Participation:

Information about social phenomenon or behavior is recorded by the researcher by using a highly disciplined Qualitative research by going into the field (usually a community), living with the people for some time, and participating in their activities in order to know and feel their culture.

vi. Survey:

Data is obtained from interviews, questionnaires, or similar feedback from a set of persons chosen randomly by the researcher to represent a particular population of interest. Survey items may be open- ended or closed-ended.

vii. Life History:

Personal life trajectories are studied through a series of interviews. The researcher probes into the decisive moments or the various influences on the participant’s life.

viii. Longitudinal Study:

This is an extensive examination of a specific group over a long period of time. The choice of method depends on the researcher’s epistemological approach to research. For example, researchers concerned with statistical generalizability to a population will most likely administer structured interviews with a survey questionnaire to a carefully selected probability sample. Whereas, ethnographers, who are more interested in having a full contextual understanding of group members lives will choose participant observation, observation, and open-ended interviews.

Sometimes researchers need to combine several of these methodologies since different methods produce different types of findings that correspond to different aspects of societies. For example, the quantitative methods may help describe social patterns, while qualitative approaches could help to understand how individuals understand those patterns.

An example of using multiple types of research methods is in the study of the Internet.

The Internet is used by sociologists in various ways:

(i) As a tool for research, for example, in using online questionnaires instead of paper ones,

(ii) As a discussion platform, and

(iii) As a research topic i.e. analysis of online communities (e.g. as found in newsgroups), virtual communities and virtual worlds, organizational change catalyzed through new media like the Internet, and social change at-large in the transformation from industrial to informational society (or to information society).

Online communities can be studied statistically through network analysis and at the same time interpreted qualitatively, such as though virtual ethnography. Social change can be studied through statistical demographics or through the interpretation of changing messages and symbols in online media studies.

Essay # 5. Development of Sociology :

The original emergence of sociology and the later development of the sociology of work and industry have been inextricably linked to the changing social and industrializing world of which it is a part. The Greek philosophers and their European successors discussed much of the subject matter of sociology without thinking of it as a distinct discipline. In the early 19th century, the subject matter of the social sciences was discussed under the heading of moral philosophy. Even after Comte introduced the word sociology in 1838, sociological studies were combined with other subjects for some 60 years.

By the late 1890s nearly all higher-educational institutions in the United States either had departments of sociology or offered courses in the subject. In 1895 the American Journal of Sociology began publication at the University of Chicago; in time a large number of journals followed in many other countries.

Ten years later the American Sociological Society was organized, also to be followed by a large number of national, regional, international, and specialized sociological organizations. These groups institutionalized the subject and continued to guide its directions and define its boundaries. Eventually in 1949 the International Sociological Association was established under the sponsorship of UNESCO, and Louis Wirth of the University of Chicago was elected its first president.

By 1970 there were more than a dozen important sociological journals and an indefinite number or minor journals worldwide. Along with this growth came a flourishing of research institutions—some affiliated with university departments and some independent—which allowed a small but increasing number of sociologists to pursue full-time research free from teaching responsibilities.

Increase in public appreciation of the subject, the continuing growth of funds for teaching and research, the steady reduction of sectarian opposition to study of social institutions, the refinement of methodologies that permit statistical analysis, and the growth of acceptance from scientists in other fields is contributing towards the gradual growth of Sociology.

It is likely that public interest in the development of sociological knowledge will increase as more people become aware of what sociology can contribute to human safety and welfare as the advances in science and technology are accompanied by unforeseen and unintended consequences.

Progress can indeed diminish the effects of natural catastrophes such as famine and disease, but progress can also bring about a wide range of new problems. Wars have shown a tendency to become more destructive, and the causes lie in the complexities of social organization and the interaction of great corporate national bodies. Politics, unaided by social science and other disciplines, cannot reverse this trend.

Problems within nations are seen as increasing sources of human troubles. Ethnic hostilities and internal conflicts between generations, political factions, and other divisions of the populations have increased.

Human welfare is also threatened by widespread poverty, crime, vice, political corruption, and breakdowns in the family and in other institutions. Though sociology does not provide the solutions at present, its practitioners believe that the prospects for human betterment depend largely on the increasing application of social science knowledge to these problems.

Essay # 6. Scope and Applications of Sociology:

Sociology can help us understand the role of work in people’s lives and in modern societies. The goals of sociology are to understand human behavior, to generalize about the causes of human behavior, to predict future human behavior, to understand how society influences people, how and why people are organized in society, either as individuals or as members of associations, groups, and institutions.

1. Sociologists are employed by national and international bodies to recommend programs, evaluate their progress and effects, gather data for planning, and propose methods for initiating change

2. Sociologists aid industry by obtaining data on clients and workers, i.e. social surveys, offering advice on personnel or public relations problems, providing labor unions with advice, helping communities undertake reform, counseling families, and donating or selling advice to consumer groups.

3. The principal employment of sociologists is in academic institutions.

4. Other employment possibilities that have opened in recent decades are Social welfare agencies and government organizations of all types— from bureaus dealing with population, budgets, and education to departments concentrating on crime, agriculture, and health matters— have tapped sociologists for help in research, planning, and administration.

5. Other directions of sociological activity include the roles of consultant, social critic, social activist etc.

It appears likely that sociologists will continue to spread their activities over an ever-widening region of national or global concern.

Sociology studies organizations and social institutions, largely by a comparative method. It has concentrated particularly on the organization of complex industrial societies.

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Essay about What is sociology

What is sociology Sociology is the study of society and how it is influenced by difference factors like economic. In other words it is the study of human social life, groups and societies. Sociology is the study of group life and those parts of our individual lives that are affected by social interaction. Its beginning point is the assumption that we are social animals from birth, that is, that we are powerfully influenced by other people's expectations. Sociologists would argue that you can't make sense of your own behaviour, much less the patterns of behaviour in families, corporations, or nations, without developing a quality of mind which sociologist C. Wright Mills termed "the sociological imagination. Sociology’s subject matter is diverse, ranging from crime to religion, from the family to the state, from the divisions of race and social class to the shared beliefs of a common culture, and from social stability to radical change in whole societies. Unifying the study of these diverse subjects of study is sociology’s purpose of understanding how human action and consciousness both shape and are shaped by surrounding cultural and social structures. Sociology analyzes and explains important matters in our personal lives, our communities, and the world. At the personal level, sociology investigates the social causes and consequences of such things as romantic love, racial and gender identity, family conflict, behaviour, aging, and religious faith. It examines and explains matters like crime and law, poverty and wealth, prejudice and discrimination, schools and education, business firms, urban community, and social movements. At the global level, sociology studies things such as population growth and migration, war and peace, and economic development. Sociologists emphasize the careful gathering and analysis of evidence about social life to develop and enrich our understanding of key social processes. Sociologists observe the everyday life of groups, conduct large-scale surveys, interpret historical documents, analyze census data, study video-taped interactions, interview participants of groups, and conduct laboratory experiments. The research methods and theories of sociology yield powerful insights into the social processes shaping human lives and social problems and prospects in the contemporary world. By better understanding those social processes, we also come to understand more clearly the forces shaping the personal Show More

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The Meaning of Sociology, Essay Example

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Why many people might confuse sociology, with many different fields such as psychology, or theology. While this is connected, sociology is the study of human institutions, and human social relationships. In a nutshell, sociology is the study of human social life. The concepts of sociology take a look at how different forms of groups interact with each, such as, teenagers, couples, singles, and other diverse groups. The concept of sociology places an emphasis on examining societies, as well as factors of a global perspective, and individual entities. As stated by Berger, “sociology is an individual pastime in the sense that it interests some men and bores others.” (Berger 12) In hoping to provide a better understanding of what sociology is and better yet, to understand its benefits and perspectives, this paper will provide a well needed explanation.

Sociology gives a comprehension of social patterns of behavior and social issues. It helps us recognize the social decides that administer our lives. According to Berger, the nature of sociology is scientific, and what the sociologist discovers and states about the social phenomena that they study, occurs within a strictly defined certain frame of reference. (Berger 2) Sociologists consider how these tenets are made, looked after, changed, passed in the middle of eras, and imparted between individuals living in different locations around the globe. In addition, sociology looks at the impact of what happens when these social rules are broken. Sociology helps us comprehend the elements of the social frameworks inside which we experience our lives. This implies that sociology looks at practices and connections, as well as how the bigger world we live in impacts these things. The way in which society is organized, takes a look at the social structures, in what is around the way people organize and interrelate social life. In addition to the operations of society, social processes, and how it shapes people lives in ways in which people do not realize.  From this perspective, those that study sociology, sociologists, will say that we as people are products of sociology.  As Durkheim states in assigning the term social to describe the subjects, “it is appropriate, since it is clear that, not having the individual as their substratum, they can have none other than society, either political society in its entirety or one of the partial groups that is includes—religious denominations, political and literary schools, occupational corporations, etc.” (Durkheim 20-21)

Despite the fact, the way we perceive their presences, these methodologies and structures may seem to people as through a mysterious fog in the course of daily life. Sociologist endeavor to make sense of things that get caught in the fog, as well as to clarify, analyze, study, and to uncover their effects and interrelationships on groups and individuals. By explaining and describing these social arrangements, sociologists help us to comprehend our general surroundings and better comprehend ourselves. In taking a deeper look at sociology, Human science helps us comprehend why we see the world the way we do. People are constantly immersed with messages in an assortment of structures about how we and our general surroundings, both are and ought to be. The way in which these messages are received, comes from different diverse forms such as, advertisement pitches from feeding hungry children, to athletic or apparel, political and religious entities, laws handed down, teachers, and parents. Sociology provides individuals with the tools to evaluate these types of messages that society is constantly inundated with including why and how it influences people, the source, and how individual roles play apart in changing, perpetuating, and producing them.

Sociology also likes to evaluate the commonalities that people share between individuals, societies, and cultures. Sociologists realize that, despite the fact that individuals in distinctive locations in the same city, nation, or world dress in an unexpected way. Talk in an unexpected way, and have various convictions and traditions, a number of the same sorts of social powers are grinding away molding their lives. As Berger relays, “sociological insights have served in a number of instances to improve the lot of groups of human beings by uncovering morally shocking conditions or by clearing away collective illusions or by showing that socially desired results could be obtained in more humane fashion.” (Berger 3) This is an especially critical point of view in our current reality where media features are regularly blamed for concentrating on issues that are divisive. Sociologists search for what social process and social structures mean for various groups.  They examine how society impacts different groups shape. Sociologists can help groups discover basic concerns, comprehend perspectives from other groups, and learn different approaches to cooperate instead of work in conflict with one another. Sociology provides individuals with tools to help comprehend how and why society changes.

Sociology clearly, is always changing, and this change has been the main motivator for sociologists from the start of the field of science. “These enumerations are meaningful to him (sociologists) in terms of their much broader implications for an understanding of institutions and values in our society.” (Berger 5) Why many in the field believe that sociologists should not stop with providing meaning to why and how society keeps evolving, but they have an obligation to act utilizing their unique perspectives and skills to work to make society better. The purpose of sociology is to simultaneously inquire and to concern itself with improving, criticizing, explaining, and understanding the human condition. In understanding the perspective of sociology, individuals are able to take action, if we do not agree with what is occurring. People are able to participate more in shaping the future for others and themselves. Sociology gives individuals theoretical points of view inside which to causing these understandings and examination strategies that permit sociologists to scientifically study social life. Social science is sociology. That implies sociologists work to comprehend society in extremely disciplined and structured ways. Like researchers who study the physical world, sociologists take after logical rules that fuse a combination of methods and theories that accommodate precision in collecting, evaluating, and understanding data. On account of sociology, theories concentrate on how social connections work. They give a method for clarifying these connections. Exploratory strategies give methods for creating precise examination results.

For sociology, it is not just simply sound judgment. Consequences of sociological exploration may be surprising. They regularly demonstrate that factors are not generally, or even typically, what they at first appear. As Berger points out, “people who like to avoid shocking discoveries, who prefer to believe that society is just what they were taught in Sunday School, who like the safety of the rules and the maxims of what Alfred Schuetz has called the “world-taken-for-granted,” should stay away from sociology.” (Berger 11) This statement implies that the findings in sociology are often conflicting with things that everybody already knows, or common sense. What we consider the ability to think, or something that everyone knows, is really in view of our own encounters and the thoughts and generalizations we hold. This provides for us an extremely restricted perspective of how the bigger world really is. In crafting a sociological viewpoint obliges that individuals are to look past our personal encounters to better comprehend ordinary life. Sociology permits individuals to search for the social strengths that affect our lives and structure those encounters.

When we have a strong comprehension of these powers, people are able to address these factors better. This type of sociological perspective is best used when understanding, the sociological imagination in which, “men and women now hope to grasp what is going on in the world, and to understand what is happening in themselves as minute points of the intersections of biography and history within society.” (Mills 3) Sociology and the sociological imagination serves as an outward view of human self-consciousness, as people will be suddenly awakened to a more familiar mentality. In a way, even if incorrectly, individuals usually feel that they are now able to give themselves with comprehensive orientations, cohesive assessments, and adequate summations. (Mills 4) Thinking back on old decisions, that seemed dense, people will be able to obtain a new way of thinking, as they experience by their sensibility and reflection, “transvaluation of values”, in which social sciences provides them with cultural meaning. As Mills points out in understanding both the sociological imagination and society, “it works between the personal troubles of milieu and the public issues of social structure.” (Mills 4) This can be examined when looking at the issues of gender and race, as sociology is primed with studying how these factors impact groups and society at large.

Sociology is comprehending the way individuals act and do, it’s the attention on human foundations and our practices. It’s about social issues, people who make up society, society itself, the structures of society, ETC, educational, legal, and educational systems. Sociology helps people make sense of the world, and how it and the people within it are constantly changing. Sociology is an illuminating and exciting field of science in which explains and analyzes significant matters in the world, community, and the personal lives. Sociology at the personal level examines the social consequences and causes of factors such as love (hetero-homo), religious identity, aging, different behaviors, family conflict, gender, and racial identity. Sociology at the societal level, explains and examines issues such as social movements, urban community, business firms, schools and education, prejudice and discrimination, wealth and poverty, law and crime. While Sociology at the global level looks to examine the social phenomena such as economic development, peace and war, migration, and population growth.

Sociology empowers us to comprehend the dynamics and structure of society and their unpredictable associations with examples of human conduct and changes in human life. Sociology influences human demeanor, activities, and opportunities. For instance women’s activists, they have solid suppositions and have changed sex issues in connection to the power a noteworthy change concurred, and as indicated by West and Zimmerman, “both gender role and gender display focus on behavioral aspects of being a woman or a man (as opposed, for example, to biological differences between the two).” (West and Zimmerman 126) Women’s activists contend that society is commanded by men. Within the patriarchal society, men victimize ladies with a specific end goal to forestall guys and females increasing equivalent rights. There are different strands of conviction inside women’s liberation, for example, radical woman’s rights, liberal women’s liberation and Marxist women’s liberation. Women’s activist scholars incorporate Ann Oakley or Germaine Greer in which empowers individuals to comprehend that feminists hold point of view or perspective. In sociology helps to take a closer look at the accomplishments of gender and sex in the connection to a power. In providing a sociology perspectives on issues such as gender and sex West and Zimmerman elaborate:

“Component adult members of these societies see differences between the two as fundamental and enduring—differences seemingly supported by the division of labor into women’s and men’s work and an often elaborate differentiation of feminine and masculine attitudes and behaviors that are prominent features of social organization.” (West and Zimmerman 128)

Sociologists provide activists to accept unequivocally in equity, ladies were compelled to take a load off back and permit the man to take control and overwhelm, even though can see a radical improvement for women to take responsibility and battled for balance, as should be obvious this was a noteworthy change in the public eye and bring about social changes.

In switching gears from the sociological perspective of gender and sex to racial issues, we can see that sociology provides the terms dominant group, minority, ethnicity, and race all certain and distinctive implications. To comprehend the sociological point of view on ethnicity and race, it is vital to comprehend the implications of these ideas. Ethnic groups do not exist just on account of the normal national or social causes of the gathering, notwithstanding. They create in light of their novel chronicled and social encounters, which turn into the premise for the bunch’s ethnic personality. For instance, before movement to the US, Italians did not consider themselves a different gathering with basic hobbies and encounters.

Be that as it may, the procedure of movement and the encounters they confronted as a gathering in the US, including segregation, made another personality for the group. The problem taken with understanding race and ethnicity, is that many do not have a firm understanding of the social implications of racism. “Too many social analysts researching racism assume that the phenomenon is self-evident, and therefore either do not provide a definition or provide an elementary definition.” (Bonilla-Silva 465) Like ethnicity, race is principally, however not only, a socially developed class.  On account of their cultural or biological characteristics, which are marked as second rate by compelling groups in the public arena, minorities are often frequently singled out for unjustifiable and differential treatment. It is not the biological qualities that characterize racial groups, yet in the way groups have been dealt with generally and socially. Society appoints individuals to racial classifications (White, Black, and so forth.) not in view of science or reality, but since of sentiment and social experience. As such, how different groups of races are characterized is a social methodology; it is socially developed.

Sociology encompasses all of these factors and elements that help to make up society as a whole. In looking at the way in which sociology does provide meaning to and benefit society, we can see that it is an integral part of the college education. Sociology taught in the higher education is essential for evaluating human life. As the world around continues to evolve with each generation, each new discovery, and each new leadership, sociologists are called upon to help better explain these changes as well as help to provide meaning to how they impact our lives. Sociology is helping people to understand how they roles plays a part in society, as it helps in crafting the way human life works. It examines the structure of society, and how its institutions and components work together. It provides further comprehension to how these institutions can help individuals socialize in society, and good perspectives on why there are differences and commonalities among diverse groups in society.

Sociology has been instrumental in individual’s attitudes evolving from understanding other people. In parts of our own personal society people are limited to the amount that people are able to experience directly or indirectly. Sociology has changed our outlook in regards to problems in society such as those discussed above, as well as help to craft a viable solution to societal problems. Sociology are continuing to make great contributions to not only our own understanding, but also society at large at how they contribute to their own issues, and to their own solutions.

Works Cited

Berger, Peter. “Sociology as an Individual Pastime.” Invitation to Sociology. 1963. Print.

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. “Rethinking Racism: Toward a Structural Interpretation.” American Sociological Review, Vol. 62, No. 3. pp. 465-480. 1997. Print.

Durkheim, Emile. “What Makes Sociology Different?” The Rules of Sociological Method . N.d. Print.

Mills, Wright C. “Chapter One: The Promise.” The Sociological Imagination. 1965. Print.

Ross, Andrew. “Anti-Social Debts.” Contexts. 2012. Print.

West, Candance, Zimmerman, Don. “Doing Gender.” Gender and Society Vol.1. 1987. Print.

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Sociology is the scientific study of human social relationships and interactions. Sociology 's subject matter is diverse. Subject matter for sociology ranges from the micro level of an individual and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure. At the society level, sociology examines and explains matters like crime and law, poverty and wealth, prejudice and discrimination, schools and education, business firms, urban community, and social movements. We can see these subject matters crystal clear as sociology ranges from crime to religion, from the family to the state, from the divisions of race and social class to the shared beliefs of a common culture and from social stability to radical change in whole societies.

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There are many difference aspects of sociology such as everyday human interaction to more serious issues such as international relations. Sociology helps us to understand our behaviours as social beings in this world. It is an essential subject as it enables us to have an awareness of societies within the world and different social groups. It also gives us an idea of how people react, why they react this way and conflicts between people. Sociology makes us aware of cultural differences and this allows us to gain many more perspectives on the social world around us.

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Introduction to Sociology


All people live within societies, belong to different groups, and have various kinds of relationships with other individuals. Sociology is the science that is interested in how people function in society and how they relate to each other. This paper aims to provide a definition of sociology and outline its difference from other social sciences. Further, I will explain how social contexts have shaped my identity and how I could apply a concept of sociological imagination to my country, Bahrain. Finally, I will recommend a social science research project in Bahrain and propose appropriate research methods for it, based on my understanding of sociological research.

The Definition of Sociology of Its Difference from Other Social Sciences

Sociology is the study of society and individuals’ interactions within society. According to Griffiths et al. (2015), society is “a group of people who live in a defined geographic area, who interact with one another, and who share a common culture” (p. 6). Sociology studies the social sphere of people’s lives: social structure, social institutions, and relations, social qualities of the individual, social behavior, and social consciousness (Griffith et al., 2015). The objects of sociologists’ interest can be society as a whole or its particular aspects, such as big and small social communities, personalities, organizations and institutions, processes and phenomena, and diverse realms of human life.

When sociologists study society, they develop various theories to explain the things and events they encounter in their work. For example, one theory that sociologists use to understand social processes is the conflict theory. According to this theory, different groups in society compete for limited resources (Smith-Hawkins, 2020). Applying this theory to Bahrain, one can notice that this country possesses some limited resources, such as cultured pearls and oil (Smith-Hawkins, 2020). They can become a source of conflict between groups within the country and in the neighboring countries. Another theory that sociologists can use to explain social interactions is functionalism. This theory posits that society remains functioning because it helps people satisfy their social and biological needs (Smith-Hawkins, 2020). Such social structures as education and religion are necessary for people to meet their needs, and without them, society would not be possible. By developing and applying different theories to society and human interactions, sociologists can gain an understanding of how society functions and predict the consequences of social changes.

Among all social sciences, only sociology studies society as an integral system. Sociology tries to analyze and establish the corresponding patterns, which allows for representing society as a complex dynamic system consisting of a number of subsystems. In contrast, economic, political, legal, and other social sciences study the patterns within their respective spheres of life. Sociology is different from other social sciences not only in terms of what it investigates but also in how it investigates. Sociology is characterized by the study of society through the prism of human activity, conditioned by needs, interests, attitudes, and value orientations. As Griffith et al. (2015) put it, the main feature of the sociological perspective is that it views the individual and society as inseparable. The sociological method enables the description and the explanation of occurrences and processes, as well as the construction of models of human behavior and societal development. An analysis of social process dynamics allows for identifying societal trends and the formulation of recommendations for the purposeful management of social processes.

How I Was Shaped by Social Contexts

No individual lives in a vacuum; therefore, everyone is influenced by the social context in which one was born and raised. I grew up in Bahrain, and the social contexts prevalent in this country shaped my identity. For example, in Bahrain, compared to other secular nations, religious education plays an essential role in society. Therefore, being raised in Bahrain, I have become adherent to Islam, and religion now has an important place in my everyday life. Over the course of my life, I was highly influenced by Arab culture and traditions. In this culture, loyalty is the highest priority, and individuals are expected to be proficient in the Arabic language and resist westernization. As a result, I grew up with these cultural ideals that shaped my worldview and behavior.

Applying the Sociological Imagination to Bahrain

The concept of sociological imagination is necessary for understanding the history of society. Griffith et al. (2015) state that social imagination is an understanding of how one’s past experiences help explain the past of other people and history as a whole. In addition, social imagination enables one to understand one’s life issues from the perspective of the same issues at the societal level (Smith-Hawkins, 2020). Sociological imagination makes it possible to comprehend the history and circumstances of a particular human life, as well as to understand their relationship within society. In relation to Bahrain, I think that C. Wright Mills would recommend applying social imagination to this country by looking at social patterns prevalent in this society. For example, Smith-Hawkins (2020) argues that the question of why people marry can be answered based on the multiple past experiences of many people. It may be assumed that in Bahrain, people marry because family and loyalty are highly valued in this culture. In addition, religion and traditions affect how people get married and arrange their family life. The same perspective can be applied to many issues in Bahrain.

A Proposed Social Science Research Project in Bahrain

Even though Bahrain is one of the smallest countries in the world, it is very ethnically diverse. It is essential to mention that most of Bahrain’s population are non-nationals or immigrants; however, Islam remains the largest religion practiced in Bahrain. For my science research project, I would suggest exploring religious minorities in Bahrain, in particular Christian communities. The purpose of the study is to understand religious minorities’ experience and navigation in a Muslim country. The most applicable social theory is symbolic interactionism, which “focuses on the relationships among individuals within a society” (Griffith et al., 2015, p. 17). By virtue of symbolic interactionist theory, it is also possible to understand the influence of Christian communities’ religious practices on the social processes and spiritual experiences in Bahrain. According to this perspective, individuals actively shape the social world instead of passively reacting to social changes (Griffith et al., 2015). Thus, applying this theory to the project would help understand how the interaction between Muslims and religious minorities in Bahrain shapes the religious and cultural context of the country.

For this study, I suggest using qualitative research methods, namely, participant observation. This method is most commonly used by researchers in sociology studies (Smith-Hawkins, 2020). In observation, the inquirer observes and compares the object of the research with related phenomena. When doing a participant observation, the researcher has to find the group, determine how to connect them, observe, and write up all the data. The purpose of participant observation research is to collect information about the group of people to formulate a hypothesis, which helps explain the phenomena. In comparison to quantitative methods, participant observation is justified by getting much more details and a greater understanding of religious minorities in Bahrain. Hence, the use of this research method seems justified for the proposed project.

Griffiths, H., Keirns, N. J., Strayer, E., Cody-Rydzewski, S., Scaramuzzo, G., Sadler, T., Vyain, S., Bry, J., & Jones, F. (2015). Introduction to sociology (2 nd ed.). OpenStax College, Rice University. Web.

Smith-Hawkins, P. (Ed.). (2020). Introduction to Sociology (AUBH Bahraini ed.). Unpublished manuscript.

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