Design and Development of LPU-B High School Website

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2015, Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research

This study was conducted to develop and assess the LPU-B High School website as perceived by the faculty members and selected staff and students in terms of content, efficiency, functionality and usability. It also sought to test the significant difference in the assessment of the two groups of respondents; and to propose measures to enhance the website. The applications were built in the web. It comprises of three aspects: a database component, the use of a programming/scripting language, the design and implementation of the graphical user interface (GUI). The user interface was written primarily in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) and is accessible via any web browser. The processing application handles request/tasks performed by the user on the server side using PHP content management system technology. The server then returns the appropriate information from the database. The data storage is in the form of relational databases using MySQL that stores data needed by the application in its tables. All components of the application, which include the user interface, processing scripts and database reside on the server. The website Uniform resource locator (URL) is

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School Web Sites

Individual class sites, electronic portfolios.

The Sunshine County School District implemented a policy that required all schools to develop a school web site. When the schools received the announcement, they responded in different ways. Some schools viewed the project as a burden and others agreed that a school web site was a great idea. The attitudes of the schools made a tremendous difference in how the project was approached. At one school, Rainy Days Elementary, the administration was unfamiliar with how to build a school web site and the work involved in such a project. When the administration presented the assignment to the faculty, the technology coordinator was assigned the job of putting the site together. It was decided that she would design the site, decide what the content would be, and then post it when it was complete. Before long, the technology coordinator became overwhelmed with the project and involved with other priorities. Without the support of the entire school, the site was soon forgotten.

Another school, Sunny Skies Elementary, approached the assignment in a very different way. As with Rainy Days, the administration had little knowledge of what was involved in building a school web site. They understood, though, that the project was important and could be a great tool for students, teachers and parents. They decided that teachers and students should be included in the project and that input from the entire school would be beneficial. At the faculty meeting, it was decided that the technology coordinator would work with the teachers to design the web site. Students and teachers were encouraged to submit ideas for the web site and to create work that they wanted to have published. In addition, the district policy was reviewed to ensure that guidelines for safety, publishing, and copyright were followed. Soon it became clear that, although the faculty and administration had little knowledge about building a web site, they could have a useful, well-organized site.

One of the most important steps involved in creating a school web site is deciding what content will be included and how it will be organized. Building a school web site provides a unique addition to the curriculum. In the development phase, students and teachers should discuss the kinds of materials they want to add to the site.

  • School information. General information such as the school’s telephone number and address along with driving directions should be included. Making mention of the school boundaries is also useful. The school’s history, mission statement, and awards received are interesting and serve to promote a feeling of community. The names of the administration and faculty along with their school email addresses may also be added. Other information about the office hours, the bell and bus schedules, and after-school care may also be included.
  • School policy. The school policy is a very important document that may be made readily available by posting it on the school site. School policy information might include use of the Web in school, graduation requirements, dress code, absences, and behavior expectations. Publishing school policies on your site can help increase awareness and access to this information.
  • Calendar of events. A calendar of events provides parents, teachers and students with an easy way to keep up-to-date with the happenings at the school. Special events such as school plays, sports, field trips, and standardized tests are just a few examples of what may be included. The school lunch menu may be added to the calendar as well. Calendars are easily updated each month and this method of showing events cuts down on the amount of paper and printing that needs to be done. In addition, parents can always have access to the most recent calendar without worrying about it becoming lost.
  • Extracurricular activities. School clubs or organizations involved in organizing special events may create their own pages describing their purposes and anticipated activities for the entire year. Meeting and event schedules with detailed information are useful for informing students and gaining their interest.
  • Newsletters. Newsletters written by the students are another great way to relay information about the school. Students may submit articles, reports on class trips, and special school events. Involving students gives them a chance to share their thoughts in writing and build school spirit. A message from the principal that provides motivation and encouragement to students and promotes parent involvement may be included.
  • Parent involvement. An excellent way to encourage parent involvement is to keep them informed of opportunities such as volunteering, PTA meetings, and fundraising activities. By providing a wide range of choices, the school can help parents find the activities that fit their time and schedule constraints as well as their interests.
  • Links. There are many excellent resources available on the Web for teachers, students and parents. Providing links to some of these sources is very helpful. Be sure to check the links periodically to make sure the resources are still available. Teachers can have easy access to learning communities and lesson plan ideas. Students can link to reference or ask-an-expert sites and sites with virtual museums. Links of interest to parents can also be included.

In addition to the school’s site, each class can develop its own page where students, teachers and parents communicate about the activities that are occurring in the class.

  • Curriculum information. Teachers may keep parents and students informed by including the activities and units that are being taught and that will be coming up. Course descriptions and syllabi may be included for middle and high school. Lists of textbooks used in the classes may also be useful.
  • Assignments. Homework assignments may be included along with web-based activities that students can complete at home with their parents. WebQuests and research activities may be posted with relevant links for the students to access. Then students can post work that they have completed based on their research. The students can work on their electronic portfolios and post work they are proud of. These types of activities allow parents to see what students are doing in school. Parents can have private access to their child’s class work and keep abreast of homework assignments, field trips and other events. In addition, they can communicate with the teacher via email increasing the much-needed communication between parent and teacher.
  • Student publishing. Your school web site is a wonderful forum for publishing student work. WebQuests and electronic portfolios are just two examples of the types of activities that students can become engaged in and have the excitement of publishing.
  • Introduction . The first component provides the learner with background on the WebQuest activity to be completed. It is important that the WebQuest be related to student interests, ideas, or past experiences.
  • Task . The second component describes what the learners will have accomplished at the end of the WebQuest. The main research question is developed for the learner. The teacher may want to show an example of a completed WebQuest.
  • Process . During the third component, the teacher suggests the steps the learners may go through in order to complete the task.
  • Resources . The fourth component consists of a list of resources provided by the teacher that will assist the learner in accomplishing the task.
  • Evaluation . The fifth component uses a rubric, an established set of rules or guidelines, for evaluating students’ work. It is important that the standards be clear, consistent, and specific.
  • Conclusion . During the final component, students are provided with the opportunity to reflect upon and summarize their experience.

An electronic portfolio provides both student and teacher with a digital record of what the student has accomplished in the classroom. This can be made available on the Web or on CD-ROM, and allows students to communicate with teachers, parents, and other members of the community about their learning. An electronic portfolio provides a concrete example of student learning by incorporating a variety of multimedia, including digital photographs, video, voice recordings, and audio. An excellent site for information on electronic portfolios is

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Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore needs your careful analysis of the evidence to understand how you arrived at this claim. You arrive at your thesis by examining and analyzing the evidence available to you, which might be text or other types of source material.

A thesis will generally respond to an analytical question or pose a solution to a problem that you have framed for your readers (and for yourself). When you frame that question or problem for your readers, you are telling them what is at stake in your argument—why your question matters and why they should care about the answer . If you can explain to your readers why a question or problem is worth addressing, then they will understand why it’s worth reading an essay that develops your thesis—and you will understand why it’s worth writing that essay.

A strong thesis will be arguable rather than descriptive , and it will be the right scope for the essay you are writing. If your thesis is descriptive, then you will not need to convince your readers of anything—you will be naming or summarizing something your readers can already see for themselves. If your thesis is too narrow, you won’t be able to explore your topic in enough depth to say something interesting about it. If your thesis is too broad, you may not be able to support it with evidence from the available sources.

When you are writing an essay for a course assignment, you should make sure you understand what type of claim you are being asked to make. Many of your assignments will be asking you to make analytical claims , which are based on interpretation of facts, data, or sources.

Some of your assignments may ask you to make normative claims. Normative claims are claims of value or evaluation rather than fact—claims about how things should be rather than how they are. A normative claim makes the case for the importance of something, the action that should be taken, or the way the world should be. When you are asked to write a policy memo, a proposal, or an essay based on your own opinion, you will be making normative claims.

Here are some examples of possible thesis statements for a student's analysis of the article “The Case Against Perfection” by Professor Michael Sandel.  

Descriptive thesis (not arguable)  

While Sandel argues that pursuing perfection through genetic engineering would decrease our sense of humility, he claims that the sense of solidarity we would lose is also important.

This thesis summarizes several points in Sandel’s argument, but it does not make a claim about how we should understand his argument. A reader who read Sandel’s argument would not also need to read an essay based on this descriptive thesis.  

Broad thesis (arguable, but difficult to support with evidence)  

Michael Sandel’s arguments about genetic engineering do not take into consideration all the relevant issues.

This is an arguable claim because it would be possible to argue against it by saying that Michael Sandel’s arguments do take all of the relevant issues into consideration. But the claim is too broad. Because the thesis does not specify which “issues” it is focused on—or why it matters if they are considered—readers won’t know what the rest of the essay will argue, and the writer won’t know what to focus on. If there is a particular issue that Sandel does not address, then a more specific version of the thesis would include that issue—hand an explanation of why it is important.  

Arguable thesis with analytical claim  

While Sandel argues persuasively that our instinct to “remake” (54) ourselves into something ever more perfect is a problem, his belief that we can always draw a line between what is medically necessary and what makes us simply “better than well” (51) is less convincing.

This is an arguable analytical claim. To argue for this claim, the essay writer will need to show how evidence from the article itself points to this interpretation. It’s also a reasonable scope for a thesis because it can be supported with evidence available in the text and is neither too broad nor too narrow.  

Arguable thesis with normative claim  

Given Sandel’s argument against genetic enhancement, we should not allow parents to decide on using Human Growth Hormone for their children.

This thesis tells us what we should do about a particular issue discussed in Sandel’s article, but it does not tell us how we should understand Sandel’s argument.  

Questions to ask about your thesis  

  • Is the thesis truly arguable? Does it speak to a genuine dilemma in the source, or would most readers automatically agree with it?  
  • Is the thesis too obvious? Again, would most or all readers agree with it without needing to see your argument?  
  • Is the thesis complex enough to require a whole essay's worth of argument?  
  • Is the thesis supportable with evidence from the text rather than with generalizations or outside research?  
  • Would anyone want to read a paper in which this thesis was developed? That is, can you explain what this paper is adding to our understanding of a problem, question, or topic?
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Why search this literature?

It is crucial for graduate students to search the thesis and dissertation literature to make sure that an idea or hypothesis has not already been tested, explored, and published.  An additional reason to search this literature is that it is rich with ideas and information not found elsewhere.  If graduate students do not continue on as academics or if students that came after them in their programs did not continue their research, this literature may be the end of the line for scholarship on a topic.

ProQuest has published dissertation e-learning modules covering the usefulness of using dissertations as a research source.  See link below:

  • Dissertation eLearning resources from ProQuest Uncover the value of dissertations.

Library Databases

All graduate students should, at minimum, search the ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database (PQDT) to see if the research they are proposing to do has already been done by a student at another institution/university.  RIT dissertations and theses have been included in PQDT since approximately 2006.

  • Proquest Dissertations & Theses Global This link opens in a new window Identifies Ph.D. dissertations from U.S. & Canadian universities since 1861. Abstracts from 1980. Master's theses from 1988. Many with full-text.

RIT Scholar Works

  • RIT Scholar Works This link opens in a new window Scholar Works contains graduate student theses and dissertations. An electronic copy of a thesis or dissertation is required from all graduate students. A project to scan print theses and dissertations has greatly enhanced the historical content in Scholar Works and content continues to be added on a regular basis as students defend and submit to us their completed work. Students do not submit their work directly to Scholar Works. We place a copy in Scholar Works when we approve the electronic copy for submission to ProQuest.
  • ProQuest - Most Accessed Dissertations/Theses

Each month ProQuest updates this list of the top 25 Most-Accessed Dissertations and Theses across all subjects, based upon total PDF downloads. Find out what is trending.

The web sites below should also be consulted as appropriate to perform a full and thorough review of the dissertation and thesis literature beyond your introductory search of ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.  Consider whether a particular country or part of the world would have an interest in your potential research topic.

Only large-scale repositories of dissertations and theses are included here. You may also need to search individual university repositories directly.

  • Ebsco Open Dissertations Search thousands of open dissertations and theses from over 50 participating libraries.
  • EThOS (from the British Library) EThOS offers a 'single point of access' where researchers the world over can access ALL theses produced by UK Higher Education.
  • Indian Institute of Science Dissertations and theses from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
  • Indian Theses and Dissertations (Shodhganga) Over 130 participating Indian universities and over 8800 ETD documents.
  • National ETD Portal (South Africa) South African theses and dissertations.
  • Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations The Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD), is an international organization dedicated to promoting the adoption, creation, use, dissemination, and preservation of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs). The NDLTD Union Catalog contains more than one million records of electronic theses and dissertations. Search the Union Catalog from here:
  • OhioLINK ETD Center Electronic theses and dissertations from colleges and universities in the state of Ohio.
  • Open Access Theses and Dissertations OATD aims to be the best possible resource for finding open access graduate theses and dissertations published around the world. Metadata (information about the theses) comes from over 600 colleges, universities, and research institutions. OATD currently indexes over 1.5 million theses and dissertations. RIT is included.
  • Theses Canada Canadian universities voluntarily participate by submitting approved theses and dissertation to Theses Canada. Click on "Search Theses Canada" under the Introduction on the left hand side of the page to begin your search.
  • TROVE From the National Library of Australia - Search Trove to explore amazing collections from Australian libraries, universities, museums, galleries and archives.
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  • How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

Published on January 11, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on August 15, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan.

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . It usually comes near the end of your introduction .

Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you’re writing. But the thesis statement should always clearly state the main idea you want to get across. Everything else in your essay should relate back to this idea.

You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps:

  • Start with a question
  • Write your initial answer
  • Develop your answer
  • Refine your thesis statement

Table of contents

What is a thesis statement, placement of the thesis statement, step 1: start with a question, step 2: write your initial answer, step 3: develop your answer, step 4: refine your thesis statement, types of thesis statements, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about thesis statements.

A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay. It is a signpost telling the reader what the essay will argue and why.

The best thesis statements are:

  • Concise: A good thesis statement is short and sweet—don’t use more words than necessary. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences.
  • Contentious: Your thesis shouldn’t be a simple statement of fact that everyone already knows. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up.
  • Coherent: Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper.

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The thesis statement generally appears at the end of your essay introduction or research paper introduction .

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts and among young people more generally is hotly debated. For many who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.

You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis , early in the writing process . As soon as you’ve decided on your essay topic , you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.

You might already have a question in your assignment, but if not, try to come up with your own. What would you like to find out or decide about your topic?

For example, you might ask:

After some initial research, you can formulate a tentative answer to this question. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the research process and writing process .

Now you need to consider why this is your answer and how you will convince your reader to agree with you. As you read more about your topic and begin writing, your answer should get more detailed.

In your essay about the internet and education, the thesis states your position and sketches out the key arguments you’ll use to support it.

The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education because it facilitates easier access to information.

In your essay about braille, the thesis statement summarizes the key historical development that you’ll explain.

The invention of braille in the 19th century transformed the lives of blind people, allowing them to participate more actively in public life.

A strong thesis statement should tell the reader:

  • Why you hold this position
  • What they’ll learn from your essay
  • The key points of your argument or narrative

The final thesis statement doesn’t just state your position, but summarizes your overall argument or the entire topic you’re going to explain. To strengthen a weak thesis statement, it can help to consider the broader context of your topic.

These examples are more specific and show that you’ll explore your topic in depth.

Your thesis statement should match the goals of your essay, which vary depending on the type of essay you’re writing:

  • In an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should take a strong position. Your aim in the essay is to convince your reader of this thesis based on evidence and logical reasoning.
  • In an expository essay , you’ll aim to explain the facts of a topic or process. Your thesis statement doesn’t have to include a strong opinion in this case, but it should clearly state the central point you want to make, and mention the key elements you’ll explain.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

  • It gives your writing direction and focus.
  • It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.

Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement :

  • Ask a question about your topic .
  • Write your initial answer.
  • Develop your answer by including reasons.
  • Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.

The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction .

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  • Discover new online resources to make your next research project more efficient.

Every college student conducts research at some point. And professors have strong views on what counts as a credible academic resource. Choosing the wrong sources can hurt your grade.

So how can you conduct research efficiently while avoiding sleepless nights in the campus library? Online academic research websites make it easier to find reliable sources quickly.

College students conduct academic research in all kinds of disciplines, including science, history, literature, engineering, and education. And when it comes to college research papers , academic resources are the best sources.

Rather than pulling random facts from the internet — and running into problems with citations — college students need to know how to find credible sources and how to use online academic tools. Keep reading to learn how you can find the best credible sources for your college research needs.

How to Find Credible Sources for Research

How can you find credible sources for research and avoid misinformation? Your instructor likely recommends avoiding general web content or Wikipedia.

Finding the most reliable websites for research starts with evaluating the website itself. Sites run by academic or government organizations rank high in reliability. Databases and specialized search engines can also provide good research sources.

Next, make sure you understand the source of the information and the process used to publish it. Scholarly articles and books that undergo peer review make for the best academic resources.

Finally, when in doubt, check with your instructor or an academic librarian. They can help point you to reliable sources or double-check sources you're unsure about.

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The 10 Best Academic Research Sources

What resources will point you toward reliable sources for your academic research? Rather than scrolling through pages of search results, turn to these academic resources when you need to find sources.

1. Google Scholar

Looking for an academic article, thesis , or abstract? Google Scholar should be your first stop. Google Scholar helps you find related works, locate full documents at your school library , and access scholarly research.

While Google created Google Scholar, it's very different from a general online search. Google Scholar brings together academic articles and ranks them based on the authors, publication location, and citation record. That means the top results generally represent the most reliable scholarship on your topic.

For journal articles, books, images, and even primary sources, JSTOR ranks among the best online resources for academic research. JSTOR's collection spans 75 disciplines, with strengths in the humanities and social sciences . The academic research database includes complete runs of over 2,800 journals.

And if you're looking for images, turn to Artstor , which offers over 2.5 million images related to the arts, sciences, and literature. However, JSTOR is not an open-access database. That means you'll need to log in through your university library, which typically includes off-campus access .

3. Library of Congress

As the largest library in the world, the Library of Congress is an amazing online resource for academic research. Students can search its collections to access digital resources, videos, audio recordings, photographs, and maps.

The library's materials also include notated music, web archives, legislation, and 3D objects. You'll find materials for almost any topic in its extensive collections. You can search historic American newspapers from 1777-1963 with the Chronicling America tool or look up pirate trials in another digital collection.

4. PubMed Central

The National Library of Medicine, part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, runs PubMed Central. Founded in 2000, the database includes academic scholarship dating back to the 18th century. The resource connects college students with life sciences and biomedical academic sources.

And as an open-access database, PubMed Central offers free access to scholarly literature. Today, PubMed Central has over 7 million full-text records, making it a great resource for students in the life sciences or medical fields.

5. Google Books

Whether you're looking for a recent publication or an out-of-print book, there's a good chance you'll find it on Google Books. In 2019, Google announced that Google Books contains over 40 million books .

You can enter any search term to find books that contain matches. And you can download the full text of any book in the public domain — which includes 10 million titles. Make sure to check publisher and author information when using Google Books.

The site also includes reference pages that link to book reviews. Keep in mind that you'll have more limited access to recent books. Still, Google Books is a great first step to find sources that you can later look for at your campus library.


If you're looking for scientific research, is a great option. The site provides full-text documents, scientific data, and other resources from federally funded research.

A U.S. government site, searches more than 60 databases and 2,200 scientific websites. You'll find over 200 million pages of research and development information, including projects funded by 14 federal agencies. Students in any STEM field can benefit from the resource.

7. Digital Commons Network

University librarians curate the Digital Commons Network, which connects students with peer-reviewed articles. The site's other resources include dissertations, book chapters, conference proceedings, and working papers.

The Digital Commons Network includes scholarly work from diverse disciplines like architecture, business, education, law, and the sciences. You can also access humanities, social sciences, and engineering scholarship through the network.

8. ResearchGate

ResearchGate has been described as social networking for research scientists. But ResearchGate is also a great option to find open-access academic sources. Scholars upload their work to ResearchGate, which makes it available to the public for free.

Currently, over 20 million researchers around the world use the site, which contains over 135 million publications. College students looking for scientific research can often find resources on ResearchGate and even connect with scholars.

9. WorldCat

When you're looking for library resources, WorldCat is one of the best tools. Connected to over 10,000 libraries, WorldCat is a database that allows you to search library collections.

The database lists books and articles available at your local libraries, making it easier to find materials that are not available online. In addition to books, WorldCat contains music, videos, audiobooks, and scholarly articles.

You can also find digital research materials, including photos. When you're logged into WorldCat through your university library, you can also access full-text articles and other resources. Or you can use WorldCat to find sources to request through interlibrary loan.

10. Your University Library

When you're conducting academic research, your university library can be one of your best resources. In addition to online databases, journal articles, and books, your campus library also has academic librarians who can point you to the best sources.

When you don't know where to start, reach out to an academic librarian to learn more about your school's research tools. Or use interlibrary loan to get a scanned copy of an article. Many of the campus library's resources are available online, making them easy to access.

How to Access Academic Resources

Many sites offer open-access resources. That means anyone can access the materials. Other sites restrict what you can read. For example, you might find some blank pages when searching on Google Books because of copyright restrictions. And many academic articles are behind paywalls.

Fortunately, college students benefit from one of the best resources for conducting research: the university library. Your library likely subscribes to multiple academic databases and journals. If you run into a paywall, check whether your library offers access to the resource.

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Dissertations and Theses  [14218]

Dissertations and theses in the University Digital Conservancy comprise the official, approved version of these works. The dissertations and theses in the Digital Conservancy are submitted through the Graduate School in accordance with University standards . Works contributed to the Conservancy serve as a permanent University of Minnesota record of graduate student scholarship. Electronic submission of dissertations to the Digital Conservancy date from 2007. Master's Plan A theses date from 2009.

Online availability of earlier dissertations and theses include a majority of works completed prior to 1923 as well as works made available by individual alumni. Earlier dissertations and theses may be accessed onsite in paper form, or through interlibrary loan, or through the online Digital Dissertations database. Check the University Libraries catalog for holdings information or contact the University of Minnesota Archives for these earlier works. For more information, please see the FAQ on Master's Theses and Dissertations .


Dissertations [9862], master's theses (plan a and professional engineering design projects) [4363], recently added.


Microwave Studies of Pre-Reactive Molecular Complexes: Fundamental Science and Atmospheric Implications 




Silicon Chemistry in Prodrug Strategy and Polymer Design And Intermolecular HDDA Chemistry 


Single Fathers and Employment Discrimination: Penalized or Protected? 


A Generalized Method for A Posteriori and A Priori Error Estimates for Homoclinic Orbits in Reversible Systems 

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Thesis Information

A master's thesis embodies original work by the candidate, conducted under the supervision of members of the faculty of Smith College. As a contribution to knowledge within appropriate fields, the work must, without fail, be clear, be grammatically correct and include a review of pertinent literature.

The thesis director must be a member of the Smith faculty in your department/program. The second reader is normally a faculty member in the same department. The third reader should be someone external to the department who is qualified to assess the form and content of the thesis. Qualified faculty at outside institutions may be asked to serve as readers.

Two copies of the thesis (one Word document and one pdf) must be submitted electronically to the Office of Graduate and Special Programs by the last day of examinations. An additional copy of the thesis should be presented directly to the thesis director before the last day of classes. If any extension of time becomes necessary, arrangements should be made with the director of graduate and special programs. Once the thesis has been submitted to the Office of Graduate and Special Programs, it becomes the property of Smith College. No changes or corrections can be made after the thesis has been submitted.

Forms & Deadlines

Thesis-Dates-Full-Year.pdf (92.35 KB)

Thesis Dates (Fall 2022) (92.06 KB)

Thesis Dates (Spring 2023) (92.15 KB)

Thesis Subject and Reader Form (124.29 KB)

Thesis Typing Guidelines (149.79 KB)

Digital Archives Permission Form (110.49 KB)

Thesis Guidelines

Guidelines for the preparation of the master's thesis have been composed by the staff of the Smith College libraries. Since these guidelines and related polices are subject to change, please consult the document found on the libraries' website for current information.

Contact Graduate & Special Programs

Seelye Hall 209 2 Seelye Drive Smith College Northampton, MA 01063

Phone: 413-585-3050 Email: [email protected]

Associate Dean of the Faculty/ Dean for Academic Development:  Hélène Visentin

Program Coordinator:  Ruth Morgan

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Electronic Theses and Dissertation Submissions

Thesis/Dissertation Office, 466 West Circle Drive, 2nd floor, Chittenden Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824

Phone: 517-353-3220; Email: [email protected] .

The links below provide instructions on what needs to be completed and approved by the Graduate School in order to graduate.

Each semester has a firm submission deadline by which students must submit their thesis/dissertation to ProQuest. The document must have been successfully defended, corrections from the committee addressed and is to be a final version. After submission it may take several days for the Graduate School to review and approve the documents, especially if formatting revisions are needed. Each semester has a final deadline (usually 2 weeks later) by which students must have all required paperwork turned in, all milestones completed and their thesis/dissertation accepted by the Graduate School. 

  • Printable Formatting Guide (PDF) Note the absence of List of Tables and List of Figures in the new formatting guide. These sections are generally not necessary and leaving them out helps quicken the review process. Also note that the Table of Contents is more useful when entries are limited to chapter-level headings or chapter-level headings and first-level subheadings.
  • Printable Sample Pages (PDF) This includes examples of the title page, abstract, copyright, dedication page, preface, bibliography, table of contents, etc.
  • Master’s Title Page Template
  • Dissertation Title Page Template
  • Dissertation Title Page with Dual Degree Template
  • Fall 2023 Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Formatting Tutorial (PDF)
  • Fall 2023 Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Formatting Tutorial (Video)
  • All Plan A Master’s and all Doctoral students must turn in the Approval form.
  • The Approval form is taken as evidence that the document has been examined and approved by the major professor or thesis/dissertation director. It also serves to document compliance with the appropriate Institutional Review Board for the use of human and vertebrate animals for research.
  • Supplemental files may be included with the electronic submission of the thesis or dissertation in the student’s ProQuest account ONLY if the files have been approved by the faculty advisor/committee on the Approval Form.
  • ETD Approval Form

Human Research Protection Program

  • If human subjects were used in your research, the IRB letter (on letterhead from the Human Research Protection office) should be uploaded with your electronic Approval Form.
  • The IRB number that is to appear your approval form is the “Approved” number on the IRB letter (e.g. STUDY00004871 or AMEND202100608), not the application number (e.g. i45603).
  • Sending a screenshot from the “CLICK” site where you are listed as a researcher (CLICK photo must start at the green box that says “APPROVED” and extend so it includes information in the “Contacts” tab below the flow chart) OR
  • Having your PI send an email to [email protected] stating the IRB number, the project title, and that you are an approved researcher on the project.  (If you used animal subjects, your name does not need to appear on the IACUC letter.)  

MSU Requirements

MSU IRB review and approval or an exempt determination is required for all projects that involve research or clinical investigations with human subjects conducted by faculty, staff, students, or agents of MSU before initiation of any human subject research activities.

For those projects that may qualify as exempt from IRB approval, an exempt determination must be obtained from the MSU IRB office prior to initiation of the human subject research. For those projects that do not qualify as exempt, IRB approval must be obtained prior to initiation of the human subject research.

Please note: your thesis or dissertation may be rejected if you did not obtain IRB approval prior to the start of your research, if your IRB request was backdated or if your review request was denied by the Human Research Protection office. For further information, please see the Human Research Protection Program website at: . Phone: 517-355-2180. Email:  [email protected] .

Animal Care Program

  • If vertebrate animals were used in your research, the IACUC (AUF) letter (on letterhead from the Animal Care Program office) should be uploaded with your electronic Approval Form.
  • The IACUC (AUF) number that is to appear on your approval form is the “IACUC ID” number on the IACUC letter (i.e.: PROTO201800030).

Activities Needing Approval

Any ownership or use of animals for research, teaching, testing, or public outreach by or for MSU must be approved by the IACUC. Some activities are exempt but check first.

Check with the IACUC before you do any of these:

  • breed, buy, or conduct research involving animals
  • study wild animals
  • conduct farming and food production with animals
  • euthanize an animal
  • import or export animals
  • test products, procedures, or treatments on animals
  • transport animals
  • initiate a new project
  • add a new procedure or controlled substance
  • change your protocol
  • change the breed you are using
  • schedule a public performance or demonstration with animals

Get approval before you begin ANY activities involving animals.

The  laws and guidelines  for using animals are numerous. Non-compliance can affect animal care. Non-compliance will be costly to the investigator and the University (such as damage to our reputation and funding). The IACUC committee and staff have up-to-date information on legislation and regulations and contacts with agencies providing guidelines for the care and use of animals.

Please note: your thesis or dissertation may be rejected if you did not obtain IACUC approval prior to the start of your research, if your IACUC request was backdated or if your review request was denied by the Animal Care Program office. For further information, please see the Animal Care Program/IACUC website at: . Phone: 517-432-8103. Email:  [email protected] .

  • Please take a few moments to complete this survey the semester that you plan to graduate. Only students who have applied for graduation will have access to this online survey. Your participation is important and is greatly appreciated by the Graduate School. The survey will ask you questions about your educational experience in your graduate program. The Graduate School uses data from this survey when reviewing graduate programs and to guide decisions about services and initiatives for graduate students.
  • Doctoral students:
  • Master’s students:
  • Enter your MSU NetID (Login name) and password.
  • Complete all items on the survey. When finished, click Submit.
  • If you cannot open the survey, please contact the Graduate School by email at  [email protected]  and include your name, student ID#, degree level (PhD, MA, MS, etc), and the semester of graduation. You will then be notified when you are able to access the survey.
  • The Survey of Earned Doctorates is the definitive source of information on the nation’s new research doctorates. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation and five other federal agencies and conducted by RTI, the SED is critical to the understanding in what specialty areas doctorates are produced and their post-graduation employment plans.
  • Results are used by government as well as academic institutions to make decisions about graduate education funding, developing new programs and supporting existing ones.
  • Michigan State University REQUIRES verification of completion of the survey. When you submit your survey, a notification of completion will automatically be sent to the Graduate School office. It is recommended that at the end of the survey, you also have a copy of the “certificate of completion” emailed to your personal email for your records.
  • The registration URL for the survey is: . You will receive an email with a PIN and password as well as the URL to the survey upon registering.
  • Confidentiality Assurance: The information provided in the survey questionnaire remains confidential and is safeguarded in accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974 and the NSF Act of 1950, as amended. The survey data are reported only in aggregate form or in a manner that does not identify information about the individual.
  • Questions about the survey may be directed to RTI at  [email protected]  or at 1-877-256-8167.
  • You may submit your document to ProQuest once you have successfully defended your thesis or dissertation and you have made the corrections that your committee wishes you to make.  Do not submit your document prior to your defense. 
  • Go to  and follow the directions for submitting your thesis/dissertation to Michigan State University via ProQuest.
  • When creating your account be sure to use an email address that you use regularly. In order to continue the submission process, you will be asked to “confirm” your account using the email address you provided. This is the email address that all correspondence from the Graduate School regarding your document will go.
  • Once you “confirm” your account, you are ready to begin the submission process. Please be sure you are on the Michigan State University website within ProQuest. 
  • The submission steps are listed on the left side of the screen in the ProQuest website. As each step is completed, a check mark will appear in the appropriate box indicating that you have completed that step. In order to make your initial submission, you must go through each step of the process.
  • Once you submit to ProQuest, your electronic submission will be reviewed by a Michigan State University Graduate School Administrator for possible formatting revisions and/or required paperwork before it is “officially” accepted and delivered to ProQuest for publishing.
  • You may expect a response with necessary corrections or paperwork from the Graduate School within two business days from the time we receive your electronic submission (or resubmission). NOTE: Response times increase dramatically closer to deadline dates.
  • Once all corrections have been made and all necessary paperwork has been turned in to the Graduate School, your document will be accepted and delivered to ProQuest for publishing.
  • Please contact ProQuest directly at 800-521-0600 with any technical questions regarding your submission or any questions regarding an order you placed.
  • If you wish to have ProQuest file a copyright on your behalf, the current fee is $75.00 and must be paid to ProQuest when you create your submission.  You must be the sole author of the entire document for ProQuest to file for a copyright on your behalf.
  • For information regarding a publication hold/embargo on your thesis/dissertation please go to the Embargo link .

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a proposition stated or put forward for consideration, especially one to be discussed and proved or to be maintained against objections: He vigorously defended his thesis on the causes of war.

a subject for a composition or essay.

a dissertation on a particular subject in which one has done original research, as one presented by a candidate for a diploma or degree.

Music . the downward stroke in conducting; downbeat. : Compare arsis (def. 1) .

a part of a metrical foot that does not bear the ictus or stress.

(less commonly) the part of a metrical foot that bears the ictus. : Compare arsis (def. 2) .

Philosophy . See under Hegelian dialectic .

Origin of thesis

Word story for thesis, other words for thesis, words that may be confused with thesis.

  • 1. antithesis , synthesis , thesis
  • 2. dissertation , thesis

Words Nearby thesis

  • shit will hit the fan, the
  • shoe is on the other foot, the
  • short end of the stick, the
  • The show must go on
  • thesis play
  • thesis statement
  • Sketch Book, The
  • Skin of Our Teeth, The
  • sky's the limit, the Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2023

How to use thesis in a sentence

“The Saudis have been proving the thesis of the film — they do in fact have an army,” said Thor Halvorssen, founder and chief executive of the nonprofit Human Rights Foundation, which funded the movie.

It’s a hypothesis that Bush pursued in her master’s thesis , and last year she began attending virtual Goth parties in a final round of field work before defending her doctoral thesis later this year.

While this partnership was planned prior to the coronavirus outbreak, co-founder Jordana Kier said the pandemic instantly proved out the expansion thesis .

They’ve had to defend that thesis for a very, very long time in front of a variety of different customers and different people.

Over the past decade, In-Q-Tel has been one of the most active investors in the commercial space sector, with a broad investment thesis that touches many aspects of the sector.

In “Back Home,” Gil also revisits the nostalgia for the South explored in his Johns Hopkins thesis , “Circle of Stone.”

At least father and son were in alignment on this central thesis : acting “gay”—bad; being thought of as gay—bad.

Her doctoral thesis , says Ramin Takloo at the University of Illinois, was simply outstanding.

Marshall McLuhan long ago argued the now accepted thesis that different mediums have different influences on thinking.

He wrote his Master's thesis  on the underrepresentation of young people in Congress.

And indeed for most young men a college thesis is but an exercise for sharpening the wits, rarely dangerous in its later effects.

It will be for the reader to determine whether the main thesis of the book has gained or lost by the new evidence.

But the word thesis , when applied to Systems, does not mean the 'position' of single notes, but of groups of notes.

This conclusion, it need hardly be said, is in entire agreement with the main thesis of the preceding pages.

Sundry outlying Indians, with ammunition to waste, took belly and knee rests and strengthened the thesis to the contrary.

British Dictionary definitions for thesis

/ ( ˈθiːsɪs ) /

a dissertation resulting from original research, esp when submitted by a candidate for a degree or diploma

a doctrine maintained or promoted in argument

a subject for a discussion or essay

an unproved statement, esp one put forward as a premise in an argument

music the downbeat of a bar, as indicated in conducting

(in classical prosody) the syllable or part of a metrical foot not receiving the ictus : Compare arsis

philosophy the first stage in the Hegelian dialectic, that is challenged by the antithesis

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Cultural definitions for thesis

The central idea in a piece of writing, sometimes contained in a topic sentence .

The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

Synonyms of thesis

  • as in argument
  • as in hypothesis
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Thesaurus Definition of thesis

Synonyms & Similar Words

  • proposition
  • speculation
  • explanation
  • presupposition
  • supposition
  • generalization
  • presumption
  • abstraction

Antonyms & Near Antonyms

Thesaurus Entries Near thesis

Cite this entry.

“Thesis.” Thesaurus , Merriam-Webster, Accessed 5 Nov. 2023.

More from Merriam-Webster on thesis

Nglish: Translation of thesis for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of thesis for Arabic Speakers Encyclopedia article about thesis

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Translation of thesis – English–Russian dictionary

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thesis noun [C] ( WRITING )

Thesis noun [c] ( idea ), examples of thesis, translations of thesis.

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  1. Proposed International School

    school website thesis

  2. Rebecca Smethurst

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  3. 23 Best Students-Friendly School Website Templates 2020

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  4. 25 Beautiful School Website Design examples for your inspiration

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  5. 5 Free Helpful Websites for Your Thesis

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  6. CGS Organized the Webinar Entitled "How to Make a Perfect Thesis

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  1. Thesis Writing: Outlining Part III

  2. NTU Thesis Display Over PIFD NCA PU GC Fashion Design Thesis NTU

  3. Discover the Hidden Gems of NTU's Arts & Design Thesis

  4. Thesis Upload 2

  5. Thesis7 introduction.mp4

  6. Top 5 Thesis Writing Tools


  1. PDF Designing a school Website: contents, structure, anD ...

    Marks & Nance, 2007). By using the school website as part of the school's strategic plan (Davis & Ellison, 1997), the school can present its achieve-ments, boost its positioning, and enhance its reputation, even in countries with a centralized educational system like Israel. Designing a School Website Vol. 38, No. 3&4, 2007, pp. 191-207 193

  2. (PDF) Designing a School Website: Contents, Structure ...

    Website content may include up to 16 specific elements including, and specific to the interest of the current study, activity, program pages and schedules (Miller, Adsit, & Miller, 2003).

  3. PDF Developing educational websites: investigating internet use by students

    Australian Museum's website monthly visitation regularly exceeds 1.5 million, and the use of the internet by students, teachers and the general population has dramatically increased over the recent years. For example, in the Museum's 2004 online survey 63% of respondents ... with a specific focus on teachers and high-school students.

  4. The Role of an Educational Website in Providing Better ...

    academicians etc) universities that KEU faced in absence of having a website. Generally the thesis has five main chapters. Chapter one contains research context and methodologies used for collecting data in the field. Chapter two describes the role, importance, and characteristics of an educational website from the literature point of view.

  5. Google Scholar

    Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. Search across a wide variety of disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions.

  6. (DOC) School Website Documentation

    Objectives The study aimed to analyze, to design, to develop, to test, and to implement with an effective and useful school website, specifically this is intended to: 1. The students are updated on what may happen in their school. 2. Let the visitors be able to know some information about the school. 3.

  7. Design and Development of LPU-B High School Website

    This study was conducted to develop and assess the LPU-B High School website as perceived by the faculty members and selected staff and students in terms of content, efficiency, functionality and usability. ... location-based learning experiences for people with Unpublished Thesis, Batangas State University, intellectual disabilities and ...

  8. Chapter 1: Introduction to School Websites

    Building a school web site provides a unique addition to the curriculum. In the development phase, students and teachers should discuss the kinds of materials they want to add to the site. School information. General information such as the school's telephone number and address along with driving directions should be included.


    The web portal as the type of knowledge management system provides a rich space to share and search information as well as communication services like free email or content provision for the users ...

  10. Using school websites for home-school communication and parental

    Mazer, & Flood Grady, 2015). The school's website can be seen as a window to the school, serving as a prime location for public advocacy and information, particularly for parents' use (both existing parents and prospective/potential parents). Construction of school websites, to some extent, reflects the school's

  11. Thesis

    Thesis. Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore ...

  12. Thesis and Dissertation Resources: Databases and Websites

    An electronic copy of a thesis or dissertation is required from all graduate students. A project to scan print theses and dissertations has greatly enhanced the historical content in Scholar Works and content continues to be added on a regular basis as students defend and submit to us their completed work.

  13. Prize-Winning Thesis and Dissertation Examples

    Award: 2018 Charles A. Beard Senior Thesis Prize. Title: "A Starving Man Helping Another Starving Man": UNRRA, India, and the Genesis of Global Relief, 1943-1947. University: University College London. Faculty: Geography. Author: Anna Knowles-Smith. Award: 2017 Royal Geographical Society Undergraduate Dissertation Prize. Title: Refugees and ...

  14. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples. Published on January 11, 2019 by Shona McCombes.Revised on August 15, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan. A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay.It usually comes near the end of your introduction.. Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you're writing.

  15. 10 Best Online Websites and Resources for Academic Research

    These online resources will help you find credible sources for your academic research. By. Genevieve Carlton, Ph.D. Edited by. Tyler Epps. Updated on March 21, 2023. Learn more about our editorial process. Looking for reliable academic sources online can be a challenge.

  16. OATD aims to be the best possible resource for finding open access graduate theses and dissertations published around the world. Metadata (information about the theses) comes from over 1100 colleges, universities, and research institutions . OATD currently indexes 6,756,328 theses and dissertations. About OATD (our FAQ).

  17. Dissertations and Theses

    Dissertations and Theses. Dissertations and theses in the University Digital Conservancy comprise the official, approved version of these works. The dissertations and theses in the Digital Conservancy are submitted through the Graduate School in accordance with University standards. Works contributed to the Conservancy serve as a permanent ...

  18. Thesis Information

    2 Seelye Drive. Smith College. Northampton, MA 01063. Phone: 413-585-3050 Email: [email protected]. Associate Dean of the Faculty/. Dean for Academic Development: Hélène Visentin. Program Coordinator: Ruth Morgan.

  19. Electronic Theses and Dissertation Submissions

    Thesis/Dissertation Office, 466 West Circle Drive, 2nd floor, Chittenden Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824Phone: 517-353-3220; Email: [email protected] links below provide instructions on what needs to be completed and approved by the Graduate School in order to graduate.Each semester has a firm submission deadline by which students must submit their thesis/dissertation to ProQuest ...

  20. Thesis Definition & Meaning

    Thesis definition, a proposition stated or put forward for consideration, especially one to be discussed and proved or to be maintained against objections: He vigorously defended his thesis on the causes of war. See more.

  21. THESIS Synonyms: 44 Similar and Opposite Words

    Synonyms for THESIS: argument, contention, assertion, hypothesis, theory, guess, assumption, hunch; Antonyms of THESIS: fact, knowledge, assurance, certainty

  22. Homepage

    The delegation of the Institute of Foreign Languages of Beihang University paid an official visit to MPGU 20 / 10 / 2023. On October 10, 2023, a representative delegation of the Institute of Foreign Languages of Beihang University (Beijing University of Astronautics and Aeronautics) headed by Mr. Xiao Hong, Secretary of the Party Committee of the Institute of Foreign Languages, visited Moscow...

  23. thesis

    Перевод "thesis" на русский. Сущ. His thesis focused on human-computer interactions and he needed an example to prove his theories. Его диссертация была посвящена взаимодействию человека и компьютера, и ему нужен был пример, чтобы ...

  24. thesis

    thesis translate: диссертация , тезис . Learn more in the Cambridge English-Russian Dictionary.