Thesis and Purpose Statements
Use the guidelines below to learn the differences between thesis and purpose statements.
In the first stages of writing, thesis or purpose statements are usually rough or ill-formed and are useful primarily as planning tools.
A thesis statement or purpose statement will emerge as you think and write about a topic. The statement can be restricted or clarified and eventually worked into an introduction.
As you revise your paper, try to phrase your thesis or purpose statement in a precise way so that it matches the content and organization of your paper.
A thesis statement is a sentence that makes an assertion about a topic and predicts how the topic will be developed. It does not simply announce a topic: it says something about the topic.
Good: X has made a significant impact on the teenage population due to its . . . Bad: In this paper, I will discuss X.
A thesis statement makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of the paper. It summarizes the conclusions that the writer has reached about the topic.
A thesis statement is generally located near the end of the introduction. Sometimes in a long paper, the thesis will be expressed in several sentences or an entire paragraph.
A thesis statement is focused and specific enough to be proven within the boundaries of the paper. Key words (nouns and verbs) should be specific, accurate, and indicative of the range of research, thrust of the argument or analysis, and the organization of supporting information.
A purpose statement announces the purpose, scope, and direction of the paper. It tells the reader what to expect in a paper and what the specific focus will be.
Common beginnings include:
“This paper examines . . .,” “The aim of this paper is to . . .,” and “The purpose of this essay is to . . .”
A purpose statement makes a promise to the reader about the development of the argument but does not preview the particular conclusions that the writer has drawn.
A purpose statement usually appears toward the end of the introduction. The purpose statement may be expressed in several sentences or even an entire paragraph.
A purpose statement is specific enough to satisfy the requirements of the assignment. Purpose statements are common in research papers in some academic disciplines, while in other disciplines they are considered too blunt or direct. If you are unsure about using a purpose statement, ask your instructor.
This paper will examine the ecological destruction of the Sahel preceding the drought and the causes of this disintegration of the land. The focus will be on the economic, political, and social relationships which brought about the environmental problems in the Sahel.
Sample purpose and thesis statements
The following example combines a purpose statement and a thesis statement (bold).
The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of Chile’s agrarian reform on the lives of rural peasants. The nature of the topic dictates the use of both a chronological and a comparative analysis of peasant lives at various points during the reform period. . . The Chilean reform example provides evidence that land distribution is an essential component of both the improvement of peasant conditions and the development of a democratic society. More extensive and enduring reforms would likely have allowed Chile the opportunity to further expand these horizons.
For more tips about writing thesis statements, take a look at our new handout on Developing a Thesis Statement.
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Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore needs your careful analysis of the evidence to understand how you arrived at this claim. You arrive at your thesis by examining and analyzing the evidence available to you, which might be text or other types of source material.
A thesis will generally respond to an analytical question or pose a solution to a problem that you have framed for your readers (and for yourself). When you frame that question or problem for your readers, you are telling them what is at stake in your argument—why your question matters and why they should care about the answer . If you can explain to your readers why a question or problem is worth addressing, then they will understand why it’s worth reading an essay that develops your thesis—and you will understand why it’s worth writing that essay.
A strong thesis will be arguable rather than descriptive , and it will be the right scope for the essay you are writing. If your thesis is descriptive, then you will not need to convince your readers of anything—you will be naming or summarizing something your readers can already see for themselves. If your thesis is too narrow, you won’t be able to explore your topic in enough depth to say something interesting about it. If your thesis is too broad, you may not be able to support it with evidence from the available sources.
When you are writing an essay for a course assignment, you should make sure you understand what type of claim you are being asked to make. Many of your assignments will be asking you to make analytical claims , which are based on interpretation of facts, data, or sources.
Some of your assignments may ask you to make normative claims. Normative claims are claims of value or evaluation rather than fact—claims about how things should be rather than how they are. A normative claim makes the case for the importance of something, the action that should be taken, or the way the world should be. When you are asked to write a policy memo, a proposal, or an essay based on your own opinion, you will be making normative claims.
Here are some examples of possible thesis statements for a student's analysis of the article “The Case Against Perfection” by Professor Michael Sandel.
Descriptive thesis (not arguable)
While Sandel argues that pursuing perfection through genetic engineering would decrease our sense of humility, he claims that the sense of solidarity we would lose is also important.
This thesis summarizes several points in Sandel’s argument, but it does not make a claim about how we should understand his argument. A reader who read Sandel’s argument would not also need to read an essay based on this descriptive thesis.
Broad thesis (arguable, but difficult to support with evidence)
Michael Sandel’s arguments about genetic engineering do not take into consideration all the relevant issues.
This is an arguable claim because it would be possible to argue against it by saying that Michael Sandel’s arguments do take all of the relevant issues into consideration. But the claim is too broad. Because the thesis does not specify which “issues” it is focused on—or why it matters if they are considered—readers won’t know what the rest of the essay will argue, and the writer won’t know what to focus on. If there is a particular issue that Sandel does not address, then a more specific version of the thesis would include that issue—hand an explanation of why it is important.
Arguable thesis with analytical claim
While Sandel argues persuasively that our instinct to “remake” (54) ourselves into something ever more perfect is a problem, his belief that we can always draw a line between what is medically necessary and what makes us simply “better than well” (51) is less convincing.
This is an arguable analytical claim. To argue for this claim, the essay writer will need to show how evidence from the article itself points to this interpretation. It’s also a reasonable scope for a thesis because it can be supported with evidence available in the text and is neither too broad nor too narrow.
Arguable thesis with normative claim
Given Sandel’s argument against genetic enhancement, we should not allow parents to decide on using Human Growth Hormone for their children.
This thesis tells us what we should do about a particular issue discussed in Sandel’s article, but it does not tell us how we should understand Sandel’s argument.
Questions to ask about your thesis
- Is the thesis truly arguable? Does it speak to a genuine dilemma in the source, or would most readers automatically agree with it?
- Is the thesis too obvious? Again, would most or all readers agree with it without needing to see your argument?
- Is the thesis complex enough to require a whole essay's worth of argument?
- Is the thesis supportable with evidence from the text rather than with generalizations or outside research?
- Would anyone want to read a paper in which this thesis was developed? That is, can you explain what this paper is adding to our understanding of a problem, question, or topic?
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What this handout is about.
This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft.
Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.
What is a thesis statement?
A thesis statement:
- tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
- is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
- directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
- makes a claim that others might dispute.
- is usually a single sentence near the beginning of your paper (most often, at the end of the first paragraph) that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.
If your assignment asks you to take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you may need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement near the beginning of your draft. The assignment may not explicitly state that you need a thesis statement because your instructor may assume you will include one. When in doubt, ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement. When an assignment asks you to analyze, to interpret, to compare and contrast, to demonstrate cause and effect, or to take a stand on an issue, it is likely that you are being asked to develop a thesis and to support it persuasively. (Check out our handout on understanding assignments for more information.)
How do I create a thesis?
A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a “working thesis” that presents a basic or main idea and an argument that you think you can support with evidence. Both the argument and your thesis are likely to need adjustment along the way.
Writers use all kinds of techniques to stimulate their thinking and to help them clarify relationships or comprehend the broader significance of a topic and arrive at a thesis statement. For more ideas on how to get started, see our handout on brainstorming .
How do I know if my thesis is strong?
If there’s time, run it by your instructor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback. Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following :
- Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question. If the prompt isn’t phrased as a question, try to rephrase it. For example, “Discuss the effect of X on Y” can be rephrased as “What is the effect of X on Y?”
- Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it’s possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.
- Is my thesis statement specific enough? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like “good” or “successful,” see if you could be more specific: why is something “good”; what specifically makes something “successful”?
- Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? If a reader’s first response is likely to be “So what?” then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.
- Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.
- Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? If a reader’s first response is “how?” or “why?” your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.
Suppose you are taking a course on contemporary communication, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: “Discuss the impact of social media on public awareness.” Looking back at your notes, you might start with this working thesis:
Social media impacts public awareness in both positive and negative ways.
You can use the questions above to help you revise this general statement into a stronger thesis.
- Do I answer the question? You can analyze this if you rephrase “discuss the impact” as “what is the impact?” This way, you can see that you’ve answered the question only very generally with the vague “positive and negative ways.”
- Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not likely. Only people who maintain that social media has a solely positive or solely negative impact could disagree.
- Is my thesis statement specific enough? No. What are the positive effects? What are the negative effects?
- Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? No. Why are they positive? How are they positive? What are their causes? Why are they negative? How are they negative? What are their causes?
- Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? No. Why should anyone care about the positive and/or negative impact of social media?
After thinking about your answers to these questions, you decide to focus on the one impact you feel strongly about and have strong evidence for:
Because not every voice on social media is reliable, people have become much more critical consumers of information, and thus, more informed voters.
This version is a much stronger thesis! It answers the question, takes a specific position that others can challenge, and it gives a sense of why it matters.
Let’s try another. Suppose your literature professor hands out the following assignment in a class on the American novel: Write an analysis of some aspect of Mark Twain’s novel Huckleberry Finn. “This will be easy,” you think. “I loved Huckleberry Finn!” You grab a pad of paper and write:
Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel.
You begin to analyze your thesis:
- Do I answer the question? No. The prompt asks you to analyze some aspect of the novel. Your working thesis is a statement of general appreciation for the entire novel.
Think about aspects of the novel that are important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children. Now you write:
In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore.
- Do I answer the question? Yes!
- Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not really. This contrast is well-known and accepted.
- Is my thesis statement specific enough? It’s getting there–you have highlighted an important aspect of the novel for investigation. However, it’s still not clear what your analysis will reveal.
- Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? Not yet. Compare scenes from the book and see what you discover. Free write, make lists, jot down Huck’s actions and reactions and anything else that seems interesting.
- Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? What’s the point of this contrast? What does it signify?”
After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write:
Through its contrasting river and shore scenes, Twain’s Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave “civilized” society and go back to nature.
This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation.
We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.
Anson, Chris M., and Robert A. Schwegler. 2010. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers , 6th ed. New York: Longman.
Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.
Ramage, John D., John C. Bean, and June Johnson. 2018. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing , 8th ed. New York: Pearson.
Ruszkiewicz, John J., Christy Friend, Daniel Seward, and Maxine Hairston. 2010. The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers , 9th ed. Boston: Pearson Education.
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Developing Strong Thesis Statements
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These OWL resources will help you develop and refine the arguments in your writing.
The thesis statement or main claim must be debatable
An argumentative or persuasive piece of writing must begin with a debatable thesis or claim. In other words, the thesis must be something that people could reasonably have differing opinions on. If your thesis is something that is generally agreed upon or accepted as fact then there is no reason to try to persuade people.
Example of a non-debatable thesis statement:
This thesis statement is not debatable. First, the word pollution implies that something is bad or negative in some way. Furthermore, all studies agree that pollution is a problem; they simply disagree on the impact it will have or the scope of the problem. No one could reasonably argue that pollution is unambiguously good.
Example of a debatable thesis statement:
This is an example of a debatable thesis because reasonable people could disagree with it. Some people might think that this is how we should spend the nation's money. Others might feel that we should be spending more money on education. Still others could argue that corporations, not the government, should be paying to limit pollution.
Another example of a debatable thesis statement:
In this example there is also room for disagreement between rational individuals. Some citizens might think focusing on recycling programs rather than private automobiles is the most effective strategy.
The thesis needs to be narrow
Although the scope of your paper might seem overwhelming at the start, generally the narrower the thesis the more effective your argument will be. Your thesis or claim must be supported by evidence. The broader your claim is, the more evidence you will need to convince readers that your position is right.
Example of a thesis that is too broad:
There are several reasons this statement is too broad to argue. First, what is included in the category "drugs"? Is the author talking about illegal drug use, recreational drug use (which might include alcohol and cigarettes), or all uses of medication in general? Second, in what ways are drugs detrimental? Is drug use causing deaths (and is the author equating deaths from overdoses and deaths from drug related violence)? Is drug use changing the moral climate or causing the economy to decline? Finally, what does the author mean by "society"? Is the author referring only to America or to the global population? Does the author make any distinction between the effects on children and adults? There are just too many questions that the claim leaves open. The author could not cover all of the topics listed above, yet the generality of the claim leaves all of these possibilities open to debate.
Example of a narrow or focused thesis:
In this example the topic of drugs has been narrowed down to illegal drugs and the detriment has been narrowed down to gang violence. This is a much more manageable topic.
We could narrow each debatable thesis from the previous examples in the following way:
Narrowed debatable thesis 1:
This thesis narrows the scope of the argument by specifying not just the amount of money used but also how the money could actually help to control pollution.
Narrowed debatable thesis 2:
This thesis narrows the scope of the argument by specifying not just what the focus of a national anti-pollution campaign should be but also why this is the appropriate focus.
Qualifiers such as " typically ," " generally ," " usually ," or " on average " also help to limit the scope of your claim by allowing for the almost inevitable exception to the rule.
Types of claims
Claims typically fall into one of four categories. Thinking about how you want to approach your topic, or, in other words, what type of claim you want to make, is one way to focus your thesis on one particular aspect of your broader topic.
Claims of fact or definition: These claims argue about what the definition of something is or whether something is a settled fact. Example:
Claims of cause and effect: These claims argue that one person, thing, or event caused another thing or event to occur. Example:
Claims about value: These are claims made of what something is worth, whether we value it or not, how we would rate or categorize something. Example:
Claims about solutions or policies: These are claims that argue for or against a certain solution or policy approach to a problem. Example:
Which type of claim is right for your argument? Which type of thesis or claim you use for your argument will depend on your position and knowledge of the topic, your audience, and the context of your paper. You might want to think about where you imagine your audience to be on this topic and pinpoint where you think the biggest difference in viewpoints might be. Even if you start with one type of claim you probably will be using several within the paper. Regardless of the type of claim you choose to utilize it is key to identify the controversy or debate you are addressing and to define your position early on in the paper.
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Probably the most daunting task for any writer is to generate an effective thesis statement. In college, academic writing follows a specific pattern— after a brief opening, you state your position in one clear sentence. Whether your essay is explanatory or argumentative, a strong thesis statement will provide the map, guiding the entire essay. Confusion arises, however, over the difference between a purpose statement and a thesis.
What is the function of a purpose statement?
- It gives the paper a focus: scope and direction.
- It foreshadows the development of the argument
Used in many of the sciences for research proposals, in some disciplines, a purpose statement is too blunt or direct, so check with your instructor about using a purpose statement.
Sample purpose statement This paper will examine the ecological damage caused by Katrina on the Gulf Coast. The focus will be on the economic, political and social relationships effected by the environmental problems.
What is the function of a thesis statement? A thesis statement:
- Gives the writer’s declaration of the purpose of the paper.
- Makes an assertion directly answering the question the paper asks.
- Offers a provable claim that reasonable people could argue.
- Provides a map of the arrangement of ideas presented in the essay.
(Note that the thesis statement is more complex than the purpose statement)
Sample thesis statement The ecological damage produced by Katrina on the Gulf Coast was caused by the political and social environment of the region.
What are the characteristics of a good thesis statement?
- It answers a specific question.
- It is narrow or broad enough to be covered within the assignment parameters.
- It focuses on one main idea.
- It is controversial enough that a reasonable person could disagree.
How do I generate a good thesis statement? After you have completed your research for evidence, you will need to analyze the material to find the possible connections— both similarities and contrasts. Once you have analyzed your evidence, you will have a main idea or a working thesis. Think of the process of creating a thesis like a funnel, beginning with a general subject, narrowed by the purpose, and ending with a specific assertion, claim, or thesis.
How do I generate a thesis if the topic is assigned? Any assignment can be narrowed down to a single question. Your first task is to select the focal question that your essay will answer. If the assignment is a request for information, such as “Write a report on the benefits of expanding the Marina District in Downtown Toledo,” turn the request into a question— “What are the benefits of building the Marina District in Downtown Toledo?” After you have established the focal question, compose a one- to- two-sentence response based on your educated opinion.
Q: What are the benefits of the Marina District in Toledo?
A: The potential benefits of the development of the Marina District are….
How do I generate a thesis if the topic is not assigned?
Even if your instructor has not posed a specific question, you will need to create a question about the issue you plan to investigate. It is best if you first establish your subject; next consider the purpose of the essay. From this point you should be able to ask a question about the topic to then state a position or thesis.
Brainstorm the topic What are your concerns? What concerns are facing your field of study? For example, you are in construction and you are concerned with the slow recovery in New Orleans after Katrina. You begin the thought process like this:
This is not a thesis; it is a fragment. This is a general subject from which you could take your paper in many directions. Perhaps from your research you have found that there were oversights in the codes for homes constructed in hurricane and flood zones. While everyone will agree that rebuilding flimsy homes is a bad idea, narrowing your topic to who should make the reform and what specific types are needed will assert your position.
Because a majority of the damage caused by Katrina was due to inadequate construction, the federal government needs to establish more stringent building codes before financing reconstruction.
Test your thesis
- Does it take a stand and capture the subject?
- Does it invite a discussion or can a simple statement respond it to?
- Is it specific to your paper?
- Is your claim significant?
- Are the words and phrases a unified by a single idea?
Test the sample thesis Because a majority of the damage caused by Katrina was due to inadequate construction, the federal government needs to establish more stringent building codes before financing reconstruction.
- Does it take a stand? Yes, the damage was due to inadequate construction and the federal government needs to step in.
- Does it invite discussion? Yes, some reasonable people may feel that it is not the government’s responsibility to enforce codes and that no building could withstand the force of Katrina.
- Is the thesis specific? Yes, it focuses on the aftermath of one storm and the steps to be taken before more federal funds should be used.
- Is the claim significant? Yes, rebuilding still needs to take place.
- Are the words focused on a single idea? Yes, not all issues are being addressed, just one aspect of a condition for rebuilding. Yet the thesis is still broad enough to allow the paper to explore examples of the types of destruction, building codes, and financial needs facing those devastated by Katrina.
For any further questions or more a detailed explanation refer to your instructor, The Little Brown Compact Handbook, or the Writing Center.
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Just as kayakers navigate this narrow stream in the vast wetlands, a thesis serves as a focused path guiding readers through the expansive landscape of an idea. Photo Credit: Moxley
What is a thesis?
A thesis is
- an academic body of work
- a writer’s, speaker’s, or knowledge worker’s . . . main reason for communicating ; their purpose .
Related Concepts: Organizational Schema; Professional Writing Prose Style
Note: Some people consider thesis and purpose to be synonymous terms. Others view purpose to be a broader classification of discourse and thesis to be a more specific message or argument.
A writer’s thesis is the writer’s north star.
Writer’s, speaker’s, or knowledge worker’s . . . need to know their purpose , their reason for writing, in order to know how they need to compose their texts or submit those texts to their intended audiences .
A thesis may be expressed as
- an argumentative theses (Dietrich)
- an organizational theses
- a research question
While writers need to know what their purpose is for communicating in order to communicate clearly , concisely , and in a unified manner, they do not necessarily need to explicitly state their theses . In fact, there are some rhetorical circumstances when the tone and voice might be better served by leaving the context and purpose unsaid, implied, tacit.
Thesis Statements are commonplace in Workplace contexts. It is commonplace–especially in workplace writing–for writers, speakers, knowledge workers . . . to explicitly state their thesis in the first or second sentence of their texts. This sort of approach is sometimes called a Direct Style as opposed to an Indirect Style , or a Deductive Approach as opposed to an Inductive Approach .
Examples of genres of discourse that emploay a direct style include business correspondence, executive abstracts, abstracts, executive summaries, and introductions to workplace writing.
However, there are occasions when it’s rhetorically most strategic for a writer, speaker, knowledge worker . . . to view the context to be so routine that it goes without saying between the writer and the reader, the speaker and the audience.
What are the functions of a thesis?
The thesis functions in several important ways:
- It informs the reader of the paper’s direction
The thesis announces the direction of the paper’s conversation. Readers may find the paper’s position or argument more convincing if they know what to expect as they read.
- It places boundaries on the paper’s content
The body of the paper provides support for the thesis. Only evidence and details that relate directly to the paper’s main ideas should fall within the boundary established by the thesis.
- It determines how the content will be organized
The thesis summarizes the message or conclusion the reader is meant to understand and accept. A logical progression of these ideas and their supporting evidence helps shape the paper’s organization.
- The Thesis by Megan McIntyre
- Formulating a Thesis by Andrea Scott
- The Guiding Idea and Argumentative Thesis Statement by Rhonda Dietrich
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Thesis: Definition and Examples in Composition
Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms
- An Introduction to Punctuation
- Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia
- M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester
- B.A., English, State University of New York
A thesis ( THEE-ses ) is the main (or controlling) idea of an essay , report , speech , or research paper , sometimes written as a single declarative sentence known as a thesis statement . A thesis may be implied rather than stated directly. Plural: theses . It's also known as a thesis statement, thesis sentence, controlling idea.
In the classical rhetorical exercises known as the progymnasmata , the thesis is an exercise that requires a student to argue a case for one side or the other.
Etymology From the Greek, "to put"
Examples and Observations (Definition #1)
- "My thesis is simple: in the next century mankind must harness the nuclear genie if our energy needs are to be met and our security preserved." (John B. Ritch, "Nuclear Green," Prospect Magazine , March 1999)
- "We watch baseball: it's what we have always imagined life should be like. We play softball. It's sloppy--the way life really is." (from the introduction to Watching Baseball, Playing Softball)
- "Through Mansfield's skillful handling of point of view, characterization, and plot development, Miss Brill comes across as a convincing character who evokes our sympathy." (thesis statement in Miss Brill's Fragile Fantasy )
- "Suppose there were no critics to tell us how to react to a picture, a play, or a new composition of music. Suppose we wandered innocent as the dawn into an art exhibition of unsigned paintings. By what standards, by what values would we decide whether they were good or bad, talented or untalented, success or failures? How can we ever know that what we think is right?" (Marya Mannes, "How Do You Know It's Good?")
- "I think people are disturbed by the discovery that no longer is a small town autonomous--it is a creature of the state and of the Federal Government. We have accepted money for our schools, our libraries, our hospitals, our winter roads. Now we face the inevitable consequence: the benefactor wants to call the turns." (E.B. White, "Letter from the East")
- "It is possible to stop most drug addiction in the United States within a very short time. Simply make all drugs available and sell them at cost." (Gore Vidal, "Drugs")
- The Two Parts of an Effective Thesis "An effective thesis is generally composed of two parts: a topic and the writer's attitude or opinion about or reaction to that topic." (William J. Kelly, Strategy and Structure . Allyn and Bacon, 1996)
- Drafting and Revising a Thesis "It's a good idea to formulate a thesis early in the writing process , perhaps by jotting it on scratch paper, by putting it at the head of a rough outline , or by attempting to write an introductory paragraph that includes the thesis. Your tentative thesis will probably be less graceful than the thesis you include in the final version of your essay. Here, for example, is one student's early effort: Although they both play percussion instruments, drummers and percussionists are very different. The thesis that appeared in the final draft of the student's paper was more polished: Two types of musicians play percussion instruments--drummers and percussionists--and they are as different as Quiet Riot and the New York Philharmonic. Don't worry too soon about the exact wording of your thesis, however, because your main point may change as you refine your ideas." (Diana Hacker, The Bedford Handbook , 6th ed. Bedford/St. Martin's, 2002)
- A Good Thesis - "A good thesis tells the audience exactly what you want them to know, understand, and remember when your speech is done. Write it as a simple, declarative sentence (or two) that restates the speech purpose and states the main points that support the purpose. Although you may formulate a thesis statement early in the speech development process, you may revise and reword it as you research your topic.' (Sherwyn P. Morreale, Brian H. Spitzberg, and J. Kevin Barge, Human Communication: Motivation, Knowledge, and Skills , 2nd ed. Thomson Higher Education, 2007) - "An effective thesis statement singles out some aspect of a subject for attention and clearly defines your approach to it." (David Blakesley and Jeffrey L. Hoogeveen, Writing: A Manual for the Digital Age . Wadsworth, 2011)
Examples and Observations (Definition #2)
" Thesis . This advanced exercise [one of the progymnasmata] asks the student to write an answer to a 'general question' ( quaestio infina )--that is, a question not involving individuals. . . . Quintilian . . . notes that a general question can be made into a persuasive subject if names are added (II.4.25). That is, a Thesis would pose a general question such as 'Should a man marry?' or 'Should one fortify a city?' (A Special Question on the other hand would be 'Should Marcus marry Livia?' or 'Should Athens spend money to build a defensive wall?')" (James J. Murphy, A Short History of Writing Instruction: From Ancient Greece to Modern America , 2nd ed. Lawrence Erlbaum, 2001)
- How to Write a Good Thesis Statement
- What an Essay Is and How to Write One
- Definition and Examples of Analysis in Composition
- Definition and Examples of Body Paragraphs in Composition
- An Introduction to Academic Writing
- How to Write a Solid Thesis Statement
- Revising a Paper
- The Ultimate Guide to the 5-Paragraph Essay
- The Introductory Paragraph: Start Your Paper Off Right
- Focusing in Composition
- What Is a Written Summary?
- Understanding Organization in Composition and Speech
- What Is a Compelling Introduction?
- An Essay Revision Checklist
- Supporting Detail in Composition and Speech
- Topic In Composition and Speech
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Understanding Your Purpose
The first question for any writer should be, "Why am I writing?" "What is my goal or my purpose for writing?" For many writing contexts, your immediate purpose may be to complete an assignment or get a good grade. But the long-range purpose of writing is to communicate to a particular audience. In order to communicate successfully to your audience, understanding your purpose for writing will make you a better writer.
A Definition of Purpose
Purpose is the reason why you are writing . You may write a grocery list in order to remember what you need to buy. You may write a laboratory report in order to carefully describe a chemistry experiment. You may write an argumentative essay in order to persuade someone to change the parking rules on campus. You may write a letter to a friend to express your excitement about her new job.
Notice that selecting the form for your writing (list, report, essay, letter) is one of your choices that helps you achieve your purpose. You also have choices about style, organization, kinds of evidence that help you achieve your purpose
Focusing on your purpose as you begin writing helps you know what form to choose, how to focus and organize your writing, what kinds of evidence to cite, how formal or informal your style should be, and how much you should write.
Types of Purpose
Don Zimmerman, Journalism and Technical Communication Department I look at most scientific and technical writing as being either informational or instructional in purpose. A third category is documentation for legal purposes. Most writing can be organized in one of these three ways. For example, an informational purpose is frequently used to make decisions. Memos, in most circles, carry key information.
When we communicate with other people, we are usually guided by some purpose, goal, or aim. We may want to express our feelings. We may want simply to explore an idea or perhaps entertain or amuse our listeners or readers. We may wish to inform people or explain an idea. We may wish to argue for or against an idea in order to persuade others to believe or act in a certain way. We make special kinds of arguments when we are evaluating or problem solving . Finally, we may wish to mediate or negotiate a solution in a tense or difficult situation.
Remember, however, that often writers combine purposes in a single piece of writing. Thus, we may, in a business report, begin by informing readers of the economic facts before we try to persuade them to take a certain course of action.
In expressive writing, the writer's purpose or goal is to put thoughts and feelings on the page. Expressive writing is personal writing. We are often just writing for ourselves or for close friends. Usually, expressive writing is informal, not intended for outside readers. Journal writing, for example, is usually expressive writing.
However, we may write expressively for other readers when we write poetry (although not all poetry is expressive writing). We may write expressively in a letter, or we may include some expressive sentences in a formal essay intended for other readers.
As a purpose or goal of writing, entertaining is often used with some other purpose--to explain, argue, or inform in a humorous way. Sometimes, however, entertaining others with humor is our main goal. Entertaining may take the form of a brief joke, a newspaper column, a television script or an Internet home page tidbit, but its goal is to relax our reader and share some story of human foibles or surprising actions.
Writing to inform is one of the most common purposes for writing. Most journalistic writing fits this purpose. A journalist uncovers the facts about some incident and then reports those facts, as objectively as possible, to his or her readers. Of course, some bias or point-of-view is always present, but the purpose of informational or reportorial writing is to convey information as accurately and objectively as possible. Other examples of writing to inform include laboratory reports, economic reports, and business reports.
Writing to explain, or expository writing, is the most common of the writing purposes. The writer's purpose is to gather facts and information, combine them with his or her own knowledge and experience, and clarify for some audience who or what something is , how it happened or should happen, and/or why something happened .
Explaining the whos, whats, hows, whys, and wherefores requires that the writer analyze the subject (divide it into its important parts) and show the relationship of those parts. Thus, writing to explain relies heavily on definition, process analysis, cause/effect analysis, and synthesis.
Explaining versus Informing : So how does explaining differ from informing? Explaining goes one step beyond informing or reporting. A reporter merely reports what his or her sources say or the data indicate. An expository writer adds his or her particular understanding, interpretation, or thesis to that information. An expository writer says this is the best or most accurate definition of literacy, or the right way to make lasagne, or the most relevant causes of an accident.
An arguing essay attempts to convince its audience to believe or act in a certain way. Written arguments have several key features:
- A debatable claim or thesis . The issue must have some reasonable arguments on both (or several) sides.
- A focus on one or more of the four types of claims : Claim of fact , claim of cause and effect , claim of value , and/or claim of policy (problem solving).
- A fair representation of opposing arguments combined with arguments against the opposition and for the overall claim.
- An argument based on evidence presented in a reasonable tone . Although appeals to character and to emotion may be used, the primary appeal should be to the reader's logic and reason.
Although the terms argument and persuasion are often used interchangeably, the terms do have slightly different meanings. Argument is a special kind of persuasion that follows certain ground rules. Those rules are that opposing positions will be presented accurately and fairly, and that appeals to logic and reason will be the primary means of persuasion. Persuasive writing may, if it wishes, ignore those rules and try any strategy that might work. Advertisements are a good example of persuasive writing. They usually don't fairly represent the competing product, and they appeal to image, to emotion, to character, or to anything except logic and the facts--unless those facts are in the product's favor.
Writing to evaluate a person, product, thing, or policy is a frequent purpose for writing. An evaluation is really a specific kind of argument: it argues for the merits of the subject and presents evidence to support the claim. A claim of value --the thesis in an evaluation--must be supported by criteria (the appropriate standards of judgment) and supporting evidence (the facts, statistics, examples, or testimonials).
Writers often use a three-column log to set up criteria for their subject, collect relevant evidence, and reach judgments that support an overall claim of value. Writing a three-column log is an excellent way to organize an evaluative essay. First, think about your possible criteria. Remember: criteria are the standards of judgment (the ideal case) against which you will measure your particular subject. Choose criteria which your readers will find valid, fair, and appropriate . Then, collect evidence for each of your selected criteria. Consider the following example of a restaurant evaluation:
Overall claim of value : This Chinese restaurant provides a high quality dining experience.
Problem solving is a special kind of arguing essay: the writer's purpose is to persuade his audience to adopt a solution to a particular problem. Often called "policy" essays because they recommend the readers adopt a policy to resolve a problem, problem-solving essays have two main components: a description of a serious problem and an argument for specific recommendations that will solve the problem .
The thesis of a problem-solving essay becomes a claim of policy : If the audience follows the suggested recommendations, the problem will be reduced or eliminated. The essay must support the policy claim by persuading readers that the recommendations are feasible, cost-effective, efficient, relevant to the situation, and better than other possible alternative solutions.
Traditional argument , like a debate, is confrontational. The argument often becomes a kind of "war" in which the writer attempts to "defeat" the arguments of the opposition.
Non-traditional kinds of argument use a variety of strategies to reduce the confrontation and threat in order to open up the debate.
- Mediated argument follows a plan used successfully in labor negotiations to bring opposing parties to agreement. The writer of a mediated argument provides a middle position that helps negotiate the differences of the opposing positions.
- Rogerian argumen t also wishes to reduce confrontation by encouraging mutual understanding and working toward common ground and a compromise solution.
- Feminist argument tries to avoid the patriarchal conventions in traditional argument by emphasizing personal communication, exploration, and true understanding.
Often, writers use multiple purposes in a single piece of writing. An essay about illiteracy in America may begin by expressing your feelings on the topic. Then it may report the current facts about illiteracy. Finally, it may argue for a solution that might correct some of the social conditions that cause illiteracy. The ultimate purpose of the paper is to argue for the solution, but the writer uses these other purposes along the way.
Similarly, a scientific paper about gene therapy may begin by reporting the current state of gene therapy research. It may then explain how a gene therapy works in a medical situation. Finally, it may argue that we need to increase funding for primary research into gene therapy.
Purposes and Strategies
A purpose is the aim or goal of the writer or the written product; a strategy is a means of achieving that purpose. For example, our purpose may be to explain something, but we may use definitions, examples, descriptions, and analysis in order to make our explanation clearer. A variety of strategies are available for writers to help them find ways to achieve their purpose(s).
Writers often use definition for key terms of ideas in their essays. A formal definition , the basis of most dictionary definitions, has three parts: the term to be defined, the class to which the term belongs, and the features that distinguish this term from other terms in the class.
Look at your own topic. Would definition help you analyze and explain your subject?
Illustration and Example
Examples and illustrations are a basic kind of evidence and support in expository and argumentative writing.
In her essay about anorexia nervosa, student writer Nancie Brosseau uses several examples to develop a paragraph:
Another problem, lying, occurred most often when my parents tried to force me to eat. Because I was at the gym until around eight o'clock every night, I told my mother not to save me dinner. I would come home and make a sandwich and feed it to my dog. I lied to my parents every day about eating lunch at school. For example, I would bring a sack lunch and sell it to someone and use the money to buy diet pills. I always told my parents that I ate my own lunch.
Look at your own topic. What examples and illustrations would help explain your subject?
Classification is a form of analyzing a subject into types. We might classify automobiles by types: Trucks, Sport Utilities, Sedans, Sport Cars. We can (and do) classify college classes by type: Science, Social Science, Humanities, Business, Agriculture, etc.
Look at your own topic. Would classification help you analyze and explain your subject?
Comparison and Contrast
Comparison and contrast can be used to organize an essay. Consider whether either of the following two outlines would help you organize your comparison essay.
Block Comparison of A and B
- Intro and Thesis
- Description of A
- Description of B (and how B is similar to/different from A)
Alternating Comparison of A and B
- Aspect One: Comparison/contrast of A and B
- Aspect Two: Comparison/contrast of A and B
- Aspect Three: Comparison/contrast of A and B
Look at your own topic. Would comparison/contrast help you organize and explain your subject?
Analysis is simply dividing some whole into its parts. A library has distinct parts: stacks, electronic catalog, reserve desk, government documents section, interlibrary loan desk, etc. If you are writing about a library, you may need to know all the parts that exist in that library.
Look at your own topic. Would analysis of the parts help you understand and explain your subject?
Although we usually think of description as visual, we may also use other senses--hearing, touch, feeling, smell-- in our attempt to describe something for our readers.
Notice how student writer Stephen White uses multiple senses to describe Anasazi Indian ruins at Mesa Verde:
I awoke this morning with a sense of unexplainable anticipation gnawing away at the back of my mind, that this chilly, leaden day at Mesa Verde would bring something new . . . . They are a haunting sight, these broken houses, clustered together down in the gloom of the canyon. The silence is broken only by the rush of the wind in the trees and the trickling of a tiny stream of melting snow springing from ledge to ledge. This small, abandoned village of tiny houses seems almost as the Indians left it, reduced by the passage of nearly a thousand years to piles of rubble through which protrude broken red adobe walls surrounding ghostly jet black openings, undisturbed by modern man.
Look at your own topic. Would description help you explain your subject?
Process analysis is analyzing the chronological steps in any operation. A recipe contains process analysis. First, sift the flour. Next, mix the eggs, milk, and oil. Then fold in the flour with the eggs, milk and oil. Then add baking soda, salt and spices. Finally, pour the pancake batter onto the griddle.
Look at your own topic. Would process analysis help you analyze and explain your subject?
Narration is possibly the most effective strategy essay writers can use. Readers are quickly caught up in reading any story, no matter how short it is. Writers of exposition and argument should consider where a short narrative might enliven their essay. Typically, this narrative can relate some of your own experiences with the subject of your essay. Look at your own topic. Where might a short narrative help you explain your subject?
In cause and effect analysis, you map out possible causes and effects. Two patterns for doing cause/effect analysis are as follows:
Several causes leading to single effect: Cause 1 + Cause 2 + Cause 3 . . . => Effect
One cause leading to multiple effects: Cause => Effect 1 + Effect 2 + Effect 3 ...
Look at your own topic. Would cause/effect analysis help you understand and explain your subject?
How Audience and Focus Affect Purpose
All readers have expectations. They assume what they read will meet their expectations. As a writer, your job is to make sure those expectations are met, while at the same time, fulfilling the purpose of your writing.
Once you have determined what type of purpose best conveys your motivations, you will then need to examine how this will affect your readers. Perhaps you are explaining your topic when you really should be convincing readers to see your point. Writers and readers may approach a topic with conflicting purposes. Your job, as a writer, is to make sure both are being met.
Purpose and Audience
Often your audience will help you determine your purpose. The beliefs they hold will tell you whether or not they agree with what you have to say. Suppose, for example, you are writing to persuade readers against Internet censorship. Your purpose will differ depending on the audience who will read your writing.
Audience One: Internet Users
If your audience is computer users who surf the net daily, you could appear foolish trying to persuade them to react against Internet censorship. It's likely they are already against such a movement. Instead, they might expect more information on the topic.
Audience Two: Parents
If your audience is parents who don't want their small children surfing the net, you'll need to convince them that censorship is not the solution to the problem. You should persuade this audience to consider other options.
Purpose and Focus
Your focus (otherwise known as thesis, claim, main idea, or problem statement) is a reflection of your purpose. If these two do not agree, you will not accomplish what you set out to do. Consider the following examples below:
Focus One: Informing
Suppose your purpose is to inform readers about relationships between Type A personalities and heart attacks. Your focus could then be: Type A personalities do not have an abnormally high risk of suffering heart attacks.
Focus Two: Persuading
Suppose your purpose is to persuade readers not to quarantine AIDS victims. Your focus could then be: Children afflicted with AIDS should not be prevented from attending school.
Writer and Reader Goals
Kate Kiefer, English Department Readers and writers both have goals when they engage in reading and writing. Writers typically define their goals in several categories-to inform, persuade, entertain, explore. When writers and readers have mutually fulfilling goals-to inform and to look for information-then writing and reading are most efficient. At times, these goals overlap one another. Many readers of science essays are looking for science information when they often get science philosophy. This mismatch of goals tends to leave readers frustrated, and if they communicate that frustration to the writer, then the writer feels misunderstood or unsuccessful.
Donna Lecourt, English Department Whatever reality you are writing within, whatever you chose to write about, implies a certain audience as well as your purpose for writing. You decide you have something to write about, or something you care about, then purpose determines audience.
Writer Versus Reader Purposes
Steve Reid, English Department A general definition of purpose relates to motivation. For instance, "I'm angry, and that's why I'm writing this." Purposes, in academic writing, are intentions the writer hopes to accomplish with a particular audience. Often, readers discover their own purpose within a text. While the writer may have intended one thing, the text actually does another, according to its readers.
Purpose and Writing Assignments
Instructors often state the purpose of a writing assignment on the assignment sheet. By carefully examining what it is you are asked to do, you can determine what your writing's purpose is.
Most assignment sheets ask you to perform a specific task. Key words listed on the assignment can help you determine why you are writing. If your instructor has not provided an assignment sheet, consider asking what the purpose of the assignment is.
Read over your assignment sheet. Make a note of words asking you to follow a specific task. For example, words such as:
These words require you to write about a topic in a specific way. Once you know the purpose of your writing, you can begin planning what information is necessary for that purpose.
Imagine you are an administrator for the school district. In light of the Columbus controversy, you have been assigned to write a set of guidelines for teaching about Columbus in the district's elementary and junior high schools. These guidelines will explain official policy to parents and teachers in teaching children about Columbus and the significance of his voyages. They will also draw on arguments made on both sides of the controversy, as well as historical facts on which both sides agree.
The purpose of this assignment is to explain the official policy about teaching Columbus' voyages to parents and teachers.
Steve Reid, English Department Keywords in writing assignments give teachers and students direction about why we are writing. For instance, many assignments ask students to "describe" something. The word "describe" specifically indicated the writer is supposed to describe something visually. This is very general. Often, assignments are looking for something more specific. Maybe there is an argument the instructor intends be formulated. Maybe there is an implied thesis, but often teachers use general words such as "Write about" or "Describe" something, when they should use more specific words like, "Define" or "Explain" or "Argue" or "Persuade."
Purpose and Thesis
Writers choose from a variety of purposes for writing. They may write to express their thoughts in a personal letter, to explain concepts in a physics class, to explore ideas in a philosophy class, or to argue a point in a political science class.
Once they have their purpose in mind (and an audience for whom they are writing), writers may more clearly formulate their thesis. The thesis , claim , or main idea of an essay is related to the purpose. It is the sentence or sentences that fulfill the purpose and that state the exact point of the essay.
For example, if a writer wants to argue that high schools should strengthen foreign language training, her thesis sentence might be as follows:
"Because Americans are so culturally isolated, we need a national policy that supports increased foreign language instruction in elementary and secondary schools."
How Thesis is Related to Purpose
The following examples illustrate how subject, purpose and thesis are related. The subject is the most general statement of the topic. The purpose narrows the focus by indicating whether the writer wishes to express or explore ideas or actually explain or argue about the topic. The thesis sentence, claim, or main idea narrows the focus even farther. It is the sentence or sentences which focuses the topic for the writer and the reader.
Stephen Reid and Dawn Kowalski. (1994-2023). Understanding Your Purpose. The WAC Clearinghouse. Colorado State University. Available at https://wac.colostate.edu/repository/resources/writing/guides/.
Copyright © 1994-2023 Colorado State University and/or this site's authors, developers, and contributors . Some material displayed on this site is used with permission.
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6.1 Purpose, Audience, Tone, and Content
- Identify the four common academic purposes.
- Identify audience, tone, and content.
- Apply purpose, audience, tone, and content to a specific assignment.
Imagine reading one long block of text, with each idea blurring into the next. Even if you are reading a thrilling novel or an interesting news article, you will likely lose interest in what the author has to say very quickly. During the writing process, it is helpful to position yourself as a reader. Ask yourself whether you can focus easily on each point you make. One technique that effective writers use is to begin a fresh paragraph for each new idea they introduce.
Paragraphs separate ideas into logical, manageable chunks. One paragraph focuses on only one main idea and presents coherent sentences to support that one point. Because all the sentences in one paragraph support the same point, a paragraph may stand on its own. To create longer assignments and to discuss more than one point, writers group together paragraphs.
Three elements shape the content of each paragraph:
- Purpose . The reason the writer composes the paragraph.
- Tone . The attitude the writer conveys about the paragraph’s subject.
- Audience . The individual or group whom the writer intends to address.
Figure 6.1 Purpose, Audience, Tone, and Content Triangle
The assignment’s purpose, audience, and tone dictate what the paragraph covers and how it will support one main point. This section covers how purpose, audience, and tone affect reading and writing paragraphs.
Identifying Common Academic Purposes
The purpose for a piece of writing identifies the reason you write a particular document. Basically, the purpose of a piece of writing answers the question “Why?” For example, why write a play? To entertain a packed theater. Why write instructions to the babysitter? To inform him or her of your schedule and rules. Why write a letter to your congressman? To persuade him to address your community’s needs.
In academic settings, the reasons for writing fulfill four main purposes: to summarize, to analyze, to synthesize, and to evaluate. You will encounter these four purposes not only as you read for your classes but also as you read for work or pleasure. Because reading and writing work together, your writing skills will improve as you read. To learn more about reading in the writing process, see Chapter 8 “The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?” .
Eventually, your instructors will ask you to complete assignments specifically designed to meet one of the four purposes. As you will see, the purpose for writing will guide you through each part of the paper, helping you make decisions about content and style. For now, identifying these purposes by reading paragraphs will prepare you to write individual paragraphs and to build longer assignments.
A summary shrinks a large amount of information into only the essentials. You probably summarize events, books, and movies daily. Think about the last blockbuster movie you saw or the last novel you read. Chances are, at some point in a casual conversation with a friend, coworker, or classmate, you compressed all the action in a two-hour film or in a two-hundred-page book into a brief description of the major plot movements. While in conversation, you probably described the major highlights, or the main points in just a few sentences, using your own vocabulary and manner of speaking.
Similarly, a summary paragraph condenses a long piece of writing into a smaller paragraph by extracting only the vital information. A summary uses only the writer’s own words. Like the summary’s purpose in daily conversation, the purpose of an academic summary paragraph is to maintain all the essential information from a longer document. Although shorter than the original piece of writing, a summary should still communicate all the key points and key support. In other words, summary paragraphs should be succinct and to the point.
A summary of the report should present all the main points and supporting details in brief. Read the following summary of the report written by a student:
Notice how the summary retains the key points made by the writers of the original report but omits most of the statistical data. Summaries need not contain all the specific facts and figures in the original document; they provide only an overview of the essential information.
An analysis separates complex materials in their different parts and studies how the parts relate to one another. The analysis of simple table salt, for example, would require a deconstruction of its parts—the elements sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl). Then, scientists would study how the two elements interact to create the compound NaCl, or sodium chloride, which is also called simple table salt.
Analysis is not limited to the sciences, of course. An analysis paragraph in academic writing fulfills the same purpose. Instead of deconstructing compounds, academic analysis paragraphs typically deconstruct documents. An analysis takes apart a primary source (an essay, a book, an article, etc.) point by point. It communicates the main points of the document by examining individual points and identifying how the points relate to one another.
Take a look at a student’s analysis of the journal report.
Notice how the analysis does not simply repeat information from the original report, but considers how the points within the report relate to one another. By doing this, the student uncovers a discrepancy between the points that are backed up by statistics and those that require additional information. Analyzing a document involves a close examination of each of the individual parts and how they work together.
A synthesis combines two or more items to create an entirely new item. Consider the electronic musical instrument aptly named the synthesizer. It looks like a simple keyboard but displays a dashboard of switches, buttons, and levers. With the flip of a few switches, a musician may combine the distinct sounds of a piano, a flute, or a guitar—or any other combination of instruments—to create a new sound. The purpose of the synthesizer is to blend together the notes from individual instruments to form new, unique notes.
The purpose of an academic synthesis is to blend individual documents into a new document. An academic synthesis paragraph considers the main points from one or more pieces of writing and links the main points together to create a new point, one not replicated in either document.
Take a look at a student’s synthesis of several sources about underage drinking.
Notice how the synthesis paragraphs consider each source and use information from each to create a new thesis. A good synthesis does not repeat information; the writer uses a variety of sources to create a new idea.
An evaluation judges the value of something and determines its worth. Evaluations in everyday experiences are often not only dictated by set standards but also influenced by opinion and prior knowledge. For example, at work, a supervisor may complete an employee evaluation by judging his subordinate’s performance based on the company’s goals. If the company focuses on improving communication, the supervisor will rate the employee’s customer service according to a standard scale. However, the evaluation still depends on the supervisor’s opinion and prior experience with the employee. The purpose of the evaluation is to determine how well the employee performs at his or her job.
An academic evaluation communicates your opinion, and its justifications, about a document or a topic of discussion. Evaluations are influenced by your reading of the document, your prior knowledge, and your prior experience with the topic or issue. Because an evaluation incorporates your point of view and reasons for your point of view, it typically requires more critical thinking and a combination of summary, analysis, and synthesis skills. Thus evaluation paragraphs often follow summary, analysis, and synthesis paragraphs. Read a student’s evaluation paragraph.
Notice how the paragraph incorporates the student’s personal judgment within the evaluation. Evaluating a document requires prior knowledge that is often based on additional research.
When reviewing directions for assignments, look for the verbs summarize , analyze , synthesize , or evaluate . Instructors often use these words to clearly indicate the assignment’s purpose. These words will cue you on how to complete the assignment because you will know its exact purpose.
Read the following paragraphs about four films and then identify the purpose of each paragraph.
- This film could easily have been cut down to less than two hours. By the final scene, I noticed that most of my fellow moviegoers were snoozing in their seats and were barely paying attention to what was happening on screen. Although the director sticks diligently to the book, he tries too hard to cram in all the action, which is just too ambitious for such a detail-oriented story. If you want my advice, read the book and give the movie a miss.
- During the opening scene, we learn that the character Laura is adopted and that she has spent the past three years desperately trying to track down her real parents. Having exhausted all the usual options—adoption agencies, online searches, family trees, and so on—she is on the verge of giving up when she meets a stranger on a bus. The chance encounter leads to a complicated chain of events that ultimately result in Laura getting her lifelong wish. But is it really what she wants? Throughout the rest of the film, Laura discovers that sometimes the past is best left where it belongs.
- To create the feeling of being gripped in a vice, the director, May Lee, uses a variety of elements to gradually increase the tension. The creepy, haunting melody that subtly enhances the earlier scenes becomes ever more insistent, rising to a disturbing crescendo toward the end of the movie. The desperation of the actors, combined with the claustrophobic atmosphere and tight camera angles create a realistic firestorm, from which there is little hope of escape. Walking out of the theater at the end feels like staggering out of a Roman dungeon.
- The scene in which Campbell and his fellow prisoners assist the guards in shutting down the riot immediately strikes the viewer as unrealistic. Based on the recent reports on prison riots in both Detroit and California, it seems highly unlikely that a posse of hardened criminals will intentionally help their captors at the risk of inciting future revenge from other inmates. Instead, both news reports and psychological studies indicate that prisoners who do not actively participate in a riot will go back to their cells and avoid conflict altogether. Examples of this lack of attention to detail occur throughout the film, making it almost unbearable to watch.
Share with a classmate and compare your answers.
Writing at Work
Thinking about the purpose of writing a report in the workplace can help focus and structure the document. A summary should provide colleagues with a factual overview of your findings without going into too much specific detail. In contrast, an evaluation should include your personal opinion, along with supporting evidence, research, or examples to back it up. Listen for words such as summarize , analyze , synthesize , or evaluate when your boss asks you to complete a report to help determine a purpose for writing.
Consider the essay most recently assigned to you. Identify the most effective academic purpose for the assignment.
My assignment: ____________________________________________
My purpose: ____________________________________________
Identifying the Audience
Imagine you must give a presentation to a group of executives in an office. Weeks before the big day, you spend time creating and rehearsing the presentation. You must make important, careful decisions not only about the content but also about your delivery. Will the presentation require technology to project figures and charts? Should the presentation define important words, or will the executives already know the terms? Should you wear your suit and dress shirt? The answers to these questions will help you develop an appropriate relationship with your audience, making them more receptive to your message.
Now imagine you must explain the same business concepts from your presentation to a group of high school students. Those important questions you previously answered may now require different answers. The figures and charts may be too sophisticated, and the terms will certainly require definitions. You may even reconsider your outfit and sport a more casual look. Because the audience has shifted, your presentation and delivery will shift as well to create a new relationship with the new audience.
In these two situations, the audience—the individuals who will watch and listen to the presentation—plays a role in the development of presentation. As you prepare the presentation, you visualize the audience to anticipate their expectations and reactions. What you imagine affects the information you choose to present and how you will present it. Then, during the presentation, you meet the audience in person and discover immediately how well you perform.
Although the audience for writing assignments—your readers—may not appear in person, they play an equally vital role. Even in everyday writing activities, you identify your readers’ characteristics, interests, and expectations before making decisions about what you write. In fact, thinking about audience has become so common that you may not even detect the audience-driven decisions.
For example, you update your status on a social networking site with the awareness of who will digitally follow the post. If you want to brag about a good grade, you may write the post to please family members. If you want to describe a funny moment, you may write with your friends’ senses of humor in mind. Even at work, you send e-mails with an awareness of an unintended receiver who could intercept the message.
In other words, being aware of “invisible” readers is a skill you most likely already possess and one you rely on every day. Consider the following paragraphs. Which one would the author send to her parents? Which one would she send to her best friend?
Last Saturday, I volunteered at a local hospital. The visit was fun and rewarding. I even learned how to do cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR. Unfortunately, I think caught a cold from one of the patients. This week, I will rest in bed and drink plenty of clear fluids. I hope I am well by next Saturday to volunteer again.
OMG! You won’t believe this! My advisor forced me to do my community service hours at this hospital all weekend! We learned CPR but we did it on dummies, not even real peeps. And some kid sneezed on me and got me sick! I was so bored and sniffling all weekend; I hope I don’t have to go back next week. I def do NOT want to miss the basketball tournament!
Most likely, you matched each paragraph to its intended audience with little hesitation. Because each paragraph reveals the author’s relationship with her intended readers, you can identify the audience fairly quickly. When writing your own paragraphs, you must engage with your audience to build an appropriate relationship given your subject. Imagining your readers during each stage of the writing process will help you make decisions about your writing. Ultimately, the people you visualize will affect what and how you write.
While giving a speech, you may articulate an inspiring or critical message, but if you left your hair a mess and laced up mismatched shoes, your audience would not take you seriously. They may be too distracted by your appearance to listen to your words.
Similarly, grammar and sentence structure serve as the appearance of a piece of writing. Polishing your work using correct grammar will impress your readers and allow them to focus on what you have to say.
Because focusing on audience will enhance your writing, your process, and your finished product, you must consider the specific traits of your audience members. Use your imagination to anticipate the readers’ demographics, education, prior knowledge, and expectations.
- Demographics. These measure important data about a group of people, such as their age range, their ethnicity, their religious beliefs, or their gender. Certain topics and assignments will require these kinds of considerations about your audience. For other topics and assignments, these measurements may not influence your writing in the end. Regardless, it is important to consider demographics when you begin to think about your purpose for writing.
- Education. Education considers the audience’s level of schooling. If audience members have earned a doctorate degree, for example, you may need to elevate your style and use more formal language. Or, if audience members are still in college, you could write in a more relaxed style. An audience member’s major or emphasis may also dictate your writing.
- Prior knowledge. This refers to what the audience already knows about your topic. If your readers have studied certain topics, they may already know some terms and concepts related to the topic. You may decide whether to define terms and explain concepts based on your audience’s prior knowledge. Although you cannot peer inside the brains of your readers to discover their knowledge, you can make reasonable assumptions. For instance, a nursing major would presumably know more about health-related topics than a business major would.
- Expectations. These indicate what readers will look for while reading your assignment. Readers may expect consistencies in the assignment’s appearance, such as correct grammar and traditional formatting like double-spaced lines and legible font. Readers may also have content-based expectations given the assignment’s purpose and organization. In an essay titled “The Economics of Enlightenment: The Effects of Rising Tuition,” for example, audience members may expect to read about the economic repercussions of college tuition costs.
On your own sheet of paper, generate a list of characteristics under each category for each audience. This list will help you later when you read about tone and content.
1. Your classmates
- Demographics ____________________________________________
- Education ____________________________________________
- Prior knowledge ____________________________________________
- Expectations ____________________________________________
2. Your instructor
3. The head of your academic department
4. Now think about your next writing assignment. Identify the purpose (you may use the same purpose listed in Note 6.12 “Exercise 2” ), and then identify the audience. Create a list of characteristics under each category.
My audience: ____________________________________________
Please share with a classmate and compare your answers.
Keep in mind that as your topic shifts in the writing process, your audience may also shift. For more information about the writing process, see Chapter 8 “The Writing Process: How Do I Begin?” .
Also, remember that decisions about style depend on audience, purpose, and content. Identifying your audience’s demographics, education, prior knowledge, and expectations will affect how you write, but purpose and content play an equally important role. The next subsection covers how to select an appropriate tone to match the audience and purpose.
Selecting an Appropriate Tone
Tone identifies a speaker’s attitude toward a subject or another person. You may pick up a person’s tone of voice fairly easily in conversation. A friend who tells you about her weekend may speak excitedly about a fun skiing trip. An instructor who means business may speak in a low, slow voice to emphasize her serious mood. Or, a coworker who needs to let off some steam after a long meeting may crack a sarcastic joke.
Just as speakers transmit emotion through voice, writers can transmit through writing a range of attitudes, from excited and humorous to somber and critical. These emotions create connections among the audience, the author, and the subject, ultimately building a relationship between the audience and the text. To stimulate these connections, writers intimate their attitudes and feelings with useful devices, such as sentence structure, word choice, punctuation, and formal or informal language. Keep in mind that the writer’s attitude should always appropriately match the audience and the purpose.
Read the following paragraph and consider the writer’s tone. How would you describe the writer’s attitude toward wildlife conservation?
Many species of plants and animals are disappearing right before our eyes. If we don’t act fast, it might be too late to save them. Human activities, including pollution, deforestation, hunting, and overpopulation, are devastating the natural environment. Without our help, many species will not survive long enough for our children to see them in the wild. Take the tiger, for example. Today, tigers occupy just 7 percent of their historical range, and many local populations are already extinct. Hunted for their beautiful pelt and other body parts, the tiger population has plummeted from one hundred thousand in 1920 to just a few thousand. Contact your local wildlife conservation society today to find out how you can stop this terrible destruction.
Think about the assignment and purpose you selected in Note 6.12 “Exercise 2” , and the audience you selected in Note 6.16 “Exercise 3” . Now, identify the tone you would use in the assignment.
My tone: ____________________________________________
Choosing Appropriate, Interesting Content
Content refers to all the written substance in a document. After selecting an audience and a purpose, you must choose what information will make it to the page. Content may consist of examples, statistics, facts, anecdotes, testimonies, and observations, but no matter the type, the information must be appropriate and interesting for the audience and purpose. An essay written for third graders that summarizes the legislative process, for example, would have to contain succinct and simple content.
Content is also shaped by tone. When the tone matches the content, the audience will be more engaged, and you will build a stronger relationship with your readers. Consider that audience of third graders. You would choose simple content that the audience will easily understand, and you would express that content through an enthusiastic tone. The same considerations apply to all audiences and purposes.
Match the content in the box to the appropriate audience and purpose. On your own sheet of paper, write the correct letter next to the number.
- Whereas economist Holmes contends that the financial crisis is far from over, the presidential advisor Jones points out that it is vital to catch the first wave of opportunity to increase market share. We can use elements of both experts’ visions. Let me explain how.
- In 2000, foreign money flowed into the United States, contributing to easy credit conditions. People bought larger houses than they could afford, eventually defaulting on their loans as interest rates rose.
- The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act, known by most of us as the humungous government bailout, caused mixed reactions. Although supported by many political leaders, the statute provoked outrage among grassroots groups. In their opinion, the government was actually rewarding banks for their appalling behavior.
Audience: An instructor
Purpose: To analyze the reasons behind the 2007 financial crisis
Purpose: To summarize the effects of the $700 billion government bailout
Audience: An employer
Purpose: To synthesize two articles on preparing businesses for economic recovery
Using the assignment, purpose, audience, and tone from Note 6.18 “Exercise 4” , generate a list of content ideas. Remember that content consists of examples, statistics, facts, anecdotes, testimonies, and observations.
My content ideas: ____________________________________________
- Paragraphs separate ideas into logical, manageable chunks of information.
- The content of each paragraph and document is shaped by purpose, audience, and tone.
- The four common academic purposes are to summarize, to analyze, to synthesize, and to evaluate.
- Identifying the audience’s demographics, education, prior knowledge, and expectations will affect how and what you write.
- Devices such as sentence structure, word choice, punctuation, and formal or informal language communicate tone and create a relationship between the writer and his or her audience.
- Content may consist of examples, statistics, facts, anecdotes, testimonies, and observations. All content must be appropriate and interesting for the audience, purpose and tone.
Writing for Success Copyright © 2015 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
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How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Introduction
Published on September 7, 2022 by Tegan George and Shona McCombes. Revised on July 18, 2023.
The introduction is the first section of your thesis or dissertation , appearing right after the table of contents . Your introduction draws your reader in, setting the stage for your research with a clear focus, purpose, and direction on a relevant topic .
Your introduction should include:
- Your topic, in context: what does your reader need to know to understand your thesis dissertation?
- Your focus and scope: what specific aspect of the topic will you address?
- The relevance of your research: how does your work fit into existing studies on your topic?
- Your questions and objectives: what does your research aim to find out, and how?
- An overview of your structure: what does each section contribute to the overall aim?
Table of contents
How to start your introduction, topic and context, focus and scope, relevance and importance, questions and objectives, overview of the structure, thesis introduction example, introduction checklist, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about introductions.
Although your introduction kicks off your dissertation, it doesn’t have to be the first thing you write — in fact, it’s often one of the very last parts to be completed (just before your abstract ).
It’s a good idea to write a rough draft of your introduction as you begin your research, to help guide you. If you wrote a research proposal , consider using this as a template, as it contains many of the same elements. However, be sure to revise your introduction throughout the writing process, making sure it matches the content of your ensuing sections.
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Begin by introducing your dissertation topic and giving any necessary background information. It’s important to contextualize your research and generate interest. Aim to show why your topic is timely or important. You may want to mention a relevant news item, academic debate, or practical problem.
After a brief introduction to your general area of interest, narrow your focus and define the scope of your research.
You can narrow this down in many ways, such as by:
- Geographical area
- Time period
- Demographics or communities
- Themes or aspects of the topic
It’s essential to share your motivation for doing this research, as well as how it relates to existing work on your topic. Further, you should also mention what new insights you expect it will contribute.
Start by giving a brief overview of the current state of research. You should definitely cite the most relevant literature, but remember that you will conduct a more in-depth survey of relevant sources in the literature review section, so there’s no need to go too in-depth in the introduction.
Depending on your field, the importance of your research might focus on its practical application (e.g., in policy or management) or on advancing scholarly understanding of the topic (e.g., by developing theories or adding new empirical data). In many cases, it will do both.
Ultimately, your introduction should explain how your thesis or dissertation:
- Helps solve a practical or theoretical problem
- Addresses a gap in the literature
- Builds on existing research
- Proposes a new understanding of your topic
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Perhaps the most important part of your introduction is your questions and objectives, as it sets up the expectations for the rest of your thesis or dissertation. How you formulate your research questions and research objectives will depend on your discipline, topic, and focus, but you should always clearly state the central aim of your research.
If your research aims to test hypotheses , you can formulate them here. Your introduction is also a good place for a conceptual framework that suggests relationships between variables .
- Conduct surveys to collect data on students’ levels of knowledge, understanding, and positive/negative perceptions of government policy.
- Determine whether attitudes to climate policy are associated with variables such as age, gender, region, and social class.
- Conduct interviews to gain qualitative insights into students’ perspectives and actions in relation to climate policy.
To help guide your reader, end your introduction with an outline of the structure of the thesis or dissertation to follow. Share a brief summary of each chapter, clearly showing how each contributes to your central aims. However, be careful to keep this overview concise: 1-2 sentences should be enough.
Human language consists of a set of vowels and consonants which are combined to form words. During the speech production process, thoughts are converted into spoken utterances to convey a message. The appropriate words and their meanings are selected in the mental lexicon (Dell & Burger, 1997). This pre-verbal message is then grammatically coded, during which a syntactic representation of the utterance is built.
Speech, language, and voice disorders affect the vocal cords, nerves, muscles, and brain structures, which result in a distorted language reception or speech production (Sataloff & Hawkshaw, 2014). The symptoms vary from adding superfluous words and taking pauses to hoarseness of the voice, depending on the type of disorder (Dodd, 2005). However, distortions of the speech may also occur as a result of a disease that seems unrelated to speech, such as multiple sclerosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
This study aims to determine which acoustic parameters are suitable for the automatic detection of exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by investigating which aspects of speech differ between COPD patients and healthy speakers and which aspects differ between COPD patients in exacerbation and stable COPD patients.
I have introduced my research topic in an engaging way.
I have provided necessary context to help the reader understand my topic.
I have clearly specified the focus of my research.
I have shown the relevance and importance of the dissertation topic .
I have clearly stated the problem or question that my research addresses.
I have outlined the specific objectives of the research .
I have provided an overview of the dissertation’s structure .
You've written a strong introduction for your thesis or dissertation. Use the other checklists to continue improving your dissertation.
If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!
- Survivorship bias
- Self-serving bias
- Availability heuristic
- Halo effect
- Hindsight bias
- Deep learning
- Generative AI
- Machine learning
- Reinforcement learning
- Supervised vs. unsupervised learning
- Grammar Checker
- Paraphrasing Tool
- Text Summarizer
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- Citation Generator
The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:
- A hook to catch the reader’s interest
- Relevant background on the topic
- Details of your research problem
and your problem statement
- A thesis statement or research question
- Sometimes an overview of the paper
Don’t feel that you have to write the introduction first. The introduction is often one of the last parts of the research paper you’ll write, along with the conclusion.
This is because it can be easier to introduce your paper once you’ve already written the body ; you may not have the clearest idea of your arguments until you’ve written them, and things can change during the writing process .
Research objectives describe what you intend your research project to accomplish.
They summarize the approach and purpose of the project and help to focus your research.
Your objectives should appear in the introduction of your research paper , at the end of your problem statement .
Scope of research is determined at the beginning of your research process , prior to the data collection stage. Sometimes called “scope of study,” your scope delineates what will and will not be covered in your project. It helps you focus your work and your time, ensuring that you’ll be able to achieve your goals and outcomes.
Defining a scope can be very useful in any research project, from a research proposal to a thesis or dissertation . A scope is needed for all types of research: quantitative , qualitative , and mixed methods .
To define your scope of research, consider the following:
- Budget constraints or any specifics of grant funding
- Your proposed timeline and duration
- Specifics about your population of study, your proposed sample size , and the research methodology you’ll pursue
- Any inclusion and exclusion criteria
- Any anticipated control , extraneous , or confounding variables that could bias your research if not accounted for properly.
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Purpose of using tone in college writing
Structure of a Thesis Statement
Importance of a Thesis Statement
- By Mackenzie Tabler in Uncategorized
Starting college can be extremely scary with all of the new concepts being thrown at you. It is a whole new way of living and the work can be very different. Writing is crucial to many college classes. Unlike high school level writing, college level writing can be a bit more thorough. Professors tend to look for key elements in your essays. One of the most essential parts to any essay is the thesis statement. Learning how to form a thesis statement is very important. A thesis statement is an imperative trait to form a strong essay. Normally one or two sentences, a thesis unifies and provides direction for a piece of writing.
There are two main reasons why thesis statements are so important for an essay.
- First, the writer develops a thesis to create a focus on an essay’s main idea. It is important for the writer to be able to write the main idea in a few sentences to create a clear idea for the paper. Not only does the thesis guide the reader, but also the writer. The thesis provides direction to help the writer keep their paper organized.
- Second, having a well-crafted thesis statement helps the reader understand the main idea of the essay. The thesis statement sets the reader up for the rest of the essay. Usually at the end of the introduction paragraph, the thesis leads into the body paragraph, which provides evidence and ideas to back up the thesis. The thesis statement is important because it tells the audience what they will be reading about.
Because thesis statements are essential in any essay, it is important for writers to understand what makes up a solid thesis. As the basis of an essay, a thesis must support three things: audience, purpose, and content. This basically just means answer who, why, and what in your thesis. Who are you writing this thesis for? Be sure to identify the audience to clarify who your paper is for. Why are you writing this thesis? Establish a purpose to ensure that the reader knows the direction of your paper. What will be included in this thesis? Determine the key points of your essay and include them in your thesis.
Here is a comparison to help you understand the importance: The role of a thesis statement is like the role of the sun in the solar system. Just as the planets orbit the sun in the solar system, the different parts of an essay orbit the thesis statement. The planets feed off of the sun, just like the body paragraphs and conclusion feed off of the thesis.
Your audience should be able to easily find the thesis in your essay. The thesis statement should be clear and concise so the reader can identify it and efficiently understand the meaning of the paper. If someone can’t find the thesis in your essay, go back and make sure that you created a meaningful and well-understood thesis.
All styles of writing are different, but a strong thesis is something that they all share.
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8 Purpose and Thesis
In this chapter . . .
As discussed in the chapter on Speaking Occasion , speechwriting begins with careful analysis of the speech occasion and its given circumstances, leading to the choice of an appropriate topic. As with essay writing, the early work of speechwriting follows familiar steps: brainstorming, research, pre-writing, thesis, and so on.
This chapter focuses on techniques that are unique to speechwriting. As a spoken form, speeches must be clear about the purpose and main idea or “takeaway.” Planned redundancy means that you will be repeating these elements several times over during the speech.
Furthermore, finding purpose and thesis are essential whether you’re preparing an outline for extemporaneous delivery or a completely written manuscript for presentation. When you know your topic, your general and specific purpose, and your thesis or central idea, you have all the elements you need to write a speech that is focused, clear, and audience friendly.
Recognizing the General Purpose
Speeches have traditionally been grouped into one of three categories according to their primary purpose: 1) to inform, 2) to persuade, or 3) to inspire, honor, or entertain. These broad goals are commonly known as the general purpose of a speech . Earlier, you learned about the actor’s tool of intention or objectives. The general purpose is like a super-objective; it defines the broadest goal of a speech. These three purposes are not necessarily exclusive to the others. A speech designed to be persuasive can also be informative and entertaining. However, a speech should have one primary goal. That is its general purpose.
Why is it helpful to talk about speeches in such broad terms? Being perfectly clear about what you want your speech to do or make happen for your audience will keep you focused. You can make a clearer distinction between whether you want your audience to leave your speech knowing more (to inform), or ready to take action (to persuade), or feeling something (to inspire)
It’s okay to use synonyms for these broad categories. Here are some of them:
- To inform could be to explain, to demonstrate, to describe, to teach.
- To persuade could be to convince, to argue, to motivate, to prove.
- To inspire might be to honor, or entertain, to celebrate, to mourn.
In summary, the first question you must ask yourself when starting to prepare a speech is, “Is the primary purpose of my speech to inform, to persuade, or to inspire?”
Articulating Specific Purpose
A specific purpose statement builds upon your general purpose and makes it specific (as the name suggests). For example, if you have been invited to give a speech about how to do something, your general purpose is “to inform.” Choosing a topic appropriate to that general purpose, you decide to speak about how to protect a personal from cyberattacks. Now you are on your way to identifying a specific purpose.
A good specific purpose statement has three elements: goal, target audience, and content.
If you think about the above as a kind of recipe, then the first two “ingredients” — your goal and your audience — should be simple. Words describing the target audience should be as specific as possible. Instead of “my peers,” you could say, for example, “students in their senior year at my university.”
The third ingredient in this recipe is content, or what we call the topic of your speech. This is where things get a bit difficult. You want your content to be specific and something that you can express succinctly in a sentence. Here are some common problems that speakers make in defining the content, and the fix:
Now you know the “recipe” for a specific purpose statement. It’s made up of T o, plus an active W ord, a specific A udience, and clearly stated C ontent. Remember this formula: T + W + A + C.
A: for a group of new students
C: the term “plagiarism”
Here are some further examples a good specific purpose statement:
- To explain to a group of first-year students how to join a school organization.
- To persuade the members of the Greek society to take a spring break trip in Daytona Beach.
- To motivate my classmates in English 101 to participate in a study abroad program.
- To convince first-year students that they need at least seven hours of sleep per night to do well in their studies.
- To inspire my Church community about the accomplishments of our pastor.
The General and Specific Purpose Statements are writing tools in the sense that they help you, as a speechwriter, clarify your ideas.
Creating a Thesis Statement
Once you are clear about your general purpose and specific purpose, you can turn your attention to crafting a thesis statement. A thesis is the central idea in an essay or a speech. In speechwriting, the thesis or central idea explains the message of the content. It’s the speech’s “takeaway.” A good thesis statement will also reveal and clarify the ideas or assertions you’ll be addressing in your speech (your main points). Consider this example:
General Purpose: To persuade. Specific Purpose: To motivate my classmates in English 101 to participate in a study abroad program. Thesis: A semester-long study abroad experience produces lifelong benefits by teaching you about another culture, developing your language skills, and enhancing your future career prospects.
The difference between a specific purpose statement and a thesis statement is clear in this example. The thesis provides the takeaway (the lifelong benefits of study abroad). It also points to the assertions that will be addressed in the speech. Like the specific purpose statement, the thesis statement is a writing tool. You’ll incorporate it into your speech, usually as part of the introduction and conclusion.
All good expository, rhetorical, and even narrative writing contains a thesis. Many students and even experienced writers struggle with formulating a thesis. We struggle when we attempt to “come up with something” before doing the necessary research and reflection. A thesis only becomes clear through the thinking and writing process. As you develop your speech content, keep asking yourself: What is important here? If the audience can remember only one thing about this topic, what do I want them to remember?
Example #2: General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To demonstrate to my audience the correct method for cleaning a computer keyboard. Central Idea: Your computer keyboard needs regular cleaning to function well, and you can achieve that in four easy steps.
Example # 3 General Purpose: To Inform Specific Purpose: To describe how makeup is done for the TV show The Walking Dead . Central Idea: The wildly popular zombie show The Walking Dead achieves incredibly scary and believable makeup effects, and in the next few minutes I will tell you who does it, what they use, and how they do it.
Notice in the examples above that neither the specific purpose nor the central idea ever exceeds one sentence. If your central idea consists of more than one sentence, then you are probably including too much information.
Problems to Avoid
The first problem many students have in writing their specific purpose statement has already been mentioned: specific purpose statements sometimes try to cover far too much and are too broad. For example:
“To explain to my classmates the history of ballet.”
Aside from the fact that this subject may be difficult for everyone in your audience to relate to, it’s enough for a three-hour lecture, maybe even a whole course. You’ll probably find that your first attempt at a specific purpose statement will need refining. These examples are much more specific and much more manageable given the limited amount of time you’ll have.
- To explain to my classmates how ballet came to be performed and studied in the U.S.
- To explain to my classmates the difference between Russian and French ballet.
- To explain to my classmates how ballet originated as an art form in the Renaissance.
- To explain to my classmates the origin of the ballet dancers’ clothing.
The second problem happens when the “communication verb” in the specific purpose does not match the content; for example, persuasive content is paired with “to inform” or “to explain.” Can you find the errors in the following purpose statements?
- To inform my audience why capital punishment is unconstitutional. (This is persuasive. It can’t be informative since it’s taking a side)
- To persuade my audience about the three types of individual retirement accounts. (Even though the purpose statement says “persuade,” it isn’t persuading the audience of anything. It is informative.)
- To inform my classmates that Universal Studios is a better theme park than Six Flags over Georgia. (This is clearly an opinion; hence it is a persuasive speech and not merely informative)
The third problem exists when the content part of the specific purpose statement has two parts. One specific purpose is enough. These examples cover two different topics.
- To explain to my audience how to swing a golf club and choose the best golf shoes.
- To persuade my classmates to be involved in the Special Olympics and vote to fund better classes for the intellectually disabled.
To fix this problem of combined or hybrid purposes, you’ll need to select one of the topics in these examples and speak on that one alone.
The fourth problem with both specific purpose and central idea statements is related to formatting. There are some general guidelines that need to be followed in terms of how you write out these elements of your speech:
- Don’t write either statement as a question.
- Always use complete sentences for central idea statements and infinitive phrases (beginning with “to”) for the specific purpose statement.
- Use concrete language (“I admire Beyoncé for being a talented performer and businesswoman”) and avoid subjective or slang terms (“My speech is about why I think Beyoncé is the bomb”) or jargon and acronyms (“PLA is better than CBE for adult learners.”)
There are also problems to avoid in writing the central idea statement. As mentioned above, remember that:
- The specific purpose and central idea statements are not the same thing, although they are related.
- The central idea statement should be clear and not complicated or wordy; it should “stand out” to the audience. As you practice delivery, you should emphasize it with your voice.
- The central idea statement should not be the first thing you say but should follow the steps of a good introduction as outlined in the next chapters.
You should be aware that all aspects of your speech are constantly going to change as you move toward the moment of giving your speech. The exact wording of your central idea may change, and you can experiment with different versions for effectiveness. However, your specific purpose statement should not change unless there is a good reason to do so. There are many aspects to consider in the seemingly simple task of writing a specific purpose statement and its companion, the central idea statement. Writing good ones at the beginning will save you some trouble later in the speech preparation process.
Public Speaking as Performance Copyright © 2023 by Mechele Leon is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
What is the main purpose of informational writing? To compare and contrast To present popular views on a topic To express opinions without evidence To inform readers about a topic using facts and details Where in an article is the thesis typically located? Conclusion Introduction First body paragraph Second body paragraph
answer is: [B]: Introduction .
The main purpose of informational writing is to inform readers about a topic using facts and details . Thus the correct option is D.
The thesis is typically located in the introduction paragraph of any article. Thus the correct option is B.
What is informational writing?
Informational writing refers to any work that is factually accurate and aimed to inform or explain a subject to the reader. This helps school students to learn how to write authentic , educational content about a certain subject.
It gives the reader some essential information about a particular subject , which aids in educating the reader. The language in the informational pieces is really clear and simple.
The closing of an introduction includes a thesis statement. The sentences before and after the sentence will introduce it and provide context related to the subject.
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📚 Related Questions
What is the advantage of introducing the author and title of the text in the introduction paragraph? A. There is no advantage. B. It makes your paragraph longer and seem more scholarly. C. It lets readers know what you will be discussing and makes it easy to reference later in your essay.
What is one way to analyze a writer’s sentence structure? Determine the kind of emotion the writer wants to communicate. Look for variations in the length and structure of the sentences. Determine whether the writer is attempting to be humorous or serious. Examine the choice of words within each sentence.
Look for variations in the length and structure of the sentences
Answer : B) Look for variations in the length and structure of the sentences.
Explanation : When a writer have a specific sentence structure it means that through a paragraph, a page or even a whole book or novel written by one author, we will find similarities in the length and structure of most of the sentence, which contributes to create the author's style of writing. So, if we want to analyze a writer's sentence structure we can start by looking for variations in the length and structure of the sentences.
Until recently the disabled were actually penalized for finding a job because: a. they were paid less than other workers. b. they lost their Medicaid benefits if they entered the workforce. c. their disabilities made the workplace less safe for them. d. they had to work harder than “normies.”
The prefix which means into is _____. un ir in
The prefix which means into is in.
The prefix in is used with the meanings in, into, towards or within. For instance: income; indwelling; inland, so on.
Prefixes are letters added to the beginning of a word in an attempt to make a brand new word with a different meaning. Prefixes can, for example, create a new word opposite in meaning to the word the prefix is attached to.
Details : The prefix which means into is _____.unirin
The Latin root ject means “to throw.” The word rejection literally means that someone or something is “ tossed back” (not accepted). If a referee or umpire ejects players from a game, he or she: a. throws them out. b. cautions them against making future violations. c. calls a penalty on them. d. signals to them.
The difference between your thesis statement and your topic sentence is that your thesis statement identifies the theme(s) in the piece you will be addressing. The topic sentence of each body paragraph A. ties everything together at the end of the essay. B. introduces the text – the author and the title. C. identifies one element or technique the author uses to develop that theme.
sorry its so much to read buh may someone please help!!!!I will upvote:)<3;) Coral reefs are amazing underwater worlds. They cover about 186,000 square miles of ocean floor. They mostly exist in the warmest parts of the world. This is because coral reefs develop in shallow, warm water, usually near land and mostly in the tropics. Coral reefs prefer temperatures between 70 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit. This is why they are found off the coasts of Africa, India, Australia, and Brazil. Coral reefs closest to us are found off the coast of Florida. Coral reefs are made up of groups of sea animals called coral polyps. These animals attach to each other and work together to keep the water safe for the plants and animals that live there. Their hard skeletons remain when they are no longer alive. The stony structures they form provide protection and shelter for many different kinds of plants and fish. Fish, clams, sponges, sharks, and sea turtles are only a few of the thousands of creatures that call coral reefs their home. Many of the plants and fish that live in coral reefs depend on one another to live and grow. People also depend on coral reefs. The reefs contain many plants and animals used in medicines, chemicals, or other products we need to lead healthy lives. Coral reefs grow best in clear, shallow water. Here, the reefs can still get light from the sun to help them grow. Coral reefs grow about half an inch a year. They can grow much larger under perfect conditions. The Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Australia is the largest in the world. It is about 1,600 miles long and is made up of almost 3,000 individual reefs. It is so large that it can be seen from outer space. It is the world's biggest single structure made by living creatures. You might think coral reefs are very strong. They’re actually quite delicate. They can be harmed in many different ways. One way is when careless boaters drive in shallow waters. Many divers hurt reefs by touching them. Hotel building near the reefs is also very harmful. So is the waste that some people dump into the ocean. It’s very important for people to protect coral reefs. The reefs we have today started to grow thousands of years ago. It would take a long time for them to grow back if they were destroyed. Scientists who study the reefs try to learn more and more about how they work. The information they learn will help us keep the reefs safe for years to come. Which statement is a concrete example of how coral reefs are fragile and easily damaged? A) It’s very important for people to protect coral reefs. B) Coral reefs can be damaged by careless boat drivers and divers. C) Coral reefs are made up of groups of sea animals called coral polyps. D) Coral reefs grow best in clear, shallow water where sunlight is plentiful.
The correct answer is B. Coral reefs can be damaged by careless boat drivers and divers.
The text presented includes information related to coral reefs such as the zone where they developed in the ocean, their composition, their role in ecosystems and also the way corals need to be protected as they are delicate. About this last point, the author explains there are different ways corals can be harmed, this includes due to boaters drivers, divers, hotel building and also water contamination. According to this, a concrete example of how coral reefs are fragile and can be damaged is that coral reefs can be damaged by careless boat drivers and drivers.
Refer to Explorations in Literature for a complete version of this poem. One of the themes of “On Another’s Sorrow” is that people are compassionate when they see others who are sorrowful. Which pair of lines best supports this theme? "And not sit beside the nest / Pouring pity in their breast;" "Think not, thou canst weep a tear / And thy maker is not near." "Can I see a falling tear, / And not feel my sorrows share?" "He becomes a man of woe; / He doth feel the sorrow too."
Answer: C) "Can I see a falling tear, / And not feel my sorrows share?"
Explanation: From the given options, the one that best supports the theme of people being compassionate when they see others who are sorrowful, developed in the poem "On Another’s Sorrow" is the corresponding to option C: Can I see a falling tear, / And not feel my sorrows share? because it expresses the sentiment of compassion and empathy the speaker feels when he sees another person crying.
Details : Refer to Explorations in Literature for a complete version of this
Read this line from The War of the Worlds: Perhaps almost as narrowly as a man with a microscope might scrutinise the transient creatures that swarm and multiply in a drop of water… What does this line tell you about the relationship between the humans and the inhabitants of Mars? Humans cannot understand the inhabitants of Mars because of limited technology. Humans view the universe through a very small lens though life is plentiful all around them. The inhabitants of Mars see humans as humans see microscopic insects. The inhabitants of Mars have technology far beyond the microscopes of the humans.
This line actually tells one the following about the relationship between the humans and the inhabitants of Mars: The inhabitants of Mars see humans as humans see microscopic insects.
What is relationship?
Relationship can be seen as the way that something or someone is actually connected to another thing or to someone else. There are things that actually connect people. In other words, we say they are related.
Thus, we see here that the line stated above actually tells the relationship between the humans and the inhabitants of Mars . That the inhabitants of Mars see humans as humans see microscopic insects.
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Read the sentence. Jalen picked up his camera and began taking pictures of the majestic mountains and the magnificent sunset. Which elements of this sentence are parallel? A. “mountains” and “magnificent” B. “camera” and “taking pictures” C. “picked up” and “taking” D. “majestic mountains” and “magnificent sunset”
The answer is D on edgen
Plzzzzzz Help me i really need to get this done for an exam review that's due today .... Read the following poem and then select the correct answer to the question below: “I’m Nobody! Who are you?” By Emily Dickinson I’m Nobody! Who are you? Are you – Nobody – too? Then there’s a pair of us! Don’t tell! they’d advertise – you know! How dreary – to be – Somebody! How public – like a Frog – To tell one’s name – the livelong June – To an admiring Bog! The phrase like a Frog reveals the poet thinks that being well known is as unpleasant as croaking and splashing all day fun as playing in the water and being agile confusing as turning into a different creature
Answer: unpleasant as croaking and splashing all day
Explanation: In the poem she makes it clear that she dosent like being a somebody. she likes being a nobody. so she compares this to a frog saying its beneth her.
miss rosie  by Lucille Clifton3 when I watch you   wrapped up like garbage sitting, surrounded by the smell of too old potato peels or when I watch you in your old man's shoes with the little toe cut out sitting, waiting for your mind like next week's grocery I say when I watch you you wet brown bag of a woman who used to be the best looking gal in Georgia used to be called the Georgia Rose I stand up through your destruction I stand up    What effect does the lack of punctuation in "miss rosie" help the poet achieve? A. An understanding of the relationship between the narrator and Miss Rosie B. The sense that the poem is an uninterrupted stream of thought C. The sense that the narrator knows Miss Rosie personally D. A large amount of detailed information about Miss Rosie
Details : miss rosie by Lucille Clifton3when I watch you  wrapped
Read the following sentence: I’m tired of waiting for an answer—speak up! Which adjective best describes the writer's tone? impatient joking relaxed confused
Read the excerpt from The Odyssey. But when he knew he heard Odysseus' voice nearby, he did his best to wag his tail, nose down, with flattened ears, having no strength to move nearer his master. And the man looked away, wiping a salt tear from his cheek: What does the dog, Argus, represent in this excerpt? loyalty sadness illness ignorance
The dog Argus in the excerpt given above represent loyalty.
What is an excerpt?
An excerpt refer to words, sentence or phrases that is extracted from an article or literature which has meaning.
Therefore, The dog Argus in the excerpt given above represent loyalty .
Learn more about excerpt below.
Read the argument below: All classes at our school should start at 6 in the morning if we want the chess team to go to the regional championship. What kind of logical fallacy is used here? A. Hasty generalization B. Circular reasoning C. Non sequitur D. Logical deduction
Answer: C. Non sequitur.
Explanation: non sequitur is a logical fallacy where the reasoning is wrong from because it doesn't follow any kind of logic pattern. The given sentence is an example of the non sequitur logical fallacy because the first premise ( All classes at our school should start at 6 in the morning) doesn't have anything to do with the "consequence" or second premise (if we want the chess team to go to the regional championship) making the whole sentence illogical.
Please help How does this sentence demonstrate an unusual use of syntax? Nuzzled his owner’s leg, the hungry cat. It follows an object-subject-verb format. It follows a subject-object-verb format. It follows a verb-object-subject format. It follows a verb-subject-object format.
Answer: This sentence demonstrates an unusual use of syntax because it follows a verb-object-subject format.
Explanation: The most common use of syntax in English is subject-verb-object. In that way, any other structure that alters the order of syntactic elements in a sentence gives place to an unusual use of syntax. The sentence provided starts with a verb ("nuzzled"), which is followed by the object ("his owner's leg"). Finally, the subject ("the hungry cat") is found at the end of the sentence.
The sentence demonstrate an unusual use of syntax as C. it follows a verb-object-subject format.
What is syntax?
It should be noted that syntax simply means the arrangement of words and phrases inorder to form meaningful sentences .
In this case, the sentence demonstrate an unusual use of syntax as it follows a verb-object-subject format.
Learn more about syntax on:
Details : Please helpHow does this sentence demonstrate an unusual use of syntax?Nuzzled
In this sample paragraph, which part of the literary analysis introduction is section 2? A. This is the introduction of the author and the text. B. This is the brief summary of the text being analyzed. C. This is the hook that gets the audience's attention.
If you receive an injection, the substance is: a. given as a pill. b. dispensed as a cream. c. pushed beneath the skin. d. placed in an inhaler.
How does a strong counterclaim add to your argument? a) It makes the audience feel that you are arguing for both sides of the issue. b) It gives the readers a chance to change their minds to agree with the opposition. c) It shows you take the topic seriously by establishing your credibility as an arguer. d) It allows you the opportunity to modify your claim and change your opinion.
C... it shows you take the topic seriously by establishing your credibility as an arguer.
A strong counterclaim adds to your argument through the fact that it shows you take the topic seriously by establishing your credibility as an arguer. Thus, the correct option is C .
What is Counterclaim?
A counterclaim may be characterized as an argument that significantly represents a sense of opposing the claim of any author or speaker in any context. It is a type of claim that is utilized for filing relief against an opposing party.
According to the context of this question, the argument generally represents a descriptive summary of a poem, play, or section of a poem or other work in order to build the actual sense of summary .
While a strong counterclaim added to your argument shows the sincerity of the selected topic along with establishing your credibility as an arguer.
Therefore, the correct option is C .
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(7) When a set of fingerprints is sent to a crime laboratory for identification. Sentence (7) is a A) simple sentence. B) run-on sentence. C) compound sentence. D) sentence fragment.
The answer to your question would be that the selected sentence is a sentence fragment. That is, the correct option would be D.
Sentence fragments are groups of words that look like sentences but aren't. For a group of words to be a sentence, it must contain at least one independent clause. An independent clause is any group of words that contains both a subject and a verb and can stand on its own. Sentence (7) cannot stand as a complete thought because it is a dependent clause.
(7) *When a set of fingerprints is sent to a crime laboratory for identification,
Details : (7) When a set of fingerprints is sent to a crime laboratory for
You should conduct preliminary research before choosing your research topic. True False
Who does Mark Twain frequently make fun of in his novels? A. Political figures B. His friends and family C. The needy D. Himself
Mark Twain, in his novels, frequently makes fun of " political figures ".
Who are the political figures?
A political figure is a person who is an active politician and seeks election.
Because he thinks that political figures fool people so effortlessly into thinking what has happened and what is the truth. Thus he frequently makes fun of political figures in his novels.
Hence the correct option is, A. ' Political figures'
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Which statement about sentence structure is true? Writers use only very structured sentences. Writers try to keep sentence structure as simple as possible so that their work is easy to understand. Writers vary sentence structure and length, depending on the purpose of a piece. Writers use long sentences when they want to convey strong emotion.
Writers vary sentence structure and length, depending on the purpose of a piece.
The intention of a piece is key to determine the length of sentences and also their structure. This is a device used by the writer as a way to display some actions or to set a specific ambience, but reader's job is also important in this step. As we can see in different poets and writers (such as Dadaist poems, where there was no structure, apparently) have used many different structures, which makes first option incorrect; also, we can recall examples like David Foster Wallace, who believed in the fact of writing from and to the writer, even if it was too difficult to understand. Last option is also correct but incomplete, because that is not the only way writers use long sentences. Besides, it does not mention short sentences or other styles.
Which phrase best completes the following sentence to give it an objective tone? When we moved to a new town, _____ to introduce themselves. A. not a single soul even bothered B. some of the nosier residents showed up C. several of our new neighbors stopped by D. people with decent manners came over
several of our new neighbors stopped by
Details : Which phrase best completes the following sentence to give it an
Which of these techniques is the best way to pull together various facts and ideas in a group discussion? A. Giving constructive criticism B. Synthesizing claims and evidence C. Taking turns speaking D. Assigning a note-taker
The correct answer is B. Synthesizing claims and evidence
A group discussion is an exchange of ideas between different individuals that aims at achieving one specific purpose such as taking a decision, sharing points of view or analyzing some situation or subject. In this there are different techniques that can be used to achieve the main purpose such as taking turns, managing the discussion, assigning a note-taker, among others. In the cases of synthetizing claims and evidence technique, this technique is used at the end of the discussion or during it and is about summarizing or synthesizing the main points or claims proposed by the participants along with the facts evidence they use to support the claims which help participants to avoid repeating ideas and linking or connecting the ideas purposed. Therefore, synthesizing claims and evidence is the technique that works better to pull together various facts and ideas in a group discussion.
Companies’ attitudes toward hiring the disabled: a. have not changed in decades. b. have worsened. c. have improved dramatically. d. should begin to change during the next decade.
T object]user: which of the following root words means ���to write���? a. graph- b. geo- c. quire- d. art-
2 Answer: graph
Select the correct adjective form for the following sentence. the cabin is ______. remote remoter remotest
The correct adjective form for the sentence The cabin is_____, is remote , which is the positive degree because it's not comparing . The other degrees of comparison are: Comparative and Superlative. This adjective (remote) has its Comparative form by adding r to it, and the word than after it. The Superlative form is: the + remotest.
Details : Select the correct adjective form for the following sentence. the
One purpose of fairy tales is to help children master the problems associated with growing up
The statement "one purpose of fairy tales is to help children master the problems associated with growing up" is true.
Fary tales largely provide guideposts for children to master tasks of growing up. Fary tales refer to a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story. Such stories typically feature entities such as dwarfs, dragons, elves, fairies, giants, gnomes, goblins, griffins, mermaids, talking animals, trolls, unicorns, or witches, and usually magic or enchantments.
Muhammad's revelations were eventually written down in the ______, the islamic holy book. a. bible b. torah c. qur'an d. dhammapada
- What is the advantage of introducing the author and title of the text in the introduction paragraph?A. There is no advantage.B. It makes your paragraph longer and seem more scholarly.C. It lets readers know what you will be discussing and makes it easy to reference later in your essay.
- What is one way to analyze a writers sentence structure?Determine the kind of emotion the writer wants to communicate.Look for variations in the length and structure of the sentences.Determine whether the writer is attempting to be humorous or serious.Examine the choice of words within each sentence.
- what is a rhythmic disturbance that carries energy through matter or space
- What is 450 g of flour a measure of?massweightgravityinertia
- What can a student do to identify vocabulary words in their notes?a.Underline themc.Put a star next to themb.Highlight themd.All of these
- Until recently the disabled were actually penalized for finding a job because:a.they were paid less than other workers.b.they lost their Medicaid benefits if they entered the workforce.c.their disabilities made the workplace less safe for them.d.they had to work harder than normies.
- The term "warm-up" describes? light-aerobic and cardiovascular activities done to prepare for more rigorous activities using the sauna before working outwearing several layers of clothes to raise body temperatureintense fast paced work outs
- The term "warm-up" describes? light-aerobic and cardiovascular activitiesWearing several layers of clothes to raise body temperatureusing the sauna before working outintense fast paced work outs
- The prefix which means into is _____.unirin
- The main function of the muscular system is ____. Movement Heat ProductionPosture Sensory Input
- The Latin root ject means to throw.The word rejection literally means that someone or something is tossed back (not accepted).If a referee or umpire ejects players from a game, he or she:a.throws them out.b.cautions them against making future violations.c.calls a penalty on them.d.signals to them.
- The heart circulates blood through two pathways:septum and cardiac muscle.Aorta and left atrium.Tricuspid Valve and pulmonary valve.The pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit.
- The difference between your thesis statement and your topic sentence is that your thesis statement identifies the theme(s) in the piece you will be addressing. The topic sentence of each body paragraphA. ties everything together at the end of the essay.B. introduces the text the author and the title.C. identifies one element or technique the author uses to develop that theme.
- i need this answer ?
- sorry its so much to read buh may someone please help!!!!I will upvote:)<3;)Coral reefs are amazing underwater worlds. They cover about 186,000 square miles of ocean floor. They mostly exist in the warmest parts of the world. This is because coral reefs develop in shallow, warm water, usually near land and mostly in the tropics. Coral reefs prefer temperatures between 70 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit. This is why they are found off the coasts of Africa, India, Australia, and Brazil. Coral reefs closest to us are found off the coast of Florida. Coral reefs are made up of groups of sea animals called coral polyps. These animals attach to each other and work together to keep the water safe for the plants and animals that live there. Their hard skeletons remain when they are no longer alive. The stony structures they form provide protection and shelter for many different kinds of plants and fish. Fish, clams, sponges, sharks, and sea turtles are only a few of the thousands of creatures that call coral reefs their home. Many of the plants and fish that live in coral reefs depend on one another to live and grow. People also depend on coral reefs. The reefs contain many plants and animals used in medicines, chemicals, or other products we need to lead healthy lives. Coral reefs grow best in clear, shallow water. Here, the reefs can still get light from the sun to help them grow. Coral reefs grow about half an inch a year. They can grow much larger under perfect conditions. The Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Australia is the largest in the world. It is about 1,600 miles long and is made up of almost 3,000 individual reefs. It is so large that it can be seen from outer space. It is the world's biggest single structure made by living creatures. You might think coral reefs are very strong. Theyre actually quite delicate. They can be harmed in many different ways. One way is when careless boaters drive in shallow waters. Many divers hurt reefs by touching them. Hotel building near the reefs is also very harmful. So is the waste that some people dump into the ocean. Its very important for people to protect coral reefs. The reefs we have today started to grow thousands of years ago. It would take a long time for them to grow back if they were destroyed. Scientists who study the reefs try to learn more and more about how they work. The information they learn will help us keep the reefs safe for years to come.Which statement is a concrete example of how coral reefs are fragile and easily damaged?A)Its very important for people to protect coral reefs.B)Coral reefs can be damaged by careless boat drivers and divers.C)Coral reefs are made up of groups of sea animals called coral polyps.D)Coral reefs grow best in clear, shallow water where sunlight is plentiful.
- Solve the following system of equations:-2x+y= 1-4x+y= -1
- Simplify.4^3 4^4---------- 4^9A) 4^16 B) 4^2 C) 1/4^2D) 1/4
- Select the reasons the colonists gave for not wanting to declare their independence.England had agreed to address their grievances.England would be difficult for the colonists to invade.England would be too strong to defeat.The colonies needed England to protect them.The colonies could not survive economically without English subsidies.The cost in human lives would be too great.
- Rules in sports:Make the game easier to play. Restrict you while playing. Add difficulty to the game. Are designed to promote safety so that everyone can enjoy the game.
- Refer to Explorations in Literature for a complete version of this poem.One of the themes of On Anothers Sorrow is that people are compassionate when they see others who are sorrowful.Which pair of lines best supports this theme?"And not sit beside the nest / Pouring pity in their breast;""Think not, thou canst weep a tear / And thy maker is not near.""Can I see a falling tear, / And not feel my sorrows share?""He becomes a man of woe; / He doth feel the sorrow too."