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How to draft a research proposal

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Title – this should be concise and descriptive. Background and rationale – this section sets up why this proposed research is needed. You can briefly summarise the key literature in this area, identifying the gaps in knowledge concerning your topic of interest. Most importantly, you must make a convincing case as to why your research would create valuable and original knowledge. Research questions – you need to formulate your research questions clearly and concisely. You should have an answerable question that can be investigated thoroughly within the available timeframe. (You will need to judge whether these are most clearly expressed before or after the theoretical framework.) Note: it’s important to keep these questions brief and reasonable in scope to avoid appearing overambitious. Theoretical framework – in this section you expand on the background by clarifying which theoretical approaches you will be drawing on and why. You can demonstrate your knowledge of the research problem and your understanding of the theoretical context. Give consideration to broad issues within your chosen theoretical framework where appropriate, and note how they will affect the research process. Fully acknowledge those who have laid the groundwork for your research proposal. Methods – this section should describe the practical steps necessary for the execution and completion of your project. If appropriate, you could demonstrate your knowledge of alternative methods, and make the case that your approach is the most appropriate and most valid way to address your research questions. Explain what data (broadly-defined) you will collect; how you will collect them, and what analyses you will perform on them. Explain what research skills you have, or state how you will acquire them. Do not skimp on the methods and practical sections by writing too much one the background and theoretical context. Practical issues – these must be considered in relation to your methods. If you are intending to undertake fieldwork, consider where this might best be undertaken and for how long. If your fieldwork involves external organisations, then can you demonstrate that they will give you access to all the resources you need. Will your proposed research require specialised training? If so, where can you obtain such training and what will it cost? Does you research involve significant running costs for materials, specialist equipment and consumables? Have you got plans for securing the necessary funds? Timescales – it is important that you map out a reasonable schedule of your work so that you can monitor your own progress and manage your project effectively. Start with your intended finishing date and work backwards. Do not underestimate the amount of time that it takes to write a polished final thesis. Dissemination – your PhD should produce research of publishable quality. You might briefly note the type of publishable outputs you expect to generate and where you would like them to appear. This is especially important if you wish to pursue a career as an academic in a UK university.


Length – 1,000 words for the short-version proposal to identify a potential supervisor; 2,000 to 3,000 words for the full-length proposal for your formal application.

  • Department of Politics and International Relations

Writing a research proposal

The key feature of the PhD is that it is yours; the topic, planning, motivation, and thinking all come from you. It will be the most challenging type of academic work you have ever done, but also the most rewarding.

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The Research Proposal – an outline

The research proposal constitutes the main way in which the department evaluates the potential quality of your PhD plans. The proposal should be approximately 1,500 words in length and include:

  • A provisional title

Question or hypothesis

Value of the phd, existing literature, methods of work.

The title indicates the ‘headline’ character of the PhD. It should include any key concepts, empirical focus, or lines of inquiry that you aim to pursue. For example: ‘Are NGOs practising sustainable development? An investigation into NGO practice in rural Botswana’, or ‘Understanding the Preferential Turn in EU External Trade Strategy: A Constructivist International Political Economy Approach’. You can negotiate changes in the title with your supervisor should you be successful but it is important to devise a title that describes what you aspire to research – and which looks original and exciting.

You need a question or hypothesis to drive the research forward. The question/hypothesis will provide your motivation; to answer the question or prove/disprove the hypothesis. The question/hypothesis will need to be something that has not been posed before. This involves looking at something that no-one has looked at before, or it might mean taking a fresh approach to an existing topic or issue.

The aims of your research should be a short list of answers to the question - what will the PhD do? So, for example ‘this PhD will explore...’ or ‘by carrying out this research, I will contribute to debates about...’. The aims are broader than the questions/hypotheses; they give a prospective statement about the overall destination of the PhD and its potential impact.

The value of the PhD follows closely from the aims. Think about how the ways it might improve our political thinking - a new perspective or the generation of new evidence? To whom might the PhD be interesting - scholars looking at a particular issue, communities within specific institutions or certain groups of people?

A short note of key existing literature situates the PhD in existing research. Literature reviews are not simply descriptive mapping exercises at PhD level. Here you should identify a small number of key texts and say something about how these books are important for your research - whether it is to support, extend, or challenge existing work.

The resources you require can vary according to the nature of the research: access to a particular archive, specialist library, visits to field sites, the use of analytical software, access to databases, training, workshop attendance and so on. It is important to list any of these resources and give a very brief account of how they will enhance the PhD.

The methods of work is a particularly important section. This is where you can say something about how you will answer your question or prove your hypothesis. It is relatively easy to ask a new question; it is more challenging to set out how you might come up with a convincing answer! Methods do not only mean empirical methodologies such as semi-structured interviews or surveys and statistical interpretation; it also might involve a statement on the kind of theoretical framework you will employ, a certain kind of approach to history or a way to understand political ideas. Methods are, therefore, qualitative, quantitative, theoretical, empirical, positivistic, heuristic... whatever fits with your research.

The research also needs a  timetable . This should be set out over three years with clear indications of how long you will need to prepare for and carry out research (however defined) and allow time for writing up. Try to be as detailed as you can at this stage.

Each of these criteria helps the Department of Politics and International Relations selectors make a good judgement about your proposal. By following these criteria you will have your best chance of getting your proposal accepted.

Three more important points:

  • Try to be concise. Do not write too much – be as specific as you can but not wordy. It is a difficult balance to strike.
  • Bear in mind that the proposal is a starting point. If you are registered to read for a PhD you will be able to work the proposal through with your supervisor in more detail in the early months.
  • Take a look at the department’s  staff profiles . Can you identify possible supervisors and intellectual support networks within the department? The better able the department is to support your research, the better it will be for your proposal.

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Examples of research proposals

How to write your research proposal, with examples of good proposals.

Research proposals

Your research proposal is a key part of your application. It tells us about the question you want to answer through your research. It is a chance for you to show your knowledge of the subject area and tell us about the methods you want to use.

We use your research proposal to match you with a supervisor or team of supervisors.

In your proposal, please tell us if you have an interest in the work of a specific academic at York St John. You can get in touch with this academic to discuss your proposal. You can also speak to one of our Research Leads. There is a list of our Research Leads on the Apply page.

When you write your proposal you need to:

  • Highlight how it is original or significant
  • Explain how it will develop or challenge current knowledge of your subject
  • Identify the importance of your research
  • Show why you are the right person to do this research
  • Research Proposal Example 1 (DOC, 49kB)
  • Research Proposal Example 2 (DOC, 0.9MB)
  • Research Proposal Example 3 (DOC, 55.5kB)
  • Research Proposal Example 4 (DOC, 49.5kB)

Subject specific guidance

  • Writing a Humanities PhD Proposal (PDF, 0.1MB)
  • Writing a Creative Writing PhD Proposal (PDF, 0.1MB)
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How to write a successful research proposal

As the competition for PhD places is incredibly fierce, your research proposal can have a strong bearing on the success of your application - so discover how to make the best impression

What is a research proposal?

Research proposals are used to persuade potential supervisors and funders that your work is worthy of their support. These documents setting out your proposed research that will result in a Doctoral thesis are typically between 1,500 and 3,000 words in length.

Your PhD research proposal must passionately articulate what you want to research and why, convey your understanding of existing literature, and clearly define at least one research question that could lead to new or original knowledge and how you propose to answer it.

Professor Leigh Wilson, director of the graduate school at the University of Westminster, explains that while the research proposal is about work that hasn't been done yet, what prospective supervisors and funders are focusing on just as strongly is evidence of what you've done - how well you know existing literature in the area, including very recent publications and debates, and how clearly you've seen what's missing from this and so what your research can do that's new. Giving a strong sense of this background or frame for the proposed work is crucial.

'Although it's tempting to make large claims and propose research that sweeps across time and space, narrower, more focused research is much more convincing,' she adds. 'To be thorough and rigorous in the way that academic work needs to be, even something as long as a PhD thesis can only cover a fairly narrow topic. Depth not breadth is called for.'

The structure of your research proposal is therefore important to achieving this goal, yet it should still retain sufficient flexibility to comfortably accommodate any changes you need to make as your PhD progresses.

Layout and formats vary, so it's advisable to consult your potential PhD supervisor before you begin. Here's what to bear in mind when writing a research proposal.

Your provisional title should be around ten words in length, and clearly and accurately indicate your area of study and/or proposed approach. It should be catchy, informative and interesting.

The title page should also include personal information, such as your name, academic title, date of birth, nationality and contact details.

Aims and objectives

This is a short summary of your project. Your aims should be two or three broad statements that emphasise what you ultimately want to achieve, complemented by several focused, feasible and measurable objectives - the steps that you'll take to answer each of your research questions. This involves clearly and briefly outlining:

  • how your research addresses a gap in, or builds upon, existing knowledge
  • how your research links to the department that you're applying to
  • the academic, cultural, political and/or social significance of your research questions.

Literature review

This section of your PhD proposal discusses the most important theories, models and texts that surround and influence your research questions, conveying your understanding and awareness of the key issues and debates.

It should focus on the theoretical and practical knowledge gaps that your work aims to address, as this ultimately justifies and provides the motivation for your project.


Here, you're expected to outline how you'll answer each of your research questions. A strong, well-written methodology is crucial, but especially so if your project involves extensive collection and significant analysis of primary data.

In disciplines such as humanities the research proposal methodology identifies the data collection and analytical techniques available to you, before justifying the ones you'll use in greater detail. You'll also define the population that you're intending to examine.

You should also show that you're aware of the limitations of your research, qualifying the parameters that you plan to introduce. Remember, it's more impressive to do a fantastic job of exploring a narrower topic than a decent job of exploring a wider one.

Concluding or following on from your methodology, your timetable should identify how long you'll need to complete each step - perhaps using bi-weekly or monthly timeslots. This helps the reader to evaluate the feasibility of your project and shows that you've considered how you'll go about putting the PhD proposal into practice.


Finally, you'll provide a list of the most significant texts, plus any attachments such as your academic CV . Demonstrate your skills in critical reflection by selecting only those resources that are most appropriate.

Final checks

Before submitting this document along with your PhD application, you'll need to ensure that you've adhered to the research proposal format. This means that:

  • every page is numbered
  • it's professional, interesting and informative
  • the research proposal has been proofread by both an experienced academic (to confirm that it conforms to academic standards) and a layman (to correct any grammatical or spelling errors)
  • it has a contents page
  • you've used a clear and easy-to-read structure, with appropriate headings.

Research proposal examples

To get a better idea of how your PhD proposal may look, some universities have provided examples of research proposals for specific subjects:

  • The Open University - Social Policy and Criminology
  • University of Sheffield - Sociological Studies
  • University of Sussex
  • University of York - Politics

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  • Explore PhD studentships .
  • For tips on writing a thesis, see 7 steps to writing a dissertation .
  • Read more about PhD study .

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  • How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

Published on October 12, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on June 13, 2023.

Structure of a research proposal

A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it’s important, and how you will conduct your research.

The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most proposals will contain at least these elements:


Literature review.

  • Research design

Reference list

While the sections may vary, the overall objective is always the same. A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take.

Table of contents

Research proposal purpose, research proposal examples, research design and methods, contribution to knowledge, research schedule, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research proposals.

Academics often have to write research proposals to get funding for their projects. As a student, you might have to write a research proposal as part of a grad school application , or prior to starting your thesis or dissertation .

In addition to helping you figure out what your research can look like, a proposal can also serve to demonstrate why your project is worth pursuing to a funder, educational institution, or supervisor.

Research proposal length

The length of a research proposal can vary quite a bit. A bachelor’s or master’s thesis proposal can be just a few pages, while proposals for PhD dissertations or research funding are usually much longer and more detailed. Your supervisor can help you determine the best length for your work.

One trick to get started is to think of your proposal’s structure as a shorter version of your thesis or dissertation , only without the results , conclusion and discussion sections.

Download our research proposal template

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Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We’ve included a few for you below.

  • Example research proposal #1: “A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management”
  • Example research proposal #2: “Medical Students as Mediators of Change in Tobacco Use”

Like your dissertation or thesis, the proposal will usually have a title page that includes:

  • The proposed title of your project
  • Your supervisor’s name
  • Your institution and department

The first part of your proposal is the initial pitch for your project. Make sure it succinctly explains what you want to do and why.

Your introduction should:

  • Introduce your topic
  • Give necessary background and context
  • Outline your  problem statement  and research questions

To guide your introduction , include information about:

  • Who could have an interest in the topic (e.g., scientists, policymakers)
  • How much is already known about the topic
  • What is missing from this current knowledge
  • What new insights your research will contribute
  • Why you believe this research is worth doing

Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

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See an example

phd research proposal political science example

As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most important research on your topic. A strong literature review  shows your reader that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using existing research as a jumping-off point for your own.

In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in the field by:

  • Comparing and contrasting the main theories, methods, and debates
  • Examining the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
  • Explaining how will you build on, challenge, or synthesize prior scholarship

Following the literature review, restate your main  objectives . This brings the focus back to your own project. Next, your research design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions.

To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you aim to contribute and why it matters.

For example, your results might have implications for:

  • Improving best practices
  • Informing policymaking decisions
  • Strengthening a theory or model
  • Challenging popular or scientific beliefs
  • Creating a basis for future research

Last but not least, your research proposal must include correct citations for every source you have used, compiled in a reference list . To create citations quickly and easily, you can use our free APA citation generator .

Some institutions or funders require a detailed timeline of the project, asking you to forecast what you will do at each stage and how long it may take. While not always required, be sure to check the requirements of your project.

Here’s an example schedule to help you get started. You can also download a template at the button below.

Download our research schedule template

If you are applying for research funding, chances are you will have to include a detailed budget. This shows your estimates of how much each part of your project will cost.

Make sure to check what type of costs the funding body will agree to cover. For each item, include:

  • Cost : exactly how much money do you need?
  • Justification : why is this cost necessary to complete the research?
  • Source : how did you calculate the amount?

To determine your budget, think about:

  • Travel costs : do you need to go somewhere to collect your data? How will you get there, and how much time will you need? What will you do there (e.g., interviews, archival research)?
  • Materials : do you need access to any tools or technologies?
  • Help : do you need to hire any research assistants for the project? What will they do, and how much will you pay them?

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.


  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility


  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

Once you’ve decided on your research objectives , you need to explain them in your paper, at the end of your problem statement .

Keep your research objectives clear and concise, and use appropriate verbs to accurately convey the work that you will carry out for each one.

I will compare …

A research aim is a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear in your introduction at the end of your problem statement , before your research objectives.

Research objectives are more specific than your research aim. They indicate the specific ways you’ll address the overarching aim.

A PhD, which is short for philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy in Latin), is the highest university degree that can be obtained. In a PhD, students spend 3–5 years writing a dissertation , which aims to make a significant, original contribution to current knowledge.

A PhD is intended to prepare students for a career as a researcher, whether that be in academia, the public sector, or the private sector.

A master’s is a 1- or 2-year graduate degree that can prepare you for a variety of careers.

All master’s involve graduate-level coursework. Some are research-intensive and intend to prepare students for further study in a PhD; these usually require their students to write a master’s thesis . Others focus on professional training for a specific career.

Critical thinking refers to the ability to evaluate information and to be aware of biases or assumptions, including your own.

Like information literacy , it involves evaluating arguments, identifying and solving problems in an objective and systematic way, and clearly communicating your ideas.

The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a dissertation committee) that your research topic is relevant and worthy of being conducted.

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Writing a Research Proposal

This section caters for postgraduate students who are either applying for grants, or seeking acceptance onto a higher research degree programme. It offers some basic advice, a few useful links, and a couple of sample proposals .   There are a number of sources of advice on writing a research proposal .  Hong Kong University has its own requirements for submissions (see below), and we offer a few examples of successful research degree submissions.

A Format for Research Proposals - a simple set of guidelines for writing a research proposal Guidelines for a Market Research Proposal - a more detailed set of guidelines - a client-driven approach Proposals for Higher Research Degrees (Social Sciences) - a few successful examples to show how it can be done

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Writing Tips for Theses

Tips for writing a thesis proposal.

1. Find an area (or subfield) that interests you.

Look for a topic that combines personal excitement with scholarly potential. Does  your past work at Northwestern reflect themes that run through the choices you have made? Do you find yourself selecting classes on a general topic or returning to a subject repeatedly? Is there a question or an event that has really captured your attention, or something happening in the world that appears puzzling and that you would like to make sense of?

2. Transforming a topic into a research question

Most first efforts at formulating a research topic are either too specific or too broad.

Questions that are too specific have a yes, no, or fairly easily reached empirical question.  Examples of too specific questions include: Why was smoking in restaurants banned?  What led to President Nixon’s near impeachment? 

Broad questions, by contrast, lack focus and need to be narrowed and framed in a way that makes the topic researchable. The quickest way to make progress is to write a paragraph about the topic, and take it to Political Science faculty member to discuss.

As you reflect, ask yourself what specific concerns led you to the general issue? How did you first see the problem? What events stand out? Around what cases do the discussions revolve? Was there an important book, newspaper article or lecture that piqued your interest? Is there a recurrent argument about current affairs? Formulate questions with these specific facts in mind. Talk with others about the topic, including political science faculty members and TAs.

3. Formulate a research question in a way that widens its appeal.

Merely exploring a topic because it interests you is not enough; the thesis must pose a question that subsequent research attempts to answer or resolve. This question should be framed in a general way that highlights its importance. “Why was John Roberts confirmed to be a judge on the US Supreme Court” is probably too specific. It would be better to ask “What factors lead to success or failure in the confirmation of Supreme Court Justices?” You may end up answering this question by looking at confirmation hearings across time or by a comparison of just two nominees. The key is that the question is important in its own right and that answering it provides insight that is useful beyond the specifics of the case.

Even with a carefully posed question, you still need to highlight its importance. Explain why it matters whether or not someone is confirmed for the US Supreme Court, and explain why confirmation is problematic enough to be worth 60 to 100 pages of analysis.

More advice on selecting a thesis topic and crafting a proposal are available at the following website:

Concerning the Form of the Thesis

The watchword for writing a long research paper is  structure .  The format of your paper should reveal the structure of your thinking. Devices such as paragraphing, headings, indentation, and enumeration help your reader see the major points you want to make.

Headings can convey the major topics discussed in your paper. A research report typically contains four basic components:

  • Statement of the  problem  or theoretical question that gave rise to the research, and an explanation of why the problem or question is important to address.
  • Discussion of how the research was  designed  to clarify the problem
  • Analysis  of the data or information produced by the research
  • Summary  and conclusion of the study

Although you could include those sections in your report without separate headings, the underlying logic of your paper will be more readily apparent with headings that identify its basic components: (1) the problem, (2) research design, (3) data analysis, (4) summary and conclusion. Obviously, you can adjust or elaborate on these generic headings depending on your topic.

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The prompt for the Statement of Academic Purpose for applicants to Political Science is as follows:  In a succinct statement of no more than 1,000 words, please (1) discuss your motivation for conducting research, (2) provide a detailed summary of your research experience and training and how it prepares you for doctoral study in your proposed program (the standalone Ph.D. in Political Science), (3) the topic(s) you plan to study in graduate school and how you would approach those questions, and (4) why Yale is a good fit given your interests.

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Broadly but not exclusively focused on the dynamics surrounding representation, equity, conflict, rights, and conflict resolution, the graduate program at Kent State allows candidates to study important and timely questions under well-established scholars. Our focus on methodological skill, sophisticated research design, and faculty mentoring enables PhD candidates to develop their own research questions in a theoretically and empirically grounded manner. Our program enjoys an impressive completion rate, and our PhD recipients place well .

Many of our Ph.D. students receive funding to support their study. Funding is competitive and only granted to students with exemplary academic records. Support is generally continued for four years, and currently includes a nine-month stipend, tuition remission, and a subsidized health insurance plan. Funded students serve as Graduate Assistants (either assisting with research or teaching) throughout the academic year. In some cases, students may receive financial support to complete their dissertations in the fifth year.

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The Ph.D. degree in Political Science prepares students for research and teaching careers in higher education and for research-based careers in fields that are focused on political, economic and social issues. The degree program is broadly focused on the dynamics surrounding representation, equity, conflict, human rights, development and conflict resolution. Students develop their own research questions in an interdisciplinary and theoretically sophisticated way. Students work with faculty mentors throughout their degree program and often develop and present their own research at regional or national conferences.

The Political Science major comprises the following concentrations, from which students select two:

  • American Politics and Policy
  • Conflict Analysis and Management
  • Transnational and Comparative Politics

For more information about graduate admissions, visit the graduate admission website . For more information on international admissions, visit the international admission website .

Admission Requirements

  • Bachelor's degree or higher from an accredited college or university
  • Minimum 3.000 GPA on a 4.000-point scale
  • Official transcript(s)
  • GRE scores (no longer required starting with the fall 2024 admission term)
  • Résumé or curriculum vitae with cover letter is required starting with the fall 2024 admission term
  • Goal statement
  • Writing sample
  • Three letters of recommendation
  • Minimum 550 TOEFL PBT score (paper-based version)
  • Minimum 79 TOEFL IBT score (Internet-based version)
  • Minimum 77 MELAB score
  • Minimum 6.5 IELTS score
  • Minimum 58 PTE score
  • Minimum 110 Duolingo English test score

Application Deadlines

  • Priority deadline: February 15 Applications submitted by this deadline will receive the strongest consideration for admission .

Program Learning Outcomes

Graduates of this program will be able to:

  • Understand the theoretical underpinnings of political science and be able to address real world issues and problems.
  • Attain research and methodological skills that will further their research and make them attractive to future employers.
  • Effectively communicate research findings and implications to a range of audiences including scholars, practitioners and citizens.

Program Requirements

Graduation requirements, major requirements.

Dissertation is required. Doctoral students must complete additional approved electives, including research, to reach a minimum of 30 credit hours post-master's (or equivalent advanced degree) or a minimum of 60 credit hours post-bachelor's prior to enrolling in POL 81199 . Upon completion of course requirements and candidacy exams, doctoral students must register for POL 81199 for two semesters for a total of 30 credit hours, and thereafter POL 81299 , until all requirements for the degree have been met.

Students select two concentrations. For the first concentration, students complete one Proseminar or Status of the Field course and three elective courses (12 credit hours). For the second concentration, students complete one Proseminar or Status of the Field course and two elective courses (9 credit hours).

American Politics and Policy Concentration Requirements

Conflict analysis and management concentration requirements, transnational and comparative politics concentration requirements.

  • Passage of one field paper in the first area of concentration
  • Written and oral defense of both a dissertation prospectus and dissertation

Residency Requirement

  • Students must spend two consecutive semesters pursuing doctoral studies.
  • Kent Campus

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Welcome to the on-line version of the UNC dissertation proposal collection. The purpose of this collection is to provide examples of proposals for those of you who are thinking of writing a proposal of your own. I hope that this on-line collection proves to be more difficult to misplace than the physical collection that periodically disappears. If you are preparing to write a proposal you should make a point of reading the excellent document The Path to the Ph.D., written by James Coggins. It includes advice about selecting a topic, preparing a proposal, taking your oral exam and finishing your dissertation. It also includes accounts by many people about the process that each of them went through to find a thesis topic. Adding to the Collection This collection of proposals becomes more useful with each new proposal that is added. If you have an accepted proposal, please help by including it in this collection. You may notice that the bulk of the proposals currently in this collection are in the area of computer graphics. This is an artifact of me knowing more computer graphics folks to pester for their proposals. Add your non-graphics proposal to the collection and help remedy this imbalance! There are only two requirements for a UNC proposal to be added to this collection. The first requirement is that your proposal must be completely approved by your committee. If we adhere to this, then each proposal in the collection serves as an example of a document that five faculty members have signed off on. The second requirement is that you supply, as best you can, exactly the document that your committee approved. While reading over my own proposal I winced at a few of the things that I had written. I resisted the temptation to change the document, however, because this collection should truely reflect what an accepted thesis proposal looks like. Note that there is no requirement that the author has finished his/her Ph.D. Several of the proposals in the collection were written by people who, as of this writing, are still working on their dissertation. This is fine! I encourage people to submit their proposals in any form they wish. Perhaps the most useful forms at the present are Postscript and HTML, but this may not always be so. Greg Coombe has generously provided LaTeX thesis style files , which, he says, conform to the 2004-2005 stlye requirements.
Many thanks to everyone who contributed to this collection!
Greg Coombe, "Incremental Construction of Surface Light Fields" in PDF . Karl Hillesland, "Image-Based Modelling Using Nonlinear Function Fitting on a Stream Architecture" in PDF . Martin Isenburg, "Compressing, Streaming, and Processing of Large Polygon Meshes" in PDF . Ajith Mascarenhas, "A Topological Framework for Visualizing Time-varying Volumetric Datasets" in PDF . Josh Steinhurst, "Practical Photon Mapping in Hardware" in PDF . Ronald Azuma, "Predictive Tracking for Head-Mounted Displays," in Postscript Mike Bajura, "Virtual Reality Meets Computer Vision," in Postscript David Ellsworth, "Polygon Rendering for Interactive Scientific Visualization on Multicomputers," in Postscript Richard Holloway, "A Systems-Engineering Study of the Registration Errors in a Virtual-Environment System for Cranio-Facial Surgery Planning," in Postscript Victoria Interrante, "Uses of Shading Techniques, Artistic Devices and Interaction to Improve the Visual Understanding of Multiple Interpenetrating Volume Data Sets," in Postscript Mark Mine, "Modeling From Within: A Proposal for the Investigation of Modeling Within the Immersive Environment" in Postscript Steve Molnar, "High-Speed Rendering using Scan-Line Image Composition," in Postscript Carl Mueller, " High-Performance Rendering via the Sort-First Architecture ," in Postscript Ulrich Neumann, "Direct Volume Rendering on Multicomputers," in Postscript Marc Olano, "Programmability in an Interactive Graphics Pipeline," in Postscript Krish Ponamgi, "Collision Detection for Interactive Environments and Simulations," in Postscript Russell Taylor, "Nanomanipulator Proposal," in Postscript Greg Turk, " Generating Textures on Arbitrary Surfaces ," in HTML and Postscript Terry Yoo, " Statistical Control of Nonlinear Diffusion ," in Postscript


Political Science Research Proposal

Free research proposal on political science:.

Nationalism in its modern understanding was conceived in XVIII age as a form of protest against the national oppression and lawlessness. Pre-condition of its origin was development of communication between the representatives of ethnic groups and forming their general national identity. National ideology is directed against the national oppression, colonial dependence and different forms of discrimination. It plays a progressive role: promote the consolidation and liberation of nation, creation of the independent states, development of national culture and national interests. However in the modern world if the state respects human rights, provides the right equality of all nations, nationalism looses its progressive, humane maintenance.

National ideology is formed on the basis of the real national people commonality, but it exaggerates the value of national distinctions and dignities of own nation. Using national consciousness, patriotic senses, linguistic and other ethnic cognation, it transforms them in hostile, aggressive position in relation to other nations. In the modern world its distribution is based on the methods of manipulation by the people consciousness, acute technologies of mass deception by MASS-MEDIA.

We can write a Custom Research Proposal on Political Science for you!

In my research proposal I’ll try to compare the development of two nationalist movements in Israel (Zionism) and India (Hindu movement). I choose them because their problems have been staying urgent for decades and they are relevant nowadays. Aspects, describing in my work: precondition of the origin, purposes and methods of goal achievement, results of their activity and modern positions of these movements.

Zionism Zionism (from the name of mountain Zion in Jerusalem) is the Jewish national movement the purpose of which is the Jewish people uniting on its historical motherland — Palestine. The purpose of Zionism was returning of the Jewry on its historical motherland from which they were banished as a result of the Roman (1-6 cent. A.D.) and then Arabic (7 cent. A.D.) invasion.

While Zionism is based in part upon religious tradition linking the Jewish people to the Land of Israel, where the concept of Jewish nationhood is thought to have first evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and the late Second Temple era (i.e. up to 70 CE, the modern movement was mainly secular, beginning largely as a response by European Jewry to antisemitism across Europe. It constituted a branch of the broader phenomenon of modern nationalism. [Taylor A.R.,1971]

Creation of «national house» (later the state) where Jewries would repatriate from around the world — to move on permanent inhabitation on their historical motherland was necessary. Hebrew, the ancient language of Jewries was adopted as the official language of Israel. The actions directed on the achievement of this purpose have started the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which took away thousands human lives.

The first ideologists of Zionism in general did not consider the Arabic question as an important. In 1916 Khaim Veytsman concluded a treaty with sheikh Feysal about the world and neighborliness, leader of Arabic movement. On 14 May, of 1948 it was proclaimed in Declaration of Israel independence. During the Second World War situation became worse because of some Arabic leaders supported Hitler and his attempts to annihilate the European Jews (For example, leader of the «Palestinian Arabs» Amin al-Khuseyni visited Hitler and in public thanked him as an ally of Arabs for a «fight against world Jews»).

During the War for Independence the mutual attacks of sides were fixed. As a result the Arabic population leaved the territory of present Israel — some sources affirmed that it was an ethnic cleaning; Palestinians name it «Nakba» («catastrophe» — Arabic, like the Holocaust). In the night from the 9th to 10th of April 1948 Zionist fighters’ detachments of secrecy organizations «Etsel» and «Lekhi» attacked the Palestinian village Deyr-Yassin and killed its peaceful habitants: there are from 100 to 250 persons according to different sources.

Anyway, after Independence War Arabs living in Israel got all civil laws, and Arabs who remained on the western bank of the river of Jordan under control Jordan got citizenship of this country. Presently they have indefinite legal status. For today most Zionism ideologists hope on the establishment the peaceful relationships with Arabs living in Israel, but part of Zionism ideologists consider the only way to the world is transferring the Arabs in the Arabic countries. At the same time a right of the Palestinian refugees for returning on territory of Israel is denied.

Some Zionists considers that the problem of refugees must be decided by their absorption in the Arabic countries — also as Jewry-refugees from the Arabic countries were absorbed in Israel. Previous president of Israel Moshe Katsav declared: “Palestinians must break off to feed illusions regarding „rights for returning”.

Meantime the Arabic countries consider that for a successful fight against international terrorism it is necessary to settle the Israel-Palestinian conflict, which in their opinion is one of the main reasons of terrorism. Presently violence prevails in the Israel-Palestinian relations, and there are no signs that a peaceful process will recommence in the near future. Recent efforts directed on proceeding in peaceful negotiations didn’t have any results. A mutual mistrust and hostility intensified. Every side find guilty the other side in the failure of these attempts and new coil of violence, lasting more than year and taking away lives more than thousand persons.

In opinion of the Israel political correspondent Shlomo Aviner, the most fundamental problem is that Israel and Palestinians imagine the future quite variously: «We deal with the collision of two national motions. And it is attended not only with emotions but also with that these people think about how they identify themselves. And when these two national ideas conflict on the same territory, there is insoluble contradiction. Just such situation is in Palestine, Israel, Kashmir, and Kosovo…»

Palestinians consider that the United States must strengthen pressure on Israel and obtain realization of the already attained agreements, which foresaw the conclusion of troops from the Western bank and Gaza Strip, liquidation of the Jewish settlements and right for Palestinians on self-determination. Meantime Israel, fearing for its safety, insists on stopping of violence acts from Palestinians as a condition precedent of proceeding in peaceful negotiations.

Palestinians argue against the attempts of Osama bin Laden to stop the Palestinian-Israel conflict to the appeal to the Moslems to go in to the sacred war with the West. However, some leaders of the Arabic countries, in particular president of Egypt Khosni Mubarak, assert that headed the United States a campaign against terrorism can not be dissociated from solution of the Israel-Palestinian conflict.

Hindu nationalism Hindu nationalism didn’t have such radical expectancies and their ideas didn’t disseminate on the other countries and nations. It originated from the period of fight for India independence and presently blooms up. The eldest and most influential organization of the Hindu nationalism is “The Union of Voluntary Nation Acolytes”. Today it disposes of 40 branches, registered as independent parties and organizations. “Party of the Indian people” exudes among them. During 1998–2004 it headed the coalition government of India, and its leader Atal Bikhari Vadzhpai was a prime-minister.

The founder of “The Union of Voluntary Nation Acolytes” was Keshav Baliram Khedgevar (1889–1940). In young days he joined to the Bengali revolutionaries, and then supported Mahatma Gandi. Khedgevar conceived this organization as fraternity of coreligionists. His purpose was defense of community, dharma (a moral, religious debt in Hinduism) and culture of Hindus, their force consisted in discipline and good organization.

The primary cell of organization was shakkha. It consisted of 50–100 soldiers, acolytes-volunteers. They are divided by four age groups: from 7 to 10 years, from 10 to 14, from 14 to 28 and from 28 years and upward. Two third of volunteers are young people from 18 to 25 years. They easily absorb new ideas and gladly submit discipline. The day of soldiers begins in 6.30 in the morning. At first they march, do physical exercises, learn the technique using the hand-to-hand fight a cold steel; than conversations about bases of Hinduism, gods and heroes and certainly about the «enemies» of Hindu community – Moslems, Christians and communists.

In contrast to Zionists the Hindu nationalists didn’t act in an aggressive way. They often take part in beneficent activity and help the victims of natural disasters. They are gladly accepted on military service. Physically strong, disciplined and devoted a debt, they become the best officers of the Indian army. From the beginning its activity RSS took an important part in an anti-colonial fight.

But there were fights and problems with existing legislation. In December, 1929 “The Union of Voluntary Nation Acolytes” supported a course on «Purna svaradzh» – complete sovereignty of India. In spring of 1930 while the supporters of Makhatma Gandi evaporated salt from salt water, Khedgevar and 10 thousands of his brothers-in-arms began grass mowing in jungles. These actions were direct violation of salt monopoly and forest legislation of Britannic India. As a result all of participants were behind bars. They were set free only in February of the next year.

In 1947 Britannic India got long-awaited independence and was divided by dominions – Indian Union and Pakistan. Its division was accompanied by the raging of violence and bloody collisions, taking away lives of more than million people. In these dramatic days “the Union” came forward under the slogan of “Akkhand Bkharat!” (“Indivisible India!”) and concentrated on a help for numerous refugees from Pakistan. Thousands of its soldiers built temporal camps for refugees, provided them food and medicines, treated injured.

During war with China in 1962 “The Union” provided the moral help to the armies and fully supported the steps of the government directed on the nation defense. Indian-Pakistani war began in 1965. Under the enemy’s fire “The Union” soldiers evacuated a peaceful population from boundary districts, brought food, medicines, and other loads. They guarded the objects of the economic setting, patrolled the streets of night cities, helped policemen, and gratis gave the blood for injured.

“The Union of Voluntary Nation Acolytes” was under a ban in India for three times.

On the elections in 1996 «Indian national congress» failed. BDP got 23.5% voices of electors and 161 places in parliament. According to the results of elections in 1998 “The Union” formed the coalition government. It was led by Atal Bikhari Vadzhpai. Period of its rule was marked by its victory on pre-term elections in 1999, the steady rates of the economy growth, creation of three new states in India, increase of workplaces number and combating of poverty, conducting in 1998 series of nuclear tests and strengthening of defensive capacity and safety of the country. In this connection the defeat of “The Union” on the elections in April-May of 2004 can be considered as a miscalculation of guidance of party.

Inspired success on elections, political strategists of congress brought down furious attacks on “The Union”. They were accused in injury of bases of India, attempts to political strategist the Constitution, intimidation of religious minorities, organizations of Hindu-Moslem pogroms in Gudzharat, changing of Indian history from Hindu nationalism position. Undoubtedly, with approaching of new general election fight between political alliances will be inevitably become strained. The end of this fight will show, whether BDP will be succeeded to return the trust of electors, lost in 2004.

As we can see both nationalist movement have the similar purposes – the prosperity of their nations, but the ways of these goal attainment were quite different. The Zionists decided to act more aggressive and emphatically, they enlisted the support of such powerful country as the USA and the Palestinians have no choice. But they put up resistance… As a result thousands people die and nobody knows when this bloodshed will stop.

In some sources Zionism is considered as national liberation movement of the Jewish people in the context of European national liberation motions of XIX century. Some critics consider it as a form of racism.

The activity of “The Union of Voluntary Nation Acolytes” also had some bloody pages in its history. I think their actions were more warrantable. They thought not only about the power but the peaceful people, who, essentially, is the Nation.

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One Comment

phd research proposal political science example

Dear Team, I am about to apply for a Doctoral program in France in Political Science.

I have studied 4 masters in: Journalism, International Relations, Interamerican Studies, and American Literature.

My Master’s thesis was about the influence of the sociopolitical situation in Cuba on its contemporary music.

I have chosen some topics for my PHD and I want your team to make the proposal for me which should be at least 5000 words excluding the bibliography.

Here are my topics: The role of music in accelerating the pace of revolution (Case study could be Iran and Cuba)

The role of social media in changing the structure of powers in dictatorship systems

Please let me know how long it takes to elaborate on it and which one to choose and the fee you’d charge me for it.

I eagerly await your prompt reply.

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Political Science Research Proposals Example

Type of paper: Research Proposal

Topic: Pregnancy , Women , Health , Environmental Justice , Children , Drugs , Risk , Marijuana

Published: 04/02/2020


Health issue

Marijuana consumption has different effects upon different category people. There are various health risks associated with the use of this drug. Notably, marijuana has a fatal impact upon pregnant women and the unborn baby. Exogenous marijuana has a strong impact on the cannabinoid receptors. Consumption of exogenous marijuana during pregnancy raises the likelihood of anencephaly, decrease in the rate of fetal growth, decreased fetal movement, as well as possibilities of stillbirth. Based on this health risk, it is necessary to intensify the control on the use of marijuana, prohibit its use, or even make changes, which regulate the usage by pregnant women in Colorado (Varner, 2014). This presents a policy health issue. Is it appropriate to change the content of the label of marijuana products or should it be maintained as it is? The label only states that, “There may be additional health risk associated with the consumption of this product for women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning on becoming pregnant.” This is vague and a clearer policy is necessary which should prohibit the use of recreational marijuana for pregnant or breastfeeding women. Recreational use of marijuana poses a health risk upon pregnant mothers and the fetal development process. . Protection of unborn babies is necessary (State of Colorado, 2013). It can be achieved by prohibiting consumption of marijuana by pregnant people.

Approaches to solving the health problem issue

The members of Colorado legislative members should be allowed to vote on this proposed legislation. Voting should base on different opinions held by the citizens. There is need to carry out awareness campaigns which explain to the public concerning the perils associated with consumption of marijuana by pregnant women. The duty to carry out the campaigns should be given to drug control agencies in order to disseminate the information since they have a vast understanding of the effects of such drugs (State of Colorado, 2013).Children form an important part of the society, and the health of the children is of paramount concern right even before birth. The members of legislature should do wide consultation with healthcare professionals and experts so that they provide information concerning the health effects of consumption of marijuana by pregnant women. As such, this legislation should be amended, and changes made in order to establish a policy that prohibits the use of marijuana by pregnant women.

Reasons for change in label

There is the need to amend or adjust the legislation that has allowed the use of marijuana for recreational purposes. The label is vague and does not clearly outline the exact health risks upon the unborn child. The label should be changed and made clearer. For instance, it should state that consumption of marijuana by pregnant women for recreational purposes harms the unborn child greatly (Varner, 2014). The fetus may be adversely affected by the component of marijuana known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).The component may have the effect of the impairment of short-term memory. It crosses the placenta of a pregnant woman and exposing the fetus to harm. Exposure of the fetus to harm may result to long-term consequences in children such as neurobehavioral abnormalities. Therefore, prenatal exposure to marijuana has the ability to change patterns of connectivity in the course of development of the brain.


I highly recommend for legislation that prohibit recreational consumption of marijuana for pregnant women. Notably, the risks highlighted here in clearly depict how hazardous consumption of marijuana during this period is (State of Colorado, 2013). The harm that happens to the unborn babies is great and should be avoided by all means. To ensure avoidance, strict rules should be set that prohibit pregnant women from consuming marijuana. Besides, the harm upon the unborn babies, the effects of marijuana upon the pregnant women may result to hazardous events, which may physically harm the woman and the unborn child. As such, it is necessary to make provision within the legislation that prohibits the sale or the use of marijuana to pregnant women. Preventing the use of marijuana by pregnant women is a responsibility of all citizens in order to ensure that a firm ground is set on which to protect both (Varner, 2014).Such protection will help the state to cut on some expenses, which may result from accidents occurring because of consumption of marijuana by pregnant women. The state plays a big part in funding the healthcare industry and, therefore, hazards upon pregnant women and fetus that may result from marijuana consumption could be avoided and enable savings on such costs. Cutting costs and enhancing savings has a better picture of the legislation since it should also cater for special groups that may be prone to adversities emanating from consumption of marijuana. Conclusion

Varner, M.W., Silver, R. M., Hogue, C., J et al. (2014).Association between stillbirth and illicit drug use and smoking during pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, (123) pp 113-125


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Free Research Paper Samples, Research Proposal Examples and Tips |

How to write a research proposal on political science.

February 27, 2014 UsefulResearchPapers Tips 0

A research proposal on political science is a complicated assignment for every student because one should possess the knowledge, writing skills and ability to generate the best topics for the discussion. Political science is a severe discipline which requires a specific approach, and it is natural that students look for the additional writing help on the Internet.

It is easier to understand the principle of writing and the professor’s expectations if the student takes advantage of political science research proposal writing tips suggested below:

  • Discuss the Assignment with the Professor . It is unwise to start writing a research proposal without having discussed it with the advisor or the professor who is responsible for helping you. The student’s most important primary duty is to ask the professor about the type of the paper, the manner of writing, the volume, complexity, the format, structure, retired professor’s expectations and recommendations and other essential moments related with the process of writing.
  • Having learned about the professor’s point of view one should start thinking about the topic of the research . Political science is a complicated discipline, and it is quite challenging to choose the right theme for the study. One should understand the principles, aspects, function, and duties of political science to be able to select the best topic which is worth analysis. The subject has to be related to the relevant problems, pressing political issues, etc. The student must set the significant questions which he wants to research and on their basis construct the name of the topic. It is evident that the problem should be narrow because the discipline requires the exact solutions to the particular small questions.
  • Collect the most reliable information . The research is impossible without the high-quality and up-to-date sources, so the student is supposed to devote the maximum of his time to the collection of the reliable facts and arguments which would inform about the topic and support the student’s point of view. The most useful sources are encyclopedias, scientific articles of the famous experts and periodicals. It is possible to use the works of different authors with the various points of view on the problem and compare them.
  • Prepare the Outline and the Introductory Part . To create a logical and well-constructed paper, the student should prepare a proper outline which would contain all the sections of the proposal and all the significant questions on political science. When the plan is detailed, it is relatively impossible to miss any vital fact and idea. The introductory part is supposed to inform the reader about the topic, its purpose, relevance for the modern political science, the list of the predicted results and the steps to be made for the successful research.
  • Prepare a Quality Body of the Proposal . The central part of the research project on political science should contain all the main sections, especially methodology and literature review, as these elements reflect the student’s ability to research the problem using the right methods and sources. In the end, one should summarize the proposal and share the predictions and difficulties which have occurred during the research.

Also, you can quickly get a quality customized research proposal on any Political Science topic from professional research proposal writing service.

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    Introduction This research will investigate and analyse how new and proposed policy tools will affect governance in European Union (EU) regions and regional policy.

  14. How to nail your PhD proposal and get accepted

    2. Goals, summaries, and objectives. Once you've added the basic information to your document, you'll need to get into the meat of your proposal. Depending on your institution, your proposal may need to follow a rigid format or you may have the flexibility to add various sections and fully explain your concepts.

  15. PhD Research Proposal

    PhD Research Proposal 1. Candidate Name: 2. In which area(s) of work would you include your research proposal? Please mark your choice with an X. Research field Comparative Politics Environmental Social Science European Union Politics & European Integration Family and Gender Studies Gender and Politics Government, Management & Public Policies

  16. Writing a Research Proposal

    Hong Kong University has its own requirements for submissions (see below), and we offer a few examples of successful research degree submissions. A Format for Research Proposals - a simple set of guidelines for writing a research proposal Guidelines for a Market Research Proposal - a more detailed set of guidelines - a client-driven approach

  17. PDF Sample Research Proposals

    Research Proposal: Example One 'Working At It' An exploration of the perceptions and experiences of negotiating employment and caring responsibilities of fathers in post-divorce/separation co-parenting situations. Introduction:

  18. Writing Tips for Theses

    Formulate questions with these specific facts in mind. Talk with others about the topic, including political science faculty members and TAs. 3. Formulate a research question in a way that widens its appeal. Merely exploring a topic because it interests you is not enough; the thesis must pose a question that subsequent research attempts to ...

  19. Political Science

    The prompt for the Statement of Academic Purpose for applicants to Political Science is as follows: In a succinct statement of no more than 1,000 words, please (1) discuss your motivation for conducting research, (2) provide a detailed summary of your research experience and training and how it prepares you for doctoral study in your proposed program (the standalone Ph.D. in Political Science ...

  20. Political Science

    Political Science - Ph.D. The Political Science doctoral program provides in-depth knowledge and advanced research skills, preparing you for leadership positions in academia, research institutions and public service. With a dedicated faculty and a supportive community of scholars, you'll have access to opportunities for cutting-edge research ...

  21. CSSA Sample PhD proposals

    CSSA Sample PhD proposals Purpose Welcome to the on-line version of the UNC dissertation proposal collection. The purpose of this collection is to provide examples of proposals for those of you who are thinking of writing a proposal of your own.

  22. Political Science Research Proposal

    March 14, 2012 Free Research Proposal on Political Science: Nationalism in its modern understanding was conceived in XVIII age as a form of protest against the national oppression and lawlessness. Pre-condition of its origin was development of communication between the representatives of ethnic groups and forming their general national identity.

  23. Political Science Research Proposals Examples

    Political Science Research Proposals Examples | WOWESSAYS™ Essay Database > Essay Examples > Essays Topics > Essay on United States Free Political Science Research Proposal Example Type of paper: Research Proposal Topic: United States, Education, Students, Study, Information, Retention, University, America Pages: 3 Words: 750 Published: 04/03/2020

  24. Research Proposals About Political Science

    Read Example Of Research Proposal On Political Science and other exceptional papers on every subject and topic college can throw at you. We can custom-write anything as well! ... Nursing Outreach Program Research Paper Example; Good Phd Graduate Paper Critical Evaluation Critical Thinking Example; Sample Essay On American Exceptionalism;

  25. How to Write a Research Proposal on Political Science

    Prepare a Quality Body of the Proposal. The central part of the research project on political science should contain all the main sections, especially methodology and literature review, as these elements reflect the student's ability to research the problem using the right methods and sources. In the end, one should summarize the proposal and ...