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25 Language Contact
Peter Hans Nelde died on August 31, 2007, after a long illness. Despite his passing, the contribution he wrote for the Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics was considered to be of such importance that it was decided to retain it in its original form. Dr. Nelde established contact linguistics as an integral part of the discipline, supported by annual international symposia dealing with contact and conflict between linguistic minorities and majorities. In addition, he established the series Plurilingua that he maintained as editor-in-chief during his life. Dr. Nelde was professor and chair of German and general linguistics at the Katholieke Universiteit Brussel (Belgium) and visiting professor in Nijmegen (the Netherlands) and Leipzig (Germany). He directed Languages in a Network of European Excellence (LINEE), the international research project on linguistic diversity sponsored by the European Union. In 1977 he founded the Research Centre on Multilingualism and had been its director ever since. He was responsible for the publication of the Euromosaic reports on the linguistic minorities of Europe. He was also one of the editors of Sociolinguistica: International Yearbook of Sociolinguistics (Niemeyer, Tübingen) and the editor in chief of Contact Linguistics: An International Handbook of Contemporary Research. His main research areas were multilingualism, contact linguistics, language policy, and language planning. He shall be sorely missed.
- Published: 18 September 2012
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This article focuses on the ideas of multilingualism and language contact against the backdrop of applied linguistics. In the last four decades, scientific research on multilingualism has experienced numerous stimuli, the majority of which can be attributed to language contact research in the Weinreich tradition, going back to his famous Languages in Contact . Although multilingualism and language contact between individuals and groups are age old, language contact research first obtained a secure position in applied linguistics in the 1970s through the development of the social sciences. The great significance of multilingualism in the future of Europe and North America and its greater importance in many other parts of the world led to an interdisciplinary interest in contact linguistics. As an interdisciplinary branch of multilingual research, contact linguistics incorporates three areas of inquiry: language use, language user, and language sphere. This article explains the field of contact linguistics along with its significant parameters.
I. Language Contact, Multilingualism, and Applied Linguistics
In the last 40 years, scientific research on multilingualism has experienced numerous stimuli, the majority of which can be attributed to language contact research in the Weinreich tradition, going back to his famous Languages in Contact (1953). Weinreich's work is based on the fact that speakers or language communities, rather than languages on an abstract level, are in contact with one another, and that any analysis of multilingual behavior is useless without consideration of the linguistic and cultural roots of the given situation. Today, research into language contact is manifest in two volumes of an international handbook ( Contact Linguistics ) which appeared for the first time in Dirven and Pütz ( 1996 and 1997 ). The interest of applied linguistics in language contact research or contact linguistics—a term used since the Brussels “Contact and Conflict” congress in 1979—begins with the recognition that the majority of the world's population is multilingual, so that multilingualism is to be regarded as the norm rather than the exception. Although multilingualism and language contact between individuals and groups are as old as the Babylonian confusion of tongues, language contact research first obtained a secure position in applied linguistics in the 1970s through the development of the social sciences. The great significance of multilingualism in the future of Europe and North America and its greater importance in many other parts of the world led to an interdisciplinary interest in contact linguistics, whose relation to multilingualism can be portrayed graphically: see figure 25.1 .
Reprinted in Memory of Dr. Nelde.
The relation of contact linguistics to multilingualism
II. What is Contact Linguistics?
As an interdisciplinary branch of multilingual research, contact linguistics incorporates three areas of inquiry: language use, language user, and language sphere.
The significant parameters of contact linguistics are linguistic levels (phonology, syntax, lexicon) and also discourse analysis, stylistics, and pragmatics. In addition there are the external linguistic factors: for example, nation, language community, language boundaries, migration, and many others.
The type of multilingualism is also relevant; in other words, whether it manifests itself as individual, institutional, or state bilingualism, as social multilingualism, as diglossia or dialect, or as natural or artificial multilingualism, for which the immediate levels—such as so-called semilingualism or interlinguistics—also must be considered. In the process it is helpful to make a basic, simplifying distinction between autochthonous (native) and allochthonous (migrant, refugee) groups, because instances of language contact can rarely be isolated as single phenomena but, rather, usually as a cluster of characteristics.
The structuring of social groups is of crucial importance to the language user. Besides the conventional differences of age, sex, and social relationship, minority status receives special attention from researchers of multilingualism.
Above and beyond these factors, all of the sectors responsible for the social interplay of a language community play an essential role. Added to traditional sectors like religion, politics, culture, and science in the last few decades are others like technology, industry, city and administration and, most recently, also media, advertising, and data processing. In the educational/cultural sector, the schools occupy a special place, as they are constantly exposed to new forms and models of multilingual instruction from North America and—above all—from Canada. The question of whether bilingual and multilingual education will interfere with a child's right to use his/her mother (home, first, colloquial) tongue depends mainly on the intentions of the respective language planners, so that conformity and integration, instead of language maintenance, constitute the motivating forces of multilingual instruction. To oversimplify the issue, the underprivileged must submit to bilingual education and thus to assimilation, while foreign language instruction is available to the sociological elite. Contact processes that have concerned researchers in multilingualism since the beginning are partly diachronic and partly synchronic in nature. Besides language change, borrowing processes, interference, and language mixing, there are linguae francae , language alternation, language maintenance and loss, code-switching, pidginization, and creolization.
The effects of such language contact processes can be registered by measuring language consciousness and attitude. Language loyalty and prestige play a decisive role in the linguistic identity of a multilingual person, and extreme care must be taken in interpreting so-called language statistics (censuses and public opinion surveys).
The language spheres in which considerations of multilingualism have become indispensable extend over numerous areas of study and are, furthermore, dependent on the respective level of development and interest. These include, to name a few, language policy, language planning, language ecology, language contact in multinational industries and organizations, language care and revitalization among minorities, as well as single development, planned languages, and the role of English as a world language with all the concomitant effects on the respective individual languages. (For a complete list of topics see Nelde et al., 1996 .)
Such a bird's-eye view shows well enough how extensive, interdisciplinary, and yet specialized the field of multilingualism is as related to contact linguistics.
III. Contact and Conflict
Ethnic contact and conflict and sociology.
Most contact between ethnic groups does not occur in peaceful, harmoniously coexisting communities. Instead, it exhibits varying degrees of tension, resentment, and differences of opinion that are characteristic of every competitive social structure. Under certain conditions, such generally accepted competitive tensions can degenerate into intense conflicts, in the worst case ending in violence. The possibility of conflict erupting is always present, because differences between groups create feelings of uncertainty of status, which could give rise to conflicts. Sociologists who have dealt with contact problems between ethnic groups define conflicts as contentions involving real or apparent fears, interests, and values, in which the goals of the opposing group must be opposed, or at least neutralized, to protect one's own interests (prestige, employment, political power, etc.; Williams, 1947 ). This type of contention often appears as a conflict of values, in which differing behavioral norms collide, because usually only one norm is considered to be valid. Conflicts between ethnic groups, however, occur only very rarely as openly waged violent conflicts and usually consist of a complex system of threats and sanctions in which the interests and values of one group are endangered. Conflicts can arise relatively easily if—as is usually the case—interests and values have an emotional basis.
The magnitude and the development of a conflict depend on a number of factors determined by level of friction between two or more ethnic groups, the presence of equalizing or mitigating elements, and the degree of uncertainty of all the participants. Thus, a one-sided explanation of the conflict, or one based on irrational prejudices, will fail. Very different factors that influence each other can reinforce and escalate to cause group conflict. This group conflict is part of normal social behavior in which different groups compete with each other, and should therefore not be connoted only negatively, because in this way new—and possibly more peaceful—forms of coexistence can arise. On the other hand, tensions between ethnic groups brought about by feelings of intimidation can give rise to new conflicts at any time—conflicts that can be caused by a minority as well as by a majority group. As long as society continues to create new fears, because of its competitive orientation, the creation of new conflicts appears unavoidable.
Political Language Contact and Conflict
Along with sociologists, political scientists also assume that language contact can cause political conflict. Language conflicts can be brought about by changes in an expanding social system when there is contact between different language groups (Inglehart and Woodward, 1972 ). Belgium and French Canada are examples of this. The reasons for such a situation are the following: A dominant language group (French in Belgium, English in Canada) controls the crucial authority in the areas of administration, politics, and the economy, and gives employment preference to those applicants who have command of the dominant language. The disadvantaged language group is then left with the choice of renouncing its social ambitions, assimilating, or resisting. Although numerically weak or psychologically weakened language groups tend toward assimilation, in modern societies numerically stronger, more homogeneous language groups possessing traditional values, such as their own history and culture, prefer political resistance, the usual form of organized language conflict in this century. This type of conflict becomes especially salient when it occurs between population groups of differing socioeconomic structures (urban/rural, poor/wealthy, indigenous/immigrant) and when the dominant group requires its own language as a condition for the integration of the rest of the population. Although in the case of French-speaking Canada, English appeared to be the necessary means of communication in trade and business, nearly 80% of the francophone population spoke only French, thus being excluded from social elevation in the political/economic sector. A small French-speaking elite, whose original goal was political opposition to dominant English, ultimately precipitated the outbreak of the latent, socioeconomically motivated language conflict.
Most current language conflicts are the result of differing social status and preferential treatment of the dominant language on the part of the government. In these cases, there are the religious, social, economic, or psychological fears and frustrations of the weaker group that may be responsible for the language conflict. However, a critical factor in the expansion and intensification of such conflict remains the impediment to social mobility, particularly of a disadvantaged or suppressed ethnic group (e.g., the numerous language conflicts in multiethnic Austria-Hungary).
Language problems in very different areas (politics, economics, administration, education) appear under the heading of language conflict. In such cases, politicians and economic leaders seize upon the notion of language conflict, disregarding the actual underlying causes, and thus continue to inflame “from above” the conflict arisen “from below,” with the result that language assumes much more importance than it may have had at the outset of the conflict. This language-oriented “surface structure” is used to obscure the more deeply rooted, suppressed “deep structure” (social and economic problems). Furthermore, multilingual conflicts in Europe, especially in urban societies, show quite clearly that language conflicts are caused primarily by attempts on the part of the dominant group to block social mobility.
Language Conflict and Contact Linguistics
Even in contact linguistics the term conflict remains ambiguous, at least when it refers generally to social conflict that can arise in a multilingual situation. The notion appears to us essential here that neither contact nor conflict can occur between languages; they are conceivable only between speakers of languages. Oksaar (1980 ) correctly points out the ambiguity of the term language conflict as either conflict between languages within an individual or as conflict by means of language(s), including processes external to the individual. Similarly, Haarmann 1980 , 191) distinguishes between interlingual and interethnic language conflicts.
Among the founders of modern research in language contact—running parallel to the rapidly developing sociolinguistics and sociology of language (e.g., Weinreich and Fishman), the term conflict rarely appears. Although Weinreich views multilingualism (bilingualism) and the accompanying interference phenomena as the most important form of language contact, without regard to conflict between language communities on the basis of ethnic, religious, or cultural incompatibilities, Fishman 1972 : 14) grants language conflict greater importance in connection with language planning. Haugen ( 1966 ) was the first to make conflict presentable in language contact research with his detailed analysis of Norwegian language developments. Indeed, even linguists in multilingual countries (e.g., Yugoslavia, Switzerland, Belgium) resisted, up until the end of the 1970s, treating conflict methodically as part of language contact research, since such an “ideologicalization” of language contact appeared to them as “too touchy” (Fishman, 1980 : xi). One reason for the late discovery of a term indispensable in today's contact research is to be found in the history of contact linguistics itself: In traditional language contact research (as well as in dialectology and research on linguistic change) the emphasis tended toward closed, geographically homogeneous and easily describable socioeconomic groups, rather than on urban industrial societies, ripe for social and linguistic strife, whose demand for rapid integration laid the groundwork for conflict. However, it is precisely in modern urban society that conflicts result essentially from the normative sanctions of the more powerful, usually majority, group, which demands linguistic adaptation to the detriment of language contact, and thus preprograms conflict with those speakers who are unwilling to adapt.
Despite a less than ideal research situation essentially limited to empirical case studies of language contact, the following statements can be made. Language conflict can occur anywhere there is language contact, chiefly in multilingual communities, although Mattheier (1984 : 200) has also demonstrated language conflicts in so-called monolingual local communities. Language conflict arises from the confrontation of differing standards, values, and attitude structures, and strongly influences self-image, upbringing, education, and group consciousness. Thus, conflict can be viewed as a form of contact or, in terms of a model, as a complementary model to the language contact model.
Contact linguists have either described conflict research as an integral part of language contact research (Nelde et al., 1996 ) or have dealt with special topics from the perspective of conflict. The methods used are heterogeneous and come from numerous neighboring disciplines (psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics, communication research, sociology, etc.). For lack of its own methods, research still employs predominantly empirical procedures. Along with interview and polling techniques, privileged informants and representative sampling, prejudice research and stereotype and attitude observation, the past few years have seen combined investigation models such as socioprofiles and ethnoprofiles, community and polarity profiles (Nelde, 1995 ).
IV. Essential Principles of Contact Linguistics
These observations on language contact and conflict situations lead to some basic premises of contact linguistic, which, despite their occasional seeming triviality, merit consideration at this juncture:
1. Language contact exists only between speakers and language communities, not between languages. Comparison of one and the same language in different contexts is therefore possible only in a quite limited way. 2. The statement that there can be no language contact without language conflict (“Nelde's Law”; K. de Bot, 1997: 51) may appear exaggerated, but there is in the realm of the European languages at present no imaginable contact situation that cannot also be described as language conflict. 3. Contact linguistics usually sees language as a significant secondary symbol of fundamental causes of conflict of a socioeconomic, political, religious, psychological, or historical sort. Thus, in a way, language conflict appears to be the lesser evil, because it apparently can be more easily corrected and neutralized than primary sociopolitical conflicts. 4. Contact linguistics, at the same time, makes it clear that conflicts should not be condemned as only negative, but, rather, it proves that new structures that are more advantageous than the foregoing ones can often result from conflicts.
V. Typology of Conflict
The current language conflicts in Europe, North and Central America, Southeast Asia, and parts of Africa can be viewed as situations of either natural or artificial language conflict.
Natural Language Conflict
Natural language conflicts are those situations that have traditionally existed between indigenous majorities and minorities. The extensive literature of language conflict abounds with examples of this type, particularly those of minorities pitted against official national or regional languages. Conflict has frequently arisen in these situations of language contact because the linguistic minority was not in a position to assimilate. This type of conflict can be found, for example, in Europe along the Germanic-Romance and the Slavic-Germanic linguistic boundaries, and in Canada involving the French-speaking minority and among a few indigenous peoples. Natural language conflicts can become problematic when ideology on either side—not only the majority but the minority as well—is used to intensify the differences that exist, and peaceful coexistence between language communities can easily be threatened when the banner of language is hoisted as the defining symbol of a people.
The conflict between Belfast (Northern Ireland) and Connemara (North of Galway in the Irish republic), for example, involves considerably more than just language: An urban, Protestant, working environment (Belfast) in fact has little if anything in common with a rural, Catholic region of high unemployment (Connemara). The issue of language only exacerbates these differences.
A similar situation is reflected in the ideologically motivated opposition between Afrikaans and English in Namibia (and also in South Africa). The vast majority of the Namibian populace, regardless of race or social status, speaks or at least understands Afrikaans. The country's official language, however, is English, cast as the “language of freedom,” though less than 3% of the population speak it as their first language. Afrikaans, the former language of instruction and administration, remains the “language of oppression.”
More recently, the study of Russian has witnessed a rapid decline in the former Eastern Bloc countries, and one can only speculate on the relationship between the sudden lack of interest in Russian and the “de-ideologicalization” of that language in the new republics. After 1992, in the Croatian part of Bosnia-Herzegovina ( Herzeg ), all mentions of the term Serbo-Croatian have been expunged from schoolbooks and replaced, not on linguistic but on ideological grounds, by the term Croatian .
Artificial Language Conflict
Artificial, or self-imposed, conflict arises out of situations of compromise in which one or more language communities are disfavored. These situations have existed in every society from Babel to Brussels. Symmetric multilingualism, in which equal numbers of speakers are invested with equal rights and in which both language prestige and linguistic identities are congruent, is impossible, because one of the language groups will always be subject to stigmatization and/or discrimination, with conflict the inevitable result.
Artificial language conflict occurs especially when, motivated by the need for rapid international communication, politically influential economic powers export their languages (and their resulting socioeconomic influence) to their trading partners. Thus, Russian (before 1990) and English have become languages of great economic expansion, despite a noteworthy lack of formal educational planning. Secondary schools in Strasbourg, for example, have abandoned study of the native German dialect for English (as the first foreign language), with the result that German is being lost as a local working language. It is offered as a second “foreign” language only to students over 12 years old, with the result that a passive knowledge of the mother tongue (a German dialect) is now all that remains.
The European Union has provided interesting examples of artificial language conflict. In the “Which language(s) for Europe?” debate, the Danes years ago, in a spirit of genuine cooperation, seemed to have opted to forgo the use of Danish. In retrospect, Denmark may appear to have resolved the issue, in the early years of the European Union, of reducing the number of official languages to at most two, with English and French destined to be the languages of international communication. The initial delight of London and Paris at this helpful suggestion was quickly dampened, however, because the Danes also suggested that the English should use French and the French should use English. After that suggestion, enthusiasm for the Danish solution quickly withered.
The presence of almost 4,000 translators and interpreters in Brussels suggests a return to the Tower of Babel. At the present time (the year 2000), the 11 working languages of the 15 member states generate a total of (10 × 11 =) 110 language combinations. The enlargement of the European Union by six or more additional member states in the coming years, with several new languages, leads to so many mathematical combinations that no assembly hall in the world would be able to accommodate meetings for all the interpreters.
These examples amply demonstrate that the language contacts and conflicts that threaten the peaceful coexistence of peoples are not always the consequence of long-standing historical contacts and conflicts among language communities. The new orders and restructurings of recent years have also led to sources of conflict that were not fully grasped just a few years ago. In any event, neither natural nor artificial conflict should be judged only negatively; rather, we should hope that out of conflict there may ensue new alliances and new solutions that will function better than any of the efforts of the past.
VI. Future Prospects
There are hardly any areas of human life that do not have to do with language contact and multilingualism in some way. Since its renaissance in the 1950s and 1960s, research on multilingualism has been carried out on contact linguistic initiatives due to the inclusion of neighboring disciplines like sociology, psychology, and many others. In the new century, younger subdisciplines will probably play a leading role because of their pronounced orientation to practical applications. The difference between the so-called internal and external linguistic criteria that was stressed in the past will be abandoned, because the interdependence and inseparability of these factors has become apparent in the most recent research results. In addition to the traditional (“hyphenated”) linguistic disciplines, these areas of research will surely include ecolinguistics, which has already provided research on language contact with many new stimuli. In the area of the conflict issues mentioned before, ecolinguistic initiatives have proved to be particularly successful, so much so that the constantly changing forms of language contact and multilingualism can be described more satisfactorily. More and more new migrant groups (evacuees, asylum seekers, refugees, expatriates) are being included in the traditional autochthonous and allochthonous forms of multilingualism, in addition to the native minorities. Here, we see, at the beginning of the new century, new language contact research fields arising. One example is connected to the development of the new media and their dominant role in changing societal structures by destroying traditional fields in the society. This also has an enormous influence on the central concept of contact linguistics that remains multilingualism. In future research, we have to develop new forms of multilingualism that are emerging from virtual contacts and from new economic-based minorities. It is one of the chief tasks of contact linguistics to meet this challenge and concern itself more intensively than in the past with a field that can serve as an outstanding example of applied science, the significance of which for life and survival on an overpopulated planet with hundreds of different languages cannot be overvalued.
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Language Shift and the Speech Community: Sociolinguistic Change in a Garifuna Community in Belize
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Language shift is the process by which a speech community in a contact situation (i.e. consisting of bilingual speakers) gradually stops using one of its two languages in favor of the other. The causal factors of language shift are generally considered to be social, and researchers have focused on speakers’ attitudes (both explicit and unstated) toward a language and domains of language use in the community, as well as other macro social factors. Additional research has focused on the effects of language shift, generally on the (changing) structure of the language itself. The goal of this thesis is to examine the relationship between social and linguistic factors in considering the causes and effects of language shift, focusing on age-based variation in the speech community. This dissertation examines the linguistic and social correlates of early language shift in a Garifuna community in Belize. An apparent time analysis shows an externally-motivated change in the status of the sociolinguistic variable (ch) that is evidence for a shift in the dominant language in the community. A second change in progress, variable deletion of intervocalic r, is described for the first time as an internally-motivated change, albeit progressing alongside contact-induced changes. Evidence is also presented to propose that the behavior of the transitional generation (speakers aged 30-49) shows interesting characteristics with regard to these two variables as a result of shifting language ideologies in the village. These ideological shifts are examined along with changing attitudes in the community toward English, Belizean Creole, and Garifuna.
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Handbook of Research and Practice in Heritage Language Education pp 301–311 Cite as
A Language Contact Perspective on Heritage Languages in the Classroom
- Suzanne Pauline Aalberse 3
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- First Online: 02 September 2017
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)
This chapter provides an overview of possible outcomes of language contact as a starting point for discussion on contact-induced linguistic variation in the heritage classroom. The rationale for this discussion is that variation awareness will enable students to reflect on their language use without evaluative labels like correct and incorrect. An open mind to language variation is especially important in the heritage classroom, because the heritage language connects the students directly to their parents. Criticizing the variant the student speaks implies indirect critique on their parents and might cause the student to feel that they do not belong to their ethnic linguistic community because they do not speak properly. Knowledge of sources of contact-induced variation and sources of social values on variation will facilitate linguistic awareness and linguistic self-confidence.
- Variation awareness
- Language contact
- Cross-linguistic influence
- Additive complexity
- Incomplete acquisition
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Aalberse, S.P. (2018). A Language Contact Perspective on Heritage Languages in the Classroom. In: Trifonas, P., Aravossitas, T. (eds) Handbook of Research and Practice in Heritage Language Education. Springer International Handbooks of Education. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44694-3_51
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Author : Natalia Ringblom ; Milan Bily ; Stella Ceytlin ; Maria Voeikova ; Stockholms universitet ;  Keywords : HUMANITIES ; HUMANIORA ; Language acquisition ; childhood bilingualism ; bilingual first language acquisition ; language contact ; language separation ; input ; dominance ; mother tongue ; Russian ; Swedish ; weaker language ; Sweden ; slaviska språk ; Slavic Languages ;
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Abstract : This doctoral dissertation is an overview of the recently arisen Sango language spoken in the Central African Republic. The overview contains a sociolinguistic and linguistic dimension with a lexical-semantic focus. READ MORE
3. Language contact and structural change : An Old Finnish case study
Author : Merlijn De Smit ; Erling Wande ; Kaisa Häkkinen ; Raimo Anttila ; Stockholms universitet ;  Keywords : HUMANITIES ; HUMANIORA ; HUMANIORA ; HUMANITIES ; Finnish ; historical linguistics ; language contact ; Whitehead ; Finnish language ; Finska språket ;
Abstract : The object of this study is to shed new light on both the influence exerted on Finnish by the Swedish language, and on the mechanisms by which language contact in structural domains takes place. It is argued that syntactic borrowing should be regarded as a subtype of reanalysis and extension rather than as an independent mechanism. READ MORE
4. Age differences in first language attrition : A maturational constraints perspective
Author : Emanuel Bylund Spångberg ; Kenneth Hyltenstam ; Niclas Abrahamsson ; Silvina Montrul ; Stockholms universitet ;  Keywords : HUMANITIES ; HUMANIORA ; HUMANIORA ; HUMANITIES ; first language attrition ; age differences ; maturational constraints ; critical period ; language acquisition ; bilingualism ; international adoptees ; conceptual proficiency ; language aptitude ; Bilingualism ; Tvåspråkighet ; tvåspråkighetsforskning ; Bilingualism ;
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Useful Language for Thesis Statements
This resource highlights language that frequently appears in argumentative writing. It is designed to draw your attention to common linguistic forms in thesis statements.
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We recommend reading this list twice:
- The first time you read, focus on the language itself. What verbs (like illustrates, demonstrates, shows ) make for strong claims? What dependent clauses (like In this passage ) introduce the sentences? Where have you seen phrases like these before? In what genre of essay would you expect to see the phrase (in literary analysis or a policy paper)?
- The second time you read, focus on the conceptual relationships. Note that many introduce their evidence— Based on X, or Through examination of Y —before making a claim. Which phrases emphasize differences or similarities? Which phrases introduce complication?
Once you’ve read through, try using these phrases in your own writing.
Basic sentence structures:
Identifying something significant to analyze:.
In this play, the character of Joseph s ymbolizes … This passage illustrates the importance of… The author sheds light on the crucial point of… The text highlights the difference between… In both [text 1] and [text 2], the authors demonstrate how…
Affirming what you believe:
From my perspective, the idea that… In my view, the author… I strongly agree with the argument that… I disagree with the notion that…
Challenging an author’s argument:
The article fails to address… The author overlooks… The argument lacks clear evidence about… The author’s point is questionable in that it…
Complex sentence structures:
Linking key background information or evidence to your claim:.
Keywords: Based on, As, Through, In + (verb)-ing Based on the facts concerning the “Molotov” case study, it is apparent that… Based on the analysis of the “Molotov” case study, I believe that… In examining the controversy surrounding artists’ rights , [author’s name] demonstrates… Through the examination of Molotov Man, [author’s name] identifies… Considering the debate over the reproduction of images , it is clear that copyright law fails to… In light of the Molotov Man controversy, it is useful to reconsider/re-examine… As this case demonstrates, it is important to…
Expressing a less obvious claim by challenging commonly held beliefs:
Keywords: While, Although, Though While it is true that _______________, the more significant problem with X is… Although it may seem that _______________, the more significant issue relates to… Though X seems to suggest that _______________, a crucial part of this debate involves… While I acknowledge that _______________, it is necessary to take into account the fact that.. While Garnett makes a strong case for the reproduction of Molotov Man , she fails to address the deeper problem of…
Emphasizing an important similarity:
- While it may seem that A and B have little in common apart from ________________, they actually share ________________.
- Despite many clear differences, both A and B ______________________________.
- While it may seem that Democrats and Republicans disagree fundamentally on how the U.S. should be run, the fact that both parties supported the Defense Authorization Act—permitting the indefinite detention of American citizens on U.S. soil— suggests they share a core set of beliefs about government power.
- Despite the schools’ different curricula, both serve the same overarching mission …
Emphasizing an important difference:
- Although A and B share ________________, they significantly differ in that ______________________________.
- A and B appear to have many commonalities, but depart from one another when ______________________________.
- While T-Mobile and Verizon may appear to have similar marketing strategies, they target their audiences differently : T-Mobile caters to a niche audience of young people who live in cities, while Verizon emphasizes their nationwide coverage.
- Although Keats’ “Ode on a Grecian Urn” and Rilke’s “Archaic Torso of Apollo” are both ekphrastic poems about ancient Greek artifacts, they offer very different perspectives on antiquity…
Providing reasons for your claim:
Keywords: Due to, Because of Due to unfair restrictions imposed by copyright law, artists struggle to Due to the fact that copyright law imposes unfair restrictions, artists struggle to… Because they put aesthetic effect before historical context, artists often misrepresent historical events in their images. Artists often misrepresent historical events in their images because they… Given the fact that American soldiers cannot refuse to be photographed in combat , we recommend…
Providing multiple reasons for your claim:
Keywords: Both, Due to, Among the reasons, Not only Both _______ and _______ offer evidence for / explain why… Due to both [reason 1] and [reason 2], I consider… Not only does [reason 1] contribute to the problem of the reproduction of images , but so does [reason 2]. The emotional appeal of the painting together with the omission of any signs of war conveys a sense of…
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Concept of Language Contact in Linguistic Essay
Language contact only happens when two or more people speaking different languages come together, or spend time together. Contact linguistic is the study of language contact. When people speaking different languages stay together and interact freely, the different languages they speak influence each other resulting to neologism.
Languages usually grow bit by bit and with time they become popular (Sun, 2006). Commonly, languages influence each other through the exchange of words. The influence increases leading to even an exchange of grammar structuring and formation of sentences.
Other times, the contact of two languages can lead to a partial replacement of one language by the other. In other cases like in a situation where people without a common language interact, language contact can lead to the formation of new languages. As time goes by, the two languages develop to become one common language. The influence that impacts one language is usually as a result of the neighborhood one is in. This is because when one group is more populated than the other, people tend to get more used to one language than the other.
In most cases, changes brought about by language contact affect one language more than the other. For example, Chinese has had a significant effect on Japanese and their word formation. On the other hand, Chinese remains free of Japanese influence even after playing a crucial role in formation of Japanese words.
A great deal of Chinese Neologism is either from European missionaries or retrieved from the Japanese. The modern Chinese uses the word culture to represent culture . It is also widely used as a neologized term for the European borrowed word from Japanese (Stemmer & Whitaker, 2008).
Chinese people in modern China cause neologism when they come to contact with people of different foreign cultures, and who speak different languages. Trade between the Chinese people and the Europeans has contributed to the occurrence of neologism. Chinese people sell their wares to people who speak other languages.
When individuals from nations that do not have a common language come together for business purposes the necessity for a common language comes up for the transaction to take place. This has considerably contributed to the evolution of new words that probably never existed in either Chinese or European languages.
The origin of Indo-European family of languages in china was as a result of migration. This is a combination of English and other European languages.
The majority of people who use this language are believed to have been pastoralist, and when they came together they gradually formed a new language. Missionary activities also contributed to Neologism. This happened when they translated some European words to Chinese. The exposure of China to European philosophy and academic rules also contributed to neologism (Jung, 2002).
It is notable that most morphemes from European language initially became popular in Japan, before they were introduced to China. This is because Chinese people have developed a better understanding of European opinion on matters that affect them. The English words commonly used are ok and bye and almost all the Chinese people in modern china understand them.
The most successful neologisms from European are those that are semantic and phonemic at the same time like the Chinese word mÍ-nÍ-qÚn (charm-you-skirt) for miniskirt. Note that it is initially a loan blend because qui is not a transliteration for the English work skirt. Mi-ni is phonemic as it transliterates mini in English (Liu, 1999).
In modern China, cases of intermarriage with European Japanese and also other people who come from other parts of the world are unusually many. As a result, these different languages come together leading to the occurrence of neologism. Young people who leave China for Europe for the purpose of further education return to china later in their lives speaking other languages. They return carrying the effect of living in a country that speaks another language (Cha, 2001).
Others move from Japan to china for sports purposes and vice versa. Because of the need to communicate, the people learn the basics from each other, and the interaction form a common language. It does not have to be an entirely new language, the essential thing is that these people can easily relate, and communicate with each other.
The need for leisure activities has seen people move from one country to another. Tourism has seen many people move from one country to another contributing to the alteration of the original language of the places mostly visited by tourists (Liu, 1999). Once they stay there for some time, the languages they speak interact and chances of one language taking other the other are extremely high.
For a person whose origin is Europe working in China, he/she has to learn Chinese. In this case, because of his European origin, some altered Chinese terms produce entirely new terms, but with a meaning. At times, the need for a new name to describe something leads to a development or borrowing of words from other languages.
Cha, T. H. K. (2001). Dictée . Berkeley, Calif. [u.a.: Univ. of California Press.
Jung, H. Y. (2002). Comparative political culture in the age of globalization: An introductory anthology . Lanham [u.a.: Lexington Books.
Liu, L. H. (1999). Tokens of exchange: The problem of translation in global circulations . Durham, N.C: Duke Univ. Press.
Stemmer, B., & Whitaker, H. A. (2008). Handbook of the neuroscience of language . Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.
Sun, C. (2006). Chinese: A linguistic introduction . Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press.
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Andrade, Ciudad Luis. "Language Contact and Language Boundaries in Prehispanic Cajamarca." Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 2012. http://repositorio.pucp.edu.pe/index/handle/123456789/113478.
Makoe, Bridgitte Pinky. "A study in language contact." Master's thesis, University of Cape Town, 1999. http://hdl.handle.net/11427/18873.
Reindl, Donald F. "Language contact: German and Slovenian." Bochum Brockmeyer, 2005. http://d-nb.info/990069427/04.
Wolf, Göran. "Language contact, change of language status : ‘Celtic’ national languages in the British Isles and Ireland." Universität Potsdam, 2007. http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2008/1936/.
McDonald, Katherine Louise. "Language contact in South Oscan epigraphy." Thesis, University of Cambridge, 2014. https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/245201.
Anderson, Gregory D. S. "Language contact in South Central Siberia." Wiesbaden Harrassowitz, 2000. http://deposit.ddb.de/cgi-bin/dokserv?id=2674956&prov=M&dok_var=1&dok_ext=htm.
Hawkey, James William. "Language policy and language contact in Barcelona : a contemporary perspective." Thesis, Queen Mary, University of London, 2012. http://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/3085.
Alang, Jaapar. "The effect of language contact and language use on second language competence and language attitude." Thesis, Bangor University, 1994. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.296186.
Curtis, Matthew Cowan. "Slavic-Albanian Language Contact, Convergence, and Coexistence." The Ohio State University, 2012. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1338406907.
Aiestaran, Jokin. "Aspects of language contact in Rioja Alavesa." Thesis, Bangor University, 2003. https://research.bangor.ac.uk/portal/en/theses/aspects-of-language-contact-in-rioja-alavesa(7f48c69f-b04f-417a-b5d0-3681f70ed105).html.
Beauchamp, Hanna O. (Hanna Olga). "Languages in Contact: Polish and English." Thesis, University of North Texas, 1990. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc500811/.
Tan, Siew Imm. "Languages in contact: a corpus-based study ofMalaysian newspaper English." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2006. http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B45015673.
Reindl, Donald F. "The effects of historical German-Slovene language contact on the Slovene language." [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University, 2005. http://wwwlib.umi.com/dissertations/fullcit/3162281.
Ratte, Alexander Takenobu. "Contact-Induced Phonological Change in Taiwanese." The Ohio State University, 2011. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1313497239.
Hickey, Raymond. "Syntax and prosody in language contact and shift." Universität Potsdam, 2007. http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2008/1930/.
Yoshizumi, Yukiko. "A Canadian Perspective on Japanese-English Language Contact." Thesis, Université d'Ottawa / University of Ottawa, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10393/34328.
Turolla, Claudia. "Language contact as innovation: the case of Cimbrian." Doctoral thesis, Università degli studi di Trento, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/11572/243188.
Hadjidemetriou, Chryso. "The consequences of language contact : Armenian and Maronite Arabic in contact with Cypriot Greek." Thesis, University of Essex, 2009. https://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.502173.
Côté, Pierre. "Ethnolinguistic contact: An interactive situated approach." Thesis, University of Ottawa (Canada), 1992. http://hdl.handle.net/10393/7502.
Gultzow, Simone. "First language development in a bilingual setting : the role of first language contact." Thesis, Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/97027.
Stamp, R. J. "Sociolinguistic variation, language change and contact in the British Sign Language (BSL) lexicon." Thesis, University College London (University of London), 2013. http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1393284/.
O'Shannessy, Carmel. "Language contact and children's bilingual acquisition learning a mixed language and Warlpiri in northern Australia /." Connect to full text, 2006. http://hdl.handle.net/2123/1303.
Lammervo, Tiina. "Language and culture contact and attitudes among first generation Australian Finns /." [St. Lucia, Qld.], 2005. http://www.library.uq.edu.au/pdfserve.php?image=thesisabs/absthe.pdf.
Méndez-Rivera, Nelson José. "Linguistic Outcomes of the Wayuunaiki-Spanish Language Contact Situation." Thesis, Université d'Ottawa / University of Ottawa, 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/10393/40732.
Rogers, Brandon M. "Vowel Quality and Language Contact in Miami-Cuban Spanish." BYU ScholarsArchive, 2012. https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/etd/3129.
Diez, Martini Ana Laura. "Rewiring color categories: the neural consequences of language contact." Doctoral thesis, SISSA, 2015. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11767/3868.
O'Shannessy, Carmel Therese. "Language contact and children's bilingual acquisition: learning a mixed language and Warlpiri in northern Australia." Thesis, The University of Sydney, 2006. http://hdl.handle.net/2123/1303.
O'Shannessy, Carmel Therese. "Language contact and children's bilingual acquisition: learning a mixed language and Warlpiri in northern Australia." University of Sydney, 2006. http://hdl.handle.net/2123/1303.
Dȩ̮bicka-Dyer, Anna Michalina. "French and Spanish in contact." Master's thesis, Mississippi State : Mississippi State University, 2006. http://library.msstate.edu/etd/show.asp?etd=etd-11072006-174521.
Wroblewski, Michael. "Voices of Contact: Politics of Language In Urban Amazonian Ecuador." Diss., The University of Arizona, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/10150/195199.
Barnett, Ruthanna. "Language contact corpora as a window on language : noun phrases, grammaticalization and (in)definiteness." Thesis, Lancaster University, 2000. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.391982.
Refatto, Antonella 1967. "Contact phenomena between Veneto, Italian and English in the third generation in Australia." Monash University, Dept. of Linguistics, 2002. http://arrow.monash.edu.au/hdl/1959.1/7734.
Dede, Keith Randall Sean. "Language contact, variation and change : the locative in Xining, Qinghai /." Thesis, Connect to this title online; UW restricted, 1999. http://hdl.handle.net/1773/11076.
Bélair, Lockhead Joanne. "Le contact inter-ethnique : antécédents, processus et conséquents." Thesis, University of Ottawa (Canada), 1988. http://hdl.handle.net/10393/5401.
Gadacha, Ali. "Language planning and language conflict : the case of multilingual Tunisia : aspects of status, function and structure of the languages and language varieties used and sociolinguistic implications of the language shift on the new century's eve : thèse." Nice, 1998. http://www.theses.fr/1998NICE2030.
Kurz, Claudia. "Function words and simplification in contact varieties of German /." The Ohio State University, 1998. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1487949150071939.
Somerholter, Kerstin Evelyn. "Language contact and shift in the Soviet German speech community /." Digital version accessible at:, 1999. http://wwwlib.umi.com/cr/utexas/fullcit?p9947394.
Loulidi, Rafik. "Language contact and language conflict in Morocco : a survey of language use and attitudes among school bilingual learners." Thesis, University of Ulster, 1999. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.284846.
Martínez, Ramón Antonio. "Spanglish is spoken here making sense of Spanish-English code-switching and language ideologies in a sixth-grade English language arts classroom /." Diss., Restricted to subscribing institutions, 2009. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1971760601&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=1564&RQT=309&VName=PQD.
Stüber, Karin. "Effects of Language Contact on Roman and Gaulish Personal Names." Universität Potsdam, 2007. http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2008/1921/.
De, Smit Merlijn. "Language contact and structural change : An Old Finnish case study." Doctoral thesis, Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska, 2006. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:su:diva-1402.
Sankar, Gopal Ravi. "An investigation into a natural language interface for contact centers." Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/10948/890.
Smit, Merlijn de. "Language contact and structural change an old Finnish case study /." Stockholm : Stockholm University, 2007. http://www.diva-portal.org/su/abstract.xsql?dbid=1402.
Kelkar-Stephan, Leena. "Bonjour maa : the French Tamil language contact situation in India /." Aachen : Shaker, 2005. http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb40242377j.
Iverson, Michael Bryan. "Advanced language attrition of Spanish in contact with Brazilian Portuguese." Diss., University of Iowa, 2012. https://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/3316.
Stevralia, Christine M. "Contact." ScholarWorks@UNO, 2018. https://scholarworks.uno.edu/td/2535.
Lindbäck, Hannes. "Contact Effects in Swedish Romani Phonology." Thesis, Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi, 2020. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-437346.
Schaengold, Charlotte C. "Bilingual Navajo mixed codes, bilingualism, and language maintenance /." Connect to this title online, 2004. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc%5Fnum=osu1092425886.
Brackney, Noel C. "The origins of Slavonic : language contact and language change in ancient eastern Europe and western Eurasia." Thesis, Muenchen LINCOM Europa, 2004. http://d-nb.info/985960000/04.
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USDA Releases Language Access Plan to Expand Access to Department Resources and Programs
WASHINGTON, Nov. 15, 2023 – Today, the U.S. Department of Agriculture released a department-wide language access plan to ensure individuals with limited English proficiency receive meaningful access to USDA’s resources, programs, and activities. The updated language access plan comes on the one-year anniversary of Attorney General Merrick B. Garland’s language access memorandum to federal agencies.
Timely and accurate communication with the public is essential to USDA’s mission of providing leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on public policy, the best available science, and effective management. This plan is an important component of a much broader effort at USDA to make its programs and services more accessible, equitable, and inclusive to those who rely on them. Additional information about this effort can be found at usda.gov/equity .
“USDA’s work touches the lives of everyone across the country, and ensuring meaningful and equitable access to our programs is vital,” said Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack. “Our staff work hard every day to strengthen the services and programs that deliver on our mission, and the policies included in this plan will help make USDA a better and stronger department.”
Under this plan, USDA mission areas, agencies, staff offices, and staff will continue to plan for and provide individuals with limited English proficiency with timely, accurate, and effective communications within all programs or activities conducted by USDA, and work to ensure that providers of USDA-supported programs are complying with their corresponding obligations.
“Federal civil rights regulations guarantee all individuals in the United States the right to equitable access to services, regardless of their level of English proficiency,” said Dr. Penny Brown Reynolds, USDA’s Deputy Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights. “Language access is a team effort that requires strong support from our agency leaders, and participation from staff across the entire Department to coordinate efforts with the USDA Language Access Plan to ensure accessibility. By working together, we are able to produce information and communication tools that meet the needs of our stakeholders that request services from USDA.”
The policies in this plan are based on the principle that it is USDA’s responsibility, and not that of an individual seeking services, to take reasonable steps to ensure meaningful access to all programs and activities and to foster equity for individuals who interact, or may interact, with USDA over the phone, in writing, in person, or via electronic methods. USDA recognizes that ensuring equity for individuals with limited English proficiency is not limited to the provision of language assistance services and aims to create comprehensive mechanisms that facilitate equity in planning, outreach, stakeholder engagement, allocation of funds, delivery of services, staff training, procurement, as well as performance and evaluation as established by this language access plan.
USDA’s language access plan can now be found at www.usda.gov/oascr/languageaccess and on www.LEP.gov , a website maintained by the U.S. Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division.
USDA also looks forward to joining the new interagency federal working group, the Federal Language Access Working Group, led by the Department of Justice, which will allow federal agencies to exchange best practices and share language access resources for federal agencies and recipients of federal financial assistance.
USDA touches the lives of all Americans each day in so many positive ways. In the Biden-Harris Administration, USDA is transforming America’s food system with a greater focus on more resilient local and regional food production, fairer markets for all producers, ensuring access to safe, healthy, and nutritious food in all communities, building new markets and streams of income for farmers and producers using climate smart food and forestry practices, making historic investments in infrastructure and clean energy capabilities in rural America, and committing to equity across the Department by removing systemic barriers and building a workforce more representative of America. To learn more, visit www.usda.gov .
USDA is an equal opportunity provider, employer, and lender.
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Taylor Dube-Mather successfully defends her MA thesis
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Congratulations to Taylor Dube-Mather for an outstanding job defending her MA thesis "Is Being a Police Officer Fundamental for Processing Crime Scenes?: Investigating Civilianization in Canadian Forensic Identification Units."
Crime Scene Investigation within Canada has traditionally been a function carried out by police officers. Recently, civilians have been introduced into Canadian Forensic Identification Units (FIUs) in a limited capacity, but the experiences of civilian personnel have yet to be explored. The current study uses a qualitative thematic analysis of interviews conducted with 45 forensic identification personnel, regarding their experiences with the integration of civilians into FIUs across Canada to better understand the cultural barriers that impede civilians from successfully integrating into law enforcement. The aim of this study was to explore the benefits and challenges of civilianization. Though the findings suggest that there are extensive benefits associated with civilianizing FIUs, there are deeply rooted systemic challenges hindering entirely civilianized units from coming into fruition. The implications of these findings for law enforcement policy and future research are explored.
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Title: argumentation element annotation modeling using xlnet.
Abstract: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of XLNet, a transformer-based language model, for annotating argumentative elements in persuasive essays. XLNet's architecture incorporates a recurrent mechanism that allows it to model long-term dependencies in lengthy texts. Fine-tuned XLNet models were applied to three datasets annotated with different schemes - a proprietary dataset using the Annotations for Revisions and Reflections on Writing (ARROW) scheme, the PERSUADE corpus, and the Argument Annotated Essays (AAE) dataset. The XLNet models achieved strong performance across all datasets, even surpassing human agreement levels in some cases. This shows XLNet capably handles diverse annotation schemes and lengthy essays. Comparisons between the model outputs on different datasets also revealed insights into the relationships between the annotation tags. Overall, XLNet's strong performance on modeling argumentative structures across diverse datasets highlights its suitability for providing automated feedback on essay organization.
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