- Log in ▼
- Our Guarantees
- Our Services
- How it Works
Write my nursing research proposal
When writing a nursing research proposal, there are a few key things to remember. First, it is essential to be clear and concise in your proposal. You will need to identify the problem or question you want to investigate and the purpose of your research. Write my nursing research proposal:
It is also crucial to explain how your research will contribute to solving the problem or answering the question. Additionally, you will need to detail the methods you will use to collect and analyze data. You may feel overwhelmed if you are assigned the task of writing a research proposal. But don’t worry- help is here!
This article will detail our nursing research proposal writing service and why we are the best website to help write my nursing research proposal assignment. Among other guarantees, we ensure quality, in-depth research, timely delivery, and zero plagiarism in assignment papers.
What is a nursing research proposal?
Nursing research proposals are written proposals describing a nursing research project in detail. A nursing research proposal must be clear and concise, and it should outline the problem being addressed by the research, the purpose of the research, the methodology to be used in conducting the research, and the expected results.
A nursing research proposal should be well-written and well-organized. It should also include a literature review that discusses previous work on the topic and how it relates to the current proposal. The proposal should also include a detailed plan for conducting the research and a timeline for completing the project.
What is the importance of a nursing research proposal?
Nursing research proposals are essential for nurses to get funding for their projects. Writing a good proposal is not always easy, but some tips can help. First, ensure you have a clear idea of what you want to research and why it is essential.
Second, put together a strong team of nurses working on the project with you. Finally, make sure your proposal is well-written and clear. With these tips in mind, you should be able to write a strong nursing research proposal.
A nursing research proposal contains;
- Research context
- Research questions
- Significance of the research
Challenges students face while writing a nursing research proposal
One of the challenges students face when writing a nursing research proposal is developing an appropriate research question. The question should be something that has not been fully answered by previous research and will contribute to the body of knowledge in the nursing field.
Another challenge is to develop a sound methodology that will answer the research question ethically and rigorously. The proposal’s methodology section must be well thought out and defendable to gain approval from the committee.
Finally, most students struggle to write a literature review that critically evaluates existing research on the topic and provides a rationale for why the proposed research is needed.
Buy Nursing Research Proposal
If you want help writing a nursing research proposal, you have come to the right place. At onlinenursingpapers.com, we offer professional and affordable nursing research proposal writing services. A nursing research proposal is a document that provides a detailed plan for a research project that is to be conducted.
The proposal should provide an overview of the problem or issue to be addressed and the proposed methodology for conducting the research. The nursing research proposal should also include a literature review to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the topic.
Nursing research proposal writing services
If you are a nursing student and have been asked to write a research proposal, you may be wondering where to turn for help. Luckily, there are now many online nursing research proposal writing services that can help you get the job done.
When choosing a nursing research proposal writing service, selecting one with experience in your specific area of interest is important. This will ensure that they are familiar with the latest research and can help you develop a strong proposal.
Another important consideration is cost. While you want to find an affordable service, be sure to also consider the quality of their work. After all, this is an essential part of your education, and you want to ensure that your research proposal is up to par.
Finally, read reviews of different nursing research proposal writing services before making your final decision.
Who will write my nursing research proposal?
If you’re a nursing student, chances are you have considered hiring someone to write my research proposal. After all, the research proposal is one of the essential parts of your nursing degree. It’s your chance to show your professors what you’re made of and prove that you have what it takes to be a successful nurse.
Your main concern might be who will write my nursing research proposal. Many online nursing research proposal writing services offer to write nursing research proposals for a fee. This can be a great option if you don’t have the time or skills to write the proposal yourself. Here are some things to keep in mind when hiring someone to write my nursing research proposal:
- Make sure you choose a reputable service
Many scammers out there take your money and do not deliver a quality product. Do your due diligence and background research online and read reviews before choosing a service.
- Ensure that the person you hire is experienced in writing nursing research proposals
Many online services claim they can write an effective proposal, but not all have the experience or knowledge necessary to do a good job. Do not compromise your performance through the use of mediocre services .
- Hire an expert writer
Ensure the person you hire is familiar with the specific requirements of your nursing program.
- Be clear about what you want
Give the writer as much information as possible about your project so they can create a proposal that meets your needs.
- Don’t be afraid to negotiate and state the deadline
Most writers are open to negotiating prices, especially if you’re hiring them for a large project.
Why choose our services?
We have a team of experienced and skilled nursing research proposal writers who are familiar with various research methods and can help you develop a compelling and well-written nursing research proposal. We understand that this document is very important for your career, and we will do everything possible to ensure that it meets your needs and expectations.
Our nursing research proposal writers online are graduates from top medical institutions around the world. They include; doctors, nurses, and clinical officers, among others. They have field and industry knowledge and years of experience offering freelance nursing research proposal writing services.
Cheap nursing research proposal
If you’re looking for a cheap nursing research proposal writing service, you’ve come to the right place. At olinenursingpapers.com , we know how important it is to get your research proposal done right. That’s why we offer a 100% satisfaction guarantee on all our services.
Buy nursing research proposals at a low fee. We understand that finding a reliable and affordable writing service can be tricky. That’s why we’ve gone out of our way to ensure that our prices are as low as possible. We know that students are on a budget, so we want to ensure that we provide the best possible value for their money.
We also offer a variety of discounts and promotions throughout the year, so be sure to check back often! We have safe and secure payment methods; among them are visa cards, debit cards, and PayPal. If you are not satisfied with the quality of the assignment, you can ask for revision. We offer unlimited revisions at no extra cost. we also have a money-back guarantee if the paper does not meet your expectations.
You ask us to write my nursing research proposal or do my nursing research proposal at your convenience. We have a 24/7 service that will handle any assignment regardless of the deadline or complexity. Our services are 100 % original and honest. We pass your final copy of your assignment through plagiarism tools to ensure there is no duplicate copy.
Our order process is easy;
- Create an account
- Fill out the order form
- Attach the details of your assignment and any reference material you wish the writer to refer to
- Choose a writer
- Make a Payment
- Follow on your order
- Download the order
Order for Nursing Research Proposal Writing Services
Much research goes into writing a nursing research proposal. It is important to follow the required steps and format to ensure the proposal is correctly written and well-received by the desired audience. With careful planning and attention to detail, any nurse can successfully write a nursing research proposal.
It is time-consuming to write a research paper. It would be better if you asked reputable nursing research proposal writing services to help write my nursing research proposal. We are a reputed
Online site. Order your paper online and get it written and delivered before the deadline.
Why We Are the Best
- 100% non-plagiarized Papers
- Dedicated nursing and healthcare writers
- 24/7 /365 Service Available
- Affordable Prices
- Money-back and Privacy guarantees
- Unlimited Amendments upon request
- Satisfaction guarantee
- Online Nursing Assignment Help
- Nursing Assignment Help
- Nursing Dissertation Writing Services
- Nursing Capstone Project Writing Services
- Best Nursing Essay Writing Company
- Best Online Nursing Assignment Help
- Nursing Term Paper Writing Services
- Nursing Report Writing Services
- Nursing Annotated Bibliography by Professional
- Nursing Essay Assignments
- Nursing Assignment Writing
- Nursing Case Study Writing Services
- Nursing Coursework Writing
- Online Nursing Research Paper writing service
- PICO Question Examples
- Nursing Thesis Writing Services
- Nursing Research Paper Writing Services
- Nursing Presentation Writing
- Terms and Conditions
- Epidemiology assignment help
- Write my nursing dissertation for Me
- Nursing Essay Writing Service
Nursing Project Proposal Template
As a nurse, you know that every project in healthcare requires careful planning and execution. Whether you're proposing a new research study, implementing a quality improvement initiative, or developing a training program, having a solid project proposal is essential. That's where ClickUp's Nursing Project Proposal Template comes in!
With ClickUp's Nursing Project Proposal Template, you can:
- Clearly outline your project objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes
- Identify key stakeholders and their roles in the project
- Create a detailed timeline and allocate resources effectively
- Track progress and milestones to ensure project success
No matter the size or complexity of your nursing project, ClickUp's template will help you streamline the proposal process and get your project off to a strong start. Start using ClickUp today and take your nursing projects to the next level!
Benefits of Nursing Project Proposal Template
The Nursing Project Proposal Template is a valuable tool for nurses and healthcare professionals looking to streamline their project planning process. Here are some of the benefits of using this template:
- Ensures a structured approach to project planning and execution
- Helps identify project objectives, scope, and deliverables
- Facilitates effective communication and collaboration among team members
- Provides a clear timeline and milestones for project completion
- Allows for efficient allocation of resources and budget management
- Enhances project documentation and reporting for future reference
- Promotes accountability and transparency throughout the project lifecycle
- Increases the chances of project success and positive outcomes for patients and healthcare organizations.
Main Elements of Nursing Project Proposal Template
ClickUp's Nursing Project Proposal template is designed to help you streamline your project planning process and ensure successful execution. Here are the main elements of this Whiteboard template:
- Custom Statuses: Track the progress of your nursing project with two statuses - Open and Complete, allowing you to easily visualize the current stage of each task or project.
- Custom Fields: Utilize custom fields to capture essential information related to your nursing project, such as project name, start date, end date, project owner, and any other relevant details that will help you effectively manage and monitor the project.
- Custom Views: Access two different views tailored specifically for nursing project proposals - the Project Proposal view and the Getting Started Guide view. The Project Proposal view provides a comprehensive overview of the project, including goals, objectives, timelines, and resources required. The Getting Started Guide view offers a step-by-step guide to help you kickstart your nursing project smoothly.
- Collaboration Tools: Leverage ClickUp's collaboration features, such as task comments, file attachments, and real-time collaboration, to foster seamless communication and collaboration among your nursing project team members.
How to Use Project Proposal for Nurses
If you're a nurse working on a project proposal, using the Nursing Project Proposal Template in ClickUp can help streamline the process. Here are six steps to guide you:
1. Define the project scope and objectives
Start by clearly defining the scope and objectives of your nursing project. What problem are you trying to solve or what improvement are you aiming for? Clearly articulate the goals and outcomes you hope to achieve with this project.
Use the Docs feature in ClickUp to draft a detailed project scope and objective statement.
2. Conduct research and gather data
To support your project proposal, gather relevant research and data that will help validate the need for your project. This can include statistics, case studies, and academic articles. The more evidence you have to support your proposal, the stronger your case will be.
Use the Docs feature in ClickUp to compile and organize your research findings.
3. Develop an implementation plan
Create a detailed plan for how you will implement your nursing project. Break it down into tasks and milestones, assigning responsibilities to team members if applicable. This plan should outline the timeline, budget, and necessary resources needed to successfully execute the project.
Utilize the Gantt chart feature in ClickUp to visualize and manage your project timeline and dependencies.
4. Outline the project budget
Estimate the costs associated with your nursing project, including personnel, supplies, equipment, and any other expenses. Be as thorough as possible to ensure you have a realistic budget that covers all necessary aspects of the project.
Use the Table view in ClickUp to create a budget spreadsheet and track your projected expenses.
5. Create a project timeline
Develop a timeline that outlines the key milestones and deadlines for your nursing project. This will help you stay on track and ensure that all tasks are completed in a timely manner. Consider any dependencies or constraints that may impact the timeline.
Utilize the Calendar view in ClickUp to visualize and manage your project timeline, including important dates and deadlines.
6. Review and finalize the proposal
Before submitting your project proposal, review it thoroughly for clarity, coherence, and accuracy. Ensure that all sections are well-written, and that the proposal effectively communicates the importance and feasibility of your nursing project. Seek feedback from colleagues or mentors to strengthen your proposal further.
Use the Docs feature in ClickUp to collaborate with others and gather feedback on your project proposal.
By following these six steps and utilizing the features in ClickUp, you can effectively use the Nursing Project Proposal Template to create a compelling and well-organized proposal for your nursing project. Good luck!
Get Started with ClickUp's Nursing Project Proposal Template
Nurses and healthcare professionals can use this Nursing Project Proposal Template to effectively plan and execute important projects in their facilities.
First, hit “Get Free Solution” to sign up for ClickUp and add the template to your Workspace. Make sure you designate which Space or location in your Workspace you’d like this template applied.
Next, invite relevant members or guests to your Workspace to start collaborating.
Now you can take advantage of the full potential of this template to manage nursing projects:
- Use the Project Proposal View to outline the details and goals of the project, ensuring a clear plan from the start
- The Getting Started Guide View provides a step-by-step process to help you kickstart the project smoothly
- Organize tasks into two different statuses: Open and Complete, to keep track of progress
- Assign tasks to team members to distribute responsibilities and ensure accountability
- Set due dates for each task to prioritize and ensure timely completion
- Utilize subtasks to break down complex projects into manageable parts
- Set up notifications to stay informed about task updates and progress
- Monitor and analyze tasks to ensure maximum productivity and successful project completion
- Gender Project Proposal Template
- Landscaping Project Proposal Template
- Joint Venture Project Proposal Template
- Library Construction Project Proposal Template
- R&D Project Proposal Template
Expand to see 2 statuses, expand to see 2 view types.
- Project Proposal
- Getting Started Guide
Sign up for FREE and start using ClickUp in seconds!
Writing a research proposal
- Table of Contents
Research proposal refers to the description of what the researcher wants to investigate, why it’s important, and how the research will be done.
- The format of a research proposal varies between fields and from institution to institution
Note : A research proposal is written in the future tense because it tells the reader what the researcher intends to undertake.
Read the above NOTE again Please!
Importance of Writing Research Proposals.
Securing Funding: Research proposals allow nurses to request financial support or grants to conduct their proposed studies. This funding is vital for obtaining necessary resources, such as equipment, materials, and personnel, required for the research.
Guiding Research: A research proposal acts as a roadmap for the researcher. It outlines the plan and steps to be followed throughout the research effort, helping nurses stay focused and organized as they conduct their studies.
Meeting Certification Requirements: Research committees often require a well-structured proposal before approving studies involving human or animal subjects. Writing a research proposal ensures that the necessary ethical considerations and safeguards are in place before the research begins.
Generating New Ideas: The process of writing a research proposal stimulates critical thinking. Nurses often gain deeper insights into their chosen topic and generate new ideas during the proposal-writing stage.
Establishing Feasibility: A research proposal forces nurses to consider the practical aspects of their projects. It helps in estimating the time, resources, and effort required, ensuring that the research is feasible within the available constraints.
Educational Requirement: Many tertiary education programs in Uganda require students to write research proposals as a prerequisite for embarking on a research project or dissertation. This prepares nurses for the rigorous research process ahead.
Anticipating Limitations: Writing a research proposal encourages nurses to identify potential limitations and challenges that may arise during the study. This proactive approach allows for better planning and strategizing to overcome these obstacles.
Aims of a research proposal
A research proposal aims to achieve the following objectives:
Captivating Interest: Your proposal should convince readers that your research project is engaging, original, and holds significance in the field of nursing. It should highlight the importance of your study’s contribution.
Demonstrating Expertise: By showcasing your familiarity with the subject and the existing research landscape, your proposal establishes that you have a solid understanding of the current state of knowledge in the field.
Validating Methodology: The proposal outlines your chosen research methodology, indicating that you have thoughtfully considered the tools, data, and procedures required for a rigorous and valid study.
Practical Viability: Your proposal should confirm that your research project is feasible within the practical limitations of your program, institution, or available funding. This demonstrates that your study can realistically be conducted as planned.
How to write a research proposal
Contents/ components of a research proposal: The proposal consists of; a title/ topic , chapter 1, chapter 2, chapter 3, reference list, and an appendix with; a budget schedule, and other relevant information such as questionnaire and map of study area.
- The proposed title of your research
- Index number
- The institution and department
- The layout varies from institution to institution
- Title Page
- Declaration Page
- Copyright Page
- Authorization Page/Approval page
- Preface or Acknowledgement (if applicable)
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- Definition of terms
MAIN BODY – BODY OF THE PROPOSAL
- Chapter one- Introduction
- Chapter two- Literature review
- Chapter three- Methodology
Finally, there should be REFERENCES and APPENDICES (APPENDIX)
- Appendix I: Consent Form
- Appendix II: Research Work Plan
- Appendix III: Estimated Research Budget
- Appendix IV: Questionnaire for Participants
- Appendix V: Sample Size Determination
CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION
This tells us in detail what your study is all about. It intends to introduce the topic to the readers interested in your research.
It has the following sub sections;
1.0 Introduction of the chapter
1.1 background to the study topic, 1.2 problem statement.
- 1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Specific objectives
- 1.5 Research questions
- 1.6 Justification of the study
- This briefly summarises the what the chapter is all about.
- It aims at giving the reader what he/she should find in this chapter.
- It provides information to prepare the minds of the readers to comprehend the problem under investigation.
- Describe your topic i.e. describe your dependent variable (define it & link it to the independent variables where possible).
- Provide evidence of the existing problem from a universal view to local (global, continental, regions, countries), highlighting the gaps.
- Make the reader understand the past (origin), present, and future states of affairs/problem.
- Introduction should not exceed 2 pages (About 600 words, Font type: Times New Roman, Font size 12; 1.5 line spacing) – Makerere Research format.
- Use APA (American Psychological Association) for in-text referencing in the introduction.
- An overview of the study and what is its context/situation across different regions in the world.
- Understand the situation of your research problem globally, regionally and locally
- It is an in-depth explanation of how big is the problem you are studying
- It aims at convincing the reader that your problem is worth studying
- Usually it should not exceed three pages
The problem statement must be concise and clear, not exceeding one page. It should address the following seven questions:
- To what extent is the problem manifested statistically?
- What is the state of the problem in your country?
- How does the problem progress over the years, for example, in 2007, in 2008, and so on (you can reference studies)?
- What is the effect of the problem on the target population?
- What efforts have been made to address the problem, e.g., by government ministries, organizations, etc.?
- What is the existing gap? (For instance, despite…, comparing the magnitude of the problem…)
- What is the proposed way forward? (e.g., therefore, I need to conduct the study”)
It therefore summarizes the following;
- Magnitude of the problem
- The actual problem
- Consequences/Effects of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the study(Aims)
- Also called GENERAL or BROAD OBJECTIVES.
- Refers to the general intention of the research.
- Should spell out what the research is supposed to accomplish.
- It is usually duplicated from the topic but with an element of action in it. For example : To identify/establish the factors affecting the rate of spread of bedbugs among male students in Gaddafi hall at Mulago 😂
- When stating the objective, make sure it is complete (indicate the target population and study area).
- When writing the objective, do not use words with immeasurable elements such as to study, understand, or know. Use words like Evaluate, Assess, Examine, Establish, Investigate, Identify, Determine, Extent, and Magnitude.
- Not more than 4, not less than 2, Average 3 specific objects in number.
- S – Specific (to one thing) – meaning that it should clearly state what the researcher intends to achieve. This means to should be free from any unclear interruptions
- M – Measurable : do not use words like to study, understand, and know. Use words like Evaluate, Assess, Examine, Establish, Investigate, Determine, Extent, and Magnitude.
- A – Achievable (Time frame and cost).
- R – Realistic (address a topic at hand) – the objective must be stated in a sensible and practical idea of what can be expected and achieved.
- T – Time-bound – what the researcher wants to do should be set to be done in a given period of time
- Directly related to the problem (Every objective should be answering a title/topic).
- Relevant to a particular study.
- Appropriately worded (Objectives must be complete (E.g. stating the target population and study area (location)).
1.5 Research question(s)
- Research questions are like specific objectives but with question Marks (?)
- These are directly extracted from the specific objectives of the research
- They are stated in the questions form so that at the end of the research, we can evaluate to see if these questions have been answered
Objective : To assess the knowledge of mothers towards oral medicine administration of there children below 5 years.
Question : What knowledge do mothers have towards administration of oral medicine to there children below 5 years?
1.6 Justification of the study
To justify is to defend, to give reasons why or to give an explanation. Justification of the research problem is to explain to the reader why this study is worth to be done. Also known as Significance of the study .
- Why? (Would the world collapse if this research is not conducted?)
- Why have you chosen that specific part of the world for your study?
- Whenever possible, use statistics to reinforce your point (e.g., “Hospital records show that observation…,” “On observation…”).
- Should not exceed more than one paragraph.
- Can be interconnected with the justification.
- How does it benefit the target population, Ministries, hospitals, NGOs, etc.?
- Significance pertains to the study’s relevance both academically and in practical applications. (For example, “Upon completion, this study’s results will prove valuable in…”)
Do the quiz below to test yourself. They are only 10 Objectives.
WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL Quiz
Quiz only for WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL Sub Topic.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
5 thoughts on “writing a research proposal”.
It was quite challenging but worth a trial
And you got 9/10, that was impressive.
Research is tough but we shdnt get tired of trying
That’s right, did you take the quiz though?
Nothing come easy but it’s good that we have noticed the nature of research
Leave a Comment Cancel Reply
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *
Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
Contact us to get permission to Copy
We encourage getting a pen and taking notes,
that way, the website will be useful.
An official website of the United States government
The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.
The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.
- Account settings
- Advanced Search
- Journal List
- Indian J Anaesth
- v.60(9); 2016 Sep
How to write a research proposal?
Department of Anaesthesiology, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Devika Rani Duggappa
Writing the proposal of a research work in the present era is a challenging task due to the constantly evolving trends in the qualitative research design and the need to incorporate medical advances into the methodology. The proposal is a detailed plan or ‘blueprint’ for the intended study, and once it is completed, the research project should flow smoothly. Even today, many of the proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals for funding are substandard. A search was conducted with keywords such as research proposal, writing proposal and qualitative using search engines, namely, PubMed and Google Scholar, and an attempt has been made to provide broad guidelines for writing a scientifically appropriate research proposal.
A clean, well-thought-out proposal forms the backbone for the research itself and hence becomes the most important step in the process of conduct of research.[ 1 ] The objective of preparing a research proposal would be to obtain approvals from various committees including ethics committee [details under ‘Research methodology II’ section [ Table 1 ] in this issue of IJA) and to request for grants. However, there are very few universally accepted guidelines for preparation of a good quality research proposal. A search was performed with keywords such as research proposal, funding, qualitative and writing proposals using search engines, namely, PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus.
Five ‘C’s while writing a literature review
BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF A RESEARCH PROPOSAL
A proposal needs to show how your work fits into what is already known about the topic and what new paradigm will it add to the literature, while specifying the question that the research will answer, establishing its significance, and the implications of the answer.[ 2 ] The proposal must be capable of convincing the evaluation committee about the credibility, achievability, practicality and reproducibility (repeatability) of the research design.[ 3 ] Four categories of audience with different expectations may be present in the evaluation committees, namely academic colleagues, policy-makers, practitioners and lay audiences who evaluate the research proposal. Tips for preparation of a good research proposal include; ‘be practical, be persuasive, make broader links, aim for crystal clarity and plan before you write’. A researcher must be balanced, with a realistic understanding of what can be achieved. Being persuasive implies that researcher must be able to convince other researchers, research funding agencies, educational institutions and supervisors that the research is worth getting approval. The aim of the researcher should be clearly stated in simple language that describes the research in a way that non-specialists can comprehend, without use of jargons. The proposal must not only demonstrate that it is based on an intelligent understanding of the existing literature but also show that the writer has thought about the time needed to conduct each stage of the research.[ 4 , 5 ]
CONTENTS OF A RESEARCH PROPOSAL
The contents or formats of a research proposal vary depending on the requirements of evaluation committee and are generally provided by the evaluation committee or the institution.
In general, a cover page should contain the (i) title of the proposal, (ii) name and affiliation of the researcher (principal investigator) and co-investigators, (iii) institutional affiliation (degree of the investigator and the name of institution where the study will be performed), details of contact such as phone numbers, E-mail id's and lines for signatures of investigators.
The main contents of the proposal may be presented under the following headings: (i) introduction, (ii) review of literature, (iii) aims and objectives, (iv) research design and methods, (v) ethical considerations, (vi) budget, (vii) appendices and (viii) citations.[ 4 ]
It is also sometimes termed as ‘need for study’ or ‘abstract’. Introduction is an initial pitch of an idea; it sets the scene and puts the research in context.[ 6 ] The introduction should be designed to create interest in the reader about the topic and proposal. It should convey to the reader, what you want to do, what necessitates the study and your passion for the topic.[ 7 ] Some questions that can be used to assess the significance of the study are: (i) Who has an interest in the domain of inquiry? (ii) What do we already know about the topic? (iii) What has not been answered adequately in previous research and practice? (iv) How will this research add to knowledge, practice and policy in this area? Some of the evaluation committees, expect the last two questions, elaborated under a separate heading of ‘background and significance’.[ 8 ] Introduction should also contain the hypothesis behind the research design. If hypothesis cannot be constructed, the line of inquiry to be used in the research must be indicated.
Review of literature
It refers to all sources of scientific evidence pertaining to the topic in interest. In the present era of digitalisation and easy accessibility, there is an enormous amount of relevant data available, making it a challenge for the researcher to include all of it in his/her review.[ 9 ] It is crucial to structure this section intelligently so that the reader can grasp the argument related to your study in relation to that of other researchers, while still demonstrating to your readers that your work is original and innovative. It is preferable to summarise each article in a paragraph, highlighting the details pertinent to the topic of interest. The progression of review can move from the more general to the more focused studies, or a historical progression can be used to develop the story, without making it exhaustive.[ 1 ] Literature should include supporting data, disagreements and controversies. Five ‘C's may be kept in mind while writing a literature review[ 10 ] [ Table 1 ].
Aims and objectives
The research purpose (or goal or aim) gives a broad indication of what the researcher wishes to achieve in the research. The hypothesis to be tested can be the aim of the study. The objectives related to parameters or tools used to achieve the aim are generally categorised as primary and secondary objectives.
Research design and method
The objective here is to convince the reader that the overall research design and methods of analysis will correctly address the research problem and to impress upon the reader that the methodology/sources chosen are appropriate for the specific topic. It should be unmistakably tied to the specific aims of your study.
In this section, the methods and sources used to conduct the research must be discussed, including specific references to sites, databases, key texts or authors that will be indispensable to the project. There should be specific mention about the methodological approaches to be undertaken to gather information, about the techniques to be used to analyse it and about the tests of external validity to which researcher is committed.[ 10 , 11 ]
The components of this section include the following:[ 4 ]
Population and sample
Population refers to all the elements (individuals, objects or substances) that meet certain criteria for inclusion in a given universe,[ 12 ] and sample refers to subset of population which meets the inclusion criteria for enrolment into the study. The inclusion and exclusion criteria should be clearly defined. The details pertaining to sample size are discussed in the article “Sample size calculation: Basic priniciples” published in this issue of IJA.
The researcher is expected to give a detailed account of the methodology adopted for collection of data, which include the time frame required for the research. The methodology should be tested for its validity and ensure that, in pursuit of achieving the results, the participant's life is not jeopardised. The author should anticipate and acknowledge any potential barrier and pitfall in carrying out the research design and explain plans to address them, thereby avoiding lacunae due to incomplete data collection. If the researcher is planning to acquire data through interviews or questionnaires, copy of the questions used for the same should be attached as an annexure with the proposal.
Rigor (soundness of the research)
This addresses the strength of the research with respect to its neutrality, consistency and applicability. Rigor must be reflected throughout the proposal.
It refers to the robustness of a research method against bias. The author should convey the measures taken to avoid bias, viz. blinding and randomisation, in an elaborate way, thus ensuring that the result obtained from the adopted method is purely as chance and not influenced by other confounding variables.
Consistency considers whether the findings will be consistent if the inquiry was replicated with the same participants and in a similar context. This can be achieved by adopting standard and universally accepted methods and scales.
Applicability refers to the degree to which the findings can be applied to different contexts and groups.[ 13 ]
This section deals with the reduction and reconstruction of data and its analysis including sample size calculation. The researcher is expected to explain the steps adopted for coding and sorting the data obtained. Various tests to be used to analyse the data for its robustness, significance should be clearly stated. Author should also mention the names of statistician and suitable software which will be used in due course of data analysis and their contribution to data analysis and sample calculation.[ 9 ]
Medical research introduces special moral and ethical problems that are not usually encountered by other researchers during data collection, and hence, the researcher should take special care in ensuring that ethical standards are met. Ethical considerations refer to the protection of the participants' rights (right to self-determination, right to privacy, right to autonomy and confidentiality, right to fair treatment and right to protection from discomfort and harm), obtaining informed consent and the institutional review process (ethical approval). The researcher needs to provide adequate information on each of these aspects.
Informed consent needs to be obtained from the participants (details discussed in further chapters), as well as the research site and the relevant authorities.
When the researcher prepares a research budget, he/she should predict and cost all aspects of the research and then add an additional allowance for unpredictable disasters, delays and rising costs. All items in the budget should be justified.
Appendices are documents that support the proposal and application. The appendices will be specific for each proposal but documents that are usually required include informed consent form, supporting documents, questionnaires, measurement tools and patient information of the study in layman's language.
As with any scholarly research paper, you must cite the sources you used in composing your proposal. Although the words ‘references and bibliography’ are different, they are used interchangeably. It refers to all references cited in the research proposal.
Successful, qualitative research proposals should communicate the researcher's knowledge of the field and method and convey the emergent nature of the qualitative design. The proposal should follow a discernible logic from the introduction to presentation of the appendices.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest.
There are no conflicts of interest.
Fastest Nurse Insight Engine
- MEDICAL ASSISSTANT
- Abdominal Key
- Anesthesia Key
- Basicmedical Key
- Otolaryngology & Ophthalmology
- Musculoskeletal Key
- Obstetric, Gynecology and Pediatric
- Oncology & Hematology
- Plastic Surgery & Dermatology
- Clinical Dentistry
- Radiology Key
- Thoracic Key
- Veterinary Medicine
- Gold Membership
Writing Research Proposals
Chapter 28 Writing Research Proposals evolve.elsevier.com/Grove/practice/ With a background in the quantitative, qualitative, outcomes, and intervention research methodologies, you are ready to propose a study. A research proposal is a written plan that identifies the major elements of a study, such as the research problem, purpose, and framework, and outlines the methods and procedures to conduct the proposed study. A proposal is a formal way to communicate ideas about a study to seek approval to conduct the study and obtain funding. Researchers who are seeking approval to conduct a study submit the proposal to a select group for review and, in many situations, verbally defend the proposal. Receiving approval to conduct research has become more complicated because of the increasing complexity of nursing studies, the difficulty involved in recruiting study participants, and increasing concerns over legal and ethical issues. In many large hospitals and healthcare corporations, both the lawyer and the institutional review board (IRB) evaluate the research proposals. The expanded number of healthcare studies being conducted has led to conflict among investigators over who has the right to recruit potential research participants. The increased number of proposed studies has resulted in greater difficulty in obtaining funding. Researchers need to develop a quality study proposal to facilitate university and clinical agency IRB approval, obtain funding, and conduct the study successfully. This chapter focuses on writing a research proposal and seeking approval to conduct a study. Chapter 29 presents the process of seeking funding for research. Writing a Research Proposal A well-written proposal communicates a significant, carefully planned research project; shows the qualifications of the researchers; and generates support for the project. Conducting research requires precision and rigorous attention to detail. Reviewers often judge a researcher’s ability to conduct a study by the quality of the proposal. A quality study proposal is clear, concise, and complete. Writing a quality proposal involves (1) developing ideas logically, (2) determining the depth or detail of the content of the proposal, (3) identifying critical points in the proposal, and (4) developing an esthetically appealing copy (Martin & Fleming, 2010; Merrill, 2011 ; Offredy & Vickers, 2010 ). Developing Ideas Logically The ideas in a research proposal must logically build on each other to justify or defend a study, just as a lawyer would logically organize information in the defense of a client. The researcher builds a case to justify why a problem should be studied and proposes the appropriate methodology for conducting the study. Each step in the research proposal builds on the problem statement to give a clear picture of the study and its merit (Merrill, 2011). Universities, medical centers, federal funding agencies, and grant writing consultants have developed websites to help researchers write successful proposals for quantitative, qualitative, outcomes, and intervention research. For example, the University of Michigan provides an online guide for proposal development ( www.drda.umich.edu/proposals/PWG/pwgcomplete.html ). The National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR, 2012 ) provides online training for developing nurse scientists at www.ninr.nih.gov/Training/OnlineDevelopingNurseScientists/ . You can use a search engine of your choice, such as Google, and search for research proposal development training; proposal writing tips; courses on proposal development; and proposal guidelines for different universities, medical centers, and government agencies. In addition, various publications have been developed to help individuals improve their scientific writing skills ( American Psychological Association [APA], 2010 ; Offredy & Vickers, 2010 ; Turabian, Booth, Colomb, & Williams, 2007 ; University of Chicago Press Staff, 2010 ). Determining the Depth of a Proposal The depth or detail of the content of a proposal is determined by guidelines developed by colleges or schools of nursing, funding agencies, and institutions where research is conducted. Guidelines provide specific directions for the development of a proposal and should be followed explicitly. Omission or misinterpretation of a guideline is frequently the basis for rejection or requiring revision. In addition to following the guidelines, you need to determine the amount of information necessary to describe each step of your study clearly. Often the reviewers of your proposal have varied expertise in the area of your study. The content in a proposal needs to be detailed enough to inform different types of readers yet concise enough to be interesting and easily reviewed (Martin & Fleming, 2010). The guidelines often stipulate a page limit, which determines the depth of the proposal. The relevant content of a research proposal is discussed later in this chapter and varies based on the purpose of the proposal. Identifying Critical Points The key or critical points in a proposal must be evident, even to a hasty reader. You might highlight your critical points with bold or italicized type. Sometimes researchers create headings to emphasize critical content, or they may organize the content into tables or graphs. It is critical in a proposal to detail the background and significance of the research problem and purpose, study methodology, and research production plans (data collection and analysis plan, personnel, schedule, and budget) (APA, 2010; Offredy & Vickers, 2010 ; Turabian et al., 2007 ). Developing an Esthetically Appealing Copy An esthetically appealing copy is typed without spelling, punctuation, or grammatical errors. A proposal with excellent content that is poorly typed or formatted is not likely to receive the full attention or respect of the reviewers. The format used in typing the proposal should follow the guidelines developed by the reviewers or organization. If no particular format is requested, researchers commonly follow APA (2010) format. An appealing copy is legible (the print is dark enough to be read) with appropriate tables and figures to communicate essential information. You need to submit the proposal by the means requested as a mailed hard copy, an email attachment, or uploaded file. Content of a Research Proposal The content of a proposal is written with the interest and expertise of the reviewers in mind. Proposals are typically reviewed by faculty, clinical agency IRB members, and representatives of funding institutions. The content of a proposal varies with the reviewers, the guidelines developed for the review, and the type of study (quantitative or qualitative) proposed. This section addresses the content of (1) a student proposal for both quantitative and qualitative studies, (2) condensed research proposals, and (3) preproposals. Content of a Student Proposal Student researchers develop proposals to communicate their research projects to the faculty and members of university and agency IRBs (see Chapter 9 for details on IRB membership and the approval process). Student proposals are written to satisfy requirements for a degree and are usually developed according to guidelines outlined by the faculty. The faculty member who will be assisting with the research project (the chair of the student’s thesis or dissertation committee) generally reviews these guidelines with the student. Each faculty member has a unique way of interpreting and emphasizing aspects of the guidelines. In addition, a student needs to evaluate the faculty member’s background regarding a research topic of interest and determine whether a productive working relationship can be developed. Faculty members who are actively involved in their own research have extensive knowledge and expertise that can be helpful to a novice researcher. Both the student and the faculty member benefit when a student becomes involved in an aspect of the faculty member’s research. This collaborative relationship can lead to the development of essential knowledge for providing evidenced-based nursing practice ( Brown, 2009 ; Craig & Smyth, 2012 ; Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2011 ). The content of a student proposal usually requires greater detail than a proposal developed for an agency or funding organization. The proposal is often the first three or four chapters of the student’s thesis or dissertation, and the proposed study is discussed in the future tense—that is, what the student will do in conducting the research. A student research proposal usually includes a title page with the title of the proposal, the name and credentials of the investigator, university name, and the date. You need to devote time to developing the title so that it accurately reflects the scope and content of the proposed study (Martin & Fleming, 2010). Content of a Quantitative Research Proposal A quantitative research proposal usually includes a table of contents that reflects the following chapters or sections: (1) introduction, (2) review of relevant literature, (3) framework, and (4) methods and procedures. Some graduate schools require in-depth development of these sections, whereas others require a condensed version of the same content. Another approach is that proposals for theses and dissertations be written in a format that can be transformed into a publication. Table 28-1 outlines the content often covered in the chapters of a student quantitative research proposal. TABLE 28-1 Quantitative Research Proposal Guidelines for Students Chapter I Introduction A. Background and significance of the problem B. Statement of the problem C. Statement of the purpose Chapter II Review of Relevant Literature A. Review of theoretical literature B. Review of relevant research C. Summary Chapter III Framework A. Development of a framework (Develop a map of the study framework, define concepts in the map, describe relationships or propositions in the map, indicate the focus of the study, and link concepts to study variables) B. Formulation of objectives, questions, or hypotheses C. Definitions (conceptual and operational) of study variables D. Definition of relevant terms Chapter IV Methods and Procedures A. Description of the research design (Model of the design, strengths and weaknesses of the design validity) B. Identification of the population and sample (Sample size, use of power analysis, sample criteria, and sampling method including strengths and weaknesses) C. Selection of a setting (Strengths and weaknesses of the setting) D. Presentation of ethical considerations (Protection of subjects’ rights and university and healthcare agency review processes) E. Description of the intervention if appropriate for the type of study (Provide a protocol for implementing the intervention, detail who will implement the intervention, and describe how intervention fidelity is ensured) F. Selection of measurement methods (Reliability, validity, scoring, and level of measurement of the instruments as well as plans for examining reliability and validity of the instruments in the present study; precision and accuracy of physiological measures) G. Plan for data collection (Data collection process, training of data collectors if appropriate, schedule, data collection forms, and management of data) H. Plan for data analysis (Analysis of demographic data; analyses for research objectives, questions, or hypotheses; level of significance if appropriate; and other analysis techniques) I. Identification of limitations (Methodological and theoretical limitations) J. Discussion of communication of findings References Include references cited in the proposal and follow APA (2010) format Appendices Presentation of a study budget and timetable Introduction The introductory chapter identifies the research topic and problem and discusses their significance and background. The significance of the problem addresses its importance in nursing practice and the expected generalizability of the findings. The magnitude of a problem is partly determined by the interest of nurses; other healthcare professionals; policy makers; and healthcare consumers at the local, state, national, or international level. You can document this interest with sources from the literature. The background describes how the problem was identified and historically links the problem to nursing practice. Your background information might also include one or two major studies conducted to resolve the problem, some key theoretical ideas related to the problem, and possible solutions to the problem. The background and significance form the basis for your problem statement, which identifies what is not known and the need for further research. Follow your problem statement with a succinct statement of the research purpose or the goal of the study (see Chapter 5) ( Martin & Fleming, 2010 ; Merrill, 2011 ). Review of Relevant Literature The review of relevant literature provides an overview of the essential information that will guide you as you develop your study and includes relevant theoretical and empirical literature (see Table 28-1). Theoretical literature provides a background for defining and interrelating relevant study concepts, whereas empirical literature includes a summary and critical appraisal of previous studies. Here you will discuss the recommendations made by other researchers, such as changing or expanding a study, in relation to the proposed study. The depth of the literature review varies; it might include only recent studies and theorists’ works, or it might be extensive and include a description and critical appraisal of many past and current studies and an in-depth discussion of theorists’ works. The literature review might be presented in a narrative format or in a pinch table that summarizes relevant studies (see Chapter 6 ) ( Pinch, 1995 ). The literature review shows that you have a command of the current empirical and theoretical knowledge regarding the proposed problem ( Merrill, 2011 ; Offredy & Vickers, 2010 ). This chapter concludes with a summary. The summary includes a synthesis of the theoretical literature and findings from previous research that describe the current knowledge of a problem (Merrill, 2011). Gaps in the knowledge base are also identified, with a description of how the proposed study is expected to contribute to the nursing knowledge needed for evidence-based practice. Framework A framework provides the basis for generating and refining the research problem and purpose and linking them to the relevant theoretical knowledge in nursing or related fields. The framework includes concepts and relationships among concepts or propositions, which are sometimes represented in a model or a map (see Chapter 7). Middle-range theories from nursing and other disciplines are frequently used as frameworks for quantitative studies, and the proposition or propositions to be tested from the theory need to be identified ( Smith & Liehr, 2008 ). The framework needs to include the concepts to be examined in the study, their definitions, and their link to the study variables (see Table 28-1 ). If you use another theorist’s or researcher’s model from a journal article or book, letters documenting permission to use this model from the publisher and the theorist or researcher need to be included in your proposal appendices. In some studies, research objectives, questions, or hypotheses are developed to direct the study (see Chapter 8). The objectives, questions, or hypotheses evolve from the research purpose and study framework, in particular the proposition to be tested, and identify the study variables. The variables are conceptually defined to show the link to the framework, and they are operationally defined to describe the procedures for manipulating or measuring the study variables. You also will need to define any relevant terms and to identify assumptions that provide a basis for your study. Methods and Procedures The researcher describes the design or general strategy for conducting the study, sometimes including a diagram of the design (see Chapter 11). Designs for descriptive and correlational studies are flexible and can be unique to the study being conducted ( Kerlinger & Lee, 2000 ). Because of this uniqueness, the descriptions need to include the design’s strengths and weaknesses. Presenting designs for quasi-experimental and experimental studies involves (1) describing how the research situation will be structured; (2) detailing the treatment to be implemented ( Chlan, Guttormson, & Savik, 2011 ); (3) explaining how the effect of the treatment will be measured; (4) specifying the variables to be controlled and the methods for controlling them; (5) identifying uncontrolled extraneous variables and determining their impact on the findings; (6) describing the methods for assigning subjects to the treatment group, comparison or control group, or placebo group; and (7) exploring the strengths and weaknesses of the design ( Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002 ). The design needs to account for all the objectives, questions, or hypotheses identified in the proposal. If a pilot study is planned, the design should include the procedure for conducting the pilot and for incorporating the results into the proposed study (see Table 28-1 ). Your proposal should identify the target population to which your study findings will be generalized and the accessible population from which the sample will be selected. You need to outline the inclusion and exclusion criteria you will use to select a study participant or subject and present the rationale for these sample criteria. For example, a participant might be selected according to the following sample criteria: female, age 18 to 60 years, hospitalized, and 1 day status post abdominal surgery. The rationale for these criteria might be that the researcher wants to examine the effects of a selected pain management intervention on women who have recently undergone hospitalization and abdominal surgery. The sampling method and the approximate sample size are discussed in terms of their adequacy and limitations in investigating the research purpose (Thompson, 2002). A power analysis usually is conducted to determine an adequate sample size to identify significant relationships and differences in studies (see Chapter 15 ) ( Aberson, 2010 ). A proposal includes a description of the proposed study setting, which frequently includes the name of the agency and the structure of the units or sites where the study is to be conducted. The specific setting is often identified in the proposal but not in the final research report. The agency you select should have the potential to generate the type and size of sample required for the study. Your proposal might include the number of individuals who meet the sample criteria and are cared for by the agency in a given time period. In addition, the structure and activities in the agency need to be able to accommodate the proposed design of the study. If you are not affiliated with this agency, it would be helpful if you had a letter of support for your study from the agency. Ethical considerations in a proposal include the rights of the subjects and the rights of the agency where the study is to be conducted. Describe how you plan to protect subjects’ rights as well as the risks and potential benefits of your study. Also, address the steps you will take to reduce any risks that the study might present. Many agencies require a written consent form, and that form is often included in the appendices of the proposal. With the implementation of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), healthcare agencies and providers must have a signed authorization form from patients to release their health information for research. You must also address the risks and potential benefits of the study for the institution (Martin & Fleming, 2010; Offredy & Vickers, 2010 ). If your study places the agency at risk, outline the steps you will take to reduce or eliminate these risks. It is also necessary for you to state that the proposal will be reviewed by the thesis or dissertation committee, university IRB, and agency IRB. Some quantitative studies are focused on testing the effectiveness of an intervention, such as quasi-experimental studies or randomized controlled trials. In these types of studies, the elements of the intervention and the process for implementing the intervention must be detailed (Bulecheck, Butcher, & Dochterman, 2008). You need to develop a protocol that details the elements of the intervention and the process for implementing them (see Chapter 14 and the example quasi-experimental study proposal at the end of this chapter). Intervention fidelity needs to be ensured during a study so that the intervention is consistently implemented to designated study participants ( Chlan et al., 2011 ; Santacroce, Maccarelli, & Grey, 2004 ). Describe the methods you will use to measure study variables, including each instrument’s reliability, validity, methods of scoring, and level of measurement (see Chapter 16). A plan for examining the reliability and validity of the instruments in the present study needs to be addressed. If an instrument has no reported reliability and validity, you may need to conduct a pilot study to examine these qualities. If the intent of the proposed study is to develop an instrument, describe the process of instrument development ( Waltz, Strickland, & Lenz, 2010 ). If physiological measures are used, address the accuracy, precision, sensitivity, selectivity, and error rate of the instrument ( Ryan-Wenger, 2010 ). A copy of the interview questions, questionnaires, scales, physiological measures, or other tools to be used in the study is usually included in the proposal appendices (see Chapter 17 ). You must obtain permission from the authors to use copyrighted instruments, and letters documenting that permission has been obtained must be included in the proposal appendices. The data collection plan clarifies what data are to be collected and the process for collecting the data. In this plan you will identify the data collectors, describe the data collection procedures, and present a schedule for data collection activities. If more than one person will be involved in data collection, it is important to describe methods used to train your data collectors to ensure consistency. The method of recording data is often described, and sample data recording sheets are placed in the proposal appendices. Also, discuss any special equipment you will use or develop to collect data for the study, and address data security, including the methods of data storage (see Chapter 20). The plan for data analysis identifies the analysis techniques that will be used to summarize the demographic data and answer the research objectives, questions, or hypotheses. The analysis section is best organized by the study objectives, questions, or hypotheses. The analysis techniques identified need to be appropriate for the type of data collected (Grove, 2007). For example, if an associative hypothesis is developed, correlational analysis is planned. If a researcher plans to determine differences among groups, the analysis techniques might include a t -test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) ( Munro, 2005 ). A level of significance (α = 0.05, 0.01, or 0.001) is also identified (see Chapters 21 through 25 ). Often, a researcher projects the type of results that will be generated from data analysis. Dummy tables, graphs, and charts can be developed to present these results and are included in the proposal appendices if required by the guidelines. The researcher might project possible findings for a study and indicate what support or nonsupport of a proposed hypothesis would mean in light of the study framework and previous research findings. The methods and procedures chapter of a proposal usually concludes with a discussion of the study’s limitations and a plan for communication of the findings. Both methodological and theoretical limitations are addressed. Methodological limitations might include areas of weakness in the design, sampling method, sample size, measurement tools, data collection procedures, or data analysis techniques; theoretical limitations set boundaries for the generalization of study findings. The accuracy with which the conceptual definitions and relational statements in a theory reflect reality has a direct impact on the generalization of study findings. Theory that has withstood frequent testing through research provides a stronger framework for the interpretation and generalization of findings. A plan is included for communicating the research through presentations to audiences of nurses, other health professionals, policy makers, and healthcare consumers and publication (see Chapter 27). A budget and timetable are frequently included in the proposal appendices. The budget projects the expenses for the study, which might include the cost for data collection tools and procedures; special equipment; consultants for data analysis; computer time; travel related to data collection and analysis; typing; copying; and developing, presenting, and publishing the final report. Study budgets requesting external funding for researchers’ time include investigators’ salaries and secretarial costs. You need a timetable to direct the steps of your research project and increase the chance that you will complete the project on schedule. A timetable identifies the tasks to be done, who will accomplish these tasks, and when these tasks will be completed. An example proposal for a quasi-experimental study is presented at the end of this chapter to guide you in developing your study proposal. Content of a Qualitative Research Proposal Qualitative research proposal guidelines are unique for the development of knowledge and theories using various qualitative research methods. A qualitative proposal usually includes the following content areas: (1) introduction; (2) research philosophy and general method; (3) applied method of inquiry; and (4) current knowledge, limitations, and plans for communication of the study findings (Marshall & Rossman, 2011; Munhall, 2012 ; Patton, 2002 ; Sandelowski, Davis, & Harris, 1989 ). Guidelines are presented in Table 28-2 to assist you in developing a qualitative research proposal. TABLE 28-2 Qualitative Research Proposal Guidelines for Students Chapter I Introduction A. Identify the phenomenon to be studied B. Identify the study purpose or aim and its significance C. State the study questions or objectives D. Describe the evolution of the study 1. Provide a rationale for conducting study 2. Place the study in context historically 3. Discuss the researcher’s experience with phenomenon 4. Discuss the relevance of the study to nursing Chapter II Philosophical and Conceptual Foundation and General Method for the Proposed Study A. Identify the type of qualitative research (phenomenological research, grounded theory research, ethnographic research, exploratory-descriptive qualitative research, and historical research) to be conducted B. Describe the philosophical and theoretical basis for the research method C. Explain the research assumptions D. Discuss the general steps, procedures, and outcomes for this method E. Translation of concepts or terms Chapter III Method of Inquiry A. Demonstrate the researcher’s credentials for conducting this qualitative study B. Select a site and population C. Describe the plan for the researcher’s role in the following 1. Entry into the site and approval to collect data 2. Selection of study participants 3. Ethical considerations D. Describe the plan for data collection 1. Data to be collected 2. Procedures for data collection 3. Procedures for recording data during data collection E. Describe the plan for data analysis conducted with data collection 1. Steps for coding information 2. Use of specific data analysis procedures advanced in the specific research method (phenomenology research, grounded theory research, ethnography research, exploratory-descriptive qualitative research, and historical research) 3. Steps to be taken to verify the information Chapter IV Current Knowledge, Limitations, and Plans for Communication of the Study A. Summarize and reference relevant literature as appropriate for the type of qualitative study B. Disclose anticipated findings, hypotheses, and hunches C. Discuss procedures to remain open to unexpected information D. Discuss limitations of the study E. Identify plans for communication of findings ( Marshall & Rossman, 2011 ; Munhall, 2012 ) References Include references cited in the proposal and follow APA (2010) format Appendices Present the study budget and timetable Introduction The introduction usually provides a general background for the proposed study by identifying the phenomenon, clinical problem, issue, or situation to be investigated and linking it to nursing knowledge. The general aim or purpose of the study is identified and provides the focus for the qualitative study to be conducted. The study purpose might be followed by research questions that direct the investigation (Munhall, 2012; Offredy & Vickers, 2010 ). For example, a possible aim or purpose for an ethnographic study might be to “describe the coping processes of Mexican American adults with type 2 diabetes receiving care in a federally funded clinic.” The research questions might focus on the influences of real-world problems, cultural elements, and the clinic environment on the coping processes of these adults. Thus, the study questions might include any of the following: How do Mexican American adults respond to a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes? What is the impact of type 2 diabetes on Mexican American adults and their families over time? What community, clinic, and family types of support exist for Mexican American adults with type 2 diabetes? What does it mean to Mexican American adults to have their diabetes under control? The introduction also includes the evolution of the study and its significance to nursing practice, patients, the healthcare system, and health policy. The discussion of the evolution of the study often includes how the problem developed (historical context), who or what is affected by the problem, and the researcher’s experience with the problem (experiential context). Whenever possible, the significance and evolution of the study purpose needs to be documented from the literature (Munhall, 2012). The significance of a study may include the number of people affected, how this phenomenon affects health and quality of life, and the consequences of not understanding this phenomenon. Marshall and Rossman (2011) identified the following questions to assess the significance of a study: (1) Who has an interest in this domain of inquiry? (2) What do we already know about the topic? (3) What has not been answered adequately in previous research and practice? (4) How will this research add to knowledge, practice, and policy in this area? The introduction section concludes with an overview of the remaining sections that are covered in the proposal. Philosophical and Conceptual Foundation and General Methods for the Proposed Study This section introduces the philosophical and conceptual foundation for the qualitative research method (phenomenological research, ethnographic research, grounded theory research, exploratory-descriptive qualitative research, or historical research) selected for the proposed study. The researcher provides a rationale for the qualitative method selected and discusses its ability to generate the knowledge needed in nursing (see Table 28-1). The investigator introduces the philosophy, essential elements of the philosophy, and the assumptions for the specific type of qualitative research to be conducted. The philosophy varies for the different types of qualitative research and guides the conduct of the study. For example, a proposal for a phenomenological study might indicate the purpose of the study is to understand the experience of young and middle-aged women receiving news about a family BRCA 1/2 genetic mutation. “The specific study aims are to (a) describe the experiences of women learning about a family BRCA 1/2 mutation, (b) describe the meaning of genetic risk to female biologic relatives of BRCA 1/2 mutation carriers, and (3) gain an understanding of practical knowledge used in living with risk” (Crotser & Dickerson, 2010, p. 367). Genetic testing has determined that 5% to 10% of breast cancers are caused by inherited gene mutations such as BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 . “Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenology was selected to guide this study.… By listening to the stories of women who lived the experience, HCPs [healthcare providers] will understand the meaning of living with risk through the language used to express their life view ( Heidegger, 1975 )” ( Crotser & Dickerson, 2010 , p. 358). Assumptions about the nature of the knowledge and the reality that underlie the type of qualitative research to be conducted are also identified. The assumptions and philosophy provide a theoretical perspective for the study that influences the focus of the study, data collection and analysis, and articulation of the findings. Method of Inquiry Developing and implementing the methodology of qualitative research require an expertise that some believe can be obtained only through a mentorship relationship with an experienced qualitative researcher. The role of the researcher and the intricate techniques of data collection and analysis are thought to be best communicated through a one-to-one relationship. Thus, planning the methods of a qualitative study requires knowledge of relevant sources that describe the different qualitative research techniques and procedures (Marshall & Rossman, 2011; Miles & Huberman, 1994 ; Munhall, 2012 ; Patton, 2002 ), in addition to requiring interaction with a qualitative researcher. The proposal needs to reflect the researcher’s credentials for conducting the particular type of qualitative study proposed (see Chapter 12 for details on qualitative research methods). Identifying the methods for conducting a qualitative study is a difficult task because sometimes the specifics of the study design emerge during the study. In contrast to quantitative research, in which the design is a fixed blueprint for a study, the design in qualitative research emerges or evolves as the study is conducted. You must document the logic and appropriateness of the qualitative method and develop a tentative plan for conducting your study. Because this plan is tentative, researchers reserve the right to modify or change the plan as needed during the conduct of the study (Sandelowski et al., 1989). However, the design or plan must be (1) consistent with the philosophical approach, study purpose, and specific research aims or questions; (2) be well conceived; and (3) address prior criticism, as appropriate ( Fawcett & Garity, 2009 ). The tentative plan describes the process for selecting a site and population and the initial steps taken to gain access to the site. Having access to the site includes establishing relationships that facilitate recruitment of the participants necessary to address the research purpose and answer the research questions. For the research question, “How do Mexican American adults cope with a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes while receiving care in federally funded clinics?” the participants might be identified in a specific clinic or by contacting particular healthcare providers. Although initial contact might be made through a clinic, the interviews and observations might occur in the community, at family gatherings, or in the participants’ homes. The researcher must gain entry into the setting, develop a rapport with the participants that will facilitate the detailed data collection process, and protect the rights of the participants (Marshall & Rossman, 2011; Sandelowski et al., 1989 ). You need to address the following questions in describing the researcher’s role: (1) What is the best setting for the study? (2) How will I ease my entry into the research site? (3) How will I gain access to the participants? (4) What actions will I take to encourage the participants to cooperate? (5) What precautions will I take to protect the rights of the participants and to prevent the setting and the participants from being harmed? You need to describe the process you will follow to obtain informed consent and the actions you will take to decrease study risks. The sensitive nature of some qualitative studies increases the risk for participants, which makes ethical concerns and decisions a major focus of the proposal ( Munhall, 2012 ; Patton, 2002 ). The primary data collection techniques used in qualitative research are observation and in-depth interviewing. Observations can range from highly detailed, structured notations of behaviors to ambiguous descriptions of behaviors or events. The interview can range from structured, closed-ended questions to unstructured, open-ended questions (Marshall & Rossman, 2011; Munhall, 2012 ). You need to address the following questions when describing the proposed data collection process: (1) What data will be collected? For example, will the data be field notes from memory, audio recordings of interviews, transcripts of conversations, DVDs of events, or examination of existing documents? (2) What techniques or procedures will the research team use to collect the data? For example, if interviews are to be conducted, will a list of the proposed questions be included in the appendix? (3) Who will collect data and provide any training required for the data collectors? (4) Where will sources of data be located? In historical research, data are collected through an exhaustive review of published and unpublished literature. (5) How will the data be recorded and stored? The methods section also needs to address how you will document the research process. For example, you might keep a research journal or diary during the course of the study. These notes can document the day-to-day activities, methodological events, decision-making procedures, and personal notes about the informants. This information becomes part of the audit trail that you can provide to ensure the quality of the study (Miles & Huberman, 1994; Munhall, 2012 ; Patton, 2002 ). The methods section of the proposal also includes the analysis techniques and the steps for conducting these techniques. In qualitative research, data collection and analysis often occur simultaneously. The data are usually in the form of notes, digital files, audio recordings, DVDs, and other material obtained from observation, interviews, and completing questionnaires. Through qualitative analysis techniques, these data are organized to promote understanding and determine meaning (see Chapter 12) ( Patton, 2002 ). Researchers also need to identify software programs they plan to use for data analysis. Current Knowledge Base, Limitations, and Plans for Communication of the Study This section of the proposal summarizes and documents all relevant literature that was reviewed for the study. Similar to quantitative research, qualitative studies require a literature review to provide a basis for the study purpose and to clarify how this study will expand nursing knowledge (Marshall & Rossman, 2011; Munhall, 2012 ). This initial literature review is often conducted to establish the significance of the study and to develop research questions to guide the study. In phenomenological and grounded theory research, an additional literature review is usually conducted toward the end of the research project. The findings from a phenomenological study are compared and combined with findings from the literature to contribute to the current knowledge of the phenomenon. In grounded theory research, the literature is used to explain, support, and extend the theory generated in the study ( Glaser & Strauss, 1965 ). In all types of qualitative studies, the findings obtained are examined in light of the existing literature (see Chapter 4 ). You need to describe how the literature reviewed has influenced your proposed research methods. Biases and previous experience with the research problem need to be addressed, as does their potential impact on the proposed study. Often, anticipated findings, hypotheses, and hunches are identified before the study is conducted, followed by a discussion of the procedures that might be used to remain open to new information. You will also need to address the limitations of your proposed study in the context of limitations of similar studies. Conclude your proposal by describing how you plan to communicate your findings to various audiences through presentations and publications. Often, a realistic budget and timetable are provided in the appendix. A qualitative study budget is similar to a quantitative study budget and includes costs for data collection tools, software, and recording devices; consultants for data analysis; travel related to data collection and analysis; transcription of recordings; copying related to data collection and analysis; and developing, presenting, and publishing the final report. However, one of the greatest expenditures in qualitative research is the researcher’s time. Develop a timetable to project how long the study will take; often a period of 2 years or more is designated for data collection and analysis (Marshall & Rossman, 2011; Munhall, 2012 ; Patton, 2002 ). You can use your budget and timetable to make decisions regarding the need for funding. Excellent websites have been developed to assist novice researchers in identifying an idea for qualitative study and developing a qualitative research proposal and reports (see www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/qualres.html ). The Office of Behavior and Social Sciences Research within the National Institutes of Health has a website to assist researchers in developing qualitative and quantitative research proposals for funding ( grants.nih.gov/grants/writing_application.htm ). You can use these websites and other publications to promote the quality of your qualitative research proposal. The quality of a proposal is based on the potential scientific contribution of the research to nursing knowledge; the research philosophy guiding the study; the research methods; and the knowledge, skills, and resources available to the investigators ( Marshall & Rossman, 2011 ; Munhall, 2012 ; Patton, 2002 ).
You may also need
- Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)
- Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
- Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window)
Comments are closed for this page.
Full access? Get Clinical Tree
- Business Templates
- Sample Proposals
FREE 10+ Nursing Research Proposal Samples [ Student, Dissertation, Qualitative ]
Nursing is an important branch of the medical field where they provide support to physicians and patients by acting as the bridge between the two; they take care of patients who need constant medical care and provide reports to physicians regarding the patients’ conditions. Without nurses, the medical field; particularly hospitals and hospices, are crippled without their support. Just like any other field of study, nursing needs a lot of research to be done to improve the current system and advance the current nursing practices. Researchers or nursing students do nursing research as either part of their jobs or part of their final requirement to graduate and earn their degree. This article will provide tips on how to create a nursing research proposal.
Nursing Research Proposal
10+ nursing research proposal samples, 1. nursing research proposal template, 2. nursing research proposal, 3. nursing faculty research degree proposal, 4. nursing leadership research proposal, 5. nursing resources approval research proposal, 6. nursing research project proposal, 7. psychiatric nursing research proposal, 8. nursing school research proposal, 9. nursing qualitative research proposal, 10. nursing research program proposal, 11. nurse group research proposal, importance of research in the nursing field, details to include in a nursing research proposal, 1. introduction, 2. methodology, 3. objectives of the study, 4. literature review, 5. limitations and scope, what are some interesting nursing research topics, what is the most important role of a nurse.
- Google Docs
Size: 589 KB
Size: 268 KB
Size: 39 KB
Size: 277 KB
Size: 28 KB
Size: 191 KB
Size: 33 KB
Nursing research is the type of research done to explore further studies that can provide evidence to support and advance nursing practices. The findings of these research studies are crucial to help shape and improve health policies worldwide and contribute greatly to global healthcare.
Your research proposal must have the following aspects below regardless of the structure of the research format that your academic or medical institution has provided:
Start the proposal with an introduction . The introduction is where you will describe the main purpose of the topic you’re research and the issues or concerns surrounding it that you would like to will focus on analyzing or solving. Conclude the introduction by explaining that the topic you chose relates to your main research question .
The methodology section is where you will explain your ways of doing the research. State what type of data collection you will use and what type of data analysis you will do with your collected data. The most common types of data collection and analysis are quantitative or qualitative . You can either choose one of these types that suits your study best. You will also have to explain why your proposed methodology is appropriate to your study.
You also need to include the goals and objectives of your study. Your goals are the outcomes you expect to achieve in your study and your objectives are your guide tasks to achieve your goals. Make sure your goals follow the SMART goals (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Timely) format to ensure your goals are possible to accomplish efficiently. State at least two goals and three objectives.
The literature review provides a solid background about your topic. It will show how your study is connected to previous studies done that relate to your topic. This is where you will summarize all the data you obtained from various materials that back up your research through scientific and academic studies.
The limitations and scope section of your research is an important part of your proposal since here is where you explain the specific topic that you will focus on in your study and the constraints your study faces that limits your study on one specific topic.
The EduBirdie website has listed down some interesting nursing research topics that researchers can reference for their studies. Here are some examples:
- Child Nursing: Child Obesity & Healthy Eating, ADHD Causes & treatment, Vaccination & Autism
- Adult Nursing: Mental Health & Psychiatric Care in Adults, Acute Coronary Syndrome Treatment, Dental & Oral Health in the United States
- Midwifery: Childbirth Efficacy Analysis, Maternal & Neonatal Practices in Rural Areas, Gestational Weight Gain Challenges
- Elderly Care: Alzheimer’s Disease, Geriatrics Ethics, Joint Disorders Study in Elderly
- Primary Healthcare: Evidence-Based Recommendations in Primary Care, Primary Health Care Economic Evaluation, Modern Vaccination Programmes in Remote Areas
- Nursing Careers: Clinical Nurse Roles, Diversity in Healthcare, Stress Management Practice
The most important role of a nurse that also serves as their primary role is to advocate the well-being of their patients by supporting and caring for them in their illness.
Once you’re done writing the research proposal don’t forget to include the bibliography where you will list all the materials and sources you used to reference your research proposal. Make sure to follow the proper format of citing your sources. You may ask the institution you’re doing the research for what is proper citation guide to be used. Always review your research proposal and revise any grammatical and spelling mistakes and inaccuracies in the proposal. To help you get started on writing the proposal, download our free sample templates to use as your reference!
Free 49+ proposal samples, free 14+ sample research proposals, free 11+ sample proposal, free 10+ research proposal problem statement samples, free 10+ sample research statement, free 10+ technical training proposal samples, free 10+ nursing action plan samples, free 10+ action research report samples, free 9+ proposal samples, free 7+ graduate research statement samples, free 35+ proposal formats, free 15+ project proposal templates, free 14+ project proposal templates, free 13+ sample budget proposal, free 10+ thesis proposals, how to develop a research proposal, what is the research proposal, free 82+ project proposal samples, free 51+ proposal samples.
7+ SAMPLE Nursing Research Proposal in PDF | MS Word | Google Docs | Apple Pages
Nursing research proposal | ms word | google docs | apple pages, 7+ sample nursing research proposal, what is a nursing research proposal, why do we write research papers, elements of a quality nursing research proposal, how to write the content of a nursing research proposal, how to write a literature review for a nursing research proposal, why is it important to write a research proposal, are there any controversial topics in nursing research, what to look for in a nursing topic.
Nursing Research Proposal Template
General Nursing Research Proposal
Nursing Research Proposal Submission Form
Nursing Students Research Proposal
Nursing Research Proposal Checklist
Nursing Doctoral Research Proposal Defense Form
Nursing Research Proposal in PDF
1. learning scholarly etiquette, 2. putting data in order, 3. time management, 4. exploring the subject, 1. statement of the problem, 2. background of the problem, 3. purpose of the study and objectives, 4. assumptions and conceptual framework, 5. hypothesis and research methodology, 6. budget, ethical considerations, references, and appendices, share this post on your network, you may also like these articles, 21+ sample demolition proposals in pdf | ms word.
Moth and rust can destroy a building as the years go by. If we own a company and our building has stood for a long time, it will be…
13+ SAMPLE Web Hosting Proposal in PDF | MS Word
Web hosting is one of the fundamental aspects of web management for keeping a website up and running. A good, high-quality, and reliable web hosting service is necessary to…
browse by categories
- Terms & Conditions
- How it works
Sample Undergraduate Nursing Dissertation Proposal
Here is a sample that showcases why we are one of the world’s leading academic writing firms. This assignment was created by one of our expert academic writers and demonstrated the highest academic quality. Place your order today to achieve academic greatness.
View a different grade
Investigating the Impact of Tube Feeding
This study seeks to explore patients’ living experience with tube feeding and how poorly they do after this intervention from their caregivers’ view as the patient may exhibit changes in cognitive or language function that affect their ability to understand or express their feelings and experiences.
The proposal opens with an introductory chapter that gives a brief overview of patients’ problems suffering from dementia. It further highlights the research objectives and the resulting research questions regarding this study.
The introduction is followed by a brief literature review that discusses previous research about dysphagia quoted in this research. The methodology section gives a compact description of how the research will collect the primary data.
It is proposed that the paper follows the structure stated below: ● Introduction o Research Objectives o Research Questions ● Literature Review ● Research Methodology & Approach ● Research Analysis ● Ethical Issues ● Limitations ● Conclusion
Dementia cannot be classified as a specific disease. Rather it encompasses a group of symptoms affecting memory, thinking, and communication abilities severely enough to interfere with daily life functioning. Dementia can be caused by either a progressive brain cell death or neurodegenerative diseases such as head injury, a stroke, or a brain tumour.
There are various types of dementia such as Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, Mixed dementia, Lewy body dementia, and Parkinson’s disease. Dementia symptoms include memory loss, disorientation, mood changes, eating and communication difficulties (MacGill,2016).
The impact of cognitive status on the swallowing mechanism is unclear (Riquelme et al., 2016). However, Riquelme& Tristani (2014) verified a relationship between mental and physiologic changes in the swallowing mechanism for persons with cognitive decline due to dementia. Individuals with dementia experience sensory loss that disrupts bolus organization, mastication, and oral transit affecting their ability to eat and swallow.
They also experience a motor loss that disrupts airway closure and pharyngeal movement affecting their ability to initiate the swallowing process. Sensory and motor damage eventually leads to difficulty in aspiration, silent aspiration, bronchiectasis, dehydration, weight loss, and starvation (Easterling & Robbins, 2008).
Dysphagia is very common among individuals with dementia and is defined as difficulty moving food from mouth to stomach (Easterling & Robbins, 2008). Intellectual impairment is the primary cause of dysphagia in people who have dementia (Tristani, 2015).
Dysphagia impairments during the dementia stages of the disease manifested in the following manner, Initially, the individual experienced delayed pharyngeal swallow and reduced lingual movement, at the mid-stage, they experienced reduced oral preparation, pharyngeal clearance, UES opening, and aspiration, and at the advanced stage, they experienced increased aspiration pneumonia which is a common cause of death (Easterling & Robbins, 2008; Alagiakrishnan et al., 2013; Brooke & Ojo, 2015).
Dysphagia treatment options include diet modifications, positioning, feeding techniques, feeding tubes, and oral care (Easterling & Robbins, 2008).
However, the decision regarding the course of treatment depends on the symptoms of eating and drinking difficulties. The speech and language therapist is responsible for evaluating swallowing challenges and recommendations regarding diet safety; recommends the best and suitable treatment option for each case (Vitale et al., 2011; Alagiakrishnan et al., 2013).
Individuals with dementia cannot take care of their daily needs, which renders them incapable of taking adequate nutrition and hydration and leads to minimal to non-existent social interaction that accompanies mealtime. They also fail to recognize food and lose the normal physiological drivers of appetite.
They may experience apraxia that is difficult in coordinating movements, which will affect their ability to use cutlery. Furthermore, they develop physical difficulties with the act of swallowing, such as failing to manage the food bolus once it’s in the mouth (oral phase dysphagia) or aspirates when swallowing (pharyngeal phase dysphagia).
An enteral feeding tube, which uses tubes to deliver artificial nutrition and hydration, is often recommended to individuals with dementia who have significant dysphagia or have difficulty meeting their nutritional needs by mouth (Easterling & Robbins ,2008; Candy et al., 2009; Vitale et al., 2011).
This research aims to study the impact of enteral tube feeding on an individual’s quality of life suffering from dementia. To this end, a phenomenological research design will be collected to collect the primary data.
In addition to this, previously conducted studies will also be used in the form of secondary data. This proposal’s methodology section will discuss further details about the collection of data and the research design.
Hence, this study’s primary aim is to explore the impact of tube feeding on the quality of life of individuals with dementia and eating problems from their caregivers’ views. Based on this main aim, the research objectives are:
● To determine how the patient fares in terms of health after the tube feeding.
● To determine whether the patient’s quality of life (QOL) improves or not.
Based on the aforementioned aims, the following research questions are derived which will help achieve the primary objective of this study:
1. How does tube feeding impact the quality of life of individuals with dementia and eating problems?
2. How can these impacts be categorized from the caregivers’ view?
By exploring their challenges and difficulties with the feeding tube, this study will help increase the caregivers’ knowledge and awareness and understanding regarding tube feeding usage outcomes among individuals with dementia to ultimately provide better end-of-life care for a patient with dementia.
More evidence on how this intervention impacts QOL would give context to this population’s ethical decision-making and consider if life in advanced dementia should be prolonged artificially.
Hire an Expert Dissertation Proposal Writer
Orders completed by our expert writers are
- Formally drafted in the academic style
- 100% Plagiarism-free & 100% Confidential
- Never resold
- Include unlimited free revisions
- Completed to match exact client requirements
Tubes feeding is often used to deliver artificial nutrition and hydration to patients with significant dysphagia or difficulties meeting their nutritional needs by mouth, such as individuals with stroke, head injuries, neurological diseases, and individuals with dementia.
Dysphagia among the dementia population leads to malnutrition, dehydration, weight loss, functional decline, and decreased quality of life. The primary rationale of using it is to improve their nutritional status and QOL and prevent aspiration pneumonia (Candy, 2009; Vitale et al., 2011; Alagiakrishnan et al., 2013; Brooke & Ojo, 2015).
The common types of feeding tubes often used with dementia include nasogastric tube (NGT) and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. The NGT is a tube that passes through the nose and oesophagus until it reaches the stomach.
It is usually used in temporary and short-term feeding needs. In contrast, the PEG tube is a feeding tube passed through an endoscopic into the stomach and guided out through a permanent incision in the abdominal wall and considered for long-term use (Easterling & Robbins, 2008; Candy et al., 2009).
The risks of tube feeding among individuals with dementia have been well documented in the literature, including aspiration pneumonia, oesophagal perforation, haemorrhage, death, pressure sores, infections, fluid overload, and loss of social aspects of feeding. Some studies argue that it may increase gastric secretions (Candy et al., 2009; Brooke & Ojo, 2015).
The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide, with an estimated 81 million people diagnosed with dementia by 2040 (Brooke & Ojo, 2015). The pervasiveness of swallowing difficulties in individuals with dementia ranges from 13 to 57% in different types of dementia.
The prevalence of tube feeding in individuals with dementia is common in nursing home residents with advanced dementia. The majority of tubes are inserted during an acute setting, with the most common cause being aspiration pneumonia and dysphagia (Alagiakrishnan et al., 2013).
A recent systematic review conducted by Brooke & Ojo (2015) revealed that the prevalence of tube feeding among individuals with dementia in Japan might be higher than in Western populations due to current guidelines.
In Japan, guidelines compiled under the Japan Gastroenterology Endoscopy Society’s supervision recommend PEG insertion for patients who cannot maintain their nutrition due to cerebrovascular disease or dementia.
The impact of these guidelines may contribute to earlier insertion of PEG tubes and the commencement of enteral nutrition in patients with dementia, ultimately leading to longer survival rates.
Multiple studies outline the outcomes of tube feeding among the dementia population. Several studies report that aspiration pneumonia may be caused by reflux of tube feeding fluid and aspiration of oral secretions.
In a systematic review conducted in 2009, two studies reported that at 6 months, 58% of enteral fed patients had aspiration pneumonia, 54% of those with NG feeding, and 67% with PEG, compared with 17% of those fed orally. However, in a recent review conducted in 2015, one observational study reported aspiration pneumonia at 5%, comparable for patients with and without dementia.
Moreover, it illustrated that enteral nutrition delivered through a PEG tube does not increase the risk of aspiration for patients with dementia than rates of aspiration pneumonia of other disease cohorts (Candy et al.,2009; Alagiakrishnan et al., 2013; Brooke & Ojo, 2015).
Alagiakrishnan et al. (2013) highlight that an observational study conducted in nursing homes with severe dementia found no difference in survival with feeding tube placement.
Another recent systematic review conducted by Brooke & Oji (2015) came out with consistent results, indicating six studies evaluating mortality that found that there is no evidence of prolonged life as a result of feeding tube use for individuals with dementia and no significant association between decreased mortality and enteral tube feeding. Some studies also argue that there may be a slightly higher death rate when tube feeding for this population and reduced QOL.
Furthermore, no study indicates that QOL was measured. However, one reported that over 6 months, 71% of 52 patients needed to be physically restrained to prevent extubation, compared with 55% of those who were not enterally fed (Vitale et al., 2011; Alagiakrishnan et al., 2013; Brooke & Ojo, 2015).
The decision to start enteral tube feeding in someone with dementia is argumentative, emotive, and ethically challenging for all involved. The decision is influenced by various complex issues such as clinical needs, local practices, physician and caregiver preferences, and whether an advanced care plan is in place.
The previously conducted studies point out that to date, the decision making regarding enteral nutrition in individuals with dementia remains ethically challenging and concerns whether informal caregivers who give consent are fully informed, both of the benefits and potential harms of this intervention, and of alternatives that might optimize QOL of the patient (Candy et al., 2009; Vitale et al., 2011; Brook & Ojo, 2015). The patient’s caregivers must be informed of all implications of tube feeding to help them decide.
Despite the issues regarding the utility of enteral tube feeding among dementia populations, it remains a common intervention regardless of the evidence suggesting that intervention is ineffective in preventing aspiration, prolonging life, improving nutrition and quality of life (QOL). According to Brook & Ojo (2015), with the expected increase in patients with dementia, enteral tube feeding is likely to become common.
Among the studies and reviews that evaluated the role of enteral feeding in individuals with dementia, no data was found about the patient’s quality of life. Some studies report that the QOL is difficult to analyze in this population as patients with advanced dementia lose their capacity to express their feelings, and family members often report conflicting opinions.
Also, some studies emphasize that further research on how this intervention impact QOL among the dementia population would give more context to the ethical consideration, and Alzheimer’s Society supports the importance of QOL rather the longevity (Candy et al., 2009; Vitale et al., 2011; Alagiakrishnan et al., 2013; Brooke & Ojo, 2015).
Research Methodology & Approach
The study will explore a patient’s living experience with tube feeding from their caregivers’ view generating a range of insightful knowledge about the impact of complications regarding tube feeding on the patient’s QOL. Since these experiences are very personal, discovering their small details would be best investigated by a phenomenological research design (Grbich, 2013). The phenomenology approach is designed to explore individuals’ experiences in depth.
As the intention is to gather detailed information about patients’ experiences during their journey while receiving artificial nutrition via tube feeding, a depth semi-structured interview method is a suitable tool to utilize.
Since it is a flexible and adaptable method, it will provide the researcher with an opportunity to listen to the participants’ views and experiences and allow probing questions to explore further ideas (Harding, 2013). Face-to-face interviews are suitable methods to facilitate honest, open responses, gain new insights, and maintain patient privacy (Creswell, 2014).
As the research intends to explore the essence of patients’ experiences in-depth through their thoughts, opinions, and experiences about the impact of tube feeding on their life, the interview will take time; hence, a smaller size of participants is appropriate. The few participants will provide access to an exciting hypothesis from a high level of information power, critical to achieving the research aim.
Purposive sampling in recruiting the study’s participants will be chosen. This will facilitate obtaining an in-depth understanding of the impact of tube feeding on a patient’s QOL. Participants will be selected purposively to provide the researcher’s most information elaborated in detail (Patton, 2015).
The study will attempt to collect data from the patient’s caregiver who has dementia in a particular hospital and nursing home in the UK, specifically those diagnosed with dementia and who have received artificial nutrition via NGT or PEG.
An internet search and telephonic inquiry to the dementia care services at hospitals and nursing homes in the UK will be carried out to identify suitable participants for the study. In addition to this, approval from the registry of the dementia department from a specific hospital in the UK will be requested to recruit participants.
The sample population for this study will have the attributes listed below:
● Male and female ● Caregiver for the patient diagnosed with dementia ● The caregiver should have spent a long time with the patient.nt ● Acute hospital settings and nursing homes ● Patients ranged from 60+ years ● At any stage of the disease ● Experience eating difficulties and have been recommended eternal tube feeding
If you need assistance with writing your dissertation proposal, our professional dissertation proposal writers are here to help!
This section analyses the primary and secondary data collected from the literature sources and the interviews conducted, respectively. An effort will be made to ensure coherence between the sections of the paper.
Thematic analysis, the “process of segmentation, categorization, and relinking of aspects of the data before final interpretation” (Matthews and Ross 2010:373), will be utilized in analyzing the collected data.
This analysis facilitates working with the collected raw data, such as the raw verbal or visual data. The thematic analysis is flexible, which helps divide the data into chunks before working with it and returning to raw data throughout the analytical process (Matthews & Ross, 2010). Also, the thematic analysis will help explore and better understand the comments made by the participants.
To ensure the credibility of the study, numerous steps will be taken. These steps include:
● A verbatim transcript of the interviews ● Read the transcripts and then read back to immerse yourself in the data and accurately reflect what was said by the participant. ● Use member checking to ensure the truth value of the data. ● Provide the participants with a copy of the transcript to validate that it reflected their perspective. ● Considering reflexivity, that is, being aware of the researcher’s effect on the research process and outcomes.
The moral and ethical code conducts the paper. However, there is always a possibility that ethical issues may arise. The ethical issues that might occur in conducting this research are:
● Gaining the agreement of individuals in authority (e.g., gatekeeper) allows study participants at research sites.
● Participation will be voluntary, and it will be stressed that the consent could be withdrawn during the study.
● Anonymity and confidentiality issues anticipate that some patients may want to have their identity remain confidential. By permitting this, the researcher allows the participants to retain ownership of their voices. The consequence of this would mean that the data regarding the particular patient will be excluded in the final report.
● Since a face-to-face interview method is used while conducting this study, the interaction may be stressful due to the topic’s sensitivity.
● Emotional reactions in the interview.
● Psychological risk such as distress.
● The researcher–participant relationship can raise a range of ethical concerns such as respect for privacy, establishing honest and open interactions, and avoiding misrepresentations.
Every study conducted encounters some limitations. Researching within a time frame often proves to be the most complex challenge. Even though using literature resources can be helpful, it may be classified as a hindrance since the studies have been conducted over different periods.
This study section will summarize and comprehensively interpret the analyzed data’s findings and answer the research questions satisfactorily.
Frequently Asked Questions
How to write an undergraduate dissertation proposal.
To write an undergraduate dissertation proposal:
- Choose a research topic.
- Outline objectives and research questions.
- Describe methodology and data sources.
- Provide a brief literature review.
- State significance and potential outcomes.
- Include a timeline and list of references.
Ready to place an order?
Useful links, learning resources.
- How It Works