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Answer to Question #301729 in Regional geography for MOKGADI
v Write an essay on the following topic:
· GLOBAL WARMING HAS NEGATIVE EFFECTS ON CLIMATE CHANGE IN MOPANI DISTRICT.
1. Take a position on the topic. Indicate whether you agree or disagree with the statement and motivate your point of view.
2. Write an essay based on your findings after consulting different sources to collect information e.g. books, newspaper articles and internet sources. Remember all sources should be acknowledged and recorded on the bibliography section.
STRUCTURE OF THE ESSAY
Present the topic/ statement and indicate whether you agree or disagree with the statement. You must also explain reasons why such a topic was selected and give an outline of the entire essay.
Motivate your point of view if you agree or disagree by means of supporting arguments. Logical organisation of information must be displayed in this section.
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Welcome to the United Nations
Global warming: severe consequences for Africa
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Record global greenhouse gas emissions are putting the world on a path toward unacceptable warming, with serious implications for development prospects in Africa.
“Limiting warming to 1.5° C is possible within the laws of chemistry and physics, but doing so would require unprecedented changes,” said Jim Skea, cochair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group III.
But IPCC, the world’s foremost authority for assessing the science of climate change, says it is still possible to limit global temperature rise to 1.5° C—if, and only if, there are “rapid and far-reaching transitions in land, energy, industry, buildings, transport, and cities.”
For sub-Saharan Africa, which has experienced more frequent and more intense climate extremes over the past decades, the ramifications of the world’s warming by more than 1.5° C would be profound.
Temperature increases in the region are projected to be higher than the global mean temperature increase; regions in Africa within 15 degrees of the equator are projected to experience an increase in hot nights as well as longer and more frequent heat waves.
The odds are long but not impossible, says the IPCC. And the benefits of limiting climate change to 1.5° C are enormous, with the report detailing the difference in the consequences between a 1.5° C increase and a 2° C increase. Every bit of additional warming adds greater risks for Africa in the form of greater droughts, more heat waves and more potential crop failures.
Recognizing the increasing threat of climate change, many countries came together in 2015 to adopt the historic Paris Agreement, committing themselves to limiting climate change to well below 2° C. Some 184 countries have formally joined the agreement, including almost every African nation, with only Angola, Eritrea and South Sudan yet to join. The agreement entered into force in November 2016.
In December 2018 countries met in Katowice, Poland, for the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)—known as COP24—to finalise the rules for implementation of the agreement’s work programme.
As part of the Paris Agreement, countries made national commitments to take steps to reduce emissions and build resilience. The treaty also called for increased financial support from developed countries to assist the climate action efforts of developing countries.
But even at the time that the Paris Agreement was adopted, it was recognized that the commitments on the table would not be enough. Even if the countries did everything they promised, global temperatures would rise by 3° C this century.
According to the IPCC, projections show that the western Sahel region will experience the strongest drying, with a significant increase in the maximum length of dry spells. The IPCC expects Central Africa to see a decrease in the length of wet spells and a slight increase in heavy rainfall.
West Africa has been identified as a climate-change hotspot, with climate change likely to lessen crop yields and production, with resultant impacts on food security.
Southern Africa will also be affected. The western part of Southern Africa is set to become drier, with increasing drought frequency and number of heat waves toward the end of the 21st century.
A warming world will have implications for precipitation. At 1.5° C, less rain would fall over the Limpopo basin and areas of the Zambezi basin in Zambia, as well as parts of Western Cape in South Africa.
But at 2° C, Southern Africa is projected to face a decrease in precipitation of about 20% and increases in the number of consecutive dry days in Namibia, Botswana, northern Zimbabwe and southern Zambia. This will cause reductions in the volume of the Zambezi basin projected at 5% to 10%.
If the global mean temperature reaches 2° C of global warming, it will cause significant changes in the occurrence and intensity of temperature extremes in all sub-Saharan regions.
West and Central Africa will see particularly large increases in the number of hot days at both 1.5° C and 2° C. Over Southern Africa, temperatures are expected to rise faster at 2° C, and areas of the southwestern region, especially in South Africa and parts of Namibia and Botswana, are expected to experience the greatest increases in temperature.
Perhaps no region in the world has been affected as much as the Sahel, which is experiencing rapid population growth, estimated at 2.8% per year, in an environment of shrinking natural resources, including land and water resources.
Inga Rhonda King, President of the UN Economic and Social Council, a UN principal organ that coordinates the economic and social work of UN agencies, told a special meeting at the UN that the region is also one of the most environmentally degraded in the world, with temperature increases projected to be 1.5 times higher than in the rest of the world.
Largely dependent on rain-fed agriculture, the Sahel is regularly hit by droughts and floods, with enormous consequences to people’s food security. As a result of armed conflict, violence and military operations, some 4.9 million people have been displaced this year, a threefold increase in less than three years, while 24 million people require humanitarian assistance throughout the region.
Climate change is already considered a threat multiplier, exacerbating existing problems, including conflicts. Ibrahim Thiaw, special adviser of the UN Secretary-General for the Sahel, says the Sahel region is particularly vulnerable to climate change, with 300 million people affected.
Drought, desertification and scarcity of resources have led to heightened conflicts between crop farmers and cattle herders, and weak governance has led to social breakdowns, says Mr. Thiaw. The shrinking of Lake Chad is leading to economic marginalization and providing a breeding ground for recruitment by terrorist groups as social values and moral authority evaporate.
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2019: Year of return for African Diaspora
Egypt ‘Ify’ Ufele
A double challenge for the disabled
Africa’s freedom struggles and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Nigeria needs free, fair and credible elections
Crisis worsens in Cameroon
After making peace, Ethiopia and Eritrea now focus on development
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Blue economy can be a lifeline for Africa
Kofi Annan: tribute to a rare gentleman
Book review: living together, living apart social cohesion in a future south africa, un appointments.
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Are the Effects of Global Warming Really that Bad?
Short answer: Yes. Even a seemingly slight average temperature rise is enough to cause a dramatic transformation of our planet.
The Missouri River encroaches on homes in Sioux City, Iowa, during a 2011 flood
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Five and a half degrees Fahrenheit. It may not sound like much—perhaps the difference between wearing a sweater and not wearing one on an early-spring day. But for the world in which we live—which climate experts project will be at least 5.7 degrees Fahrenheit warmer by 2100 , relative to pre-industrial levels (1850–1900), should global emissions continue on their current path—this small rise will have grave consequences. These impacts are already becoming apparent for every ecosystem and living thing, including us.
Human influences are the number one cause of global warming , especially the carbon pollution we cause by burning fossil fuels and the pollution capture we prevent by destroying forests. The carbon dioxide, methane, soot, and other pollutants we release into the atmosphere act like a blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm. Evidence shows that the 2010s were hotter than any other decade on record —and every decade since the 1960s has averaged hotter than the previous one. This warming is altering the earth's climate system, including its land, atmosphere, oceans, and ice, in far-reaching ways.
More frequent and severe weather
Higher temperatures are worsening many types of disasters, including storms, heat waves, floods, and droughts. A warmer climate creates an atmosphere that can collect, retain, and unleash more water, changing weather patterns in such a way that wet areas become wetter and dry areas drier.
According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in 2021, there were 20 weather and climate disaster events in the United States—including severe storms, floods, drought, and wildfires—that individually caused at least $1 billion in losses . “Disasters in 2021 had a staggering total price tag of $145 billion—and that’s an underestimate because it excludes health damages,” says Vijay Limaye , senior scientist at NRDC. “These climate and weather disasters endanger people across the country throughout the entire year. In fact, more than 4 in 10 Americans live in a county that was struck by climate-related disasters in 2021.”
The increasing number of droughts, intense storms, and floods we're seeing as our warming atmosphere holds—and then dumps—more moisture poses risks to public health and safety too. Prolonged dry spells mean more than just scorched lawns. Drought conditions jeopardize access to clean drinking water, fuel out-of-control wildfires, and result in dust storms, extreme heat events, and flash flooding in the States. Elsewhere around the world, lack of water is a leading cause of death and serious disease and is contributing to crop failure. At the opposite end of the spectrum, heavier rains cause streams, rivers, and lakes to overflow, which damages life and property, contaminates drinking water, creates hazardous-material spills, and promotes mold infestation and unhealthy air. A warmer, wetter world is also a boon for foodborne and waterborne illnesses and disease-carrying insects, such as mosquitoes, fleas, and ticks.
Higher death rates
Today's scientists point to climate change as the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. It's a threat that impacts all of us—especially children, the elderly, low-income communities, and minorities—and in a variety of direct and indirect ways. As temperatures spike, so does the incidence of illness, emergency room visits, and death.
"There are more hot days in places where people aren't used to it," Limaye says. "They don't have air-conditioning or can't afford it. One or two days isn't a big deal. But four days straight where temperatures don't go down, even at night, leads to severe health consequences." In the United States, hundreds of heat-related deaths occur each year due to direct impacts and the indirect effects of heat-exacerbated, life-threatening illnesses, such as heat exhaustion, heatstroke, and cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Indeed, extreme heat kills more Americans each year, on average, than hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and lightning combined.
Rising temperatures also worsen air pollution by increasing ground-level ozone smog, which is created when pollution from cars, factories, and other sources react to sunlight and heat. Ground-level ozone is the main component of smog, and the hotter things get, the more of it we have. Dirtier air is linked to higher hospital admission rates and higher death rates for asthmatics. It worsens the health of people suffering from cardiac or pulmonary disease. And warmer temperatures also significantly increase airborne pollen , which is bad news for those who suffer from hay fever and other allergies.
Higher wildlife extinction rates
As humans, we face a host of challenges, but we're certainly not the only ones catching heat. As land and sea undergo rapid changes, the animals that inhabit them are doomed to disappear if they don't adapt quickly enough. Some will make it, and some won't. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Sixth Assessment Report , the risk of species extinction increases steeply with rises in global temperature —with invertebrates (specifically pollinators) and flowering plants being some of the most vulnerable. Moreover, a 2015 study showed that vertebrate species (animals with backbones, like fish, birds, mammals , amphibians, and reptiles) are also disappearing more than 100 times faster than the natural rate of extinction, due to human-driven climate change, pollution, and deforestation.
More acidic oceans
The earth's marine ecosystems are under pressure as a result of climate change. Oceans are becoming more acidic, due in large part to their absorption of some of our excess emissions. As this acidification accelerates, it poses a serious threat to underwater life, particularly creatures with calcium carbonate shells or skeletons, including mollusks, crabs, and corals. This can have a huge impact on shellfisheries . In total, the U.S. shellfish industry could lose more than $400 million annually by 2100 due to impacts of ocean acidification.
Higher sea levels
The polar regions are particularly vulnerable to a warming atmosphere. Average temperatures in the Arctic are rising twice as fast as they are elsewhere on earth, and the world's ice sheets are melting fast. This not only has grave consequences for the region's people, wildlife, and plants; its most serious impact may be on rising sea levels. By 2100, it's estimated our oceans will be one to four feet higher, threatening coastal systems and low-lying areas, encompassing entire island nations and the world’s largest cities, including Los Angeles, Miami, and New York City, as well as Mumbai, India; Rio de Janeiro; and Sydney, Australia.
But this isn’t the end of the story
There’s no question: Unchecked climate change promises a frightening future, and it's too late to fully turn back the clock. We've already taken care of that by pumping a century's worth of pollution into the atmosphere. “Even if we stopped all carbon dioxide emissions tomorrow, we'd still see some dangerous effects,” Limaye says. That, of course, is the bad news.
But there's also good news. By aggressively reducing our global emissions now, “we can avoid a lot of the severe consequences that climate change would otherwise bring,” says Limaye. While change must happen at the highest levels of government and business, your voice matters too: to your friends, to your families, and to your community leaders. Together, we can envision a safer, healthier, more equitable future—and build toward it. You can join with millions of people around the world fighting climate change and even work to reduce fossil fuels in your own life .
This story was originally published on March 15, 2016, and has been updated with new information and links.
This NRDC.org story is available for online republication by news media outlets or nonprofits under these conditions: The writer(s) must be credited with a byline; you must note prominently that the story was originally published by NRDC.org and link to the original; the story cannot be edited (beyond simple things such as grammar); you can’t resell the story in any form or grant republishing rights to other outlets; you can’t republish our material wholesale or automatically—you need to select stories individually; you can’t republish the photos or graphics on our site without specific permission; you should drop us a note to let us know when you’ve used one of our stories.
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Climate Explained: Introductory Essays About Climate Change Topics
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Climate Explained, a part of Yale Climate Connections, is an essay collection that addresses an array of climate change questions and topics, including why it’s cold outside if global warming is real, how we know that humans are responsible for global warming, and the relationship between climate change and national security.
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Climate Change Basics: Five Facts, Ten Words
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Earth is warming up, and humans are at least partially to blame. The causes, effects, and complexities of global warming are important to understand so that we can fight for the health of our planet.
Earth Science, Climatology
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Ash spews from a coal-fueled power plant in New Johnsonville, Tennessee, United States.
Photograph by Emory Kristof/ National Geographic
Global warming is the long-term warming of the planet’s overall temperature. Though this warming trend has been going on for a long time, its pace has significantly increased in the last hundred years due to the burning of fossil fuels . As the human population has increased, so has the volume of fossil fuels burned. Fossil fuels include coal, oil, and natural gas, and burning them causes what is known as the “greenhouse effect” in Earth’s atmosphere.
The greenhouse effect is when the sun’s rays penetrate the atmosphere, but when that heat is reflected off the surface cannot escape back into space. Gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels prevent the heat from leaving the atmosphere. These greenhouse gasses are carbon dioxide , chlorofluorocarbons, water vapor , methane , and nitrous oxide . The excess heat in the atmosphere has caused the average global temperature to rise overtime, otherwise known as global warming.
Global warming has presented another issue called climate change. Sometimes these phrases are used interchangeably, however, they are different. Climate change refers to changes in weather patterns and growing seasons around the world. It also refers to sea level rise caused by the expansion of warmer seas and melting ice sheets and glaciers . Global warming causes climate change, which poses a serious threat to life on Earth in the forms of widespread flooding and extreme weather. Scientists continue to study global warming and its impact on Earth.
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Are there positive benefits from global warming?
Yes, there will probably be some short-term and long-term benefits from global warming. For example, the flip side of increased mortality from heat waves may be decreased mortality from cold waves.
In the short term, farmers in some regions may benefit from the earlier onset of spring and from a longer warm season that is suitable for growing crops. Also, studies show that, up to a certain point, crops and other plants grow better in the presence of higher carbon dioxide levels and seem to be more drought-tolerant. [ 1 ] But this benefit is a two-edged sword: weeds, many invasive plant species, and insect pests will also thrive in a warmer world. Water availability will be impacted in drier agricultural areas that need irrigation. At some point, the benefits to crops of increased carbon dioxide will likely be overwhelmed by the negative impacts of heat stress and drought.
In July 2017, Finnish icebreaker, MSV Nordica , photographed here in 2011, set a new record for the earliest transit through the Northwest Passage. Photo CC license by JV Virta .
In the long term, shipping commerce will benefit from the opening of the Northwest Passage for longer periods of the year due to the loss of Arctic sea ice. However, in the long run, if a "business as usual" approach to emitting heat-trapping gases is maintained at the present rate, or faster, then the negative costs and impacts of global warming are very likely to far outweigh the benefits over the course of this century, with increased potential for catastrophic impacts from more extreme events. [ 17 ] In part, this is because any substantial change, whether warmer or colder, would challenge the societal infrastructure that has developed under the current climate.
IPCC (2012): Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation . A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, 582 pp.
USGCRP (2017). Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume 1 [Wuebbles, D.J., D.W. Fahey, K.A. Hibbard, D.J. Dokken, B.C. Stewart, and T.K. Maycock (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 470 pp, doi: 10.7930/J0J964J6 .
Hoegh-Guldberg, O., D. Jacob, M. Taylor, M. Bindi, S. Brown, I. Camilloni, A. Diedhiou, R. Djalante, K.L. Ebi, F. Engelbrecht, J.Guiot, Y. Hijioka, S. Mehrotra, A. Payne, S.I. Seneviratne, A. Thomas, R. Warren, and G. Zhou. (2018). Impacts of 1.5°C Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems. In: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty. [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W.
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News & features, in july 2017, icebreaker makes earliest traverse of arctic's northwest passage, managing agricultural climate risks in u.s. southeast, climate & peanut butter, climate & your comfy clothes, maps & data, how do scientists classify different types of climate, weekly drought map, future climate, teaching climate, inspiring youth to engage in the climate discussion: #youth4climate, meet cop21 education ambassador shannon bartholomew, connect4climate and vimeo call for action: film a #day4climate action on november 29, climate resilience toolkit, global warming of 1.5°c, food production, food safety and nutrition.
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Talking about Climate Change and Global Warming
Contributed equally to this work with: Maurice Lineman, Yuno Do
Affiliation College of Natural Sciences, Department of Biological Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea
* E-mail: [email protected]
- Maurice Lineman,
- Yuno Do,
- Ji Yoon Kim,
- Gea-Jae Joo
- Published: September 29, 2015
- Reader Comments
The increasing prevalence of social networks provides researchers greater opportunities to evaluate and assess changes in public opinion and public sentiment towards issues of social consequence. Using trend and sentiment analysis is one method whereby researchers can identify changes in public perception that can be used to enhance the development of a social consciousness towards a specific public interest. The following study assessed Relative search volume (RSV) patterns for global warming (GW) and Climate change (CC) to determine public knowledge and awareness of these terms. In conjunction with this, the researchers looked at the sentiment connected to these terms in social media networks. It was found that there was a relationship between the awareness of the information and the amount of publicity generated around the terminology. Furthermore, the primary driver for the increase in awareness was an increase in publicity in either a positive or a negative light. Sentiment analysis further confirmed that the primary emotive connections to the words were derived from the original context in which the word was framed. Thus having awareness or knowledge of a topic is strongly related to its public exposure in the media, and the emotional context of this relationship is dependent on the context in which the relationship was originally established. This has value in fields like conservation, law enforcement, or other fields where the practice can and often does have two very strong emotive responses based on the context of the problems being examined.
Citation: Lineman M, Do Y, Kim JY, Joo G-J (2015) Talking about Climate Change and Global Warming. PLoS ONE 10(9): e0138996. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138996
Editor: Hayley J. Fowler, Newcastle University, UNITED KINGDOM
Received: August 18, 2014; Accepted: September 8, 2015; Published: September 29, 2015
Copyright: © 2015 Lineman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.
Funding: This study was financially supported by the 2015 Post-Doc Development Program of Pusan National University.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Identifying trends in the population, used to be a long and drawn out process utilizing surveys and polls and then collating the data to determine what is currently most popular with the population [ 1 , 2 ]. This is true for everything that was of merit to the political organizations present, regarding any issue of political or public interest.
Recently, the use of the two terms ‘Climate Change’ and ‘Global Warming’ have become very visible to the public and their understanding of what is happening with respect to the climate [ 3 ]. The public response to all of the news and publicity about climate has been a search for understanding and comprehension, leading to support or disbelief. The two terms while having similarity in meaning are used in slightly different semantic contexts. The press in order to expand their news readership/viewer lists has chosen to use this ambiguity to their favor in providing news to the public [ 4 ]. Within the news releases, the expression ‘due to climate change’ has been used to explain phenomological causality.
These two terms “global warming–(GW)” and “climate change–(CC)” both play a role in how the public at large views the natural world and the changes occurring in it. They are used interactively by the news agencies, without a thought towards their actual meaning [ 3 , 4 ]. Therefore, the public in trying to identify changes in the news and their understanding of those changes looks for the meaning of those terms online. The extent of their knowledge can be examined by assessing the use of the terms in online search queries. Information searches using the internet are increasing, and therefore can indicate public or individual interest.
Internet search queries can be tracked using a variety of analytic engines that are independent of, or embedded into, the respective search engines (google trend, naver analytics) and are used to determine the popularity of a topic in terms of internet searches [ 5 ]. The trend engines will look for selected keywords from searches, keywords chosen for their relevance to the field or the query being performed.
The process of using social media to obtain information on public opinion is a practice that has been utilized with increasing frequency in modern research for subjects ranging from politics [ 6 , 7 ] to linguistics [ 8 – 10 ] complex systems [ 11 , 12 ] to environment [ 13 ]. This variety of research belies the flexibility of the approach, the large availability of data availability for mining in order to formulate a response to public opinion regarding the subject being assessed. In modern society understanding how the public responds regarding complex issues of societal importance [ 12 ].
While the two causally connected terms GW and CC are used interchangeably, they describe entirely different physical phenomena [ 14 ]. These two terms therefore can be used to determine how people understand the parallel concepts, especially if they are used as internet search query terms in trend analysis. However, searching the internet falls into two patterns, searches for work or for personal interest, neither of which can be determined from the trend engines. The By following the searches, it is possible to determine the range of public interest in the two terms, based on the respective volumes of the search queries. Previously in order to mine public opinion on a subject, government agencies had to revert to polling and surveys, which while being effective did not cover a very large component of the population [ 15 – 17 ].
Google trend data is one method of measuring popularity of a subject within the population. Individuals searching for a topic use search keywords to obtain the desired information [ 5 , 18 ]. These keywords are topic sensitive, and therefore indicate the level of knowledge regarding the searched topic. The two primary word phrases here “climate change” and “global warming” are unilateral terms that indicate a level of awareness about the issue which is indicative of the individuals interest in that subject [ 5 , 19 , 20 ]. Google trend data relates how often a term is searched, that is the frequency of a search term can be identified from the results of the Google® trend analysis. While frequency is not a direct measure of popularity, it does indicate if a search term is common or uncommon and the value of that term to the public at large. The relationship between frequency and popularity lies in the volume of searches by a large number of individuals over specific time duration. Therefore, by identifying the number of searches during a specific period, it is possible to come to a proximate understanding of how popular or common a term is for the general population [ 21 ]. However, the use of trend data is more appropriately used to identify awareness of an issue rather than its popularity.
This brings us to sentiment analysis. Part of the connection between the search and the populations’ awareness of an issue can be measured using how they refer to the subject in question. This sentiment, is found in different forms of social media, or social networking sites sites i.e. twitter®, Facebook®, linked in® and personal blogs [ 7 , 22 – 24 ]. Thus, the original information, which was found on the internet, becomes influenced by personal attitudes and opinions [ 25 ]and then redistributed throughout the internet, accessible to anyone who has an internet connection and the desire to search. This behavior affects the information that now provides the opportunity to assess public sentiment regarding the prevailing attitudes regarding environmental issues [ 26 , 27 ]. To assess this we used Google® and Twitter® data to understand public concerns related to climate change and global warming. Google trend was used to trace changes in interest between the two phenomena. Tweets (comments made on Twitter®) were analyzed to identify negative or positive emotional responses.
Comparatively, twitter data is more indicative of how people refer to topics of interest [ 28 – 31 ], in a manner that is very linguistically restricted. As well, twitter is used as a platform for verbal expression of emotional responses. Due to the restrictions on tweet size (each tweet can only be 140 characters in length), it is necessary to be more direct in dealing with topics of interest to the tweeter. Therefore, the tweets are linguistically more emotionally charged and can be used to define a level of emotional response by the tweeter.
The choice of target words for the tweets and for the Google trend searches were the specific topic phrases [ 32 , 33 ]. These were chosen because of the descriptive nature of the phrases. Scientific literature is very specific in its use and therefore has very definitive meanings. The appropriation of these words by the population as a method for describing their response to the variation in the environment provides the basis for the choice as target words for the study. The classification of the words as being positive versus negative lies in the direction provided by Frank Lutz. This politicization of a scientific word as a means of directing public awareness, means the prescription of one phrase (climate change) as being more positive than the other (global warming).
Global warming is defined as the long-term trend of increasing average global temperatures; alternatively, climate change is defined as a change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20 th century onwards and attributed to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide arising from the use of fossil fuels. Therefore, the search keywords were chosen based on their scientific value and their public visibility. What is important about the choice of these search terms is that due to their scientific use, they describe a distinctly identifiable state. The more specific these words are, the less risk of the algorithm misinterpreting the keyword and thus having the results misinterpreted [ 34 – 36 ].
The purpose of the following study was to identify trends within search parameters for two specific sets of trend queries. The second purpose of the study was to identify how the public responds emotionally to those same queries. Finally, the purpose of the study was to determine if the two had any connections.
Public awareness of the terms climate change and global warming was identified using Google Trends (google.com/trends) and public databases of Google queries [ 37 ]. To specify the exact searches we used the two terms ‘climate change’ and ‘global warming’ as query phrases. Queries were normalized using relative search volume (RSV) to the period with the highest proportion of searches going to the focal terms (i.e. RSV = 100 is the period with the highest proportion for queries within a category and RSV = 50 when 50% of that is the highest search proportion). Two assumptions were necessary for this study. The first is, of the two terms, climate change and global warming, that which draws more search results is considered more interesting to the general population. The second assumption is that changes in keyword search patterns are indicators of the use of different forms of terminology used by the public. To analyze sentiments related to climate change and global warming, tweets containing acronyms for climate change and global warming were collected from Twitter API for the period from October 12 to December 12, 2013. A total of 21,182 and 26,462 tweets referencing the terms climate change and global warming were collected respectively. When duplicated tweets were identified, they were removed from the analysis. The remaining tweets totaled 8,465 (climate change) and 8,263 (global warming) were compiled for the sentiment analysis.
In Twitter® comments are emotionally loaded, due to their textually shortened nature. Sentiment analysis, which is in effect opinion mining, is how opinions in texts are assessed, along with how they are expressed in terms of positive, neutral or negative content [ 36 ]. Nasukawa and Yi [ 10 ]state that sentiment analysis identifies statements of sentiment and classifies those statements based on their polarity and strength along with their relationship to the topic.
Sentiment analysis was conducted using Semantria® software ( www.semantria.com ), which is available as an MS Excel spreadsheet application plugin. The plugin is broken into parts of speech (POS), the algorithm within the plugin then identifies sentiment-laden phrases and then scores them from -10 to 10 on a logarithmic scale, and finally the scores for each POS are tabulated to identify the final score for each phrase. The tweets are then via statistical inferences tagged with a numerical value from -2 to 2 and given a polarity, which is classified as positive, neutral or negative [ 36 ]. Semantria®, the program utilized for this study, has been used since 2011 to perform sentiment analyses [ 7 , 22 ].
For the analysis, an identity column was added to the dataset to enable analysis of individual tweets with respect to sentiment. A basic sentiment analysis was conducted on the dataset using the Semantria® plugin. The plugin uses a cloud based corpus of words tagged with sentimental connotations to analyze the dataset. Through statistical inference, each tweet is tagged with a sentiment value from -2 to +2 and a polarity of (i) negative, (ii) neutral, or (iii) positive. Positive nature increases with increasing positive sentiment. The nature of the language POS assignation is dependent upon the algorithmic classification parameters defined by the Semantria® program. Determining polarity for each POS is achieved using the relationship between the words as well as the words themselves. By assigning negative values to specific negative phrases, it limits the use of non-specific negation processes in language; however, the program has been trained to assess non-specific linguistic negations in context.
A tweet term frequency dictionary was computed using the N-gram method from the corpus of climate change and global warming [ 38 ]. We used a combination of unigrams and bigrams, which has been reported to be effective [ 39 ]. Before using the N-gram method, typological symbols were removed using the open source code editor (i.e. Notepad) or Microsoft Words’ “Replace” function.
Differences in RSV’s for the terms global warming and climate change for the investigation period were identified using a paired t-test. Pettitt and Mann-Kendall tests were used to identify changes in distribution, averages and the presence of trends within the weekly RSV’s. The Pettitt and MK tests, which assume a stepwise shift in the mean (a break point) and are sensitive to breaks in the middle of a time series, were applied to test for homogeneity in the data [ 40 ]. Temporal trends within the time series were analyzed with Spearman’s non-parametric correlation analysis. A paired t-test and Spearman’s non-parametric correlation analysis were conducted using SPSS software (version 17.0 SPSS In corp. Chicago IL) and Pettitt and MK tests were conducted using XLSTAT (version 7.0).
To determine the accuracy and reliability of the Sentiment analysis, a Pearson’s chi-square analysis was performed. This test identifies the difference ratio for each emotional response group, and then compares them to determine reliance and probability of interactions between the variables, in this case the terms global warming and climate change.
According to Google trend ( Fig 1 ) from 2004–2014, people searched for the term global warming (n = 8,464; mean ± S.D = 25.33 ± 2.05) more frequently than climate change (n = 8,283; mean ± S.D. = 7.97±0.74). Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published its Fourth Assessment Report in 2007 and was awarded the Nobel Prize, interest in the term global warming as used in internet searches has decreased significantly since 2010 (K = 51493, t = 2010-May-23, P<0.001). Further the change in RSV also been indicative of the decreased pattern (Kendall’s tau = -0.336, S = -44563, P<0.001). The use of the term “climate change” has risen marginally since 2006 (K = 38681, t = 2006-Oct-08, P<0.001), as indicated by a slight increase (Kendall’s tau = -0.07, S = 9068, P<0.001). These findings show that the difference in usage of the two terms climate change and global warming has recently been reduced.
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The sentiment analysis of tweets ( Fig 2 ) shows that people felt more negative about the term global warming (sentiment index = -0.21±0.34) than climate change (-0.068±0.36). Global warming tweets reflecting negative sentiments via descriptions such as, “bad, fail, crazy, afraid and catastrophe,” represented 52.1% of the total number of tweets. As an example, the tweet, “Supposed to snow here in the a.m.! OMG. So sick of already, but Saturday says 57 WTF!” had the lowest score at -1.8. Another observation was that 40.7% of tweets, including “agree, recommend, rescue, hope, and contribute,” were regarded as neutral. While 7.2% of tweets conveyed positive messages such as, “good, accept, interesting, and truth.” One positive global warming tweet, read, “So if we didn’t have global warming, would all this rain be snow!”. The results from the Pearson’s chi-square analysis showed that the relationship between the variables was significant (Pearson’s chi-square –763.98, d.f. = 2, P<0.001). Negative climate change tweets represented 33.1% of the total while neutral tweets totaled 49.8%, while positive climate change tweets totaled 17.1%.
Understandably, global warming and climate change are the terms used most frequently to describe each phenomenon, respectively, as revealed by the N-gram analysis ( Table 1 ). When people tweeted about global warming, they repeatedly used associated such as, “ice, snow, Arctic, and sea.” In contrast, tweets referring to climate change commonly used, “report, IPCC, world, science, environment, and scientist.” People seem to think that climate change as a phenomenon is revealed by scientific investigation.
Internet searches are one way of understanding the popularity of an idea or meme within the public at large. Within that frame of reference, the public looks at these two terms global warming and climate change and their awareness of the roles of the two phenomena [ 41 ]. From 2004 to 2008, the search volumes for the term global warming far exceeded the term climate change. The range for the term global warming in Relative search volumes (RSV) was more than double that of climate change in this period ( Fig 1 ). From 2008 on the RSV’s began to steadily decrease until in 2014 when the RSV’s for the term global warming were nearly identical to those for the term climate change. From 2008 there was an increase in the RSVs for CC until 2010 at which point the RSVs also began to decline for the term climate change. The decline in the term climate change for the most part paralleled that of the term global warming from 2010 on to the present.
While we are seeing the increases and decreases in RSVs for both the terms global warming and climate change, the most notable changes occur when the gap between the terms was the greatest, from 2008 through to 2010. During this period, there was a very large gap found between the RSVs for the terms global warming and climate change; however, searches for the term climate change was increasing while searches for the tem global warming were decreasing. The counter movement of the RSV’s for the two terms shows that there is a trend happening with respect to term recognition. At this point, there was an increase in the use of the CC term while there was a corresponding decrease in the use of the GW term. The change in the use of the term could have been due to changes in the publicity of the respective terms, since at this point, the CC term was being used more visibly in the media, and therefore the CC term was showing up in headlines and the press, resulting in a larger number of searches for the CC term. Correspondingly, the decrease in the use of the GW term is likely due to the changes in how the term was perceived by the public. The public press determines how a term is used, since they are the body that consistently utilizes a term throughout its visible life. The two terms, regardless of how they differ in meaning, are used with purpose in a scientific context, yet the public at large lacks this definition and therefore has no knowledge of the variations in the terms themselves [ 42 ]. Therefore, when searching for a term, the public may very well, choose the search term that they are more comfortable with, resulting in a search bias, since they do not know the scientific use of the term.
The increase in the use of the CC term, could be a direct result of the release of the fourth assessment report for the IPCC in 2007 [ 43 ]. The publicity related to the release of this document, which was preceded by the release of the Al Gore produced documentary “An Inconvenient Truth”, both of which were followed by the selection by the Nobel committee of Al Gore and the IPCC scientists for the Nobel Prize in 2007 [ 43 ]. These three acts individually may not have created the increased media presence of the CC term; however, at the time the three events pushed the CC term and increased its exposure to the public which further drove the public to push for positive environmental change at the political level [ 44 , 45 ]. This could very well have resulted in the increases in RSV’s for the CC term. This point is more likely to depict accurately the situation, since in 2010 the use of the two terms decline at almost the same rate, with nearly the same patterns.
Thus with respect to trend analysis, what is interesting is that RSVs are paralleling the press for specific environmental events that have predetermined value according to the press. The press in increasing the visibility of the term may drive the increases in the RSV’s for that term. Prior to 2007, the press was using the GW term indiscriminately whenever issues affecting the global climate arose; however, after the movie, the report and then the Nobel prize the terminology used by the press switched and the CC term became the word du jour. This increased the visibility of the word to the public, thereby it may be that increasing public awareness of the word, but not necessarily its import, is the source for the increases in RSV’s between 2008 and 2010.
The decline in the RSV’s then is a product of the lack of publicity about the issue. As the terms become more familiar, there would be less necessity to drive the term publicly into the spotlight; however, occasionally events/situations arise that refocus the issue creating a resurgence in the terms even though they have reached their peak visibility between 2008 and 2010.
Since these terms have such an impact on the daily lives of the public via local regional national and global weather it is understandable that they have an emotional component to them [ 46 ]. Every country has its jokes about the weather, where they come up with cliché’s about the weather (i.e. if you don’t like the weather wait 10minutes) that often show their discord and disjunction with natural climatological patterns [ 47 ]. Furthermore, some sectors of society (farmers) have a direct relationship with the climate and their means of living; bad weather is equal to bad harvests, which means less money. To understand how society represents this love hate relationship with the weather, the twitter analysis was performed. Twitter, a data restricted social network system, has a limited character count to relay information about any topic the sender chooses to relate. These tweets can be used to assess the sentiment of the sender towards a certain topic. As stated previously, the sentiment is defined by the language of the tweet within the twitter system. Sentiment analysis showed that the two terms differed greatly. Based on the predefined algorithm for the sentiment analysis, certain language components carried a positive sentiment, while others carried a negative sentiment. Tweets about GW and CC were subdivided based on their positive, neutral and negative connotations within the tweet network. These emotions regardless of their character still play a role in how humans interacts with surroundings including other humans [ 48 , 49 ] As seen in Fig 2 the different terms had similar distributions, although with different ranges in the values. Global warming showed a much smaller positive tweet value than did climate change. Correspondent to this the respective percentage of positive sentiments for CC was more than double that of GW. Comparatively, the neutral percentiles were more similar for each term with a small difference. However, the negative sentiments for the two terms again showed a greater disparity, with negative statements about GW nearly double those of climate change.
These differences show that there is a perceptive difference in how the public relates to the two terms Global Warming and Climate Change [ 50 , 51 ]. Climate change is shown in a more positive light than global warming simply based on the tweets produced by the public. The difference in how people perceive climate change and global warming is possibly due to the press, personal understanding of the terms, or level of education. While this in itself is indefinable, since by nature tweets are linguistically restrictive, the thing to take from it is that there is a measurable difference in how individuals respond to climatological changes that they are experiencing daily. These changes have a describable effect on how the population is responding to the publicity surrounding the two terms to the point where it can be used to manipulate governmental policy [ 52 ].
Sentiment analysis is a tool that can be used to determine how the population feels about a topic; however, the nature of the algorithm makes it hard to effectively determine how this is being assessed. For the current study, the sentiment analysis showed that there was a greater negative association with the term global warming than with the term climate change. This difference, which while being an expression of individual like or dislike at the time the tweet was created, denotes that the two terms were either not understood in their true form, or that individuals may have a greater familiarity with one term over the other, which may be due to a longer exposure to the term (GW) or the negative press associated with the term (GW).
Trend analysis identified that the public is aware of the terminology used to describe climatological variation. The terminology showed changes in use over time with global warming starting as the more well-known term, and then its use decreased over time. At the same time, the more definitive term climate change had less exposure early on; however, with the increase of press exposure, the public became increasingly aware of the term and its more accurate definition. This increase appeared to be correspondent with the increasing publicity around three very powerful press exposure events (a documentary, a scientific report release and a Nobel Prize). The more the term was used the more people came to use it, this included searches on the internet.
Comparatively sentiment analysis showed that the two terms had differential expressions in the population. With climate change being seen in a more positive frame than global warming. The use of sentiment analysis as a tool to evaluate how the population is responding to a feature is an important tool. However, it is a tool that measures, it does not define.
Social network systems and internet searches are effective tools in identifying changes in both public awareness and public perception of an issue. However, in and of itself, these are bell ringers they can be used to determine the importance of an issue, but not the rationale behind the why it is important. This is an important fact to remember when using analytical tools that evaluate social network systems and their use by the public.
This study was financially supported by the 2015 Post-Doc. Development Program of Pusan National University
Conceived and designed the experiments: YD GJJ. Performed the experiments: ML YD. Analyzed the data: ML YD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JK YD. Wrote the paper: ML YD GJJ.
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10 Solutions for Climate Change
Ten possibilities for staving off catastrophic climate change
- By David Biello on November 26, 2007
The enormity of global warming can be daunting and dispiriting. What can one person, or even one nation, do on their own to slow and reverse climate change ? But just as ecologist Stephen Pacala and physicist Robert Socolow, both at Princeton University, came up with 15 so-called " wedges " for nations to utilize toward this goal—each of which is challenging but feasible and, in some combination, could reduce greenhouse gas emissions to safer levels —there are personal lifestyle changes that you can make too that, in some combination, can help reduce your carbon impact. Not all are right for everybody. Some you may already be doing or absolutely abhor. But implementing just a few of them could make a difference.
Forego Fossil Fuels —The first challenge is eliminating the burning of coal , oil and, eventually, natural gas. This is perhaps the most daunting challenge as denizens of richer nations literally eat, wear, work, play and even sleep on the products made from such fossilized sunshine. And citizens of developing nations want and arguably deserve the same comforts, which are largely thanks to the energy stored in such fuels.
Oil is the lubricant of the global economy, hidden inside such ubiquitous items as plastic and corn, and fundamental to the transportation of both consumers and goods. Coal is the substrate, supplying roughly half of the electricity used in the U.S. and nearly that much worldwide—a percentage that is likely to grow, according to the International Energy Agency. There are no perfect solutions for reducing dependence on fossil fuels (for example, carbon neutral biofuels can drive up the price of food and lead to forest destruction, and while nuclear power does not emit greenhouse gases, it does produce radioactive waste), but every bit counts.
So try to employ alternatives when possible—plant-derived plastics, biodiesel, wind power—and to invest in the change, be it by divesting from oil stocks or investing in companies practicing carbon capture and storage.
Infrastructure Upgrade —Buildings worldwide contribute around one third of all greenhouse gas emissions (43 percent in the U.S. alone), even though investing in thicker insulation and other cost-effective, temperature-regulating steps can save money in the long run. Electric grids are at capacity or overloaded, but power demands continue to rise. And bad roads can lower the fuel economy of even the most efficient vehicle. Investing in new infrastructure, or radically upgrading existing highways and transmission lines, would help cut greenhouse gas emissions and drive economic growth in developing countries.
Of course, it takes a lot of cement, a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, to construct new buildings and roads. The U.S. alone contributed 50.7 million metric tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in 2005 from cement production, which requires heating limestone and other ingredients to 1,450 degrees Celsius (2,642 degrees Fahrenheit). Mining copper and other elements needed for electrical wiring and transmission also causes globe-warming pollution.
But energy-efficient buildings and improved cement-making processes (such as using alternative fuels to fire up the kiln) could reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the developed world and prevent them in the developing world.
Move Closer to Work —Transportation is the second leading source of greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. (burning a single gallon of gasoline produces 20 pounds of CO 2 ). But it doesn't have to be that way.
One way to dramatically curtail transportation fuel needs is to move closer to work, use mass transit, or switch to walking, cycling or some other mode of transport that does not require anything other than human energy. There is also the option of working from home and telecommuting several days a week.
Cutting down on long-distance travel would also help, most notably airplane flights, which are one of the fastest growing sources of greenhouse gas emissions and a source that arguably releases such emissions in the worst possible spot (higher in the atmosphere). Flights are also one of the few sources of globe-warming pollution for which there isn't already a viable alternative: jets rely on kerosene, because it packs the most energy per pound, allowing them to travel far and fast, yet it takes roughly 10 gallons of oil to make one gallon of JetA fuel. Restricting flying to only critical, long-distance trips—in many parts of the world, trains can replace planes for short- to medium-distance trips—would help curb airplane emissions.
Consume Less —The easiest way to cut back on greenhouse gas emissions is simply to buy less stuff. Whether by forgoing an automobile or employing a reusable grocery sack, cutting back on consumption results in fewer fossil fuels being burned to extract, produce and ship products around the globe.
Think green when making purchases. For instance, if you are in the market for a new car, buy one that will last the longest and have the least impact on the environment. Thus, a used vehicle with a hybrid engine offers superior fuel efficiency over the long haul while saving the environmental impact of new car manufacture.
Paradoxically, when purchasing essentials, such as groceries, buying in bulk can reduce the amount of packaging—plastic wrapping, cardboard boxes and other unnecessary materials. Sometimes buying more means consuming less.
Be Efficient —A potentially simpler and even bigger impact can be made by doing more with less. Citizens of many developed countries are profligate wasters of energy, whether by speeding in a gas-guzzling sport-utility vehicle or leaving the lights on when not in a room.
Good driving—and good car maintenance, such as making sure tires are properly inflated—can limit the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from a vehicle and, perhaps more importantly, lower the frequency of payment at the pump.
Similarly, employing more efficient refrigerators, air conditioners and other appliances, such as those rated highly under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star program, can cut electric bills while something as simple as weatherproofing the windows of a home can reduce heating and cooling bills. Such efforts can also be usefully employed at work, whether that means installing more efficient turbines at the power plant or turning the lights off when you leave the office .
Eat Smart, Go Vegetarian? —Corn grown in the U.S. requires barrels of oil for the fertilizer to grow it and the diesel fuel to harvest and transport it. Some grocery stores stock organic produce that do not require such fertilizers, but it is often shipped from halfway across the globe. And meat, whether beef, chicken or pork, requires pounds of feed to produce a pound of protein.
Choosing food items that balance nutrition, taste and ecological impact is no easy task. Foodstuffs often bear some nutritional information, but there is little to reveal how far a head of lettuce, for example, has traveled.
University of Chicago researchers estimate that each meat-eating American produces 1.5 tons more greenhouse gases through their food choice than do their vegetarian peers. It would also take far less land to grow the crops necessary to feed humans than livestock, allowing more room for planting trees.
Stop Cutting Down Trees —Every year, 33 million acres of forests are cut down . Timber harvesting in the tropics alone contributes 1.5 billion metric tons of carbon to the atmosphere. That represents 20 percent of human-made greenhouse gas emissions and a source that could be avoided relatively easily.
Improved agricultural practices along with paper recycling and forest management—balancing the amount of wood taken out with the amount of new trees growing—could quickly eliminate this significant chunk of emissions.
And when purchasing wood products, such as furniture or flooring, buy used goods or, failing that, wood certified to have been sustainably harvested. The Amazon and other forests are not just the lungs of the earth, they may also be humanity's best short-term hope for limiting climate change.
Unplug —Believe it or not, U.S. citizens spend more money on electricity to power devices when off than when on. Televisions, stereo equipment, computers, battery chargers and a host of other gadgets and appliances consume more energy when seemingly switched off, so unplug them instead.
Purchasing energy-efficient gadgets can also save both energy and money—and thus prevent more greenhouse gas emissions. To take but one example, efficient battery chargers could save more than one billion kilowatt-hours of electricity—$100 million at today's electricity prices—and thus prevent the release of more than one million metric tons of greenhouse gases.
Swapping old incandescent lightbulbs for more efficient replacements, such as compact fluorescents (warning: these lightbulbs contain mercury and must be properly disposed of at the end of their long life), would save billions of kilowatt-hours. In fact, according to the EPA, replacing just one incandescent lightbulb in every American home would save enough energy to provide electricity to three million American homes.
One Child —There are at least 6.6 billion people living today, a number that is predicted by the United Nations to grow to at least nine billion by mid-century. The U.N. Environmental Program estimates that it requires 54 acres to sustain an average human being today—food, clothing and other resources extracted from the planet. Continuing such population growth seems unsustainable.
Falling birth rates in some developed and developing countries (a significant portion of which are due to government-imposed limits on the number of children a couple can have) have begun to reduce or reverse the population explosion. It remains unclear how many people the planet can comfortably sustain, but it is clear that per capita energy consumption must go down if climate change is to be controlled.
Ultimately, a one child per couple rule is not sustainable either and there is no perfect number for human population. But it is clear that more humans means more greenhouse gas emissions.
Future Fuels —Replacing fossil fuels may prove the great challenge of the 21st century. Many contenders exist, ranging from ethanol derived from crops to hydrogen electrolyzed out of water, but all of them have some drawbacks, too, and none are immediately available at the scale needed.
Biofuels can have a host of negative impacts, from driving up food prices to sucking up more energy than they produce. Hydrogen must be created, requiring either reforming natural gas or electricity to crack water molecules. Biodiesel hybrid electric vehicles (that can plug into the grid overnight) may offer the best transportation solution in the short term, given the energy density of diesel and the carbon neutral ramifications of fuel from plants as well as the emissions of electric engines. A recent study found that the present amount of electricity generation in the U.S. could provide enough energy for the country's entire fleet of automobiles to switch to plug-in hybrids , reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the process.
But plug-in hybrids would still rely on electricity, now predominantly generated by burning dirty coal. Massive investment in low-emission energy generation, whether solar-thermal power or nuclear fission , would be required to radically reduce greenhouse gas emissions. And even more speculative energy sources—hyperefficient photovoltaic cells, solar energy stations in orbit or even fusion—may ultimately be required.
The solutions above offer the outline of a plan to personally avoid contributing to global warming. But should such individual and national efforts fail, there is another, potentially desperate solution:
Experiment Earth —Climate change represents humanity's first planetwide experiment. But, if all else fails, it may not be the last. So-called geoengineering , radical interventions to either block sunlight or reduce greenhouse gases, is a potential last resort for addressing the challenge of climate change.
Among the ideas: releasing sulfate particles in the air to mimic the cooling effects of a massive volcanic eruption; placing millions of small mirrors or lenses in space to deflect sunlight; covering portions of the planet with reflective films to bounce sunlight back into space; fertilizing the oceans with iron or other nutrients to enable plankton to absorb more carbon; and increasing cloud cover or the reflectivity of clouds that already form.
All may have unintended consequences, making the solution worse than the original problem. But it is clear that at least some form of geoengineering will likely be required: capturing carbon dioxide before it is released and storing it in some fashion, either deep beneath the earth, at the bottom of the ocean or in carbonate minerals. Such carbon capture and storage is critical to any serious effort to combat climate change.
Additional reporting by Larry Greenemeier and Nikhil Swaminathan .
ABOUT THE AUTHOR(S)
David Biello is a contributing editor at Scientific American . Follow David Biello on Twitter
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Essay on Global Warming
- Updated on
- Oct 26, 2023
Being able to write an essay is an integral part of mastering any language. Essays form an integral part of many academic and scholastic exams like the SAT , and UPSC amongst many others. It is a crucial evaluative part of English proficiency tests as well like IELTS , TOEFL , etc. Major essays are meant to emphasize public issues of concern that can have significant consequences on the world. To understand the concept of Global Warming and its causes and effects, we must first examine the many factors that influence the planet’s temperature and what this implies for the world’s future. Here’s an unbiased look at the essay on Global Warming and other essential related topics.
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Since the industrial and scientific revolutions, Earth’s resources have been gradually depleted. Furthermore, the start of the world’s population’s exponential expansion is particularly hard on the environment. Simply put, as the population’s need for consumption grows, so does the use of natural resources , as well as the waste generated by that consumption.
Climate change has been one of the most significant long-term consequences of this. Climate change is more than just the rise or fall of global temperatures; it also affects rain cycles, wind patterns, cyclone frequencies, sea levels, and other factors. It has an impact on all major life groupings on the planet.
Also Read: World Population Day
What is Global Warming?
Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth’s average surface temperature over the past century, primarily due to the greenhouse gases released by people burning fossil fuels . The greenhouse gases consist of methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapour, and chlorofluorocarbons. The weather prediction has been becoming more complex with every passing year, with seasons more indistinguishable, and the general temperatures hotter. The number of hurricanes, cyclones, droughts, floods, etc., has risen steadily since the onset of the 21st century. The supervillain behind all these changes is Global Warming. The name is quite self-explanatory; it means the rise in the temperature of the Earth.
Also Read: What is a Natural Disaster?
According to recent studies, many scientists believe the following are the primary four causes of global warming:
- Greenhouse emissions
- Carbon emissions per capita
Extreme global warming is causing natural disasters , which can be seen all around us. One of the causes of global warming is the extreme release of greenhouse gases that become trapped on the earth’s surface, causing the temperature to rise. Similarly, volcanoes contribute to global warming by spewing excessive CO2 into the atmosphere.
The increase in population is one of the major causes of Global Warming. This increase in population also leads to increased air pollution . Automobiles emit a lot of CO2, which remains in the atmosphere. This increase in population is also causing deforestation, which contributes to global warming.
The earth’s surface emits energy into the atmosphere in the form of heat, keeping the balance with the incoming energy. Global warming depletes the ozone layer, bringing about the end of the world. There is a clear indication that increased global warming will result in the extinction of all life on Earth’s surface.
Also Read: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation, and Wildlife Resources
Of course, industries and multinational conglomerates emit more carbon than the average citizen. Nonetheless, activism and community effort are the only viable ways to slow the worsening effects of global warming. Furthermore, at the state or government level, world leaders must develop concrete plans and step-by-step programmes to ensure that no further harm is done to the environment in general.
Although we are almost too late to slow the rate of global warming, finding the right solution is critical. Everyone, from individuals to governments, must work together to find a solution to Global Warming. Some of the factors to consider are pollution control, population growth, and the use of natural resources.
One very important contribution you can make is to reduce your use of plastic. Plastic is the primary cause of global warming, and recycling it takes years. Another factor to consider is deforestation, which will aid in the control of global warming. More tree planting should be encouraged to green the environment. Certain rules should also govern industrialization. Building industries in green zones that affect plants and species should be prohibited.
Also Read: Essay on Pollution
Global warming is a real problem that many people want to disprove to gain political advantage. However, as global citizens, we must ensure that only the truth is presented in the media.
This decade has seen a significant impact from global warming. The two most common phenomena observed are glacier retreat and arctic shrinkage. Glaciers are rapidly melting. These are clear manifestations of climate change.
Another significant effect of global warming is the rise in sea level. Flooding is occurring in low-lying areas as a result of sea-level rise. Many countries have experienced extreme weather conditions. Every year, we have unusually heavy rain, extreme heat and cold, wildfires, and other natural disasters.
Similarly, as global warming continues, marine life is being severely impacted. This is causing the extinction of marine species as well as other problems. Furthermore, changes are expected in coral reefs, which will face extinction in the coming years. These effects will intensify in the coming years, effectively halting species expansion. Furthermore, humans will eventually feel the negative effects of Global Warming.
Also Read: Concept of Sustainable Development
Sample Essays on Global Warming
Here are some sample essays on Global Warming:
Global Warming is caused by the increase of carbon dioxide levels in the earth’s atmosphere and is a result of human activities that have been causing harm to our environment for the past few centuries now. Global Warming is something that can’t be ignored and steps have to be taken to tackle the situation globally. The average temperature is constantly rising by 1.5 degrees Celsius over the last few years. The best method to prevent future damage to the earth, cutting down more forests should be banned and Afforestation should be encouraged. Start by planting trees near your homes and offices, participate in events, and teach the importance of planting trees. It is impossible to undo the damage but it is possible to stop further harm.
Also Read: Social Forestry
Over a long period, it is observed that the temperature of the earth is increasing. This affected wildlife , animals, humans, and every living organism on earth. Glaciers have been melting, and many countries have started water shortages, flooding, and erosion and all this is because of global warming. No one can be blamed for global warming except for humans. Human activities such as gases released from power plants, transportation, and deforestation have increased gases such as carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants in the earth’s atmosphere. The main question is how can we control the current situation and build a better world for future generations. It starts with little steps by every individual. Start using cloth bags made from sustainable materials for all shopping purposes, instead of using high-watt lights use energy-efficient bulbs, switch off the electricity, don’t waste water, abolish deforestation and encourage planting more trees. Shift the use of energy from petroleum or other fossil fuels to wind and solar energy. Instead of throwing out the old clothes donate them to someone so that it is recycled. Donate old books, don’t waste paper. Above all, spread awareness about global warming. Every little thing a person does towards saving the earth will contribute in big or small amounts. We must learn that 1% effort is better than no effort. Pledge to take care of Mother Nature and speak up about global warming.
Also Read: Types of Water Pollution
Global warming isn’t a prediction, it is happening! A person denying it or unaware of it is in the most simple terms complicit. Do we have another planet to live on? Unfortunately, we have been bestowed with this one planet only that can sustain life yet over the years we have turned a blind eye to the plight it is in. Global warming is not an abstract concept but a global phenomenon occurring ever so slowly even at this moment.
Global Warming is a phenomenon that is occurring every minute resulting in a gradual increase in the Earth’s overall climate. Brought about by greenhouse gases that trap the solar radiation in the atmosphere, global warming can change the entire map of the earth, displacing areas, flooding many countries, and destroying multiple lifeforms. Extreme weather is a direct consequence of global warming but it is not an exhaustive consequence. There are virtually limitless effects of global warming which are all harmful to life on earth.
The sea level is increasing by 0.12 inches per year worldwide. This is happening because of the melting of polar ice caps because of global warming. This has increased the frequency of floods in many lowland areas and has caused damage to coral reefs. The Arctic is one of the worst-hit areas affected by global warming. Air quality has been adversely affected and the acidity of the seawater has also increased causing severe damage to marine life forms. Severe natural disasters are brought about by global warming which has had dire effects on life and property.
As long as mankind produces greenhouse gases, global warming will continue to accelerate. The consequences are felt at a much smaller scale which will increase to become drastic shortly. The power to save the day lies in the hands of humans, the need is to seize the day. Energy consumption should be reduced on an individual basis. Fuel-efficient cars and other electronics should be encouraged to reduce the wastage of energy sources. This will also improve air quality and reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Global warming is an evil that can only be defeated when fought together.
It is better late than never. If we all take steps today, we will have a much brighter future tomorrow. Global warming is the bane of our existence and various policies have come up worldwide to fight it but that is not enough. The actual difference is made when we work at an individual level to fight it. Understanding its import now is crucial before it becomes an irrevocable mistake. Exterminating global warming is of utmost importance and each one of us is as responsible for it as the next.
Always hear about global warming everywhere, but do we know what it is? The evil of the worst form, global warming is a phenomenon that can affect life more fatally. Global warming refers to the increase in the earth’s temperature as a result of various human activities. The planet is gradually getting hotter and threatening the existence of lifeforms on it. Despite being relentlessly studied and researched, global warming for the majority of the population remains an abstract concept of science. It is this concept that over the years has culminated in making global warming a stark reality and not a concept covered in books.
Global warming is not caused by one sole reason that can be curbed. There are multifarious factors that cause global warming most of which are a part of an individual’s daily existence. Burning of fuels for cooking, in vehicles, and for other conventional uses, a large amount of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, and methane amongst many others is produced which accelerates global warming. Rampant deforestation also results in global warming as lesser green cover results in an increased presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which is a greenhouse gas.
Finding a solution to global warming is of immediate importance. Global warming is a phenomenon that has to be fought unitedly. Planting more trees can be the first step that can be taken toward warding off the severe consequences of global warming. Increasing the green cover will result in regulating the carbon cycle. There should be a shift from using nonrenewable energy to renewable energy such as wind or solar energy which causes less pollution and thereby hinder the acceleration of global warming. Reducing energy needs at an individual level and not wasting energy in any form is the most important step to be taken against global warming.
The warning bells are tolling to awaken us from the deep slumber of complacency we have slipped into. Humans can fight against nature and it is high time we acknowledged that. With all our scientific progress and technological inventions, fighting off the negative effects of global warming is implausible. We have to remember that we do not inherit the earth from our ancestors but borrow it from our future generations and the responsibility lies on our shoulders to bequeath them a healthy planet for life to exist.
Also Read: Essay on Disaster Management
One good action in a day to combat the heat.
Global Warming and Climate Change are two sides of the same coin. Both are interrelated with each other and are two issues of major concern worldwide. Greenhouse gases released such as carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants in the earth’s atmosphere cause Global Warming which leads to climate change. Black holes have started to form in the ozone layer that protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet rays. Human activities have created climate change and global warming. Industrial waste and fumes are the major contributors to global warming. Another factor affecting is the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and also one of the reasons for climate change. Global warming has resulted in shrinking mountain glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland, and the Arctic and causing climate change. Switching from the use of fossil fuels to energy sources like wind and solar. When buying any electronic appliance buy the best quality with energy savings stars. Don’t waste water and encourage rainwater harvesting in your community.
Also Read: Essay on Air Pollution
Writing an effective essay needs skills that few people possess and even fewer know how to implement. While writing an essay can be an assiduous task that can be unnerving at times, some key pointers can be inculcated to draft a successful essay. These involve focusing on the structure of the essay, planning it out well, and emphasizing crucial details. Mentioned below are some pointers that can help you write better structure and more thoughtful essays that will get across to your readers:
- Prepare an outline for the essay to ensure continuity and relevance and no break in the structure of the essay
- Decide on a thesis statement that will form the basis of your essay. It will be the point of your essay and help readers understand your contention
- Follow the structure of an introduction, a detailed body followed by a conclusion so that the readers can comprehend the essay in a particular manner without any dissonance.
- Make your beginning catchy and include solutions in your conclusion to make the essay insightful and lucrative to read
- Reread before putting it out and add your flair to the essay to make it more personal and thereby unique and intriguing for readers
Ans. Both natural and man-made factors contribute to global warming. The natural one also contains methane gas, volcanic eruptions, and greenhouse gases. Deforestation , mining , livestock raising, burning fossil fuels, and other man-made causes are next.
Ans. The government and the general public can work together to stop global warming. Trees must be planted more often, and deforestation must be prohibited. Auto usage needs to be curbed, and recycling needs to be promoted.
Ans. Switching to renewable energy sources , adopting sustainable farming, transportation, and energy methods, and conserving water and other natural resources.
We hope this blog gave you an idea about how to write and present an essay on global warming that puts forth your opinions. The skill of writing an essay comes in handy when appearing for standardized language tests . Thinking of taking one soon? Leverage Edu provides the best online test prep for the same via Leverage Live . Register today to know more!
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This was really a good essay on global warming… There has been used many unic words..and I really liked it!!!Seriously I had been looking for a essay about Global warming just like this…
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I want to learn how to write essay writing so I joined this page.This page is very useful for everyone.
Hi, we are glad that we could help you to write essays. We have a beginner’s guide to write essays ( https://leverageedu.com/blog/essay-writing/ ) and we think this might help you.
It is not good , to have global warming in our earth .So we all have to afforestation program on all the world.
thank you so much
Very educative , helpful and it is really going to strength my English knowledge to structure my essay in future
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Global warming is the increase in 𝓽𝓱𝓮 ᴀᴠᴇʀᴀɢᴇ ᴛᴇᴍᴘᴇʀᴀᴛᴜʀᴇs ᴏғ ᴇᴀʀᴛʜ🌎 ᴀᴛᴍᴏsᴘʜᴇʀᴇ
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Global Warming Essay | Essay on Global Warming for Students and Children in English
Global Warming Essay: Global warming, as the term itself suggests, is the consistent rise in the overall average temperature of the planet. It has been noted that, since 1971, about 90% of the increased energy has been accumulated in the oceans. But, inspite of ocean’s role in storage of this energy, ‘global warming’ is used to refer to increase in average temperature of air and sea at Earth’s surface. The global temperature has risen by about 0.8° C, since the beginning of the 20th century.
You can read more Essay Writing about articles, events, people, sports, technology many more.
Long and Short Essays on Global Warming for Kids and Students in English
Given below are two essays in English for students and children about the topic of ‘Global Warming’ in both long and short form. The first essay is a long essay on Global Warming of 400-500 words. This long essay about Global Warming is suitable for students of class 7, 8, 9 and 10, and also for competitive exam aspirants. The second essay is a short essay on Global Warming of 150-200 words. These are suitable for students and children in class 6 and below.
Long Essay on Global Warming 500 Words in English
Below we have given a long essay on Global Warming of 500 words is helpful for classes 7, 8, 9 and 10 and Competitive Exam Aspirants. This long essay on the topic is suitable for students of class 7 to class 10, and also for competitive exam aspirants.
The greenhouse gases which cause pollution are responsible for global warming. In fact, air pollution has adverse effects on the climate. Industries which produce gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon tetrachloride etc get accumulated in the air. These gases are also known as greenhouse gases. They are responsible for the rise in temperature which scientists and environmentalists fear can bring about long-term changes in the climatic conditions of the Earth. These changes can in fact, turn harmful for the survival of life on Earth and hence, something concrete should be done about them. These gases are responsible for gradual rise in temperature far beyond the normal limits needed for survival.
The greerihouse gases including CFC-11 and CFC-12 make the Earth hotter and hotter by absorbing maximum quantity of thermal radiation of the sun. These gases permit the rays of the sun to penetrate but don’t let the thermal radiations escape from the Earth’s atmosphere once they enter it, thus causing what is termed as the greenhouse effect, which is responsible for the increase in the temperature all over the world. The rise in temperature even by 1°C melts the snow at the poles which if left unchecked, will increase the water level, converting the entire landmass of the Earth into a huge sea. Another change that global warming has brought about is the reduction of forests. Thus, rain has become scanty, salinity of water has increased and even the entire water cycle stands disturbed. Moreover, due to global warming, the duration of seasons has reduced.
The tenure of summer has increased over the years and there are practically no seasons left especially in the tropical and sub-tropical regions.
This rise in temperature disturbs the rain cycle, the ecological balance, the cycle of seasons etc. It adversely affects vegetation and agriculture. Due to this, we have to face frequent floods and droughts throughout the world. With this increase in temperature and the melting of glaciers, even snowfall has reduced its occurrence and intensity. The winter temperatures are showing a gradual increase. With the warming of the planet there is also a rise in humidity because the rise in temperature has increased the rate of evaporation. Even though rains may increase, yet they will not match up to the rate with which the land gets dry due to rise in heat. Thus, even fertile regions might slowly get converted into dry lands and deserts. Storms and hurricanes will be frequent.
If the present trend of global temperature rise, continues, then, it is projected, that by 2030, maize production in Southern Africa could decrease by upto 30%. The yield in India could also plummet by 30-40%. This would increase the risk of malnutrition.
There is a danger of coastal regions drowning due to increase in sea level with the shrinking of glaciers. Thus there is a grave danger of an entire civilisation becoming extinct in a watery grave. Animals and plants are also finding it difficult to cope up with these temperature changes. Species after species of both flora and fauna might disappear from the face of the Earth. Not only this, even human life is getting affected by global warming. Epidemics are spreading frequently. There is heat stress responsible for killing people. Diseases like dengue fever, yellow fever and encephalitis are indirect results of global warming.
Governments all over the world are concerned about such issues. In 1992, the Earth Summit was held at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil where 150 countries agreed to confront the problem of greenhouse gases. In 1997, in Japan, 160 nations signed an agreement called Kyoto Protocol that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, based on the notion that global warming exists and man-made CO 2 emissions have caused it. By May, 2011 the number increased to 194. The 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Durban, South Africa, from 20 November to 9 December, 2011. The primary focus of this 17th session of the conference was to secure a global climate agreement. The protocol calls upon the developed nations to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases upto 5% by 2012. The treaty still awaits to be implemented by the developed countries, especially the US.
Short Essay on Global Warming 200 Words in English
Below we have given a short essay on Global Warming is for Classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. This short essay on the topic is suitable for students of class 6 and below.
Agreements and treaties signed at international level will not help reduce global warming. Serious and concrete efforts need to be made at the national and regional levels. The local governments should work against the emissions of the greenhouse gases by modernising the vehicles, creating awareness among the people, selling environment-friendly appliances, etc. Such efforts are needed by the people at the grass-root level. Only then we can combat this problem in an effective way.
At home and workplaces, electrical and electronic devices must be turned off and unplugged when not in use. Old and inefficient appliances must be replaced, as they consume a lot of energy. Locally grown and produced food should be preferred over that in malls and chain outlets. Use of paper should be minimised and re-use of plastics, cans etc should be encouraged. The amount of material used for packaging goods must be reduced.
Small steps often lead to big changes. It’s high time, that we realise where and how can we reduce our carbon footprints. After all, at present, Earth is the only planet where life exists. We have nowhere else to go.
Global Warming Essay Word Meanings for Simple Understanding
- Consistent – steady, even
- Accumulated – to gather or collect, often in gradual degrees, heap up
- Greenhouse gas – any of the gases whose absorption of solar radiation is responsible for the greenhouse effect, including carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, and fluorocarbons
- Penetrate – to pierce or pass into or through
- Plummet – to drop down, plunge
- Encephalitis – inflammation of the substance of the brain, a form of this condition, caused by a filterable virus and characterised by apathy and abnormal sleepiness
- Carbon footprint – the amount of carbon dioxide or other carbon compounds emitted into the atmosphere by the activities of an individual, company, country, etc
Shaftel, Holly. “Climate Change: How Do We Know?” Global Climate Change Vital Signs of the Planet . NASA, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.
Shaftel, Holly. “Climate Change Causes: A Blanket around the Earth.” Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet . NASA, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.
Howardlee. “What Does past Climate Change Tell Us about Global Warming?” Skeptical Science . N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
Whitehouse, David, Dr. “Sunspot Reaching 1,000-year High.” BBC News . BBC News, 6 July 2004. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
“The 97% Consensus on Global Warming.” Skeptical Science . N.p., 16 May 2013. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
“Sun & Climate: Moving in opposite Directions.” Skeptical Science . N.p., 6 Aug. 2015. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
Avery, Dennis. “500 SCIENTISTS REFUTE GLOBAL WARMING DANGERS.” WND . N.p., 12 Sept. 2007. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
Pattimer. “Positives and Negatives of Global Warming.” Skeptical Science . N.p., 5 July 2015. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
“National Green Bank.” US Climate Plan . N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
Public Transportation Reduces Greenhouse Gases and Conserves Energy (n.d.): n. pag. APTA.com . APTA. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
“SUPPLY-SIDE FOSSIL FUEL REGULATIONS.” US Climate Plan . N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
“ENERGY INCENTIVES RESTRUCTURING.” US Climate Plan . N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
“What You Can Do: At Home.” EPA.gov . Environmental Protection Agency, 4 Nov. 2015. Web. 3 Dec. 2015.
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Global Warming Essay
Global warming refers to the rise in average surface temperature of the earth. Global warming is caused mainly due to human induced factors. The main cause of global warming is the uncontrolled emission of green house gases due to activities like industrialization and burning of fossil fuel. Green house gases, cause an effect known as the green house effect, and trap the Sun’s heat from escaping back into the atmosphere, consequently resulting in a raised surface temperature of earth. Though, the rise in earth’s temperature is within 1 degree C, it still causing noticeable affects on the environment. Unexpected climatic changes, floods, droughts, rise in ocean water level, melting glaciers, depleting aquatic and land species are only few of the devastating effects of Global Warming.
Long and Short Essay on Global Warming in English
We have provided below short and long essay on global warming in English for your knowledge and information.
The essays have been written in simple yet effective English language so that they can be easily memorized and also presented when needed.
After going through these global warming essays you will know about the causes and effects of global warming, which human activities and what gases causes global warming, what is green house effect, what steps can be taken to prevent global warming, how global warming affects sea level and causes floods, how it cause species depletion of both land and aquatic species.
These essays will be extremely useful for you in your school/college event wherein you are required to write an essay on global warming or give a speech or take part in a debate on the subject of global warming.
Global Warming Essay 1 (100 words)
Global warming is a major atmospheric issue all over the world. Our earth’s surface becoming hot day by day by trapping the sun’s heat and rise in the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The bad effects of it increasing day by day and causing major problems to the living of human being. It has become one of the subjects of big social issues which need social awareness to a great level. People should know its meaning, causes, effects and solutions to solve it immediately. People should come forth together and try to solve it in order to save life on the earth.
Global Warming Essay 2 (150 words)
Global warming is a big issue of the atmosphere on the earth which cause continuous rise in the surface temperature of the Earth. It has been estimated that in next 50 or 100 year the temperature of earth would be increased to a great level which would create big problem of living on earth. The highly known and most basic cause of increasing the Earth’s temperature is continuous rise in the atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Rise in the carbon dioxide level is the use fossil fuels like coal and oil, deforestation (cut down of plants) by the human beings on Earth. Decreasing number of the plants on the earth increases the level of carbon dioxide, as plants are the main source of the using carbon dioxide released by the human being (as a by-product of respiration) and other means. Increasing level of Earth’s temperature creates lots of problems like sea level becomes hotter and higher, glaciers melt, flood, strong storms, lack of food, diseases, death, etc.
Global Warming Essay 3 (200 words)
Global warming is the steady and continuous rise in the level of earth temperature. Out earth surface is becoming hotter day by day just because of some unnoticeable habits of human beings all across the world. Global warming has become the most worrying threat for the earth’s atmosphere as it is reducing the life possibilities on the earth day by day through a continuous and steady declining process.
Before planning the solutions of the global warming, we must think about the causes and effects of it on the atmosphere in order to get sure that we are in right direction of getting full relief from this issue. The continuous warming of the earth surface is the increasing emission of CO2 in the environment. However, the increasing level of CO2 is caused due to many reasons like deforestation, use of coal, oil, gas, burning of fossil fuels, burning of gasoline for transportation, unnecessary use of electricity, etc which in turn causes rise in earth temperature.
Again it becomes the reason of rising sea level, occurrence of flooding, storms, cyclone, ozone layer damage, changing weather patterns, fear of epidemic diseases, lack of food, death, etc. We cannot blame any single entity for this as each and every human being is responsible for the increasing threat of global warming which can be solved only by the global awareness and kind efforts of everyone.
Global Warming Essay 4 (250 words)
Global warming is a steady process of continuous rise in the level of Earth temperature. Global warming has become one of the biggest problems faced by the world now. It is believed that increasing level of carbon dioxide gas and other greenhouse gases on the earth are the main reasons of heating the atmosphere of earth. If it is not noticed and solved immediately by the efforts of all countries worldwide, it would boom its effects and cause end of life on the earth a day.
Its threatening effects are increasing day by day and creating danger for human life. Global warming is the main and only reason of rising sea level, flooding, changes in weather patterns, storms, cyclone, epidemic diseases, lack of food, death, etc. The only solution to solve the issue of global warming is the individual level social awareness. People must be aware of its meaning, cause, bad effects and other things about global warming to get it eradicated from worldwide and make the possibilities of life on earth forever as usual.
People should stop producing C02 by just stopping their bad habits such as stop the use of oil, coal and gas, inhibit cutting plants (as they are main source to absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen), minimize the use of electricity, etc. Just small changes in everyone’s life all over the world, we can be able to stop the huge negative changes in the atmosphere by lessening the effects of global warming and even stop it a day.
Global Warming Essay 5 (300 words)
Global warming is the continuous rise in warming of the earth’s surface due to the increased level of carbon dioxide gas in the environment. Global warming has become a big issue which need to be solved by the positive initiation of countries all over the world. As gradual increase in the earth temperature calls various threats as well as makes the existence of life hard on this planet. It enhances the gradual and permanent changes in the earth’s climate and thus affecting the nature’s balance.
Rise in the CO2 level on the earth impacts the human life to a great level through continued heat waves, sudden occurrence of strong storms, unpredictable and unexpected cyclone, damage to ozone layer, floods, heavy rain, drought, lack of food, diseases, death etc. It has been researched that increasing emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere is because of the nonstop burning of fossil fuels, usage of fertilizers, cutting forests, extra use of electricity, gases used in refrigerator etc. According to the statistics, it has been noted that by 2020 global warming may boom its bad effects if it is not taken under control as CO2 emissions are increasing continuously.
The increasing level of CO2 causes greenhouse effect on the earth in which all the greenhouse gases (water vapour, CO2, methane, ozone) absorbs thermal radiation, which in turn re-radiated to all directions and come back to earth surface causing increase in the temperature of earth surface and lead to global warming.
In order to stop the life threatening effects of the global warming, we should take a permanent break from all the bad habits causing increase in the CO2 level and other green house gases leading to the green house effect and then earth surface warming. We should stop deforestation, lessen the use of electricity, stop the burning of wood, etc.
Global Warming Essay 6 (400 words)
Global warming is the big environmental issue we are facing today as a greatest challenge which we need to get it solved permanently. In fact, global warming is the continuous and steady process of increasing in the temperature of earth surface. It needs to be discussed widely by all countries worldwide to stop the effects of it. It has impacted the nature’s balance, biodiversity and climatic conditions of the earth over decades.
Green house gases like CO2, methane are the main reasons of increasing the global warming on the earth which directly impacts the rising sea levels, melting ice caps, glaciers, unexpected changing climate which represents life threats on the earth. According to the statistic, it has been estimated that earth temperature has increased to a great level since mid 20 th century due to the increased atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations globally because of the increased demand of the human living standard.
It has been measured that year like 1983, 1987, 1988, 1989 and 1991 as the warmest six years of the past century. This increasing global warming calls the unexpected disasters on the earth like flood, cyclones, tsunami, drought, landslides, ice melting, lack of food, epidemic diseases, death etc thus causing imbalance to the nature’s phenomenon and indicating end of life existence on this planet.
Increasing global warming lead to the more water evaporation from earth into the atmosphere, which in turn become a greenhouse gas and again causes rise in the global warming. Other processes like burning of fossil fuels, use of fertilizers, rise in other gases like CFCs, tropospheric ozone and nitrous oxide are also the reasons of global warming. The ultimate causes of such reasons are the technological advancement, population explosion, increasing demand of industrial expansion, deforestation, priority towards urbanization, etc.
We are disturbing the natural processes through the deforestation and use of technological advancement like global carbon cycle, making hole in ozone layer, etc and allowing the UV rays to come on earth thus increasing global warming. Plants are the ultimate source of removing extra carbon dioxide from the air and making it in balance thus by just stopping the deforestation and enhancing people for more plantation we can get success of reducing the global warming to a great level. Controlling the population growth is also a great hand towards reducing the global warming all through the world as it lessens the use of destructive technologies on the earth.
Global Warming Essay 7 (800 words) (Long Essay)
What is Global Warming
Global warming is a gradual process of heating of earth’s surface and whole environment including oceans, ice caps, etc. The global rise in atmospheric temperature has been clearly noticed in the recent years. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, in the past century there is increase in the earth’s surface average temperature by around 1.4 degree Fahrenheit (means 0.8 degrees Celsius). It has also been estimated that global temperature may increase by another 2 to 11.5 degrees F in the next century.
Causes of Global Warming
There are many causes of the global warming, some are natural causes and some are human made causes. The most important cause of global warming is greenhouse gases which are generated by some natural processes as well as human activities. The increase in the level of green house gases has been seen in the 20 th century because of the increasing population, economy and use of energy. Increasing demand of industrialization in the modern world to fulfill almost each need is causing the release of variety of green house gases through many industrial processes in the atmosphere.
The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas has been increased in the recent years by 10-fold. The release of carbon dioxide gas varies according to the natural and industrial processes including photosynthesis and oxidation cycles. Methane is another green house gas release in the atmosphere by the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. Other greenhouse gases are like oxides of nitrogen (nitrous oxide), halocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chlorine and bromine compounds, etc. Such green house gases get collected to the atmosphere and disturb the radiative balance of atmosphere. They have capability to absorb heat radiations and cause warming of the earth surface.
Another cause of global warming is ozone depletion means declination of ozone layer over Antarctica. Ozone layer is declining day by day by increasing release of chlorofluorocarbon gas. It is a human generated cause of global warming. Chlorofluorocarbon gas is used at many places as aerosol propellants in the industrial cleaning fluids and in the refrigerators, the gradual release of which causes declination to the ozone layer in the atmosphere.
Ozone layer causes protection to the earth surface by inhibiting the harmful sun rays to coming to the earth. However, gradually declining ozone layer is the big indication of increasing global warming of the earth surface. Harmful ultraviolet sun rays are entering to the biosphere and get absorbed by the green houses gases which ultimately increase the global warming. According to the statistics, it has been estimated that the size of ozone hole has been twice the size of Antarctica (more than 25 million km2) by 2000. There is no any clear trend of ozone layer declination in the winter or summer seasons.
Presence of various aerosols in the atmosphere is also causing earth’s surface temperature to increase. Atmospheric aerosols are fully capable to scatter (causes cooling to the planet) and absorb (makes air warm) the solar and infrared radiations. They are also capable to change the microphysical and chemical properties of the clouds and possibly their lifetime and extent. The increasing amount of aerosols in the atmosphere is because of human contribution. Dust is produced by agriculture, organic droplets and soot particles are produced by biomass burning, and aerosols are produced by the industrial processes through the burning of wide variety of products in the manufacturing process. Various emissions by means of transport generate different pollutants which get converted to the aerosols through many chemical reactions in the atmosphere.
Effects of Global Warming
The effects of global warming have been very clear in the recent years because of increasing sources of global warming. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, it has been recorded that there were 150 glaciers located in the Montana’s Glacier National Park however because of increasing effect of global warming, only 25 glaciers are left. Huge level climate changes are making hurricanes more dangerous and powerful. Natural storms are getting so strong by taking energy from temperature difference (of cold upper atmosphere and warm Tropical Ocean). Year 2012 has been recorded as hottest year since 1895 and year 2013 together with 2003 as the warmest year since 1880.
Global warming causes lot of climate changes in the atmosphere such as increasing summer season, decreasing winter season, increasing temperature, changes in air circulation patterns, jet stream, rain without season, melting ice caps, declining ozone layer, occurrence of heavy storms, cyclones, flood, drought, and so many effects.
Solutions of Global Warming
Many awareness programmes and programmes to reduce global warming have been run and implemented by the government agencies, business leaders, private sectors, NGOs, etc. Some of the damages through global warming cannot be returned by the solution (like melting of ice caps). However, we should not get back and try everyone’s best to reduce the effects of global warming by reducing the human causes of global warming. We should try to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and adopt some climate changes which are already happening for years. Instead of using electrical energy we should try using clean energy or energy produced by solar system, wind and geothermal. Reducing the level of coal and oil burning, use of transportation means, use of electrical devices, etc may reduce the global warming to a great level.
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