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How to Create an Effective Thesis Statement in 5 Easy Steps
Creating a thesis statement can be a daunting task. It’s one of the most important sentences in your paper, and it needs to be done right. But don’t worry — with these five easy steps, you’ll be able to create an effective thesis statement in no time.
Step 1: Brainstorm Ideas
The first step is to brainstorm ideas for your paper. Think about what you want to say and write down any ideas that come to mind. This will help you narrow down your focus and make it easier to create your thesis statement.
Step 2: Research Your Topic
Once you have some ideas, it’s time to do some research on your topic. Look for sources that support your ideas and provide evidence for the points you want to make. This will help you refine your argument and make it more convincing.
Step 3: Formulate Your Argument
Now that you have done some research, it’s time to formulate your argument. Take the points you want to make and put them into one or two sentences that clearly state what your paper is about. This will be the basis of your thesis statement.
Step 4: Refine Your Thesis Statement
Once you have formulated your argument, it’s time to refine your thesis statement. Make sure that it is clear, concise, and specific. It should also be arguable so that readers can disagree with it if they choose.
Step 5: Test Your Thesis Statement
The last step is to test your thesis statement. Does it accurately reflect the points you want to make? Is it clear and concise? Does it make an arguable point? If not, go back and refine it until it meets all of these criteria.
Creating an effective thesis statement doesn’t have to be a daunting task. With these five easy steps, you can create a strong thesis statement in no time at all.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
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If you need some dissertation help or inspiration for writing your dissertation proposal, PhD thesis or MBA dissertation topics , then you've come to the right place.
On this page we have a range of Dissertation examples in various subject topics from Business, Management and Marketing, to Economics and Finance, Law and History.
Why not have a look at our other sample papers? We also have example essays and example reports available on our resources page.
Business, Management & Leadership Dissertations
The current dissertation aims to evaluate the impact made by diverse motivational practices on the individual employee performance in software SMEs located in London. It is argued that the methods of boosting the motivation of the personnel can be produced from the key theories of human motivation and the concept of leadership. Primary data is gathered to achieve the outlined purpose. It is shown that the employees of the investigated firms are predominantly affected by monetary remuneration, workplace relationships, employee development and emotional support. A statistically significant link between motivation and individual performance is identified. Generalisability is considered as the main limitation of this study.
Written by Philip S.
To view the full Dissertation click here
This project attempts to examine the impact of supply chain risk on organisational performance in the context of the UK manufacturing sector. For this purpose, primary quantitative data was collected from 100 managers and supply chain employees of British manufacturing companies with the help of self-administered questionnaires. The obtained data was processed graphically and statistically in Excel and SPSS. It was revealed that manufacturing firms’ exposure to supply chain risk negatively influenced their productivity and cost-effectiveness. The lack of generalisability is the main limitation of this study. The researchers who investigate the role of supply chain management in organisational performance might be interested in this dissertation.
Written by Laura N.
The implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives can turn out to be successful in some organisations and fail for no apparent reasons in others. This research project was conducted with the aim to find out whether these differences can be explained by organisational culture. The impact of culture on CSR involvement was analysed at the example of Hyundai, a global automotive manufacturer. To operationalise the concept of organisational culture, the Cultural Web model was adopted as the core theoretical framework. The survey method was employed for primary data collection. 73 usable questionnaires were collected from the employees of Hyundai’s branch in the UK.
Written by Katy J.
The constant changes in the external environment and disruptive innovation trends have severely undermined the relevance of such theories as Lewin’s 3-Stage Model of Change (Hossan, 2015, p.53). While these classical concepts assume that organisational transformations occur in a planned and predictable manner, the majority of challenges faced by modern businesses are emergent and urgent in their nature. This problem is especially evident in the UK context where the outcomes of the Brexit referendum create high levels of uncertainty forcing all country organisations to get ready for both ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ regulatory paths (Bratton and Gold, 2017, p.32).
Written by Steve S.
To view the full dissertation click here
Many organisations are now adopting a process of lifecycle management in an effort to maximise the longevity and thus profitability from their products. This process refers to the management of a product through all stages from inception, primary sales period and decline, and can be a lengthy process, particularly in industries where the early stages of research and development are long (Stark, 2015). The rationale for adopting this approach is that as Prajapati et al, (2013) note, when a product’s lifecycle is extended, there is competitive edge, and improved management of resources. This is particularly important when the research and development of a project is a lengthy process, and subject to stringent regulations, such as in the pharmaceutical industry.
Written by Rowan T.
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The dissertation focused on the soft and hard skills possessed by hospitality management graduates in the UK. The primary goal was to investigate the relationship between these capabilities and the employer’s perceptions of first-time job seekers. The study measured 3 indicators of employer’s perceptions, namely the time taken to find a job, the willingness to continue working for the current company and employer’s satisfaction with an applicant’s competencies. Quantitative questionnaire data was used to achieve the research objectives. The findings indicated that flexibility, marketing competencies and interpersonal skills were among the key factors that determined employer’s perceptions. The providers of educational services to future hospitality managers were recommended to design new curricula focused on the provision of these skills.
Written by Laura N
View the full sample dissertation
See a sample dissertation methodology chapter based on the topic of 'How Does the Offering of Auxiliary Services by White Goods Sellers Influence the Purchase Intentions of UK Customers?'
View the full dissertation methodology chapter
See a sample dissertation conclusion chapter based on the topic of 'Just-in-Time Workforce: Principal-Agent Problems Experienced by Small Businesses'.
View the full dissertation conclusion chapter
The empirical research on the impact of pricing strategies on sales volumes is scarce because of the challenges associated with obtaining actual sales data from retailers. This dissertation contributes to bridging this gap in academic knowledge by investigating the influence of pricing methods on the sales volume dynamics in three UK-based, online consumer electronics vendors. The data is collected by means of semi-structured interviews with one owner/manager and two general managers of small and medium-sized online retailers. The key finding is that the companies experiencing an increase in their sales volumes over the past year followed the same pricing strategy, which combined competitive pricing, discounting and personalised pricing. For the firm employing the mix of competitive pricing, discounting and bundling, the sales volume increase was marginal, despite the overall positive dynamics of online electronics sales in the UK over the past year.
Written by Anna D.
The current research project aims to investigate into the relationship between the social media presence and brand trust of Cadbury, a UK-based confectionary company. Primary quantitative data is obtained to achieve this aim. It is established that Cadbury relies on robust social media presence including a variety of channels (e.g. Facebook and Twitter) as well as on different engagement strategies such as purely promotional messages and direct customer interactions. However, these marketing efforts were insufficient to achieve a consistently high level of brand trust in the company’s online communities. Social media training as well as content marketing are recommended for Cadbury as possible solutions to this problem.
Written by Josh A.
In the age of social media, customers increasingly turn to them as a source of information on whether certain beauty products or services are worth purchasing (Immediate Future, 2016, p. 1). According to the 2015 survey by BuzzMyVideos, 85% of British customers aged 16-45 would trust a review by a YouTube beauty blogger over any other advertising medium (BuzzMyVideos, 2015, p. 1). There is evidence that the global beauty industry might be heavily underutilising the potential of social media. In the US, 69% of personal care companies failed to regularly update their websites and 12% did not remove out-of-date promotions (Miguel, 2014, p. 1). This dissertation aims at testing on whether the situation in the UK beauty industry is better and if their social media strategies are generally effective in reaching customers.
Written by Jess C.
Example of how to write a dissertation discussion chapter. This chapter focuses on Content Marketing Preferences of Fashion Product Buyers in Thailand.
View the full discussion chapter here .
Economics & Finance Dissertations
The aim of the present paper is to assess whether mergers and acquisitions (M&A) create value. For this purpose, a sample of 30 largest M&A deals in the UK is investigated. The sample covers the period of 2013-2015 which allows for examining both short-term and long-term performance as well as minimise the potential impact of the global financial crisis. The cumulative abnormal returns (CARs) and buy-and-hold abnormal returns (BHARs) are employed to estimate the performance of the acquirers. The analysis relies on testing the deviations of abnormal returns from zero by performing several cross-sectional tests for different event windows and holding periods.
Written by Carl R.
The purpose of this research is to explore the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows on economic growth of emerging economies in the Latin American and South East Asian regions. This aim is attained by employing econometric methods based on panel regression analysis. The study investigates a sample of ten countries for the period from 1990 to 2016. The results of the research show that FDI inflows do not produce a statistically significant positive effect on economic growth in developing countries but there are slight regional differences. The study faced limitations associated with the quality of proxies for human capital as a factor of economic growth. Recommendations for future improvement of the research are provided at the end of the paper.
Written by Matthew R.
The aim of the dissertation is to investigate the influence of corporate governance practices on firm performance of FTSE 100 companies. Explanatory variables belong to three categories, namely board parameters, CEO characteristics and ownership specifics. The period of investigation is 2005-2015. An analysis is conducted using a panel ordinary least squares regression and the Hausman specification test applied to determine whether a model with fixed or random effect is more appropriate to employ.
Written by Adrian L.
This study focuses on the modelling of oil price behaviour during the period 2012-2017. The Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) and Mean-Reversion Jump Diffusion (MRJD) models are used for this purpose. Based on the results, no substantial difference has been found between the simulated prices due to the slow speed of mean reversion and low jump intensity estimated for the MRJD model. This can be explained by the potential existence of two distinct regimes of the oil price behaviour associated with the 2014 drop in oil prices. The MRJD model reproduces volatility smiles for the arithmetic average options showing that lower volatility is associated with the at-the-money options.
Written by Anton V.
This study attempts to identify the impact of the United Kingdom’s decision to withdraw from the European Union (EU) on the access of British non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to EU funding. Primary quantitative data was gathered from 43 managers and employees of four UK-based NGOs. The analysis outcomes demonstrated that Brexit had considerably limited UK-based NGOs’ ability to meet the nationality requirement as well as their access to funding from the European Union. The main limitation of this project refers to the small size of the sample. The researchers who investigate the consequences of Brexit for the UK’s economic and social context could be interested in this dissertation.
Written by Emily S.
This study employs panel data analysis to investigate whether the market size, availability of infrastructure, price stability, trade openness, political stability, absence of violence and terrorism, control of corruption and government effectiveness affect the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflow to ten developing countries from Europe, Middle East and Africa using data for a period of twenty years (1996-2016). Unlike previous studies that focused on one specific region, this dissertation provides evidence for three different regions. Results of the panel data analysis show that the market size and inflation rate are statistically significant factors that influence FDI in the selected countries.
The aim of the study is to assess the weak form of market efficiency in the context of Qatar and Saudi Arabia during the period 2001-2017. The QE General index and Tadawul All Share index are used to represent these two markets respectively. Daily data has been retrieved to capture short-term volatility in these markets and assess randomness of stock returns. The methodology of this research is based on such methods as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the runs test, the autocorrelation test, the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test for a unit root and the variance ratio test.
Written by Sheikh A.
The aim of this dissertation is to assess the relationship between earnings management and internal and external audit practices in the UK. A sample of non-financial UK firms is investigated throughout the years 2010-2016. Abnormal accruals are used to represent earnings management. The results show no significant effect of audit committee characteristics such as size and meeting frequency on earnings management. At the same time, the findings from this dissertation suggest that companies audited by the Big Four are less likely to engage in earning management activities. The findings generally agree with the existing literature.
Written by Rachel E.
The importance of the problem of corruption is explained by the fact that it affects the very roots of the economy. Corruption violates equity rights which has far-reaching consequences for both economic efficiency and asset ownership. It makes the work of social and political institutions less efficient and thus endangers democracy. Moreover, corruption activities are often undertaken tacitly which makes the fight against it a complicated and resource-consuming process.
This thesis examines the impact of restorative justice values has made within the youth justice framework in the UK over the past ten years and determines whether the current practice aspires to the international standard of restorative justice ideals. The focus of the thesis will be on the development of the theoretical and conceptual foundations of restorative justice within criminal justice with an additional focus on UK current practice. The thesis will also examine the development of restorative justice in other jurisdictions such as Canada and New Zealand to compare and contrast the impact of the development and practice of restorative justice processes in dealing with youth offending. A primary focus will be to use the conceptual foundations of restorative justice in addition to the development of restorative justice practice in other jurisdictions to inform analysis on the UK’s approach to incorporate restorative justice within criminal justice. Additionally the thesis will evaluate whether the current restorative justice model has any potential flaws and where improvements can be made to adjust youth criminal justice towards a more integrated approach to adopting practices more restorative in nature.
Written by Mike H.
To view the full Dissertation click here
The EU’s architecture comprises a combination of supranational and intergovernmental institutions. However the UK’s government has always argued that supranationalism especially in the form of the supremacy of EU laws undermines national sovereignty. The intergovernmentalist approach is closely related to the international relations theory of realism which argues that in an anarchical world devoid of any form of supranational governance, all power and sovereignty lies with nation states. They apply this reasoning to the European integration process by arguing that power in the European Union lies with national governments. Barnard and Peers sums this up by stating, “The central thesis is that States are the driving force behind integration, that supranational actors are there largely at their behest and that such actors as such have little independent impact on the pace of integration.” This paper will examine the way supremacy of EU law has been developed and the extent to which it poses a challenge to national governments.
Written by Michael S.
History, International Relations & Politics Dissertations
Poonindie mission station was founded in 1850 to provide a place for aborigines educated at the missionary schools in the Adelaide and Port Lincoln areas of South Australia to live in a Christian way of life. Although Poonindie’s aim to annihilate aborigine society and culture and absorb its residents into a Christian, European one may seem wrong to us today, to Poonindie’s founder, Mathew Blagden Hale, the notion of these people finding contentment in a culture which did not meet European standards was impossible. It is important that a historian assesses the past by the standards of their own times instead of judging them by our own.
Written by Joanna W.
Language and Linguistics Dissertations
Second Language Acquisition is a staged and systematic process that occurs on a development continuum. This means that learners work their way through a number of predictable stages or developmental sequences in the acquisition of a language. In light of this, most SLA researchers claim that rather than relying on the conscious teaching of language skills, we must allow for the natural development of progress in stages of learning and acquisition through natural exposure of the language. Such a method of learning mirrors the unconscious ways in which children acquire a first language. This idea subsequently leads to the debate of whether a second language is thus acquired and learnt more easily at an early age also (see Krashen 1985). Many researchers believe that children have a neurological advantage in language learning, before the maturation of the brain, which occurs within the teens (Penfield and Roberts, 1959).
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Listed below are some of the best examples of research projects and dissertations from undergraduate and taught postgraduate students at the University of Leeds We have not been able to gather examples from all schools. The module requirements for research projects may have changed since these examples were written. Refer to your module guidelines to make sure that you address all of the current assessment criteria. Some of the examples below are only available to access on campus.
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Business and Management thesis and dissertation collection
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This is a collection of some recent PhD theses from Business and Management. Please note that this is not a comprehensive list of all doctorate degrees from this School.
This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
Essays on financial development and corporate resilience to crises , essays on the impact of government assistance, capital regulation, and covid-19 on banks , some aspects of financial management in farming , dynamic multi-state delinquency models: incorporating repeated events, stress testing analysis and multiple lending products , towards an ecosystem view of legitimacy of third sector organisations , impact of institutional complexity on the role of middle managers as agents of change in the public sector , performative perspective on organisational change and stability: a case study of embodiment, inclusion, and temporality in changing routines in the royal air force , trickster characters: the tomboy & the girlboss, or gender as a thin-centred ideology inherent to technological innovation under capitalism , understanding roles in a broker retail venture in the creative industries , three essays on modern microstructure , mathematical programming for single- and multi-location non-stationary inventory control , essays on empirical corporate finance , impacts of environmental regulations, emissions trading system and climate transition risks: evidence from china , understanding the challenges of blockchain technology adoption: evidence from china’s developing carbon markets , international entrepreneurial opportunities: roles of networks, knowledge and serendipity , new version of us: the integration of personal communications technology into family network consumption practices , possibility of local-expatriate equality in international development , sustainable investing, social preferences and esg commitment , enrolment, technical mediation, and the obligatory passage point: a socio-technical examination of the canada green building council , opportunity at the crossroads, where do we go from here evidence and conceptualisation of a non-dichotomous emergent opportunity .
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Sample Masters Business Full Dissertation
Here is a sample that showcases why we are one of the world’s leading academic writing firms. This assignment was created by one of our expert academic writers and demonstrated the highest academic quality. Place your order today to achieve academic greatness.
Analyzing Consumer Role Influencing the Shift from Click-and-Order Stores to Brick-and-Mortar Stores
The current study examined what factors influence a customer’s behavior to switch from shopping online to traditional brick-and-mortar stores. The study looked to examine this phenomenon using the
Theory of Planned Behaviour. A model was constructed using this theory to analyze hedonic beliefs, utilitarian beliefs, hedonic products, utilitarian products, self-efficacy, time, information, money, normative beliefs, and perceived behavioural control.
The study has used a quantitative research approach to study the factors influencing customers to switch from the internet to stores. The research’s approach leads to the use of a Likert-like scale survey as the quantitative research instrument.
The data obtained was then put through frequency analysis and regression analysis in addition to a Cronbach’s alpha analysis to test the instrument’s reliability.
The tests produced a result that indicated that the most influential factors that contributed to channel switching were Utilitarian beliefs, Utilitarian products, self-efficacy, information, and attitude based on the regression analysis result.
The research instrument constructed was also reliable because the alpha product produced was in the excellent category. Retailers can use these results to develop Omni-channels that take into account these factors contributing to channel switching.
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Research Topic
Significance of the research area.
Retailers ranging from department stores to speciality stores have launched internet sales sites parallel to pre-existing retail channels (Hoisington et al., 2015).
Many traditional retailers have used the Internet to channel consumers as a logical extension of their store’s physical existence to complement existing customer relationships, business processes, and merchandise distribution (Prince & Graf 2015).
According to Scott Silverman, “branding is a tremendous advantage, and cross-promoting it over the internet, and physical stores will open up new selling opportunities” (Bernstein et al. 2008) .
Conversely, based on the latest reporting from news agencies, many companies that had started as internet sensations are adopting the model of traditional brick and mortar stores (Schneir et al., 2014) .
According to Walsh (2016), Amazon.com had opened its first brick-and-mortar store in November in Seattle’s University Village, USA.
Over the last few years, many US and UK companies have launched a physical presence to market their products better, build closer customer relations, and boost their online traffic and sales (Glanz et al., 2012) .
Shifting from online presence only to conventional stores is reflecting the broader industry placing a greater deal of importance on omnichannel retailing, which allows merchants to set a goal of providing customers with a seamless experience regardless of if they are shopping through a computer or mobile device or a traditional retail store (Baal and Dach 2005)
Shim et al. (2000) argue that the consumer market of today is driven by various factors such as dual-income families, decreasing amount of available shopping time, revolutionizing technology, and innumerable shopping choices among different products, brands, and diverse retail formats like brick-and-mortar or online shopping using electronic mediums.
Pookulangara et al. (2011) have asserted that retailers are beginning to learn that many shoppers are taking advantage of the variety of available channels allowing them to shop more often across different sales channels.
Sullivan and Thomas (2004) describe this behaviour as consumer channel migration, a process by which current consumers repeatedly choose to frequent one of several retailer channel options such as; brick-and-mortar catalogues/mail orders.
Wise et al. (2004) found that multiple complementary channels provide more diverse service outputs than compared to use of single-channel strategies allowing retailers to increase their consumer contact points; when it adds on a channel, it can expand both the quantity and possible combinations of service outputs available to its consumers.
Pookulangara et al. (2011) find that the retail industry has matured, and expansion has slowed to a steady crawl causing retailers to find new ways to create shareholder value using the least amount of assets disposal.
Pookulangra et al. (2011) further recognize that multi-channel marketing is different from the traditional route of multiple-channel marketing.
Firms interact with different segments of their consumers through different channels. Pookulangra et al. (2011) believe that multi-channel marketing is more about consumers using alternative channels to build a network relationship with the retailers when they please. These consumers can also use different channels at different times.
This is why many brick-and-mortar retailers now have websites, while many internet-based retailers are moving towards building physical stores (Rangaswamy and Burggen 2005; Kurt Salmon Associates 2005).
Sullivan and Thomas (2004) found that the consumer channel migration characteristic is imperative in consumer relationship management since consumers who can buy from various channel combinations may differ regarding the significant drivers of consumer profitability.
Johnson (1999) argued that multi-channels could meet the desires for consumers’ flexibility when it comes to shopping “what they want when they want, and in a way that they want.”
However, the problem that arises, which is relevant to the current study, is understanding how and when consumers use retailers with physical locations or the Internet and what drives their propensity to switch from the Internet to brick-and-mortar internet-based companies to switch to such an option.
Research Aims and Objectives
Based on the research question presented in the section below, the study’s primary aim is to analyze how consumers have influenced businesses to shift back to traditional retailing, brick and mortar stores using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.
The theory assumes that individual attitudes and beliefs, in addition to many subjective norms and control factors, will result in an intention to perform a specific behaviour, i.e., to switch from online shopping to traditional shopping. To achieve this aim, the following objectives need to be met.
- Highlight the advantages and disadvantages of business models based on clicks and bricks.
- Investigate the impact that online stores have had on consumers and the retail industry.
- Explore factors that may influence consumers’ decision to change from shopping online to more traditional retail stores using quantitative data.
- Bring to light the major issues and concerns in the matter. Provide logical and rational recommendations based on the data analyses in the form of results and discussion.
The current study is based on a primary research question that will form its basis.
How has consumer behavior influenced the shift of click-and-order stores to more traditional retailing with physical stores?
Complimentary questions to the primary research question were also developed to aid the research of the current. Complementary questions included;
- How does the theory of planned behavior explain consumer channel switching behavior by focusing on hedonic (practical, instrumental, and functional) and utilitarian (sensational and experiential) products?
- What are indications of behavioral intentions of consumers when it comes to switching shopping channels?
- What are some variables that will help predict channel switching behavior?
The current study uses the theory of planned behaviour (TBP) to analyze consumers’ channel switching behaviour by switching from the Internet to brick-and-mortar stores. Ajzen (2001) explains that planned behaviour theory predicts and explains human behaviour in specific contexts.
For this specific study, the context used is switching channels while shopping, precisely the combination of brick-and-mortar stores and the Internet as a medium of retailing. This theory’s main factor is an individual’s intention to perform a given behaviour under volitional control. The theory hypotheses that behavioural intention is the direct originator of the actual conduct.
The theory of planned behavior assumes that an individual’s attitudes and beliefs, when coupled with subjective norms and control factors, result in an intention to perform a specibehaviorioase switching from the internet to traditional retail stores.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
The current chapter aims to analyze the current and previous literature for examining consumer behaviour in channel switching and existing business models that companies are using to attract consumers towards their multiple-channel network.
The literature used in the current study does not set a geographic limitation but attempts to encompass a great deal of literature that has been conducted outside of the UK. Previous studies investigating these phenomena have examined shopping benefits and costs of multi-channel consumerism using individual channels like traditional stores, catalogues, television, and the Internet (Balasubramanian et al., 2005).
However, with the rise of the Internet, e-commerce, and the increased number of online retailers, studies have begun to examine consumers’ attitudes towards using different purchasing channels and channel switching behaviour. Using the concepts and theories discussed in the current chapter, the study will implement its literature review findings in developing a research approach and methodology.
Channel Switching Behaviour of Consumers
Today, consumers are taking a more active role in their shopping and making decisions about products. Because of this more aggressive role, they demand any time and where procurement in addition to any time and where consumption of products or services.
Consumers are beginning to demand more value in exchange for their money, time, effort, and space in the four primary consumer resources (Seth and Sisodia 1997).
Due to this increased active role that consumers have taken on, they drive the entire marketing process for companies (Baal and Dach 2005) while also demanding increased business customization.
Crawford (2005) asserts that a singular marketing plan is no longer effective for the whole target segment since individuals are now beginning to expect companies to respect their individuality, demanding personalized marketing strategies that comply with their unique needs and wants.
For the current circumstances being analyzed, retailers need to comprehend who their customers are and the reason behind picking one channel over the other, in this case, brick-and-mortar over the Internet.
Crawford (2005) finds that the predicament lies in knowing who is buying from a retailer’s brick-and-mortar stores, as it is easy for them to identify their online buyers.
Pookulangra et al. (2011) believe that channel switching can result in channel conflict because a customer can receive service or obtain information from one channel. Still, they may conduct business through another channel.
Alba et al. (1997) have identified specific dimensions associated with a retail channel and their impact on attractiveness to a consumer (Table 2.2-1). Alba et al. (1997) argue that specific characteristics available to consumers have different intensities for brick-and-mortar and internet stores, as seen in Table 2.2-1. Based on this table, Internet stores provide consumers with more alternative products than stores and have a high intensity of this dimension.
Kim (2000) compared the shopping values based on hedonic and utilitarian concepts and the perceived behavioural controls of brick-and-mortar stores and the Internet (Table 2.2-2).
The table describes the shopping values categorized on hedonic and utilitarian concepts and behavioural controls for brick and mortar stores and the Internet. Kim (2005) provided these characteristics to explain the behavioural reasons that prompt shoppers to choose a channel. This gives the study characteristics most associated with the specific channel of shopping.
Pookulangra et al. (2011) argue that consumers switch channels based on their beliefs and attitudes concerning each channel in addition to factors such as social norms, perceived behavioural control, and attitude towards channel-switching.
Studies on Consumer Switching Habits Between the Traditional Store and Online Channels
While conducting the literature review, various studies identified consumer channel switching behaviour using traditional and online stores. This section examines these studies using a chronological setup to organize the studies analyzed.
Jarvenpaa and Todd (1997) had found that responsiveness and tangibility had the most significant impact on buying intention during internet shopping, while product perceptions were greater on catalogues than on the Internet.
Madlberger (2006) later replicated Jarvenpaa and Todd’s (1997) study and found that the most important factor influencing consumer attitudes toward online shopping was their catalogs’ attitude.
Madlberger (2006) also found that online shopping convenience resulted in a greater favourable attitude among catalogue shoppers when given a multi-channel retailer’s online store option. This eventually resulted in them preferring online shopping and slowly moving away from catalogue shopping.
Shim et al. (2000) focused their study on examining the impact of the Internet and the traditional retail stores on consumers and their purchase intention. The research had used a sample of 706 participants with no specific user characteristics as they were sampled randomly in the population.
Based on the results Sim et al. (2000) concluded that the Internet was used more for purchasing cognitive products (i.e., products that satisfy users’ needs and desires through cognitive capabilities such as “smart” products). However, the study also found that cross-shoppers were product situation-specific.
Burke (2002) found that shoppers valued different features when they were shopping for other products. The study found that consumers were less interested in using multiple channels when shopping for goods they frequently purchased, like groceries or healthcare products.
Burke (2002) concluded that consumers had valued the option of buying online and picking up the product at the nearest store, also, the option of shopping in the store and having the purchases delivered at home while also being able to return the products to the store or through the mail.
Levin et al. (2003) have used product categories in their study to hypothesize the behaviour of channel switching. Levin et al. (2003) found that products categorized as being “high-touch” like health/grooming merchandise, sporting goods, and clothing products were preferred to be shopped at brick-and-mortar stores.
On the other hand, products categorized as “low-touch” like computer software or airline tickets were preferred to be purchased online because greater importance was placed on shopping quickly.
Gupta et al. (2004) used utility maximization in their study. It was concluded that the utility obtained from online shopping needed to be greater than the utility available under the brick-and-mortar shopping format because it resulted in consumers switching to an online shopping environment.
Gupta et al. (2004) found that channel risk opinions between channels were negatively associated with consumers’ tendency to switch channels.
However, the difference in price-search intent between online and traditional channels positively impacted consumers’ tendency to switch between channels.
Baal and Dach (2005) examined a sample of 489 who made purchases in physical stores and 447 participants who purchased online to understand channel switching behaviours.
The study concluded that the Internet could provide dominant search characteristics, rapid technological changes, and low purchase frequencies.
The study also found that consumers retained cross-channel options when it was more likely to purchase products infrequently. Baal and Dach (2005) also concluded that product characteristics influenced shoppers more when they looked for more information online and then made their purchases in a traditional retail setting.
All the literature reviewed had stringent controls in place to compare their survey results. Also, the literature included above also used quantitative or empirical techniques to analyze and present results. The studies presented above were homogenous in that matter and used surveys as the research instrument.
Research in Omnichannel Models Studies
The fast development of information technologies has provided retailers and other businesses to reach various ends of their operating market (Kollmann & Hensellek 2016).
Over the past decade, more consumers have gained access to the Internet worldwide and have found it convenient and safe to shop online (Segarra et al., 2016). This has led many firms to opt for more eCommerce integration (Powell et al. 2016).
Many internet-enabled business models have also emerged from the information technology boom (Magretta 2002).
One business model that has gained speed is integrating internet channels and the traditional retail channel known through the click-and-mortar business model (Chen et al., 2014).
Many large retails have boomed from just internet sales, such as the revolutionary Amazon.com, built on the clicks-and-order business model (Lim et al., 2005). This section analyses studies that have examined omnichannel models for businesses.
Of the studies reviewed, all were common in that they had set up thorough methodologies by focusing on businesses. Laroche et al. (2005) and Picot-Coupey et al. (2016) had longitudinal case studies as their methodologies.
Using this research approach, the studies were able to analyze companies that had implemented Omni-channels.
Studying the application of Omni-channels helps to understand how characteristics of consumers are implemented to allow businesses to shift from the Internet to traditional retailers. All three pieces of literature produced results with positive impacts of omnichannel implementation.
Studies such as Brynjolfsson et al. (2000) have carried out extensive research to compare businesses online to their traditional brick and mortar counterparts.
The study was conducted over 15 months using a dataset of 8,500 price observations. Brynjolfsson et al. (2000) compared the pricing behaviour at 41 different internet retailers with conventional outlets to study pricing trends.
The study goes on to explore the claim of whether or not the interest has allowed for a frictionless market. The study found that prices on the Internet were about 9-16% lower than those in their conventional outlets (Brynjolfsson & Smith 2000).
However, it was concluded that there was low friction in internet competitions, such as branding and awareness. Still, trust was of greater importance for internet retailers’ trust (Brynjolfsson & Smith 2000).
Laroche et al. (2005) study the intangibility of internet stores in terms of its effect on dimensions of a consumer’s ability to evaluate goods and services; and its perceived risk in conducting the transaction.
This relationship’s purchase environments are mostly explored by comparing purchase environments in conventional stores versus Internet stores. The researchers conducted two experiments to explore this concept.
The first experiment developed a latent model that explores the relationship between evaluation difficulty (ED) and perceived risk (PR). The second experiment explored the effect of the Internet on ED and PR compared to traditional retailers.
Research conducted by Picot-Coupey et al. (2016) aimed to investigate the challenges faced by online retailers when synchronizing clicks with bricks using an omnichannel perspective.
The paper also brought insight into the possible ways to successfully overcome online retailers’ channels to implement an omnichannel strategy successfully. Picot-Coupey et al. (2016) used an in-depth longitudinal case study using French online eyewear retailer Direct Optic from January 2013 to March 2015. The research included 1,500 and more hours of participant observations and 118 interviews (Picot-Coupey et al. 2016)
Ajzen (2001) proposed that planned behaviour theory provides a framework that allows studying attitudes towards behaviours. According to the idea of planned behaviour, the most essential element of an individual’s behaviour is their intent.
For an individual to perform a specific behaviour, a combination of an individual’s attitude toward achieving the behaviour needs to be a combination of an individual’s attitude toward achieving the behaviour. There needs to be the presence of a subjective norm.
An individual’s attitude to a specific behaviour includes subjective norms, normative beliefs, evaluations of behavioural outcomes, motivation to comply, and behaviour beliefs, illustrated in the figure below.
The theory of planned behaviour assumes that behaviour intention is the direct precursor of actual behaviour, as seen in Fig. 2.3-1. For this specific study, the behaviour is defined as the intention to switch shopping channels within the next three months; this includes any form of information searching for a product or buying a product or service.
Also, behavioural intent is defined by the study as a person’s likelihood for engaging in behaviour outlined previously and is a function of the following three components;
1. Attitude (A)
2. Subjective norm (SN)
3. Perceived behavioural control (PBC)
Ajzen and Fishnein (1980) describe behavioural intentions as a summary of motivation needed to perform or conduct a specific behaviour. This also reflects the person’s decision to follow a particular course of action. Lastly, it outlines how hard individuals are willing to perform the specific behaviour (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975).
It is evident from the research conducted by Ajzen (1988) that intentions of action can change over time. According to Ajzen (1988), the greater the likelihood of unforeseen events, the greater the chance of change in the intentions.
Based on this premise, the accuracy of a prediction will most likely decline with the amount of time taken between the measurement of intention and observation of the behaviour suspected (Ajzen 1988).
As explained above, the theory of planned behaviour states that a behaviour’s performance is a joint function of intentions and perceived behavioural control (Ajzen 2001).
For an accurate prediction to occur based on the behaviour, it is imperative that the measures of intent, in this case, switch from one channel to another and the perceived behaviour control, are attuned with the behaviour to be predicted.
Ajzen (2002) argues that when people believe that they have the needed resource and opportunities like skills, money, the cooperation of other people, and time; and that specific problems that have a greater chance of coming forth are manageable, people then exhibit confidence in their ability to perform the intended behaviour and also show a high degree of perceived behavioural control.
For the current study, the proposed beliefs that conceive switching shopping channels include self-efficacy and other facilitating conditions, which are hypothesized to impact the channel switching behaviour and use multiple purchasing channels. The model developed for the proposed study takes from Poolulangara et al. (2011) and their study to build upon as seen in Fig. 2.4-2.
Hedonic and Utilitarian Beliefs
Addis and Holbrook (2001) assert that retail characteristics can be identified as either utilitarian or hedonic. According to Lee et al. (2006), functional characteristics offer customers practical functionally, including convenience, price, and assortment.
On the other hand, hedonic characteristics can satisfy the consumer’s emotional wants,s which include atmosphere and social experiences. Based on the classification and understanding of literature, the following hypothesis has been proposed with its negative thesis;
Perceived Self-Efficacy and Facilitating Conditions
Bandura (1977) defines self-efficacy as individual judgments of an individual’s capabilities to perform a specific behavior; therefore, the stronger the perceived self-efficacy is, the more active the efforts will be.
When applied to the circumstances of channel switching, self-efficacy refers to a customer’s judgment of their capabilities to get product information and buy products from either traditional physical retail stores or through the internet.
Furthermore, facilitating conductions impacts the perceived behaviour control, which sooner or later influences the outcome’s behaviour sooner or later. These variables are known to be in control of the customer and facilitate their behaviour. For this specific model, the facilitating conditions have been termed as information search, time, money, and product type.
Taylor and Todd (1995) argue that the absence of any facilitating conditions represents barriers to switching channels and may inhibit an intention’s development.
Still, the presence of these conditions may not encourage consumers to use channel switching when looking for or buying products. Therefore, according to the research model, the following have been formulated.
Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC)
Perceived behavioural control is defined as a perception of control but is not considered actual control over the behaviour that is being examined (Notani 1999).
This can be measured by asking direct questions about performing a behaviour or indirectly according to the beliefs about dealing with a specific facilitating or inhibiting factor.
According to Ajzen (2002) and Bansal and Taylor (2002), the more a person believes that they have all the needed resources, abilities, and opportunities to influence behaviour, the more chance they will intend to perform that specific behaviour. Keen et al. (2000) argued that perceived behavioural control acts as a determinant of behaviour. Therefore the following hypotheses have been developed.
The retail industry has drastically changed to become more diversified in the channels in which business is conducted. Because of this, today’s customers are provided with several choices when it comes to retailing, and for them, multiple channels are offered by retailers.
Based on the literature review conducted, various studies have been conducted to understand the channel switching phenomena.
Some diverse characteristics and behaviours influence consumers’ behaviour to switch over channels. By understanding other literature’s conclusions, the current study constructed a conceptual framework to allow the recent research’s build-up. It explained the study’s theoretical basis and built upon a model on which the study revolved around.
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Chapter 3: Research Methodology
The chapter of the study explains the research philosophies associated with the research to develop an approach implemented to solve the research problem. The chapter provides a detailed discussion of how the research method was conducted using specific data collection and analysis strategies.
Selecting an Appropriate Research Approach
The following sections describe the philosophical and interpretive stances of the current study. It is based on these premises that the entire methodology of the current study was developed.
In order for the current study to be defendable, these assumptions and approaches were essential.
The way research is conducted can be developed in terms of the research philosophy used and the research strategy employed. Therefore, the produces a set of research instruments that can be incorporated to achieve the research objectives (Fig. 3.2-1).
There are many ways to customize research approaches to develop a strategy most suited for a particular study. However, the main three categories of organized research approaches include; qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research methods. Creswall (2013) comments that all three approaches are not considered discrete or distinct.
Creswall (2013) states, “qualitative and quantitative approaches should not be viewed as rigid, distinct categories, polar opposite, or dichotomies” (p.32).
Newmand and Benz (1998) pointed out that quantitative and qualitative approaches represent different ends on a continuum since a study “tends” to be more quantitative than qualitative or vice versa.
Lastly, mixed methods research resides in the middle of the continuum as it can incorporate elements and characteristics of both quantitative and qualitative approaches.
Lewis (2015) points out that the main distinction that is often cited between quantitative and qualitative research is that it is framed using numbers rather than words; or using closed-ended questions for quantitative hypotheses over open-ended questions for qualitative interview questions.
Guetterman (2015) points out that a clearer way of viewing gradations of differences between the approaches is to examine the basic philosophical assumptions brought to the study, the kinds of research strategies used, and the particular methods implemented in conducting the strategy.
Underlying Philosophical Assumptions
To construct the current study methodology, it is essential to establish a set of beliefs or principles that will act as the current study’s guiding route. For this reason, various philosophical research assumptions were examined to choose one which fits the current study in terms of providing it with a foundation.
Research philosophy believes how data about a phenomenon or situation should be gathered, analyzed, and used. According to Galliers (1991), the two major research philosophies that have been identified in the Western tradition of science are positivist and interpretivist.
Positivism reflects the acceptance of adopting the philosophical stance of natural scientists (Saunders, 2003). According to Remenyi et al. (1998), there is a greater preference in working with an “observable social reality” and that the outcome of such research can be “law-like” generalizations that are the same as those which physical and natural scientists produce.
Gill and Johnson (1997) add that it will also emphasize a highly structured methodology to replicate other studies. Dumke (2002) agrees and explains that a positivist philosophical assumption produces highly structured methods and allows for generalization and quantification of objectives that statistical methods can evaluate.
For this philosophical approach, the researcher is considered an objective observer who should not be impacted by or impact the research subject.
An in-depth study of both these positions has resulted in the current study choosing the positivist approach for becoming the philosophical basis of the current research. Positivist philosophy believes that reality is stable and can be observed and described from an objective viewpoint (Galliers 1991; Levin 1988).
This can be achieved even without interfering with the phenomena that are under study. The premise held by the thought is that the phenomena should be isolated and that observations should be repeatable.
Levin (1988) contends that this involved manipulating reality with variations of only a single independent variable to identify regularities to construct relationships between them.
The positivist viewpoint is a scientific viewpoint that allows one to evaluate theory using substantial evidence that can be obtained again using a rigid research method that can be replicated. It is for this reason that the positivist assumptions make up the foundation of the current study.
Selecting Interpretive Research Approach
Using the philosophical assumptions made in the previous section, the interpretive research selection is made as to the deductive approach. The main purpose of a deductive approach is to be aimed at and tested towards theory (Babbie 2010).
The approach begins with a hypothesis (Fig. 3.2-2), unlike the inductive approach, which is concerned with generating new theory from emerging data while using research questions to narrow the study’s scope (Wilson 2010).
The deductive approach places a greater emphasis on causality. Gulati (2009) argues that the deductive approach follows logic the most closely with reasoning starting with theory and leading to a new hypothesis.
Justifying the Use of Quantitative Research Method
Babbie (2010) defines quantitative research methods as placing a greater emphasis on objective measurements and “the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques.”
This basically means that quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and then generalizing it across many groups of people or even explaining a specific phenomenon that was the focus of the study (Wilson 2010).
The quantitative research approach is best suited for the current study because of this reason. The study’s goal is to conduct quantitative research to determine a relationship between consumer choices of shopping channels on a business’s decision to shift to brick-and-mortar stores within the UK population.
Through quantitative research, the data obtained and projected can generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or even investigate causal relationships. (Gulati 2009).
Selecting an Appropriate Research Strategy
Many research strategies can be used, which include field experiments, laboratory experiments, simulation, case studies, reviews, surveys, and interviews, to name a few. However, a study’s right strategy depends on the underlying assumptions made from the philosophical and interpretive premises developed.
The current study looks to follow a quantitative research approach by using positivism and deductive reasoning. For this reason, a survey was considered the best strategy. The choice of this is also in parallel to the steps presented in a typical ‘research onion’ (see Fig 3.4-1)
Justifying the use of Survey Based Questionnaire
With the underlying theme of positivist and deductive reasoning, available research strategies that will allow the research objectives can only survey.
Surveys enable researchers to obtain data about practices, situations, or viewpoints at a single point in time through questionnaires. Through the use of quantitative analytical methods, the data is manipulated to draw inferences regarding existing relationships.
Through the use of surveys, a researcher can study more variables at a single time than the option of laboratory tests or field experiments. With surveys, this all becomes possible while data is still being collected within real-world environments.
Empirical Research Methodology
The study is based completely on a quantitative research design composed using the scientific method indicated as the hypothetico-deductive method. Kuhn (2012) finds that the quantitative research approach allows for the interpretation of observations for the sole reason of discovering an underlying meaning or patterns of a relationship, which also means the ability to classify phenomena in a way that involves mathematical models. The sections that follow present the important components that make up the research design.
For the current study, a questionnaire was developed, which was to be self-administered to consumers. The questionnaire consists of items that can measure the beliefs towards switching channels using hedonic and utilitarian beliefs and attitudes towards switching channels between the internet and brick and mortar stores.
The questionnaire can measure perceived self-efficacy, facilitating conditions set as time, money, information and production type, and perceived behavioral control for the internet to brick and mortar.
The questionnaire also included information that collected answers on the respondents’ demographics, including age, marital status, gender, work status, annual household income, ethnicity, number of children, and education.
The variables under attitude beliefs, self-efficacy, time, money, product type, and information are associated with outcomes per the expectancy-value model. The survey is presented in Appendix A.
The survey is made of Likert-like items using a 7 point scale that gives varying degrees of expression for each statement.
The sample of the study was chosen based on random sampling. No specific requirements were placed on obtaining a sample, and the population chosen was anyone who purchased products or services using the internet and/or brick-and-mortar stores.
A total of 300 respondents is intended to be collected to ensure a wide range of perspectives. The sample was obtained by posting the survey online for seventy days to ensure that a maximum number of people responded to reach the desired sample size value of 300.
The data analysis will be analyzed using IBM SPSS v. 24 for descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and regression analysis. Each of the tools used for data analysis will be used according to the section on the survey.
Firstly, the demographic section of the survey will be analyzed using frequency statistics. A further frequency analysis will be conducted on questionnaire section II in addition to a reliability test using Cronbach’s alpha.
However, both simple and multiple regression will be used for complete data analysis. The premise set for such analysis is that the dependent variables were independent variables for the next stage of the model.
One of the primary issues for data collection was distributing the survey online using Survey Monkey. The issue with this is the lack of response rate, which cannot be calculated as the researcher will not know how many individuals had seen the survey and chose not to participate. This is one of the major drawbacks of online distribution.
Another drawback is ensuring that the survey was taken once by a single person and not taken multiple times by a single person. However, it is assumed for the sack of the study that individuals completed the survey once.
This Internet use was only chosen due to lack of funds and time limitation in completing the entire study.
The current chapter has outlined the crucial components that make up the methods of the research. It is through these methods that the research aims and objectives will be accomplished.
The chapter provides an in-depth discussion of the current study’s underlying philosophy, interpretive beliefs, and research approach. Using these components, the study has set up a research design that can be replicated and produces results, as discussed in the next chapter.
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Chapter 4: findings and analysis.
The chapter presents the findings of the study. The questionnaire acquired the data (see Appendix A) and analyzed using IBM SPSS v. 24. The data was analyzed for descriptive, Cronbach’s alpha, and regression analysis.
The frequency statistics were acquired for the demographic analysis of the sample. As mentioned earlier, the data was collected through random sampling by placing the survey on the Internet using Survey Monkey.
The primary issue with this was that there is no specific population representation and the population being questioned is unknown. As with all surveys, there are chances of respondent bias, resulting in the interaction between variables and outliers in the data.
The first section of the chapter describes the demographics, followed by a frequency analysis of section II questions, Cronbach’s alpha, and regression analysis.
Characteristics of Demographics
The proposed sample designated for the current study was 300. The survey was posted on the Internet for seventy days to allow the maximum number of respondents to answer them.
However, a total of 243 completed surveys were received within the seventh-day period. Only surveys that were filled were included in the data analysis. Based on the surveys’ demographic analysis, a total of 107 males participated while 136 females participated.
Table. 4.2-1 illustrates the respondents’ ethnicity; from the data obtained, 71 Hispanics had participated in the survey, making them the largest group examined in terms of ethnicity compared to other ethnicities.
The smallest group present in respondents identified as Caucasians, with only 15 participants present in the sample. Other characteristics of the respondents in the current study are present in Table 4.2-2 below.
Based on the table presented, 103 individuals made up the largest group of respondents based on age in the 24-40-year-old category. On the other hand, only 36 participants were representative of individuals above 55 years old.
The median age for the participants was ages 25-40 years old. Of the sample, 98 participants held a Bachelors, and only one participant had no education. The median response for education was also bachelors, as present in Table 4.2-3.
Based on the income, a majority of respondents (82) indicated that they earned £8,000 to £24,999 annually; while only seven indicated that income annually was £57,000-£72,999.
The median response for annual income among respondents was £8,000- £24,999. An equal number of respondents indicated that they worked part-time and full time, split 86 participants indicating this.
However, only 71 respondents indicated that they did not work. Based on the frequency analysis, the median response was working full time. The marital status of 105 participants was either married or living with a partner, while only 76 were separated/widowed/divorced. The median answer of respondents was also married/living with a partner.
Table 4.3-1 explains the descriptive statistics of brick and mortar stores, catalogue, and internet usage for finding information on products and purchasing products in the last three months.
About 91% of participants indicated that they searched for product information in stores, followed by about 51% of searches using catalogues. Most participants stated that they searched for information on the Internet, about 96%.
Also, participants indicated that 97% of them purchased products in the last three months from stores, while an estimate of 46% purchased from catalogues, and about 99% purchased online.
Frequency Analysis of Questionnaire
The questionnaire section II was designed using Likert-like questions that respondents were asked to answer using a seven (7) point scale. Results of the questionnaire using cumulative percentage frequency are presented in Figs 4.3-1. below.
Fig. 4.3-1 presents the questionnaire results that analyzed hedonic and utilitarian beliefs; variables of self-efficacy, time, money, information hedonic products, utilitarian products; outcomes of self-efficacy; and behavioural intention.
The results show that 51.9% of respondents agreed to some degree that changing from the Internet to stores while shopping was fun. About 55% of respondents also indicated some agreement level that changing from the Internet to stores when shopping was enjoyable.
For utilitarian beliefs present in question 3g, respondents presented a large majority with about 75% in some degree of agreement changing from the Internet to stores when shopping is efficient.
Questions 6d to 6h analyzed self-efficacy variables, time, money, information hedonic products, and utilitarian products. Based on the results presented in the figure below, 51.9% of respondents indicated some agreement level that they had the time to change between stores and the Internet.
Question 6f illustrates that about 58% of respondents agreed that they had the information needed to change between stores and the Internet to varying degrees. This supports the prediction made in hypothesis 5 that information will predict the perceived behavioural control when switching from the Internet to brick-and-mortar stores.
Cronbach’s Alpha Analysis
Reliability of items is necessary for evaluating assessments and questionnaires (Tavakol and Dennick 2011). It is often thought of as mandatory in research to estimate the quantity of alpha to increase the validity and accuracy of interpretations of results for a given data set.
Academics such as Gliem and Gliem (2003) argue that it is important to calculate Cronbach’s alpha when using Likert-type scales used in the current study. Using SPSS, the following figure below presents the result for Cronbach alpha.
Kline (2000); Georgy and Mallery (2003); and DeVeillis (2012) provide the following rules for identifying internal consistency; α ≥ 0.9 – excellent; 0.9 ≥ α ≥ 0.8- good; 0.8 ≥ α ≥ 0.7- acceptable; 0.7 ≥ α ≥ 0.6 questionable; 0.6 ≥ α ≥ 0.5- poor; and 0.5 ≥ α- unacceptable.
The alpha produced for the current study is .924, making it reside in the excellent category.
Thus, it is concluded that the questionnaire produced with all its items holds a fair internal consistency making the items in the study’s questionnaire measured as one-dimensional.
Other uninformed values of variables in the analysis produced closeness in the value of alpha presented in Appendix B. This proves that the study’s alpha is not deflated or inflated by external or internal factors.
Regression Analysis of Questionnaire
The section discusses the regression analysis for channel switching behaviour from the Internet to brick-and-mortar stores. For the analysis, independent variables used to predict channel switching behaviour attitudes were hedonic and utilitarian beliefs toward the Internet to store behaviour, the dependent variable.
The R2 value presented in the analysis increases once new terms are introduced into the regression model. Meaning, the addition of variables like hedonic beliefs, utilitarian beliefs, time, self-efficacy, normative beliefs, hedonic & utilitarian products, money, and information. All of these were independent predictor variables that were hypothesized to influence channel switching behaviour.
The significant predictor of the dependent variable was Utilitarian beliefs with a regression coefficient of 0.385 (p<.001) accompanied by an overall F value of 72.233 (p<.001) and an Adjusted R2 value of 0.18.
Therefore, the results support hypothesis H2 that utilitarian beliefs will significantly predict switching between the Internet to brick and mortar stores.
Other variables such as self-efficacy, time, money, information, hedonic products, and utilitarian products were kept independent of predicting the participants’ perceived behavioural control (PBC).
Based on the results of the regression analysis majority of contributing factors the significantly predicted the dependent variable were self-efficacy with values at 0.173 (p<.001) and information valued at 0.429 (p<.001), as seen in Table 4.3-3.
These values were accompanied by an overall F value of 72.724 (p<0.001) and an adjusted R2 value of 0.43. Using the stepwise regression analysis method for predicting perceived behavioural control (PBC) changed the value of adjusted R2 to 0.41 and increased F’s value to 152.148 (Table 4.3-3).
Significant predictors of PBC based on this method were self-efficacy with 0.179 (p<.001), information at 0.421 (p<.001), and Utilitarian products producing 0.184 (p<.05).
Based on these results, hypotheses H3, H5, and H8 are supported. Self-efficacy, information, and utilitarian products will predict the perceived behavioural control when switching from the Internet to brick-and-mortar stores.
Furthermore, PBC was set as an independent variable to predict channel-switching behaviour. Table 4.3-4 illustrates that PBC significantly influences channel switching behaviour with 0.113 (p<.001) with an adjusted R2 of 0.05 and F of 34.245.
This supports hypothesis H9. Variables of attitude and PBC were kept as independent variables for the dependent variable channel switching intention.
Table 4:3-4 illustrates attitude with 0.359 and PBC -0.092 with an adjusted R2 of 0.49 and F of 179.012. These results support hypothesis H10. Lastly, channel-switching intention significantly predicted channel switching behavior with produced regression value of 0.276 (p<.001) with an adjusted R2 or 0.06 and F value of 37.454.
Table 4.3-3: Regression Analysis of Additional Variables
Table 4.3-4: Regression Analysis of Channel Switching Behaviour
Based on the study’s findings, variables of Utilitarian beliefs, self-efficacy, information, utilitarian products, and attitude are significantly contributing factors for prompting customers to switch from using the Internet as a purchasing and information searching channel to brick and mortar stores.
These factors are concluded as the customers are looking more towards using brick-and-mortar stores than capping online, writing businesses to establish physical store locations to accommodate customers. The findings were analyzed using frequency analysis, Cronbach’s alpha analysis, and regression analysis.
Chapter 5: Conclusion and Discussion
The research had looked to answer the research question;
Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, the research question was analyzed using a quantitative research approach. The approach included using a quantitative research instrument, in this case, a questionnaire tool to examine behaviour in participants. A total of 300 participants were proposed to partake in the study.
However, only 243 valid, fully completed questionnaires were acquired using Survey Monkey, an online survey tool. The data were analyzed using frequency analysis and regression analysis to examine how certain variables may influence channel switching behaviour among consumers by acquiring data through this route.
Meeting the Aim and Objectives of the Study
Based on the conducted study, analyzing how consumers have influenced businesses to shift to traditional retailing using the Theory of Planned Behaviour was achieved. The theory had assumed that individual attitudes and beliefs and control factors would result in an intention to perform a behaviour, switching from online shopping to using physical stores.
The research objectives were to highlight the various pros and cons of business models on clicks and bricks, achieved in the Literature Review Chapter 2. The literature review also achieved the literature review also achieved the investigation of the impact that online stores have on consumers and the retail industry.
The objective of exploring factors that influence aconsumer’ss decision toconsumer’som online to shopping in physical stores was achieved by the experimental investigation using the questionnaire and present in the results of chapter 4. The results of the study concluded that the following hypotheses were found supported by the data:
H2 : Utilitarian beliefs will predict attitude towards switching from the internet to brick and mortar stores.
H3 : Self-efficacy predicts the perceived behavioural control when switching from the internet to brick and mortar stores.
H5 : Information will predict the perceived behavioural control when switching from the internet to brick and mortar stores.
H8 : Utilitarian products will predict the perceived behavioural control when switching from the internet to brick and mortar stores.
H10 : Attitude directed towards channel switching will predict channel switching from the internet to brick and mortar stores.
H11 : PCB directed towards channel switching will predict switching from the internet to brick and mortar stores.
Research Implications on Theory and Practice
Overall the current study successfully predicted a causal relationship between the independent and dependent variables presented in the theory of planned behaviour research model for channel switching from internet to brick and mortar stores.
The findings of the current study will have implications on the retail industry looking to develop an omnichannel business model for more informed consumers.
The information presented in the current study will also aid and impact researchers looking to divulge a depth study on variables that provide greater insight in switching from the internet to physical stores.
Most importantly, the current study results impact retailers in the UK due to the interactions between variables. This will allow retailers to shift to physical stores a body of knowledge of combining specific variables that will produce the desired outcome from consumer behaviour. According to Reardon and McCorkle (2002), managing several sales channels actively requires knowing its channel preference.
Research Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research
The findings of the current study cannot be generalized to the population analyzed in the study because the samples obtained were not normally distributed specifically regarding the characteristics found in the demographics of participants.
The respondents’ characteristics shorespondents’45% of partrespondents’e between 25 to 40 years old. There was also a predominance of Hispanic and married participants compared to other ethnic groups and marital statuses.
It is recommended that studies in the future ensure a large amount of sample size to ensure more diversity in participant characteristics. It is also recommended that future studies indulge in further analysis by separating different sample groups to provide more robust information for retailers.
There was difficulty in calculating the response rate since the survey was administered online. Kaye and Johnson (1999) argue that web-based surveys cannot calculate their response rates since there is no way of knowing how many individuals might have seen the survey link but declined to participate in the study. It is recommended that future studies use more than one method to administer surveys to ensure maximum participation and analysis.
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Appendix A- Survey
About You: The following are background information questions included to help interpret the reason for your responses regarding the questions of the succeeding sections. Your responses in this section and all sections of the questionnaire will the kept strictly confidential.
1. Indicate your gender.
o Male o Female
2. Indicate your age group.
o 18-25 o 25-40 o 40-55 o Above 55 years old
3. Please indicate the highest level of education that you have acquired.
o Primary Education o GCSE/O-level o CGE/A-level o Bachelors o Graduate o Doctoral o None
4. Are you working?
o No o Part-time o Full Time
5. What is your marital status?
o Single/Never married o Married/living with partner o Separated/widowed/divorced
6. Which of the following best describes your ethnicity?
o African o Asian o Caucasian o Hispanic o Other
7. What is your annual household income from all sources before taxes?
o Less than 8,000 o 8,000- 24,999 o 25,000- 40,999 o 41,000- 56,999 o 57,000-72,999 o 73,000 or more
8. Please fill in the number of children dependent on you for each category.
None Under 6 years old 6 to 12 years old 13 to 17 years old 18 years and/or older
Please read each of the statements and follow the instructions for answering each of these statements.
1. Have you ever in the past year searching for information about goods or services from any of the following in the last three months? (Tick all that apply)
Store Catalog Internet
2. Have you ever made a purchase of goods or services from any of the following in the last three months? (Tick all that apply)
Store Catalog Internet
Please read each statement and circle the answer that indicates your opinion .
3. Please indicate the extent to which you agree with the following statements when “ changing from the internet to stores when shopping .” Circle that number that best describes your opinion.
5. How do you feel for each of the following when “changing from the internet to store while shopping.” Circle that number that best describes your opinion.
6. How much do you agree with each of the following statements concerning “changing from the internet to store while shopping”?
7. How much do you agree with each of the following statements concerning “changing from the internet to store while shopping”?
8. Please answer the following regarding the overall intention to “changing from the internet to stores while shopping.”
9. Please answer the following concerning the overall actual behavior of “changing between the Internet and stores.”
9 Appendix C- Item Statistics of Questionnaire
10 appendix d- frequency tables of result.
Table 5.4-2: Frequency Analysis of Education
Table 5.4-3: Frequency Analysis of Working Hours
Table 5.4-4: Frequency Analysis of Marital Status
Table 5.4-5: Frequency Analysis of Ethnic Group
11 Appendix E- Reliability Analysis
Table 5.4-1: Reliability Analysis of Questionnaire using Skewness and Kurtosis
12 Appendix F- Correlations using Regression Analysis
Table 5.4-1: Regression Analysis Results Presentation of Correlations
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Home > Robinson College of Business > Robinson College of Business Executive Programs > Business Administration > BUS_ADMIN_DISS
Business Administration Dissertations
Dissertations from 2024 2024.
The Power of Reflection: Understanding The Impacts Made Upon Employees Who Have Managers Who Reflect On Their Professional Development , Ryan Heath Jordan
Dissertations from 2023 2023
Smart Technology Adoption’s Impact on the Value of Logistics Service Providers’ Firms , Raziel Bravo
Unintended Consequences of Organizational Error Culture: Does the Strive for Perfection Cause Employees to Put on a Façade and Consider Leaving? , Scott Crumpton
Vanishing Without a Trace: Measuring Job Applicant Ghosting Attitudes Across the Stages of Job Pursuit , Christine Davis
Leader Emotional Exhaustion: The Moderating Role of Leadership Style , James Davis
Path Constitution in Family Business Succession: Evidence from A Longitudinal Case Study , Toney L. Duckworth-Chambless
Organizational Resilience: An Exploratory Study on Eldercare and Support Responses to COVID-19 , Darren G. Franklin
An Empirical Study on the Influence of ICT-Based Tools on Team Effectiveness in Virtual Software Teams Operating Remotely During the COVID-19 Lockdown , Uday Kumar Kanike
The Role of Spirituality for Successful Established Women Entrepreneurs , Valaurie Bridges Lee
Increasing the Awareness of Black Women to Promote Medical Research Engagement , Stephanie M. Malone
The Impact of Social Media Sentiment on Market Share for Higher Education Institutions , Brandi Nicole Newkirk
How Safety Leadership Styles Impact Employee Safety Behaviors , Michelle McRae Payne
Dissertations from 2022 2022
The Impact of the Financial System and its Channels on SMES' Access to Financing: A Nigerian Perspective , Akinwande Ademosu
Sense of Place and Customer Experience: Cast Study in the State of Alaska , MARYAM AL ALI
Healthcare Innovation Absenteeism: The Rise of Physician Entrepreneurs & Medical Startups , Charleata Battle
The Impact of Personality Traits and Emotional Intelligence on Emergent Leadership , Shinika Byrd
How Does the Infrastructure and Support of Two Progressive Startup Communities Compare for African American Entrepreneurs and Small Businesses? A Comparative Study of Atlanta, Georgia and Charlotte, North Carolina , Leroy Carson Jr.
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Esports Viewership Trends , James P. Crone
The Impact of Values Congruence on Sales Personnel Performance and Retention: A Person-Organization Fit Analysis , Jason Duke
Using Consumer-Generated Social Media Posts to Improve Forecasts of Television Premiere Viewership: Extending Diffusion of Innovation Theory , Robert Casey Goodman
Sustainable Investing: Navigating the Inefficiencies of an Inefficient Market , Dale Herndon
Entrepreneurship in Rural Areas: Examining the Influence of Postsecondary Education , Cathy Hill
Reestablishing Organizational Stability Through Leading Resilience: Avoiding the Maelstrom of Personal Distress Caused by an Organizational Disruption , Wallace Andrew Huey Jr
Management Perceptions of the Value of Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery and Development , Scott P. Murray
Innovative Investment and Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities and Barriers for State Governments in a Disruptive Global Environment , Nkiruka Catherine Ohaegbu
Assessing B2G Customer/Contractor Relationships Using Social Exchange Theory During the Search and Selection Stage , Mitchell Lee Reed
The Concept of Digital Twins and its Impact on Organizational Performance , Deepa Vivekanandan
Transforming Leader Selection in the U.S. Army--the Battalion Command Assessment Program , Joseph Williams
Dissertations from 2021 2021
The ESG Behaviors of Multinational Enterprises: An Exploration of Emerging and Developed Market Norms , Julie A. Anderson
Balancing Focal and Client Firm Employee Identification and Acculturation Tensions: A Case Study Approach at a BPO Firm , Jonna B. Blount
Technology Usage to Manage Client Growth: Understanding Robo-Advisor Adoption Among Registered Investment Firms , Kevin Chalk
Consumer Preferences Towards Book Formats: How to Address Technological Disruption in the Publishing Industry , Gustavo Cotrino
An Examination of the Role of vCISO in SMBs: An Information Security Governance Exploration , William Dicker
Phenomenological Assessment of Integrative Medicine Decision-making and the Utility of Predictive and Prescriptive Analytics Tools , Osie Gaines
Industry 4.0 Technology: A Cross-Industry View of Adoption, Usage and COVID-19 Effects , Dawn Gregory
Do Age and On-screen Reading vs. On-paper Reading Affect Reader’s Trust and Risk in Reading Financial Content? , John Harrison
Social Entrepreneurship Within A Capitalist Economy , Audria King
The Impact of Deliberation Time on Ethical Decision Quality: A Study of Early-Career Professional Accountants , Ricki Livingston
Time-Varying Style Rotation by Small-Cap Mutual Fund Managers: Incentives and Implications , Peter McGaffigan
Reconciling External Clinical Data: Providers’ Friend Or Foe? , Mindy Oberg
Growing The Pie: How Supplier Diversity Can Enable Minority Businesses to Create Stakeholder Value , Ashok Kasi Vairavan
Analyzing the Budget and Strategic Plan Relationship: A Case Study Approach , Tina Wilson
Dissertations from 2020 2020
What Community and Organizational Factors Affect Care and Financial Performance of U.S. Hospitals? , Esther Chance
Identity Work in Career Transition: Lessons for Human Resources Development in the Verification of Identity in Career Transition , Jennifer Crenshaw
Organizational Innovativeness Among Employees in an IT Operations Organization: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective , Darrell D. Crull
An Analysis of Generational Differences in the Selection and Pursuit of Professional Certification , Dania El-Eter
Does Board Connectedness Contribute to Firms Performance During A Financial Crisis? , Rajendra Prasad Gangavarapu
Leadership Style and Organizational Structure Alignment: Impact on Innovativeness and Business Performance , Charles Ifedi
Don’t Be Left out in the Cold: An Examination of Organizational Innovativeness and Its Influence on the Capacity to Innovate in Cold Chain Third Party Logistics Firms , Anna Johnson
Dynamic Capabilities in Microfinance Innovation: A Case Study of The Grameen Foundation , Sarah Kayongo
Digital Innovation towards a Service-Dominant Business: A Clinical Inquiry into Georgia Pacific's Connected Restroom Initiative , Jung Hwan Kim
An Exploratory Study of The Factors Affecting Hospital Performance: Safety, Clinic Care, Patient Experience, Efficiency and Cost , Shevon Lewis
Factors Affecting the Financial Performance of US Children’s Hospitals: An Exploratory Study , Jimmy Mahgoub
Role of Social Capital in Crowd Funding Campaigns: Exploring Factors That Fuel Success in Crowd Funding Campaigns , Babu V. Manikandan
Reinvigorating Maneuver Warfare: An Organizational Learning Analysis of A Failed Strategic Initiative , Bryan P. McCoy
The Role of Collaborative Governance in Blockchain-Enabled Supply Chains: A Proposed Framework , Denise McCurdy
A Phenomenological Analysis of Information Security Reporting: A Paradoxical Perspective , Robin L. Moore
The Future of the AICPA Peer Review Program: The Impact of Age , Henry Okwuchukwu Onwumbiko
Influence Of Developer Sentiment And Stack Overflow Developers On Open Source Project Success: An Empirical Examination , Johnson Rajakumar
Factors Influencing Surgeon Adoption of Technology in the Medical Device Industry , Sean Reynolds
Career Transitions in the Digital Age: Mastering the Art of Communicating Career Direction Clarity , Daphne J. Schechter
Sustainable Organization of a Lean Six Sigma Program: A Competing Values Perspective , Marilyn J. Tom
Dissertations from 2019 2019
Enterprise Implementations: The Impact of Systems Implementations Using Professional Services Consultants vs. Internal Resources and the Downstream Impact Post Implementations , Yves Belmont
Hybrid Entrepreneurs’ Intention to Transition to Full Entrepreneurship: A Career Approach , Simoon Cannon
The Changing Economics of Attaining Post-Secondary Education in the U.S.: An Analysis by Stakeholder: Employer, Student, and Government , Sheila Cappel
Partnering People with Deep Learning Systems: Human Cognitive Effects of Explanations , Sean Dougherty
Real-Time Push Mobile Marketing Strategy: To What Extent Do Time and Relevance Matter? , Alvin Glay
Corporate Sustainability: The Impact of Corporate Leadership Gender On Year-Over-Year Performance , Jennoa R. Graham
Job Aid or Job Slayed? The Perceived Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Medical and Legal Work , Jessica Louise Helsten
Organizational Learning Through Disruptive Digital Innovation. A Blockchain Implementation , Veneetia Johnson
Drivers of Success to Effective Entrepreneurship: A Comparison of Immigrant and Native-born Perceptions , Irina Kozlovski
Improving the Employee Transition Experience: A Practical Business Application for Design Thinking , Aleta W. Richards
A Study of Permanent Residency Intentions and Behaviors by Highly Skilled Temporary Chinese Migrants in the United States , Chloe Shay
Healthcare Group Purchasing Organizations: Who’s Really Saving? An Empirical Investigation of Hospital Characteristics That Influence Supply Expense for Healthcare GPO Members , Kenneth Stinson
Does Market Visioning Competence Mediate or Moderate the Relationship Between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Product Innovativeness? , John Stowell
Digital Member Network Implementation and Coproduction: An Investigation of an Alumni Association Network , Derrick Warren
Dissertations from 2018 2018
Microfinance Performance: The Dynamics Between Performance and Funding Sources Across Microfinance Institution Legal Charters and Age Groups , Anthony Annan
Why do Low R2 Hedge Funds have Low R2? An Empirical Study of the Performance and Risk of Low R2 Funds , Arnab Banerjee
Organizational Readiness for the disruptive technology of autonomous commercial vehicles (ACV): What is the readiness of the trucking carriers? , Melvin Dukes
Cultural Analysis of Organizational Development Units: A Comprehensive Approach based on the Competing Values Framework , Richard Erhardt
Impact of Organizational Career Management Activities on Organizational Commitment of Early, Mid, and Late Stage Career Professionals , Melissa J. Furman
Embracing the Unexpected: A Quasi-experiment to Explore the Effects of Power and Gender on the Decision to Reciprocate a Hug-Or Not-in the Workplace , Paula R. Gable
Scientists With and Without Managerial Responsibilities: How Managerial Training Affects the Perception of Job Satisfaction , Jamie Humphries
The Role of Reflection in Predicting Stress Coping, Turnover, Absenteeism, and Lateness: A Study of the Hospitality Industry , Hicham Jaddoud
The Value of Business Incubators and Accelerators from the Entrepreneurs Perspective , Ginger S. Lange
The Effect of Dynamic Capabilities and Military Experience on the Performance of Veteran Women-Owned Businesses , Sequoiya Lawson
An Empirical Study in the U.S. Hotel Industry: How Quality Assurance, Customer Satisfaction, Brand Signaling, and Guest Loyalty Impact Revenue , Kevin Morgan
A Case Study: Evaluating the Implementation of Eligibility Screening and Sliding Scale Payments in A Community Clinic , Carol Passley
Do Financial Incentives Make a Difference? A Study of Dual Eligible Medicare Advantage Primary Care Providers and Quality Gaps in Care for the Dual Eligible Population , Estevan Rodriguez
How Experts Judge Creativity: A Field Study of the Assessment of Creative Output , Michael Robert Seyle
The Impact of Knowledge Acquisition on Developing a New Launch Strategy into China , Kristine Sickels
The Impact of Airport Servicescape on Passengers Satisfaction , Kamau Kofi Smith
Higher Education Pricing: Effects of Tuition Pricing on Nontraditional Student Persistence Moderated by Demographics. , Katherine Crowell Spradley
Managing Implicit Bias with Transformational Conversation: A Qualitative Field Study of Social Identity Theory , Kimberly Stephens
Effectiveness of Interorganizational (B2B) Selling: The Influence of Collaboration, Initiator, Market Segmentation, Product , George Talbert
The Comparative Efficiency of Public and Private Provision of Postsecondary Education in U.S. National Universities , David Talley
The Impact of Blockchain Technology on Financial Transactions , Al Tilooby
Dissertations from 2017 2017
Exploring the Role of Work–Family Conflict on Job and Life Satisfaction for Salaried and Self-Employed Males and Females: A Social Role Approach , Anthony Adepoju
The Effects of an Employment Tax Enforcement Regime on US Small Business and Proprietor Payment Compliance , Rafael Dacal
Demographic Factors as Significant Indicators for Short and Long-term Investments in Industrialized, Emerging, and Frontier Countries , Rodrigo De León González
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Students in the School of Economics at the University of Nottingham consistently produce work of a very high standard in the form of coursework essays, dissertations, research work and policy articles.
Below are some examples of the excellent work produced by some of our students. The authors have agreed for their work to be made available as examples of good practice.
- The Causal Impact of Education on Crime Rates: A Recent US Analysis . Emily Taylor, BSc Hons Economics, 2022
- Does a joint income taxation system for married couples disincentivise the female labour supply? Jodie Gollop, BA Hons Economics with German, 2022
- Conditional cooperation between the young and old and the influence of work experience, charitable giving, and social identity . Rachel Moffat, BSc Hons Economics, 2021
- An Extended Literature Review on the Contribution of Economic Institutions to the Great Divergence in the 19th Century . Jessica Richens, BSc Hons Economics, 2021
- Does difference help make a difference? Examining whether young trustees and female trustees affect charities’ financial performance. Chris Hyland, BSc Hons Economics, 2021
- The impact of Covid-19 on the public and health expenditure gradient in mortality in England . Alexander Waller, MSc Economic Development & Policy Analysis, 2022
- Impact of the Child Support Grant on Nutritional Outcomes in South Africa: Is there a ‘pregnancy support’ effect? . Claire Lynam, MSc Development Economics, 2022
- An Empirical Analysis of the Volatility Spillovers between Commodity Markets, Exchange Rates, and the Sovereign CDS Spreads of Commodity Exporters . Alfie Fox-Heaton, MSc Financial Economics, 2022
- The 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season and Labour Market Transitions . Edward Allenby, MSc Economics, 2022
- The scope of international agreements . Sophia Vaaßen, MSc International Economics, 2022
Thank you to all those students who have agreed to have their work showcased in this way.
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