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1 Suggested Research Topics 1.1.1 Entrepreneurship Topic / Title Background / Rationale / Description Methodologies Suggested Readings Supervisor

by Tumi seshabela

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Sheldon Rocha Leal

2018, University of the Free State

This study has endeavoured to establish how the creation of a music industry (MI) related baccalaureate could transform higher music education (HME) in South Africa (SA) to better prepare graduates for jobs in the MI. The project set out to meet its objectives through a six- phase process, as follows: (I) In the first phase, a background study was conducted to determine the prevalence of MI qualifications. The size of the creative industry and its employment trends, opportunities and capacity were determined. Finally, trends in creative education and education, in general, were established. (II) In the second phase, the curriculum was defined, various curriculum development and design methodologies were scrutinised, prominent educational reforms were interrogated, the South African educational structures were reviewed and higher music educational pathways, structures and trends were investigated. (III) In the third phase, different music industry degrees, hosted at universities internationally, were inspected and reviewed to establish the content, assessment, outcomes, aims, rules of engagement, module distribution, articulation and generally to determine how these qualifications are constructed. (IV) In the fourth phase, a needs assessment was conducted, in which I assembled and interviewed a group of 10 leading South African music industry stakeholders. In the interview process, I undertook to determine if a need exists for a music industry degree for the South African context, the needs of the South African music industry and the transformative value of such a qualification for students, the business and music education (ME). (V) Following from the findings of phases I-IV, I designed a curriculum framework based on research conducted and suggestions offered by the stakeholder group. (VI) In the sixth phase, an additional group of South African music industry insiders was interviewed to gain further comments on the form and structure of the framework, and to establish if, in their expert opinions, the curriculum designed would have a transformative effect on ME, graduates and the music industry in South Africa. Finally, based on the research conducted and stakeholder groups consulted, conclusions and recommendations were made. The designed framework was created to inspire discussion regarding the introduction of MI education in SA and may result in the creation of an MI related qualification. Various elements of the framework aimed specifically to encourage transformation, open up HME to a broader audience and better prepare graduates for non-performing careers in music. These may be summarised as follows: (a) As the qualification is not strictly a music qualification, the lowering of the barrier to entry is justifiable, as students do not require prior access to a formal ME which will make the programme more accessible than typical degrees in music, to a more significant and diverse number of students, ensuring the future sustainability of music departments. (b) The practical application of work taught in class, through interventions such as internships, will give students access to interactions with music students and the music profession, allowing them to gain a greater understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of the industry. This practical application will instil in them the ability to be adaptable and flexible in this continually evolving industry and will improve their chances of finding gainful employment which will also result in a dynamic and flexible curriculum that will remain in tune with current developments, because of its consistent interaction with the MI. (c) By having access to entrepreneurial and humanities training, students will be able to better lead the industry, by identifying gaps in the market, establishing structures to deal with these gaps, generating more significant employment opportunities and having access to a more profound depth of knowledge, allowing them to be more creative. (d) Finally, students will have access to music creation modules, giving them a better understanding of the music creation process, facilitating communication between the industry and creatives, allowing for the creation of more internationally competitive output and individuals who are more invested in promoting musicians’ creative output. Based on the above and through a process of consultation with the two sample groups, it was concluded that the introduction of an MI related baccalaureate at SA universities might have a transformative effect on HME, the MI and graduates seeking employment.

Transforming Higher Education in South Africa through the creation of a Music Industry related Baccalaureate

Andrea Bauling

2017, Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal

The Bachelor of Laws (LLB) degree programme should adequately prepare graduates for the demands set by both legal practice and the greater South African society. Law schools are not tasked with producing future legal practitioners, but rather critical thinkers who can engage with the relationship between law and society in a meaningful way, and who recognise their duty to uphold the values of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 when performing their professional duties. Resultantly law teachers should construct learning environments that engage students in ways that help them develop creativity; embedded subject knowledge; and autonomous learning, critical thinking, and lifelong learning skills. A well-structured LLB degree programme should focus on this broader conception of legal education and a dissertation module as capstone course should be closely aligned with this objective. A greater academic influence could result in an academically rigorous degree programme that produces more mature graduates who possess competencies and attributes that exceed that which is demanded of them by legal practice. One way to establish a greater academic influence in a degree programme would be to include a final year dissertation module which demands that students illustrate the ability to think critically. The final year of a degree programme should provide the student with several opportunities aimed at culminating the learning experience and consolidating the skills and knowledge acquired throughout the preceding years of study. Capstone courses facilitate in-depth learning and should be employed to teach crucial skills related to the purpose of the degree. A compulsory dissertation module as capstone course, which embodies the pedagogical approach of transformative legal education, should be included in the revised curriculum of all law schools in South Africa. This dissertation module should demand that students engage critically with the principles of transformative constitutionalism in order to facilitate thinking that goes beyond traditional and conservative constructions of the South African legal system and its purpose. Such a dissertation could develop a student's metacognitive ability and result in the development of new legal skills, and the sharpening of existing skills. When producing a dissertation a student is learning to write as well as writing to learn. Crucially, the process of disserting also requires legal research skills and the ability to formulate effective research strategies. A law student who is capable of utilising various sources of law, synthesising the information found therein and presenting it effectively is illustrating elements of authentic learning. But this form of authentic learning in will be near impossible to achieve without the active guidance of a willing supervisor. Law teachers perpetuate legal culture and the supervisor-student relationship creates the opportunity to sculpt the culture instilled so that it may have the desired impact on the student. The supervisor could advance this process by empowering the student to construct critical and transformative views of South African law. A dissertation module presented in this manner could produce students who are able to engage with law constructively and who will graduate as responsible citizens and aspiring legal professionals who are excited about inspiring social justice and transformation in their communities.

Towards a Sound Pedagogy in Law: A Constitutionally Informed Dissertation as Capstone Course in the LLB Degree Programme

boris urban

Masters of Management in Entrepreneurship

Roshini Pillay

Many teaching and learning practices in higher education, including social work education in South Africa, tend to be characterised by a transmission mode of instruction, whereby knowledge moves from the expert educator to the student. This study investigates the extent to which an authentic learning framework can be used to improve the teaching of meso practice in social work to a class of 80 second-year students at the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. A modified version of educational design-based research, was deployed which created a set of guidelines to inform future research and course design. Design-based research includes an iterative process, however, and the four-phased modified version of design-based research used in this study deploys just one roll-out of a redesigned course on meso practice, using the elements of authentic learning (Herrington, Reeves & Oliver, 2010). Phase 1 consisted of a review of the literature on meso practice education and the authentic learning framework. Phase 2 involved an analysis of practical problems identified by six educators and four field instruction supervisors, based on the way they teach and supervise students in the area of meso practice intervention. In Phase 3 the course was implemented and evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by the student participants and four field instruction supervisors. Phase 4 consisted of a reflection on the entire process, to produce design guidelines using the elements of authentic learning and the inclusion of affect in course design. Mixed-methods research was undertaken, incorporating primarily qualitative data with quantitative data from a survey conducted with the students. Findings from this study have led to an augmented list of authentic learning elements, which includes the use of affect in meso practice and the development of guidelines for educators which have the potential to be relevant and applicable in other courses, contexts and disciplines.

Crafting a meso practice course using elements of authentic learning for undergraduate social work students in South Africa

Thelma Louw

The role of South African business schools in inculcating ethical thinking in MBA students - are they contributing to ethical business practise?

Thomas Mical

The genealogies of doctoral education in architecture can be traced to earlier distinct academic disciplines, but in the last decade design-based dissertations have changed the discourse and valuation of qualities. This newer strand, extending from integrative /collaborative studio-based learning, aligns more closely with professional doctorates in other fields. From the sole researcher model of Harvard’s doctor of Architecture, to the group-thesis model of the Berlage Institute Rotterdam, to the current reflective practitioner model of RMIT, doctoral architecture education has been customized for crossing between academic design education and into other industries or audiences. The epistemological challenge is to produce exemplary design intelligence and a substantial body of professional knowledge, customized for individual skills and outcomes, in an increasingly decentralized and mobile profession (an Engaged PhD in Architectural Intelligences). As such, the under- examined assumption of customization in architectural design-based doctoral education is here redesigned under the promise of the Mass Customization movement of industrial production, articulated as a promise for mobility and innovation within the educational-industrial complex. From the generated insights into agility and uniqueness as the doctoral values, a new model of decentralized mastery is offered. It will then be argued that this new flexible model aligns theoretically with the Deleuzian notion of Nomad Science, and the alternative forms of knowing implicated in these itinerate models. From Mass Customization and Nomad Science, this paper concludes with a proposal to imagine a radical type of customized and distributed emergent knowledge network, as already exists in some industries, and as seen in the multi-sited doctorates now appearing in some disciplines.

Nomad Science and Mass Customization for Architectural Doctorates

Judy Backhouse

Doctoral education in South Africa: Models, pedagogies and student experiences

Emmerentia Du Plessis

A strategy to promote nurses' health research contribution in South Africa/Emmerentia du Plessis

Lilia Mantai

The quality of the PhD experience is of intense interest to researchers and universities alike, and both identify the role of support networks as crucial to PhD experience and PhD completion. Our aim in this paper is to explore the types of interdependencies that PhD candidates identify as important in a successful PhD journey. To do so we use an under utilised yet rich data source: PhD thesis acknowledgements. The paper employs a sample of 79 PhD acknowledgements drawn from diverse disciplines within Australian universities. We illustrate the forms of social support provided, who and what is acknowledged as providing support, and the intersections between the forms and providers of support. Key findings of the paper are that three types of support are evident – academic, technical, and emotional – and that supervisors, families, friends and colleagues are acknowledged for providing all three forms of support. The study confirms the critical place of candidates’ networks in the PhD journey, broadens the view of what constitutes support and identifies the range of individuals involved in the process. Further, it identifies potential in acknowledgements as a source of evidence of social support.

Supporting the PhD Journey: What Acknowledgements Tell Us

My research aims to investigate the role of social support in Australian doctoral journeys. PhD candidates report isolation and loneliness in doctoral education despite opportunities to interact with peers. Evidence suggests that doctoral candidates make use of different forms of social support on their doctoral journey, which extends beyond the immediate higher degree research environment. Further, doctoral candidates increasingly use technology as facilitators of social support. Firstly, my paper introduces a new model of social support in the PhD journey. Secondly, I present a review of Australian universities’ higher degree research department websites that shows how different universities address doctoral student support needs. This systematic online review answers questions, such as: how are HDR candidates addressed and portrayed, what support services are linked from the website, what types of support and training does the HDR department offer to its candidates, whether any services are provided for students by students, and how academic community is expressed via the websites. Thirdly, I discuss PhD candidates’ perspectives on the types of social support available at their university and the types of social support that they use and value as discussed in focus groups with PhD candidates. The website review and the focus group findings are compared and discussed against the presented model of social support resulting in implications for further research.

Social Support in the PhD Journey


Sharaf DarZaid

This thesis addresses the impact of socio-political oppression on young artists and cultural NGOs and explores the concept and role of artistic resistance to internal and external oppression whereby art is used as a non-violent form of struggle for human rights.

Art Management Under Conditions of Oppression

Robert Opoku

2006, Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Luleå University of …

Towards a methodological design for evaluating online brand positioning

Patricia Chinake


2007, European Case Clearing House

The study intends to add to practical knowledge about the use and implementation of leadership programmes, but also to challenge theoretical understanding of Inspirational Leadership in Africa. The theoretical foundation related to the topic is weak. Therefore, the research method used is an exploratory case study with research questions formulated as management issues. First National Bank (FNB) is one of the few South African organisations that have made a difference in terms of transformation. The company started a VUKA programme five years ago with the objective of creating a workplace community of real, new South Africans from different backgrounds. FNB clearly tries to do a better job balanacing people management and content management. Leadership in FNB is inspirational, and it definitely has African elements. At the same time, it seems that some employees have difficulties in clearly seeing the support for the programme throughout the hierarchy, and find African Leadership confusing.

First National Bank: Inspirational Leadership in a South African Context

Tronél Hellberg


Patrick Alexander , Prof. Dr. Susan Harris-Huemmert


This chapter is about the daily experiences of doctoral students. It discusses findings from studies conducted in three countries (UK, Canada, USA) by an international team of researchers, providing case studies from the UK project. Existing literature suggests that everyday experiences are significant, variable, but rarely investigated, documented or acknowledged. This chapter makes explicit aspects of students' work and lives that are often hidden from view, either because students feel reluctant to discuss such issues, especially ...

The Hidden Realities Of Life As A Doctoral Student

Cally Guerin

Big Love: Managing a team of research supervisors

kingsley Daraojimba

Conducting Research and Mentoring Students in Africa

Lesley Bainbridge

Transforming health systems through collaborative leadership: Making change happen!

Ian Frame , Geraldine Davis

Frame, I. & Davis, G. (2015).  The Professional Doctorate at Anglia Ruskin University:  A model of successful practice. Published in Conference proceedings, UCF International Conference on Doctoral Education, College of Education and Human Performance, University of Central Florida.

martha visagie

2015, MEd Thesis

Driven by the needs of growing populations, industrial and governing powers are successfully accelerating the rate of industrial consumption, production and employment as if the earth’s resources are in unlimited supply. In contrast, a range of international sustainable development forums, inspired by visionary individuals, have made significant progress in creating awareness that the footprint of human activity is exceeding the earth’s sink and source capacity; and educating people in government, workplaces and communities to slow down industrial consumption and clean up production. Turning around conventional and short sighted ‘business as usual’ logic, and directing economies toward greener, long-term sustainability outcomes, still meet with resistance and hidden unsustainable agendas. The ‘green economy’ drive nevertheless since 2008 attracts financial and human resources and bold action in favour of more sustainable management of human-nature relations. The sustainable development movement for example advocates a ‘triple bottom line’ approach, holding that socially and ecologically responsible economic development would be sustainable. The sustainability movement has attained significant buy-in among governments and business communities. It forms the under-labouring philosophy of the programmes reviewed in this case study. The thesis reviews social-economic events paving the way for a global green economy. Taking a leadership role in the sustainable development movement the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) concurred to respond to the 2008 world-wide economic meltdown with a two-pronged ‘Green New Deal’ (UNEP, 2008). The Green New Deal financial package helps restore multi-national economic growth, employment and markets while re-shaping economies to follow an ecologically and socially responsible growth trajectory. South Africa implements green economy principles as part of the 2010 The New Growth Path overarching policy framework, with an implementation strategy embedded in the 2011 National Development Plan (NDP) (RSA. The Presidency, 2010; 2011). The New Growth Path emphasises that the transformation of South Africa’s un-sustainable economic and educational legacy to a more sustainable future is not expected to follow a smooth, linear process. The transition to a green economy is rather expected to be an event of “… noisy, healthy democracy” (RSA. The Presidency, 2010). A green, low carbon economy particularly constitutes a pledge to slow down and turn the human induced climate change trajectory around. McKinsey (2009) argues that this pledge is attainable on a world-wide scale, as sufficient and suitable environmentally sound techniques and technologies are already in place. Attaining buy-in from business stakeholders toward re-thinking and amending an economy’s self-defying large environmental footprint (inclusive of carbon, water and waste footprints) however requires education starting with awareness raising followed by educational programmes and official curricula aimed at implementation and continuous improvement of green practices in day to day ‘doings and beings’ (Sen, 1997). This study at implementation level reviews two green economy training programmes and their emergence in South Africa around this rationale. The awareness generation and training programmes elected as case study examples are the ‘Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production’ (RECP) and ‘Industrial Energy Efficiency’ (IEE) programmes, of the hosting agency National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa (NCPC-SA). The RECP and IEE teams reach out to decision makers, engineers and artisans at industrial workplaces and workplace related events to add green competences to their business-as-usual skill sets. Implementing green options in industry typically slows down industrial scale resource consumption, pollution, waste generation and green-house gas (GHG) emissions while optimising resource productivity and enterprise excellence. Optimised supply side systems allow industry to reduce energy and material intensity of products thus reducing cost and producing more with less. In transitioning to a ‘Green GDP’ economy South Africa is awakening to the reality that natural resources constitute the original, albeit limited feedstock for growth and employment. The RECP and IEE approach also contribute to reduction of industrial waste, waste-to-landfill, and energy and resource security. Literature reviewed for this research provides evidence that the green economy’s triple bottom line philosophy is quantifiable thus manageable. A range of green economy management tools are emerging, including guidelines for carbon, water and environmental footprinting and the green-house gas abatement cost curve (see section 2.2.5) (McKinsey and Company, 2009). Transitioning from business as usual to ecologically sustainable industrial sectors however requires visionary, educated leadership, willing and capable of introducing modern and more efficient techniques and technologies. The boundaries of this half thesis embrace the globally and historically significant Tbilisi Declaration and other education and sustainable development agreements produced by United Nations and OECD mechanisms. Participating nations like South Africa incorporate the essence of these agreements into domestic policies and strategies, and align industries to remain competitive in international markets, which are increasingly enforcing green standards like ISO 14001 and ISO 50001. The focus of this case study guided by inductive, abductive and retroductive inference is to understand how the two sustainability learning programmes for people in industrial workplaces, supported by the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) and relevant donors, and overseen by the South African Department of Trade and Industry (the dti), relate to emerging green learning aspects. Producing a review of this nature requires a framework of laterally understanding emerging green learning aspects, for which I have reviewed green economy literature and also green learning and conventional education and training literature respectively. Themes emerging from the literature review informed an analytical instrument (questionnaire) in Phase One. In Phase Two the questionnaire was applied through nested case study methodology to show how the educational content and approaches of the RECP and IEE programmes relate to emerging green learning aspects and as such is suitable for mainstreaming in the national educational system. From an explicit educational perspective potential partners for collaboration include the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) the South African Qualifications Authority’s (SAQA’s) Quality Council for Trades and Occupations (QCTO) and the Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs) representing the training needs of the industrial workforce but affiliated to QCTO and SAQA. In the extended scenario the NCPC-SA as a dti programme recognises the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) as lead agency guiding implementation of South Africa’s green economy, and specifically DEA’s National Environmental Sector Skills Planning Forum (NESPF), a national leader in green skills development in South Africa, as conduit for productively mainstreaming relevant RECP and IEE content and approaches toward green skills development for the green economy.

Review of two Sustainability Learning Programmes for Industrial Settings in Relation to Emerging Green Learning Aspects

Jennifer Sigamoney

ABSTRACT Since 2012 more than 295 676 migrants have arrived in South Africa. Somalis form one of the most visible migrant minorities in the country. Since various studies have been conducted into the mistreatment of migrants and its psychological effects, this study aimed to investigate the reasons that led to the resilience of the Somali community residing in Fordsburg/Mayfair, Johannesburg despite the challenges they encountered. The sample for the study was selected using the purposive sampling technique. Data were collected through the use of face-to-face semi-structured interviews and subsequently analysed following Colaizzi’s (1978) descriptive phenomenological method of data analysis. The findings of the study show that the participants experienced several challenges en route to South Africa and once they reached the country. Their resilience can be attributed to reasons such as individual determination to achieve change, the Somali communal culture, religion and spirituality, the family spirit, gender role adaptation and hard work. Keywords: community support, culture, descriptive phenomenology, education, language, migrants, religion, resilience, Somali, xenophobia

The reasons that promote the resilience of a Somali community residing in

Rembrandt Klopper

Management, Informatics and …

Some Philosophical Assumptions Underpinning Academic Research

Wacango Kimani

Abstract Listening to the voices of learners, also referred to as ‘student voice’, ‘pupil voice’ or ‘insider perspective’, is an aspect of inclusive education research that views learners as experts on their own lives, and provides insight into school subcultures that are relatively inaccessible to adults. This study listened to the voices of eleven young schooling mothers to find out the factors that help or hinder their successful completion of high school. A participatory methodology was used to listen to learners’ voices. The study’s model of inclusive research involved using a participatory approach in which the young schooling mothers assumed the role of co-researchers. The multiple data collection methods employed recognise the values of community, respect for diversity and belonging also enabled inclusive engagement by building on the participants' strengths and encouraged meaningful participation. I collected data using cellphone messaging, learners’ journals, interviews, focus group discussions and video interviews. The multiple opportunities provided to the learners to speak about their school experiences highlighted the efficacy of the methods and revealed the learners’ preferences. Data was analysed using phenomenography, an approach that identified the qualitatively different ways in which the experiences of the young schooling mothers could be understood. The study found that learner-managed methods (cell phone messaging, journaling and learners’ video interviews) provided unique and authentic perspectives into the young mothers’ private lives. The learners stated that they felt included in school by being involved in the research and by voicing their experiences of school as young schooling mothers. The young schooling mothers experienced school and schooling as rapidly changing experiences of inclusion, exclusion and marginalisation. The learners identified situations when they could be treated as both the same as, and different from other learners. Recommendations to ensure the learners successful completion of high school include a differentiated recognition of difference approach and a review of policy based on a non-judgmental construction of young motherhood. Key Terms: inclusive education, inclusion, voice research, young schooling mothers, phenomenography, exclusion, marginalisation, high school

Lenses from the Margins: Young schooling mothers' experiences in two high schools in Gauteng

Jimoh Ololade

Abstract The effect of globalization, the advent of shale oil and gas have created greater competition in oil industry leading to drop in revenue to the government that funds the organization being researched. Furthermore, governmental regulations, re-prioritization of fund allocation together with innovation in technology have greatly impacted on how business is run. To this end the organization are demanding for better service, more proactive Management Accountants who are strategically minded and can support the business to success. Consequently, organizations demand for more proactivity from Management Accountants hence changes in the roles and tasks of Management Accountants are being implemented. The purpose of this dissertation is to review the criteria that are necessary to be in place for transforming the traditional Management Accountant into business oriented Finance Business Partner. The dissertation explores the effect of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, motivation, organization culture, and leadership as it may impact on the successful implementation of the change. In addition, a review of the skills that Finance Business Partner should have in order to perform their duties effectively in support of the business units was undertaken. This dissertation adopts a mixed method research that applies both quantitative and qualitative method for the study. A case based study of Management Accountants job satisfaction and skills requirement for the new role was conducted with “The Foundation” the organization. A survey was conducted among eighty Management Accountants and unstructured interviews with five Senior Managers of the organization. The survey findings revealed that Finance Business Partners, to be effective in their new roles, they require new skills apart from being technically qualified. The Finance Business Partners are expected to spend less time dealing with accounting issues, but to have more in-depth business knowledge and possesses communication skills. In addition, the Finance Business Partners are also expected to have a more strategic focus by applying appropriate tools for performance measures that may include non-financial measures to improve and add value to business performance. Key words: Finance Business Partners, Management Accountants, Roles, Skills Tools, Transformation, add value, Performance

Transformation of traditional Management Accountant’s role into Finance Business Partnering Model – A case study of “The Foundation” Qatar

Charalambos Jason Iasonos

This thesis aims to investigate the content of the psychological contract beliefs among students towards their University. This was achieved by examining (a) students’ expectations before joining their University, (b) expectations after joining their University, (c) their obligations and (d) possible consequences of a breach or a positive construction of the psychological contract. The study has three objectives: RO1: How students’ psychological contract beliefs are developed initially? RO2: Which factors influence the development of students’ psychological contract before joining the university? RO3: What is the effect of met expectations and what is the possible effect of unmet expectations?

Psychological Contact of students towards their University

Livington Moyo

South Africa, like other developing countries is facing a growing burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of both infectious and non-infectious diseases is anticipated to upsurge if measures are not taken to harness the trend. The health constraints experienced call for a comprehensive healthcare system, appropriate for both communicable and chronic illnesses. Revitalising the healthcare system is key in achieving healthcare outcomes for patients ridden by both communicable and non-communicable diseases. It is from this premise that Primary Health Care Re-engineering programme was introduced, not only to curtail the disease burden, but also to take healthcare services to the people. Through ward-based outreach teams, Primary Health Care re-engineering encompassed promotion of healthy living, disease prevention, and early detection, treatment of illness, community-based disease management, rehabilitation and enhanced access to health services by the community. There was an expectation that Primary Health Care (PHC) Re-engineering was going to give birth to a strengthened PHC approach, vital for enhanced health outcomes of citizens through a comprehensive access to healthcare and service. Unfortunately, though there were significant achievements in the PHC ward-based outreach teams, there were more challenges than accomplishments in Sedibeng Local Municipality. Systemic and operational gaps in the implementation of the ward-based outreach teams diminished such realisations. Two focus group discussions were conducted with nineteen community health workers and three semi-structured interviews with outreach team leaders from clinical facilities in the Sedibeng Local Municipality. Qualitative methods were used to solicit information directly from research participants’ lived experiences. The findings of the study revealed that the effectiveness of ward-based outreach teams were hampered by unsatisfactory working conditions, inadequate financial and non-financial remuneration and a lack of equipment. Commitment by government to integrate community health workers into the Department of health’s mainstream through formal employment was vital. Further, career development through formal qualifications could afford CHWs progression towards professional recognition, crucial for improving, strengthening and sustaining ward-based outreach teams.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ward-Based Primary Health Care Outreach Teams in Sedibeng Local Municipality

COLAS Anikendre Nursinghdass

South Africa is a relative young democracy that continues to struggle with many social challenges affecting the lives of countless people. This research aims at contributing to the Social Entrepreneurship field by identifying the key drivers of sustainability among some of the most successful and mature social enterprises operating in the country. The key findings revolve around the fact that sustainability is not merely a consequence of financial aspects. A wider range of sustainability drivers was identified, which can be categorised under the Leader, the Organisation and the Social Value within Social Entrepreneurship. The findings can be leveraged by new social entrepreneurs or non-profit organisations who aspire to transform themselves into social enterprises.

Exploring Social Entrepreneurship in the Context of the Social Challenges in South Africa

Mpho Vackier

Although globally the topic of adaptive reuse is not a new concept there exists a literature gap in this study in terms of the conservation of heritage or heritage architecture via adaptive reuse, hence the need for this study. This research paper will discuss the definition and advent of adaptive reuse, the historical background or historical value of adaptive reuse to conserve heritage buildings. In addition, the author will investigate and explore case studies concerning the adaptive reuse of heritage buildings in South Africa as well as those abroad.The chosen topic aims to determine the factors influencing the adaptive reuse of a building, the requirements to be satisfied in order for the heritage building to be adapted for reuse. Firstly, the literature and/or theories of adaptive reuse for the purposes of heritage conservation by 19th Century French architect and restorer Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, Austrian historian Alois Riegl and 1960s architect and critical writer Ada Louise Huxtable will be used to support the findings of this research paper. Thereafter the relevance and application of the aforementioned theories will be further discussed. This study is important in that it explores those factors which influence adaptive reuse of heritage architecture in South Africa and whether these factors are influenced by the historical background of the buildings, which era they were built in as well as the story behind their construction and erection. Research finding garnered from various case studies and interviews will be explored and assessed; thereafter observations leading to conclusion/s will be made. It is hoped that the preservation of heritage architecture in South Africa will inspire national pride, reconnect society to these buildings by retrofitting them to meet the demands and needs of the new users as well as maintain the character of the specific location. Keywords: Adaptive reuse, Heritage buildings, Heritage architecture conservation, Heritage resources. "Conservation and Heritage is not about putting everything back into a sparking new shell but acknowledging the layers of history that have come to define a space."-Ng Sek San, d+a,issue 070. 2012. Ramli (2011:p1).


Dr King Costa

2018, Preprints

Postgraduate students in South Africa and other parts of the world, particularly in developing nations struggle to complete the research component of their studies. According to the National Development Plan (2013) it has become a requirement for South African institutions to play a pivotal role in knowledge production so as to transform South Africa from a resource-based economy towards a knowledge-based economy. In pursuit of meeting this requirement and further to increase subsidy from the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET), South African institutions of higher learning have been on the drive for recruiting postgraduate students en masse. One of the main problems facing South African institutions is that the number of students enrolled does not correspond to those who graduate at the end of the postgraduate programme study period. This study is a systematic review of literature on challenges in postgraduate supervision and further proposes a possible solution. Five South African institutions of higher learning's postgraduate throughput data is carefully studied and substantiated by previous research on postgraduate supervision challenges at these particular institutions. Study findings present challenges related to research capacity development and burden of supervision at these institutions. Collaborative methods of supervision such as the C.O.S.T.A model are hereby proposed as possible solutions to the current throughput problem in South Africa 2

Title: A systematic review of challenges in research supervision at South African

Jonathan Stadler

2014, BMC public health

During the Microbicides Development Program (MDP) 301, a clinical trial of a candidate microbicide amongst women in Johannesburg, South Africa, we used community radio to promote awareness of the trial, to inform community members about specific medical research procedures and terminologies, and to stimulate dialogue between researchers and local citizens. We used mixed methods to undertake a retrospective analysis of the social responses to the radio shows, focusing specifically on recruitment and participation in the MDP301 trial. We collected quantitative data that describes the themes and listener responses, the costs per broadcast, and the impact of the radio broadcasts on trial recruitment. Qualitative data on local reactions to the shows was gleaned from in-depth interviews with trial participants. Over a seven-year period, 205 individual broadcasts were made on two separate community radio stations. Show themes were either specifically related to medical research issues (36%...

I heard about this study on the radio': using community radio to strengthen Good Participatory Practice in HIV prevention trials

Joshua Ayarkwa

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 8 th cidb POSTGRADUATE CONFERENCE Theme: Advancing construction industry development through innovative research and new thinking Programme and Full Papers

Leonard M Molefe

Understanding how science process skills meld with the scientific method: Student teachers‟ views through a lens of scientific inquiry (pp. 334-335)

Adnan Nasir , Dr. Abid G. Chaudhry

Conflict is a form of competition between groups or individuals over incompatible goals, scarce resources, or power making sources to acquire them. In Asia, particularly in India and Pakistan, socio-cultural conflicts exist not only in villages but also urban areas where most of the time dominating biradaries involved in such conflict to sustain their power within the society. Present research is about grouping/alliance formation and its relation with village conflicts in District Lodhran of Punjab- Pakistan. Biradaries/caste’s are observed as the key determinant of such alliance formation. Data of 153 respondents show that biradari plays a key role to develop influences leading to separate groups and factions. Biradari with 66.67% percentile emerged as the major cause behind power group formation, politics with 27.45% percent and religion with 5.88 percent. The Biradari system is very strong in the area, with people mostly living in joint family systems thus the groups formed are also influenced by the biradaries. Main causes of rural conflicts were; women issue, land conflicts, biradari concerns and honor.

Mashraky Mustary

Paper Title:Comapative analysis of educational systems in Japan and Bangladesh. Location: Sofia,Bulgeria. Dated:une11-15 June

XVI Bulgarian Comparative Education Society: Education in modern society.Sofia, Bulgaria.

Kobus Muller , daniel meyer , Malcolm Wallis , Jacobus S Wessels , Liezel Lues , Xolile Thani , Thandi Matsiliza , melody brauns , Frederik M Uys

To cope with the complexities of environmental governance, new innovative models of collaborative governance (or co-management) have emerged in South Africa over the last 15 years. Resilience is defined as the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and still retain its basic function and structure, and is dependent on the system’s adaptive capacity or its ability to reorganise and renew itself in the face of change. This notion of resilience is growing in importance as a concept for understanding, managing and governing complex socio-ecological systems. Increasingly, collaborative governance is also being combined with learning-based approaches such as adaptive management, which was originally formulated as a way to deal with uncertainty and complexity. In the Western Cape, which is world renowned for the Cape Floristic Region and as one of the world’s 25 most threatened biodiversity hotspots, institutional innovation has also flourished in the environmental governance arena. This article focuses on a selection of these new collaborative governance models and will attempt to analyse their evolution from a resilience perspective paying particular attention to the concepts of adaptive capacity, social capital and organisational learning. In conclusion, some observations and reflections will be offered on the implications of applying resilience thinking in practical collaborative governance settings.

Resilience thinking and the evolution of collaborative environmental governance in the Western Cape

Prinola Govenden

2019, PhD thesis

Print media transformation in South Africa has been an ongoing area of debate and contention in the first twenty years of democracy. Especially given the country’s history of colonialism and apartheid, where racism was institutionalised and impacted the character and functioning of the print media. The attainment of true transformation in the press is critical to reverse the injustices of the past and to ensure today’s print media is reflective of South African society and its many axes of diversity. This study critically analyses the extent of print media transformation in the first twenty years of democracy to decipher whether it amounts to true transformation or token transformation. The study understands true transformation of the media as holistic and deep transformation, where the ownership, content and staffing of the media reflects the diversity of South African society in terms of race, socio-economic status (class), gender, religion, sexual orientation, region, and language (Boloka and Krabill 2000). In the South African context, ownership diversity and content diversity are the key measures of transformation. This research contributes a holistic and empirical study to the transformation debate by analysing transformation across a long time period of the first twenty years of democracy, and focusing on both ownership and content diversity, as well as exploring the relationship between the two. Previously, the print media transformation debate and scholarship has focused narrowly on the ownership aspect. In this regard, the study conducts a systemic critique of the broad transformation agenda from the vantage points of ownership, control and power. The study also explores the extent of print media diversity by analysing the coverage of three issues that have framed post-apartheid South Africa. Namely: socio-economics issues, labour issues and protests, government vs. big business. The study adopts four theoretical frameworks – the revised role of the media in a liberal democracy; the public interest role of the media; critical political economy of the media; and theories of power. The research design of the study consisted of a triangulation of research methods with qualitative and quantitative paradigms. The research methods used are document analysis, expert opinions of a Media Transformation seminar panel and content analysis of a large sample of articles spanning in the first twenty years of democracy. The historically English print media companies are the focus of analysis: Tiso Blackstar Group (formerly Times Media), Independent Media, as well as M&G Media. The major findings of this thesis demonstrate that press transformation in the first twenty years of democracy to a great extent resembles token transformation. Tokenism in the regard that black people have replaced white people in some ownership and staffing aspects, but not in a meaningful way that disrupts elite class continuities, “inferential racism” of negative stereotypes of the black race, and white racial power at the top of the hierarchy of press institutions. Print media transformation is also significantly tainted by the overly neo-liberal nature of the press in a number of areas found by the study. The study also finds that transformation is a point of politization of the press. The content findings of the study demonstrate that ownership matters to some extent. Apart from ownership, the following components also matter to print media transformation and need to be addressed: the media system as a whole; the neo-liberal architecture; journalism training; and a print media specific transformation policy. Thus, the broad agenda of press transformation requires a normative re-think. The study recommends that the press consider adopting the principles of developmental journalism that is based on the redeeming nature of the concept, to substantially address the content diversity and transformation shortcomings uncovered by the study. This requires a paradigm shift that would take a long time period to realize, in addition a review needs to be conducted to consider the feasibility of such a change. A feasible short term solution to solve the fundamental issue of media diversity in both ownership and content, is the return of alternative media to the post-apartheid media terrain to play a developmental role

Token transformation? A critical political economy of the media analysis of ownership and content diversity in South Africa's print media

Nomonde Lucy Mboyi

Overview comparitive analysis

Maggie Nunuhe

Declaration I, Magreth Nunuhe, declare that the work contained in the project entitled 'The State of Gender Representation in the Namibian (Public) Broadcaster: An Analysis of the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC)' is my own original work, that all sources have been accurately reported and acknowledged, and that this project has not been previously in its

POLYTECHNIC OF NAMIBIA Title of Project 'The State of Gender Representation in the Namibian Public Broadcaster: An analysis of the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC)'

Rosemarie Anderson

The Second Annual Transpersonal Research Colloquium (TRC) was held in Northampton, UK on September 15-16, 2016. This document is the final program with presenters abstracts, bios, and contact information. For further information, see

Transpersonal Research Colloquium 2016 UK: Presenters Abstracts and Bios

Prof Elizabeth (Liz) Archer

2019, Transforming Research Methods in the Social Sciences: Case studies from South Africa

Archer, E. (2019). Transforming Research Methods in the Social Sciences: Case studies from South Africa. In A. Fynn, S. Laher and S. Kramer (Eds) Transforming Research Methods in the Social Sciences: Case studies from South Africa. (pp. 317-336). Wits University Press, Johannesburg (978-1-77614-276-7)

Developing effective feedback interventions for school-based monitoring

Dr Regina U Hess - Birthing an Ancient Future

Transpersonal Research Colloquium 2016-program, abstracts, and bios-final.pdf

Gerson Calderon

http://students. sfu. ca/ …

Centre for Canadian Studies

Alta Van der Merwe

ABSTRACT The Internet seems full of potential as a catalyst for the Continuous Professional Development (CPD) of geographically dispersed teachers. Having developed a mathematics-friendly online discussion forum environment, we investigated the personal and situational tensions that impacted on the use of this forum environment as a reflective tool for the CPD of advantaged and disadvantaged mathematics teachers in the South Africa context of disparities.

Online Continuing Professional Development: Tensions Impacting on the Reflective Use of a Mathematics Impacting on the Reflective Use of a Mathematics-friendly Forum Environment friendly Forum Environment

Paul Maluleka

2018, WITS Univeristy:

This study explores and discusses how in-service history educators in four Gauteng schools reinterpret, reconstruct and re-present images of Shaka in light of their individual and collective memories of him, varied academic and popular accounts, CAPS, as well the influence of history textbooks and other teaching and learning materials. It also explores the nature of history, its uses, as well as the development of the history curriculum in South Africa post-1994 in relation to the proposed compulsory history curriculum for the FET phase by the likes of African National Congress (ANC), ANC-led government and South African Democratic Teachers Union (SADTU). The findings of the study reveal that the participants under study did share and/or have similar collective memory of Shaka which was ‘negative’, even though they came from different backgrounds or are informed by different individual memories. This highlights the embeddedness of traditional, liberal and Afrikaner-Christian nationalist, as well Zulu nationalist reconstructions of images of Shaka in our popular as well as institutional imaginations. Furthermore, the findings revealed that although the participants presented themselves as aware of revisionist thinking around images of Shaka and were willing to incorporate these in their teaching; what transpired during the observations were tensions between this awareness and the implementation of such and the practicalities around it. Moreover, it seems that although all participants seemed consciously or subconsciously aware of memories embedded in their own reconstructions of images of Shaka, and sought means to open Shaka to new imaginings and further debates by their learners, this was not easy in practice. It seems that the embeddedness of individual and collective memories (with all their layers – from home to school days to university days and beyond) could not easily be transcended. This was most evident in the educators’ responses to ‘challenging’ questions or comments by their learners. There seemed to be an element of defensiveness and tendency to want to instil views rather than allow open-endedness in interpreting Shaka’s actions. So, while re-interpretation, reconstruction and re-presentation were seemingly allowed, with the exploration of teaching strategies like debates, the choice of textbooks, selection of sources to engage with, themes and topics to cover, questions to post to the learners etc. still reflected this embeddedness. Therefore, the overall findings highlight that the practice teaching of history is a complex exercise. It requires qualified professional educators with a strong subject matter who are innovative in their pedagogical orientations, as well responded to the demands of the curriculum. These, are some of the things that the ANC, SADTU and other interest groups need to take into account when proposing a ‘new’ history curriculum


sencha great


Dr. Fredrick Ssempala (Ph.D.) , James Lam Lagoro

Postgraduate Research Engagement in Low Resource Settings A volume in the Advances in Educational Technologies and Instructional Design (AETID) Book Series

Jean-Paul Van Belle

ABSTRACT Communication forms the basis for personal relationships but technology has changed the way people communicate. This research investigates the impact that computer-mediated communication (CMC) has had on interpersonal relationships using a combination of technology characteristics and behavioural outcomes.

Exploring the Impact of Computer Exploring the Impact of Computer-mediated mediated Communication on Interpersonal Relationships: A Tentative Model Using Characteristics and Behavioural Tentative Model Using Characteristics and Behavioural Outcomes

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Definitions and Types of Entrepreneurship

By: Alan S. Gutterman

Entrepreneurship has become a popular career option in developed and developing countries, and a subject of interest for researchers and policymakers. This book introduces several important topics…

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Entrepreneurship has become a popular career option in developed and developing countries, and a subject of interest for researchers and policymakers. This book introduces several important topics relevant to entrepreneurship and the process of creating, or giving birth to, a new business. The chapters cover definitions and types of entrepreneurship; the relationships among entrepreneurship, innovation and development; research on entrepreneurship, comparative research into entrepreneurship in multiple countries and research into cross-border entrepreneurship (i.e., international activity of small-and medium-sized enterprises and new ventures); factors influencing entrepreneurial activities; motivational traits of prospective entrepreneurs; the influence of societal culture on entrepreneurial activities and attitudes regarding entrepreneurship as a career path; the influence of the institutional environment on entrepreneurship; and the role of entrepreneurs in launching new businesses. Chapter 1 offers an overview and definitions of entrepreneurship. From an economic perspective, entrepreneurship is generally conceptualized as the creation of a new business and the bearing of the risk associated with that business in exchange for profits to be derived from the exploitation of opportunities in the marketplace (e.g., demands of consumers that are not currently being satisfied). One of the most famous types of entrepreneurship, one that has also become closely aligned with conceptualizations of entrepreneurship, is Schumpeter's "creative destruction." In Schumpeter's view, the entrepreneur is driven by innovation, which can take the form of a totally new product or process or an innovative change to existing products or processes, which ultimately "destroy," or render obsolete, products and processes that have been used in the past.

While entrepreneurship is often discussed in the context of policies for encouraging and supporting small businesses, Graham observed that entrepreneurship differs from small business in four critical ways: amount of wealth creation, speed of wealth accumulation, risk, and innovation.

Learning Objectives

Understand the various definitions and types of entrepreneurship.

Learn the various factors that influence the existence and prevalence of entrepreneurship.

Sep 5, 2018



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Systematic review article, entrepreneurship and family role: a systematic review of a growing research.

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • Department of Social Psychology and Anthropology, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain

In recent years, research on the family role and entrepreneurship has increased noticeably, consolidating itself as a valid and current subject of study. This paper presents a systematic analysis of academic research, applying bibliometric indicators, and cluster analysis, which define the state of research about the relationship between family role and entrepreneurship. For this purpose, using three well-accepted databases among the research community: Scopus, Web of Science, Business Source, a total of 92 articles were selected and analyzed, published between 1989 and 2019 (until March). A cluster analysis shows five main areas of literature development: (1) cultural dimension and geneder issue; (2) family business and succession; (3) parental role models and entrepreneurial intentions; (4) entrepreneurship and self-employment; (5) family support and women entrepreneurs. Findings also show how this is a relatively recent field of study, with a multidisciplinary character.


Entrepreneurship is a determining factor of economic development ( Thurik, 2009 ; Hessels and van Stel, 2011 ; Audretsch et al., 2015 ), social and structural change ( Acs et al., 1999 ; North, 2005 ). Entrepreneurship not only contributes to the economic and social growth of a nation, but also stimulates the development of knowledge ( Shane, 2000 ), technological change ( Acs and Varga, 2005 ), competitiveness and innovation ( Parker, 2009 ; Blanco-González et al., 2015 ). In fact, the European community has promoted numerous actions aimed to improve and develop the entrepreneurial attitude of European citizens toward Business venture, focusing on aspects that are essential for creating a corporate identity. However, the levels of entrepreneurial activity in some European countries are still low. According to the latest international study of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), published in 2018, Europe has the lowest TEA (Total Entrepreneurial Activity) of all regions in all age studied. This is a concerning result, especially in it's current crisis period.

Entrepreneurial activity is not just about discovering new ideas and possibilities ( Shane and Venkataraman, 2000 ), but also intentional planning, developed through the cognitive processing of internal and external factors ( Del Giudice et al., 2014 ). Intention is a cognitive process that precedes the effective involvement of the individual in any type of activity ( Liñán and Chen, 2009 ), and in particular, entrepreneurial intention is closely linked to business world ( Moriano et al., 2012 ) and has become a rapidly evolving research sector in the international scene ( Liñán and Fayolle, 2015 ).

Currently, in the literature there are two different theoretical approaches which attempt to clarify why some individuals are more inclined toward an entrepreneurial career when compared to others: the first analyzes personality traits ( Zhao and Seibert, 2006 ; Rauch and Frese, 2007 ; Leutner et al., 2014 ; DeNisi, 2015 ), the second focuses on environmental and behavioral factors ( Peterson, 1980 ; Aldrich, 1990 ; Baum et al., 2001 ). Specifically, researchers study the importance of some individual traits as factors predetermining to perform entrepreneurial activities such as high levels of self-efficacy ( Krueger et al., 2000 ; Zhao et al., 2005 ; Lee et al., 2011 ; Rasul et al., 2017 ), risk propensity ( Schwartz and Whistler, 2009 ; Tumasjan and Braun, 2012 ; Yurtkoru et al., 2014 ), tolerance to ambiguity, and uncertainty ( Hmieleski and Corbett, 2006 ; Schwartz and Whistler, 2009 ; Arrighetti et al., 2012 ), metacognitive abilities and individual abilities ( Kor et al., 2007 ; Dickson et al., 2008 ; Liñán et al., 2011 ), locus of control ( Battistelli, 2001 ; Gordini, 2013 ), as well as creativity ( Hamidi et al., 2008 ; Smith et al., 2016 ; Biraglia and Kadile, 2017 ); the environmental and behavioral focuses refers to the Social Learning Theory ( Bandura, 1986 ), according to which, individuals learn certain skills from other people, which act as models. Specifically, the term “role model” emphasizes the individual's tendency to identify with other people occupying important social and the consequent cognitive interdependence of skills and behavior patterns ( Gibson, 2004 ).

In this scenario, the role of the family in guiding young people toward choosing an autonomous/entrepreneurial job becomes important ( Fraccaroli and Vitali, 2001 ; Odoardi, 2003 ); the social network is an important intangible resource for the development of their business activities ( Presutti et al., 2011 ); in particular, the perception of the family support influences, in the university students, the choice of career in general ( Henderson and Robertson, 2000 ) and specifically the business one ( Türker et al., 2005 ; Taormina and Lao, 2007 ; Zellweger et al., 2011 ; Laspita et al., 2012 ).

This evidence is not enough proof. For example, some researchers have not found a statistically significant relationship between entrepreneurial parenting role models and children's decision to choose an entrepreneurial career ( Rodriguez et al., 1999 ; Kim et al., 2006 ), other studies, instead, have found a negative effect, especially in situations of failure of the family business ( Scherer et al., 1989 ; Mungai and Velamuri, 2011 ).

Taking into consideration the ideas exposed above, we conducted this systematic review to analyze the relationship between the role of the family and the entrepreneurial process. Specifically, we aim to answer the following questions:

1. What is the temporal development of research on the relationship of the role model in entrepreneurship?

2. Who are the most productive authors, countries and journals?

3. What are the thematic areas that have been most studied by researchers?

Furthermore, to reduce the risk of bias to a minimum, we applied a series of bibliometric indicators. Bibliometric indicators are defined as a rigorous set of statistical and mathematics methods to be applied to documents and other patterns of knowledge ( Pritchard, 1969 ). It is a method widely used in the literature as it provides an overview of academic research, through the identification of the main trends in a given field of study ( Martínez-López et al., 2018 ). Many bibliometric revisions regarding entrepreneurship have been conducted ( Cabeza-Ramírez et al., 2017 ; Baier-Fuentes et al., 2019 ). However, specifically to the relationship between family role and entrepreneurship, our research did not generate any results. The only existing revisions take into consideration the family, understood as a family business ( López-Fernández et al., 2015 ).

In the following section we explain the methodology for systematic analysis, and we will report the main results. In the final part, we present the conclusions that can be drawn from our analysis, its limitations, as well as reflections for future developments.

Materials and Methods

In this article, we review the literature on the family role in entrepreneurial capacity using the systematic analysis method as “explicit, rigorous and transparent methodology” ( Greenhalgh et al., 2004 , p. 582). In this sense, we collected the publications until March 2019 and extracted the most relevant results, through the application of statistical methods.

To reduce the risk of bias, during the selection phase of the articles, we used a mechanism established in the literature, the PRISMA method ( Liberati et al., 2009 ; Urrútia and Bonfill, 2010 ), which allows to make the work replicable ( Lourenço and Jones, 2006 ; Pittaway and Cope, 2007 ).

In order to search for relevant articles, we used three databases: Scopus, Web of Science and Business Source, without defining a specific publication period. The selection of these items was made on basis that are considered the most powerful databases in existence. Specifically, Web of Science because it is the oldest database of citations, dating back to 1900, and provides strong coverage in international research ( Li et al., 2010 ), guaranteeing the highest quality; Scopus, on the other hand, with 27 million abstracts, is the largest database of scientific literature ( Burnham, 2006 ); Business Source as a third database, as it provides a repertoire on entrepreneurial, business, and economics sciences literature.

Initially, within each database, we applied the Boolean search terms “famil * role,” “famil * support,” “parent * role,” “parent * support,” and “entrepren * ” to identify all the publications that contained the keywords in the title of publications, author of key words or abstract. After eliminating all the duplicate articles, a total of 192 documents were identified over a period of time between 1989 and 2019. All 192 abstracts were read to ensure that the document deals with our construct. When a doubt arose, the entire document was read to confirm this.

As far as the inclusion/exclusion criterion is concerned, we have only considered journal articles since they are scientific knowledge ( Podsakoff et al., 2005 ), written in English or Spanish language, and containing a direct relationship between the family (parental) role and entrepreneurship. On the contrary, were excluded: chapters of books and conference papers, publications that did not make any connection between the two constructs, or that analyzed the role of family members other than the parental couple (for example, possible partners or brothers), and all articles written in a language other than English or Spanish. For example, we have excluded the article by Fernández Robin et al. (2017 ) because they mention “the role of the family” in the abstract, but they refer specifically to housewives for women and how entrepreneurship and of family assistance seem incompatible, or the article by Logan (2014) , as it analyzes the relationship between family and entrepreneurship, but refers to the support received from the partner or spouse.

A total of 92 articles were analyzed in this study (Annex 1 in Supplementary Material ).

Figure 1 shows the flow Diagram of the study according to the recommendations of the PRISMA method.

Figure 1 . PRISMA 2009 flow diagram.

Different types of indicators have been used.

Specifically, we analyzed year of publication, the productivity of authors, countries and journals, research area (e.g., Social Science, Business and Management, Economic etc.), type of research and sample. In addition, in order to measure the impact on productivity and on citation of an author's publications and journals we used the h -index ( Hirsch, 2005 ). In this sense, as underlined by Gaviria-Marin et al. (2018) , it is an important bibliometric indicator that is commonly used by researchers given its ease of interpretation.

To analyze the most investigated thematic areas, was used the analysis of the co-occurrence of the authors' keywords, through the VOSviewer software version 1.6.10 ( Van Eck and Waltman, 2010 , 2014 ). It is a bibliometric technique that allows graphic representation, identification and classification of clusters in a strategic matrix associated on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities (distance-based maps). Moreover, while the qualitative analysis of the literature can be affected by the subjectivity of the author, this method allows to overcome this problem, becoming an instrument of undisputed and consolidated analysis ( Vallaster et al., 2019 ), used in presently ( Valenzuela et al., 2017 ; Martínez-López et al., 2018 ).

In Table 1 we show a summary of the main methodological features of the study.

Table 1 . Characteristics of the bibliometric study.

Figure 2 illustrates the growth, during the period 1989–2019, of the family role and entrepreneurship publications in the international scene. Research has experienced great development in recent years, in fact, since 2011, the interest in topics concerning the relationship between family and entrepreneurship has increased significantly, recording the most profitable peak of publications in 2017. Although only the first 3 months of 2019 are included in the data set, 4 articles had already been published during this period.

Figure 2 . Evolution of publications.

This increase in publications in recent years may suggest a continuous evolution of family role in entrepreneurship as current and still valid research trend topic.

In order to analyze the trend of research in the family/parent support and entrepreneurship constructs, we used the dimensions obtained from cluster analysis. Figure 3 shows the progress of the research from 1989 to 2019. As noted, the constructs are associated with different fields of research, emphasizing the multidisciplinary character.

Figure 3 . Article published by cluster by year.

For example, over the years, the trend of research interests has changed. From the interest shown by the literature toward the cultural and social dimension (cluster 1—red line) and toward the individual personological characteristics of the entrepreneur (cluster 4—yellow line), in recent years the dimension that has received the most attention is the family one. The two most in-depth research themes, with a peak of interest between 2017 and 2018, are: the influence of parental role models and the educational dimension in the development of entrepreneurial intentions (cluster 3—turquoise line), and the importance of family support (cluster 5—purple line), especially in developing countries and disadvantaged groups, such as female entrepreneurship.

Furthermore, in the year 2019 it would seem that there is a potential recovery for the theme of family businesses as factors of economic development, but clusters 2 and 3 would still seem to be actual.

Afterwards, we analyzed the productivity of scientific journals, generating a list of 92 articles. For the purposes of our analysis, we have considered journals with a minimum of 3 publications on the subject, classifying them from the most productive to the least productive. As can be seen from Table 2 , the scientific journal that has more active the role of the family in the entrepreneurial process is International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research ( n = 6 articles; h -index = 44).

Table 2 . Article with the most publications on the subject.

The analysis also revealed the multidisciplinary nature of the research area. Most publications ( n = 71) are related to business and management research, but others come from psychology and social sciences ( n = 14), economics ( n = 6), and engineering ( n = 1).

We performed as well an analysis to identify the authors who, are considered most influential in the development of this field of study. In the 92 articles that were part of the bibliometric study, a total of 239 authors were found (2.59 authors per article). 90.9% contributed with only one work on the subject, which shows that it is a highly dispersed field, probably due to its multidisciplinary nature.

This interpretation gained more strength after verifying that only 8 authors participated in two or more articles, as shown in Table 3 . The first 3 authors with 4 articles are Kaciak, E. (h-index = 8); Memili, E. (h-index = 13), and Welsh, D. (h-index = 14).

Table 3 . Authors with the greatest number of articles published.

Were also analyzed the countries where the research field of our object of study is more developed ( Figure 4 ). Therefore, for the purposes of this analysis we have considered only countries with a minimum of 3 publications. The United States is the country with the largest number of publications ( n = 20), followed by India ( n = 9), and Canada ( n = 7). The United Kingdom ( n = 6) and Spain ( n = 5) follow, in fourth and fifth place of the rank, and represent the two most productive countries in Europe in terms of research on the role of the family and entrepreneurship.

Figure 4 . Publications of countries.

Finally, we conducted an analysis on the nature of the research and the type of sample. The quantitative analysis is the most used in the selected studies (69.6%), using a variety of analysis techniques: descriptive ( n = 34) logistic, linear and hierarchical regression ( n = 22); confirmatory, using Structural Equation Modeling ( n = 14); correlation ( n = 17); t -test ( n = 6); univariate ( n = 5); and multivariate ( n = 4). Qualitative studies ( n = 19), on the other hand, the ones less frequently used are: observation ( n = 3), case studies ( n = 5), interviews ( n = 6), in-depth interviews ( n = 8), and focus group ( n = 1), representing only 20.7% of the studies. Most of the articles applied more than one analysis technique. Finally, four articles (4.4%) used a mixed method (quantitative and qualitative research).

The results are summarized in Table 4 .

Table 4 . Nature of research and type of sample.

Descriptive statistics and regression analysis are the most commonly used techniques in the reviewed articles, followed by correlation analysis and confirmation analysis through Structural Equation Modeling. The latter was mostly used, especially in more recent articles.

As for the type of sample used, the studies with entrepreneurs prevailed in 59.9% of the analyzed articles (of which 26.7% were female entrepreneurs), while the studies that analyzed students accounted for 30.5%. 7.7% of the studies considered other types of samples that do not fall into the categories previously explained.

En general, to identify the state of research on the relationship between family role and entrepreneurship, proceeded the co-occurrence analysis with one occurrence per keyword, for a total frequency of 237 authors' keywords grouped in 25 clusters.

As shown in Figure 5 , the stronger relationships are graphically represented by larger circles and labels. The research topics most closely examined by scholars deals with entrepreneurship, family support and entrepreneurial intent.

Figure 5 . One co-occurrence for keywords. Source: VOSviewer version 1.6.10.

For the purposes of the study, we have narrowed the field, performing a co-occurrence analysis with a minimum of three occurrences for keyword, for a total of 22 authors' keywords. The mapping and grouping provides a general review of the research in the context of entrepreneurial literature and in Figure 6 are shown the five most relevant clusters. Each cluster is represented by a different color that highlights the relationship between them while the distance between the clusters provides information on the intensity of the relationship ( Van Eck and Waltman, 2010 ).

Figure 6 . Three co-occurrence for keywords. Source: VOSviewer version 1.6.10.

Cluster 1: Cultural Dimension and Gender Issue (7 Items)

The occurrence of 21.8% of the keywords studied is associated with the red cluster formed by the following keywords: culture, women, female entrepreneurship, entrepreneurialism, gender, social capital and students.

The cultural dimension is one of the key elements for the family background and entrepreneurial process. According to some authors ( Li, 2007 ; Gurel et al., 2010 ; Castillo-Palacio et al., 2017 ) the social and family context in which the individual growths, shapes his creative thinking, predisposes him to innovation and risk perception, develops social capital, generates value, thus creating cultures that encourage more entrepreneurship and autonomy than others.

As suggested by Zhao et al. (2012) there are two different theoretical explanations about the role that culture plays in business world. The first one, of a psychological nature, acting at the individual level ( Hayton et al., 2002 ) and presupposes that culture acts on the skills and abilities of individual, modifying the behavior. The second line, based on institutional theory, considers culture as a substratum of the community, so some societies are more likely to promote entrepreneurial processes.

Several authors use this prospective to analyze entrepreneurial activity in different contexts, for example, Welsh et al. (2018) , applying institutional theory, compared women entrepreneurs in Morocco and Turkey. Other studies have focused on other business contexts ( McIntosh and Islam, 2010 ; Ramadani, 2015 ), predominantly Islamic ( Anggadwita et al., 2015 ; Mohd Rhouse et al., 2016 ), and Middle Eastern cultures ( Bastian et al., 2018 ).

From this point of view, the cultural dimension is closely related to the “woman” variable and more generally to the “gender issue” because, as several studies have shown ( Freytag and Thurik, 2007 ; Sengupta et al., 2013 ), behavior is often a consequence of different socio-cultural values that are taught and learned since youth and that last over time, which also applies to entrepreneurial behavior ( Hofstede, 2001 ; Eid, 2006 ).

Indeed, despite the positive aspects of entrepreneurship understood as a career accessible to all and economically advantageous, a more in-depth analysis shows that there are many cultural obstacles ( Ahl and Marlow, 2012 ), especially for women.

Specifically, the gap between male and female entrepreneurship has been explained by various theories, among which the most exhaustive is the “Social Role Theory” developed by Eagly (1987) . According to this explanation, the male group is configured as the ideal for the entrepreneurial field ( Bird and Brush, 2002 ), while women consider entrepreneurship less as a career path ( Ahl, 2006 ).

Rubio-Bañón and Esteban-Lloret (2016 ) conducted a research to analyze the possible differences between male and female entrepreneurs in 55 different countries, considering cultural factors as among the most relevant hindrances for entrepreneurship ( Bosma and Kelley, 2018 ). The observed results do not yet confirm that cultures with a higher rate of masculinity lead to a greater gender gap in female entrepreneurship rates. Other research has shown that in communities with high virility, women can share and take ownership of these cultural values and be more motivated toward an entrepreneurial career.

Indeed, the relationship between gender and cultural beliefs is still unclear: some studies have shown that women are pursue less an entrepreneurial career ( Chen et al., 1998 ; Gupta et al., 2005 ). Other studies, instead, suggest that in cultures considered to be stereotypically masculine, women are more inclined toward entrepreneurial activity ( Mueller and Conway Dato-on, 2008 ; Cardozo Crowe, 2010 ).

The cultural component, as a substrate of a society, comes into play with the variable “students,” in fact, as the literature shows, it is important to adopt policies that support entrepreneurial development at school.

The promotion and enhancement of the “entrepreneurial culture” has become an important component in the initiatives and in the offer of services for students. Universities are called to accept this challenge to prepare students for the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills and competences that allow them to cope with the multiplicity of today's society, in constant evolution and change ( Bygrave, 2004 ).

Promoting student entrepreneurship means making them more aware of their future, in the field of business, to translate ideas into actions.

This cluster shows a relationship with the main terms of the analysis: entrepreneurship and family support, because cultural factors pass through the micro-social dimension of society, including the institutions that live in that community. Social agencies like the school, but also the family, have the task of creating an entrepreneurial-supportive environment that can encourage entrepreneurial activities in students, helping to develop an entrepreneurial culture ( Roffe, 1999 ). Supporting this point of view, many authors ( Pruett et al., 2009 ; Al-Harthi, 2017 ) agree that regardless of the type of person, different strategies can be used to motivate the students in choosing an entrepreneurial career, encouraging them to work independently and to expose them to entrepreneurial success stories that can serve as models for the acquisition of skills, technical knowledge and relevant know-how.

Cluster 2: Family Business and Succession (4 Items)

The green cluster consists of the following keywords: family business, succession, economic development, and Arabia Saudita, which constitute the 12.1% of the occurrences.

The authors agree that the factor that distinguishes family and non-family businesses is the intention to transfer the control of the company to its following generation ( Chua et al., 1999 ), a factor that also contributes to economic growth in the developing countries (and also in advanced economies).

The intertwining of family firms and business has a profound impact on entrepreneurial experiences, especially for children, it is so influential that it is considered by Rogoff and Heck (2003) , together with human capital and education, as the oxygen that fuels the entrepreneurial fire.

Family businesses are important, not only from a financial point of view, but also because provide long-term stability in the labor market because of the responsibility they show to communities, since they convey values and knowledge. All these factors are valuable instruments of change to counteract the current financial crisis. As highlighted in the final report on family businesses, conducted in 2009 by the European Commission, at European level, more than 60% of existing businesses are family-run. “Most SMEs (especially micro and small enterprises) are family businesses and a large majority of family companies are SMEs” ( European Commission, 2009 , p. 4).

However, the successor's intention to continue their family's business depends on whether their parents are willing to support them, contributing to the development and success of their family activities ( De Massis et al., 2014 ). In fact, despite the undoubted importance that family succession has from an economic and social point of view, international studies have shown that the newer generation has low interest as well as intention to work in their parents' business ( Zellweger, 2017 ). According to the Sieger et al. (2016) , conducted in 50 countries, 8.8% of the 122,000 university students intend to start their own business, but only 2.7% want to be part of the family business. A model of “employee first, then founder” emerges 5 years after studies, in which 38.2% intend to found a business, but only 4.8% consider themselves as employee in their own family business ( Sieger et al., 2016 ). Similar results were achieved by Zellweger et al. (2011) , who found that the possibility of being able to inherit the family business does not make it a desirable choice. The successors tend to feel confident about their skills and knowledges, but appear pessimistic about the succession because they considered themselves less autonomous.

In the current context, characterized by an aging population and the desire of many entrepreneurs to transfer the family business to their children, this result is worrying ( Garcia et al., 2018 ).

The performance of those who enter the family business is better when perceived family responsibility as strong, this result highlights the strength of family expectations in positively influencing members' performance ( Dawson et al., 2015 ).

One of the very few studies on the succession of daughters in the family business, conducted by Overbeke et al. (2013) , examined the factors that may contribute to this generational shift. The results revealed that family support and leadership tutoring are the most important elements.

Parental support in family businesses is very important not only in the succession phase, but also when the company is consolidated, for example, based on data from 228 entrepreneurs, Marshall et al. (2018) found that the active involvement of the family creates a common destiny among members that favors resilience for an entrepreneur, compared to the owners of non-family businesses.

It is important to understand that the factors that influence the intentions of the members of the next generation to undertake an entrepreneurial career requires a systemic analysis that also considers the behaviors of their parents ( Nordqvist and Melin, 2010 ) and the perception that children have of this support ( Garcia et al., 2018 ).

Cluster 3: Parental Role Models and Entrepreneurial Intention (4 Items)

The third cluster associates the following keywords: entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurship education, parental role models and self-efficacy. The 22.6% of keywords are related to this cluster which emphasizes the importance of entrepreneurial education, parental role model and self-efficacy for entrepreneurial intention development.

Historically, intentions have been considered as the antecedent of behavior ( Ajzen and Fishbein, 1977 ; Ajzen, 1991 ). The meta-analysis by Sheeran (2002) conducted on 422 studies, showed that the correlation between intentions and behavior explains 28% of the variance in behavior. For this reason, much of the literature has been interested in studying the factors influencing intentions. In this regard, in recent decades, great importance has been attached to the positive influence played by role models in improving the intentions of choosing an entrepreneurial career. Bosma et al. (2012) found that 54% of a sample of 292 entrepreneurs had a role model (20% in the pre-start-up phase, 10% in the post-start-up phase and 24% in both phases), in addition, one-third of the sample stated that they would not have founded their company without this role model.

The positive influence of role models on entrepreneurial intentions has been empirically analyzed in various cultural contexts. A German study by Chlosta et al. (2012) showed that parental role models increased the likelihood of individuals becoming self-employed. Urbano et al. (2011) , instead, established that individuals with the same ethnicity can act as a model, encouraging other individuals in the community to create new businesses. The study conducted by Pablo-Lerchundi et al. (2015) showed that the profession carried out by parents influences the entrepreneurial intentions of students, who were more likely to choose an entrepreneurial career if their parents were entrepreneurs than children of public officials. In recent years, the impact of role models on entrepreneurial process was confirmed in different professional categories, as in academic entrepreneurs ( Fernández-Pérez et al., 2015 ) and active entrepreneurs ( Bosma et al., 2012 ; Fritsch et al., 2012 ).

Self-efficacy has also been considered an important factor that increases the intentions to undertake a certain behavior, especially if associated with a positive attitude toward this behavior ( Markham et al., 2002 ). Relationship between self-efficacy and parental role models as well as attitudes toward entrepreneurship have been established in numerous studies. For instance, Carr and Sequeira (2007) in a research conducted on 308 individuals, found direct and indirect effects of previous family exposures on entrepreneurial intention, through the mediation of perceived family support and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. BarNir et al. (2011) , which indicated the positive influence of role models on entrepreneurial intention and the role of mediation exercised by self-efficacy, arrived at the same conclusion. Similar studies were conducted for female university students ( Sahinidis et al., 2019 ). Laviolette et al. (2012) found that role models positively influence entrepreneurial intentions by increasing self-efficacy, provided that such models are positively perceived by individuals, so as to enable them to identify themselves.

Furthermore, role models also play a key role in entrepreneurial training processes, positively influencing the development of entrepreneurial skills ( Heinonen and Poikkijoki, 2006 ). Entrepreneurship education, effectively, influences on the intention of undertaking autonomous activities through two objectives: creating and spreading knowledge ( Perreira and Da Silva, 2003 ) and encouraging students to develop skills in human capital ( Gupta and York, 2008 ). The importance given to the role of education in the entrepreneurial process is underlined by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) which dedicated the special theme of 2008 to Entrepreneurship Education and Training.

In the literature there are studies that explain how perceived family support can come into play in this process. For example, in a research by Denanyoh et al. (2015) emerged that university support, structural support and emotional support of the family are important factors that influence the entrepreneurial intention of students in Ghana. The same result emerges from a study conducted by Bignotti and le Roux (2016) which found that entrepreneurship education and family support positively influence students' need for achievement and entrepreneurial intentions. In another study conducted, Laguía et al. (2019 ) found that the perceived family support and university support are positively associated with entrepreneurial intentions in students. Furthermore, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial education moderate the relationship between support and entrepreneurial intention.

At the same time, the research emphasized the importance of entrepreneurship education as a possible tool that, based on skills and knowledge useful to the subjects in order to achieve greater self-confidence and security, could lead to overcoming the gap between men and women in the entrepreneurial field (gender bias).

Entrialgo and Iglesias (2017) , on a sample of 338 students found that the role models and entrepreneurship education have a greater positive influence on attitudes toward entrepreneurship in women compared to men.

Exposure to parental role models and entrepreneurship education can be used as tools to reduce the negative prejudicial effects, in general and those related to female entrepreneurship in particular, improving attitudes toward an autonomous career choice.

Cluster 4: Entrepreneurship and Self-Employment (4 Items)

The co-occurrence of 25% of keywords is related to the fourth cluster that shows the greatest number of connections in the map. The following words are part of this cluster: entrepreneurship, self-employment, entrepreneurs, and personalities ( Figure 7 ).

Figure 7 . Relations of the yellow cluster. Source: VOSviewer version 1.6.10.

Entrepreneurship is considered instrumental to economic growth and technological development ( Fellnhofer and Kraus, 2015 ; Nowinski and Haddoud, 2019 ), as an important source of employment in developed and developing countries ( Kuratko, 2005 ). It is not just a factor of economic growth aimed at creating new jobs; it also constitutes a useful personal development tool contributing to the resolution of social issues by promoting a society capable of attributing the correct value to the entrepreneurial mind, and by fostering development of positive attitudes in achieving objectives that concern the community. For example, according to The European Commission (2003) , it is a state of mind and a process aimed at creating and developing economic activity by combining willingness to take risks, creativity and innovation.

For the reasons mentioned above, discovering which factors, at the micro and macro level, can lead people to pursue an entrepreneurial career, in recent decades has been the one of the central theme of scholars. In particular, studies conducted on the characteristics of potential entrepreneurs tend to focus, especially on the importance attributed to personality traits (this explains the strong relationship between the words “entrepreneurship” and “personality”), but also, albeit with less strong relationships, to the resources accumulated from education and experience (educational and family background) ( Serneels, 2008 ) and specific behavioral models ( Liñán and Fayolle, 2015 ), which is why, in our analysis, it represents the construct with more relationships with other clusters .

The study of the phenomenon of entrepreneurship can be divided into two phases. In the initial stages of the research, the psychological literature has focused on the study of the personality and the motivations that push a subject to undertake this choice and that can lead to a possible work and personal success ( Boyd and Vozikis, 1994 ). Caird (1993) , in an attempt to trace a profile of the typical entrepreneur, offered a synthesis of the results of the researches that have used psychological tests on entrepreneurs, it is necessary to underline that the poor homogeneity of the entrepreneurial population represents a critical aspect for this survey. For this reason, currently, the focus has shifted to the interaction between socio-economic and cultural reality, and decision-making behaviors capable of influencing a chain of events on different levels (personal, family, and economic) ( Shane, 2003 ; Rauch and Frese, 2007 ). What we are witnessing, in fact, is a decentralization of personal characteristics and a greater attention to complex behaviors acted along different phases of the entrepreneurial process. However, the effects of the cultural-family component have not yet been fully clarified ( Ucbasaran et al., 2008 ). Research on the creation of new businesses has focused mainly on the importance of higher education and employment, with a limited emphasis on education received in the family. This could be the explanation about the challenging why it is so difficult to establish clear links between the role of the family and the potential entrepreneurial spirit.

Cluster 5: Family Support and Women Entrepreneurs (3 Items)

Finally, the fifth cluster in purple shows the closeness and strength of connection in the words family support, women entrepreneurs and India. Together with cluster four, it represents the heart of this analysis, which is why even if the number of keywords related to this cluster is low (18.5% of the occurrences) it is the second cluster with the greatest number of relationships with others ( Figure 8 ).

Figure 8 . Relations of the violet cluster. Source: VOSviewer version 1.6.10.

In most societies, especially in developing countries, women's access to entrepreneurship is difficult. The possible explanations have been analyzed in the literature and, although with some socio-cultural differences, they can be summarized as follows: poor social background and lack of support family; conflicts family/care responsibilities; inadequate training; lack of institutional and social interest; consequences of male domination in society and socio-economic discrimination ( Kibas, 2006 ; Mutuku et al., 2006 ; Lockyer and George, 2012 ; Raghuvanshi et al., 2017 ). In recent years, many researchers have analyzed female entrepreneurship and associated limitations ( Gautam and Mishra, 2016 ; Raghuvanshi et al., 2017 ).

For example, in our analysis, several studies have underlined the importance of family support, when external support systems are limited, especially economically disadvantaged countries or in the case of female entrepreneurship ( Pearson et al., 2008 ; Chang et al., 2009 , 2012 ).

Family support is important with particular reference to women entrepreneurs ( Neneh, 2017 ; Welsh et al., 2018 ), particularly for those who may not have access to other networks during the business development process ( Greve and Salaf, 2003 ), but also in finding the right balance between family duties and working. In this direction, are the results of a research conducted by Heilbrunn and Davidovitch (2011) with 11 Israeli women entrepreneurs. The support perceived by the family can be even more valuable in the case of entrepreneurial families, because they become models for aspiring entrepreneurs during the process of preparing for the adventure, influencing entrepreneurial intentions ( Ahmed et al., 2012 ; Edelman et al., 2016 ; Zhu et al., 2017 ).

As a result, the study also confirmed the positive influence of family members, in terms of support, in the strategic management process. In fact, family members act as positive educational models, which can contribute to starting a business and successful management ( Steier, 2003 ; Arregle et al., 2007 ), through knowledge and values that are handed down to the children become their human and social capital.

In addition, family members can provide the entrepreneur with a financial start capital of family finances (for example, in the initial phases) or help obtain external funding sources ( Aldrich and Cliff, 2003 ; Anderson et al., 2005 ). Furthermore, they can offer the necessary work and support that can be useful for creating and managing a business ( Teixeira, 2001 ; Karra et al., 2006 ).

We could fundamentally highlight two types of family support, emotional/relational, and economic/financial, both a vital resource for supporting entrepreneurship, and useful for both entrepreneurial and economic growth ( Shen et al., 2017 ). In this sense it is wise to expect that emotional support is important especially in developing intentions, as a source of encouragement for those who have no direct experience and can rely on the resources of their families.

While the economic one comes into play, especially in the start-up phase of a business, a transition from intention to behavior, which affects a larger slice of the population.

In line with Aldrich and Cliff (2003) , the family plays a key role in the children's enterprise, not only economically, but also by providing knowledge for new initiatives (for example, advice on how to start a business). Sometimes, even “new ideas” ( Dyer and Handler, 1994 ).

Through this work, we carry out a systematic review of the literature on the role of the family in the entrepreneurial process, using different types of bibliometric indicators and cluster analysis.

In the research and selection phase of the articles, we have used various databases of proven utility, such as Scopus, Web of Science and Business Source. Several conclusions emerged from our analysis.

From the results of the bibliometric indicators, it is a relatively recent area of study, but in continuous evolution, considering that the first articles date back to the year 1989, and from a multidisciplinary field of study, which as shown by the analysis of scientific journals, it is mainly linked to the business and management field, and even if in a smaller number, also to social and psychological sciences, economics, and engineering.

Moreover, as shown in Figure 6 , research on the role of the family in entrepreneurial activity has grown considerably, especially over the last decade with the United States of America being the country with the most publications on the topic ( n = 20).

The review also reveals that the scientific journals with the greatest number of publications on the subject is the International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research ( n = 6), while the most productive author is Kaciak Eugene ( n = 4).

Regarding the analysis structure, the most important result is the fact that it is a field of study with non-sharply outlined borders that lacks systematization, probably due to its multidisciplinary character. Indeed, 90.9% of researchers contributed with only one work, this result acquired a greater intensity when it was verified that only 8 authors participated in two or more articles from the examined databases.

As for the cluster analysis, five themes have been highlighted which try to better explain the relationship between family role and entrepreneurship. Specifically, we found: (1) cultural dimension and gender issue, (2) family business and succession, (3) parental role models and entrepreneurial intention, (4) entrepreneurship and self-employment, (5) family support and women entrepreneurs.

Furthermore, the analysis also found that most of the research focused on different themes.

The cluster that obtained the highest percentage of co-occurrences is the yellow one, associated with the following keywords: entrepreneurship, self-employment, entrepreneurs, and personalities, and is also the cluster with the greatest number of relationships with other clusters, especially with family support and exposure to parental role models, emphasizing once again the importance that family has in the entrepreneurial process. On the contrary, the cluster with the lowest percentage of co-occurrences keywords is related to family business, succession, economic development, and Arabia Saudita.

This result could be a good starting point for future research, as it suggests that there are many opportunities to increase and further develop knowledge about the relationship between the role of the family and entrepreneurship. For example, it might be useful to reflect on the possible role that exposure to parental role models plays in corporate succession and analyze any differences through the comparison between entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial families. Future research could analyze how and why exposure to models of parental role, or support perceived by family members, has a different influence in different cultures and contexts, especially in disadvantaged contexts, making clear reference to Hofstede's cultural dimensions. It could reflect on why, some contexts, families emotionally support the new generations, promoting entrepreneurial behavior, even in females, while others do not, even if both belong to a stereotypically considered patriarchal culture at the macro level.

Some limitations should be noted. First, in this study, only peer-reviewed articles are considered, eliminating other types of documents, such as book chapters and conference papers. Although this is considered important for the purposes of reliability and quality of the results, it can represent a limit as part of the scientific contributions has been neglected limiting a more detailed knowledge on the research object.

Furthermore, it should be stressed that there is a tendency to mention journals that have open access. There are also journals that can be accessed through payment and that publish articles in languages other than English and Spanish. These are limitations that the reader should consider.

From a purely methodological point of view, some considerations must be made. This article focuses on a group of bibliometric indicators to examine the articles published in the selected databases. Alternative objective analysis techniques and different databases could be useful to provide a systematic description of the literature and to analyze each relevant topic concerning the support of the family from a different point of view, in order to adequately understand the research evolution and propose future research directions in a more accurate way.

Moreover, as regards cluster analysis, even if it is considered a reliable scientific method widely recognized by scholars ( Rafols et al., 2010 ) because it offers an immediate and simple interpretation of the information and the contextualization of a specific one research field, even for non-experts, the boundaries between the various clusters are not always clearly interpreted. This could derive from the fact that the same article can be part of different clusters if it contains keywords that are part of several clusters. For this reason, the mappings should not be considered as tools that provide unequivocal answers to emerging problems, but heuristic methods useful for opening plural perspectives in order to give information about a given field of research.

Furthermore, as pointed out by Rafols et al. (2012) , the analysis through maps is very complex in studies on innovation, business, and management as it provides a limited number of significant relationships that take into account the amount of keywords considered (for example, only 22 keywords were generated in this study). This result may be a limitation considering the multidisciplinary nature of the research field and the high fragmentation that characterizes specialized literature.

This study sought to define the boundaries of existing research and at the same time to bring new perspectives of future research, through theoretical and methodological suggestions, aiming to be useful for the development and discovery of new fields of study, expanding the knowledge about the relationship between family support and entrepreneurship. This is an important aspect, not only for academic research and for professionals, but for the agents responsible to promote the entrepreneurial spirit in the community, important as it emerged also in our analysis, at the micro and macro level, for human, social, and economic growth.

Author Contributions

In the contribution for this survey we describe in detail the following: GC has selected all the useful information for this review. BH-S has provided interesting details on the subject. JS-G examined the final document and the methodological protocol. The authors have decided to approve the final work and take full responsibility for the originality of the research.

This research was funded by the Board of Education of the Junta de Castilla y León (ref J424), Spain.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.


We thank the Chair of Entrepreneurs University of Salamanca for supporting the research and monitoring of all activities.

Supplementary Material

The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at:

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Keywords: entrepreneur, family support, parent role, literature review, role models

Citation: Cardella GM, Hernández-Sánchez BR and Sánchez García JC (2020) Entrepreneurship and Family Role: A Systematic Review of a Growing Research. Front. Psychol. 10:2939. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02939

Received: 19 July 2019; Accepted: 11 December 2019; Published: 10 January 2020.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2020 Cardella, Hernández-Sánchez and Sánchez García. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Brizeida Raquel Hernández-Sánchez,

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entrepreneurship research topics pdf

Entrepreneurship as Experimentation

Entrepreneurship research is on the rise, but many questions about its fundamental nature still exist. We argue that entrepreneurship is about experimentation: the probabilities of success are low, extremely skewed, and unknowable until an investment is made. At a macro level, experimentation by new firms underlies the Schumpeterian notion of creative destruction. However, at a micro level, investment and continuation decisions are not always made in a competitive Darwinian contest. Instead, a few investors make decisions that are impacted by incentive, agency, and coordination problems, often before a new idea even has a chance to compete in a market. We contend that costs and constraints on the ability to experiment alter the type of organizational form surrounding innovation and influence when innovation is more likely to occur. These factors not only govern how much experimentation is undertaken in the economy, but also the trajectory of experimentation, with potentially very deep economic consequences.

Entrepreneurship research is on the rise, but many questions about its fundamental nature still exist. We argue that entrepreneurship is about experimentation: the probabilities of success are low, extremely skewed, and unknowable until an investment is made. At a macro level, experimentation by new firms underlies the Schumpeterian notion of...

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Andreessen Horowitz

Andreessen Horowitz (a16z), a venture capital firm launched in 2009, has quickly broken into the VC industry's top ranks, in terms of its ability to invest in Silicon Valley's most promising startups. The case recounts the firm's history; describes its co-founders' motivations and their strategy for disrupting an industry in the midst of dramatic structural change; and asks whether a16z's success to date has been due to its novel organization structure. a16z's 22 investment professionals are supported by 43 recruiting and marketing specialists—an "operating team" that is an order of magnitude larger than that of any other VC firm. Furthermore, the operating team aims to not only assist a16z portfolio companies, but also to be broadly helpful to all parties in the Silicon Valley ecosystem, including search firms, journalists, PR agencies, and Fortune 500 executives. The bet: by providing "no-strings-attached" help to ecosystem partners, the partners might someday reciprocate by steering founders seeking funding to a16z. The case closes by asking whether a16z should seek to double its scale over the next years.

Andreessen Horowitz (a16z), a venture capital firm launched in 2009, has quickly broken into the VC industry's top ranks, in terms of its ability to invest in Silicon Valley's most promising startups. The case recounts the firm's history; describes its co-founders' motivations and their strategy for disrupting an industry in the midst of dramatic...

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

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Raising Startup Capital

Entrepreneurs typically focus their full energies on business-building. But raising capital is a core part of building a valuable business. Developing expertise in raising capital is more than a necessary evil, it is a competitive weapon. Master it and you will be in a better position to make your company a massive success. But how do you finance a new venture? In this note, I will try to help answer this question by addressing the following topics: Types of funding. The two major types of startup capital are equity funding and debt funding although there are a few hybrid flavors as well. Sources of funding. These include venture capital firms, angel investors, crowd-funding, and accelerators/incubators. What investors look for. Each source has a different funding process and set of criteria which you need to understand before seeking funding from that source. The mechanics of equity funding. Seeking and securing funding involves setting amounts, agreeing to terms, and defining relationships.

Entrepreneurs typically focus their full energies on business-building. But raising capital is a core part of building a valuable business. Developing expertise in raising capital is more than a necessary evil, it is a competitive weapon. Master it and you will be in a better position to make your company a massive success. But how do you finance...

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The Ullens Center for Contemporary Art

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The microfinance revolution has transformed access to financial services for low-income populations worldwide. As a result, it has become one of the most talked-about innovations in global development in recent decades. However, its expansion has not been without controversy. While many hailed it as a way to end world poverty and promote female...

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journal: Entrepreneurship Research Journal

Entrepreneurship Research Journal

  • Online ISSN: 2157-5665
  • Type: Journal
  • Language: English
  • Publisher: De Gruyter
  • First published: January 1, 2011
  • Publication Frequency: 4 Issues per Year
  • Audience: researchers in the field of entrepreneurship, decision-makers

Entrepreneurship Research Paper Topics

This page presents a comprehensive list of entrepreneurship research paper topics , divided into 10 categories with 10 topics in each. Additionally, it offers expert advice on how to choose from the multitude of entrepreneurship topics and how to write a successful entrepreneurship research paper. The page concludes with information on the iResearchNet writing services, which offer students the option to order a custom entrepreneurship research paper on any topic. Whether you are an experienced researcher or just beginning your journey in entrepreneurship, this page is a valuable resource for finding inspiration and guidance for your next research project.

Entrepreneurship Research and Writing

Entrepreneurship is a dynamic and exciting field that involves developing, organizing, and managing a business venture to make a profit. As a result, it has become a popular area of study for students looking to develop their business acumen and pursue careers as entrepreneurs or business leaders. To succeed in this field, students must not only have a solid understanding of business fundamentals, but also stay up-to-date with the latest trends and best practices in entrepreneurship.

Academic Writing, Editing, Proofreading, And Problem Solving Services

Entrepreneurship Research Paper Topics

Whether you’re looking to explore the impact of technology on entrepreneurship, examine the role of government policies in supporting entrepreneurship, or analyze the psychology of successful entrepreneurs, there’s a topic on this list that will spark your interest. In addition to the topic categories, we also offer expert advice on how to choose a research topic, as well as tips for writing a successful entrepreneurship research paper. And for those who need additional assistance, we provide custom writing services to help students get the highest quality research papers on any topic.

With this page, we hope to inspire and equip entrepreneurship students with the tools and resources they need to succeed in their studies and future careers as entrepreneurs and business leaders.

100 Entrepreneurship Research Paper Topics

Entrepreneurship is a vast and complex field of study, encompassing various aspects of business creation, management, and growth. Here are ten categories of entrepreneurship research paper topics that can help students explore this multifaceted field:

Entrepreneurial mindset

  • The role of creativity and innovation in developing an entrepreneurial mindset
  • The psychological factors that influence entrepreneurial decision-making and risk-taking behavior
  • The impact of failure on the development of an entrepreneurial mindset
  • The influence of family background and upbringing on the development of an entrepreneurial mindset
  • The relationship between an entrepreneurial mindset and opportunity recognition
  • The impact of social and cultural factors on the development of an entrepreneurial mindset
  • The role of education and training in fostering an entrepreneurial mindset
  • The relationship between an entrepreneurial mindset and entrepreneurial success
  • The impact of personal values and beliefs on the development of an entrepreneurial mindset
  • The influence of age and gender on the development of an entrepreneurial mindset.

Entrepreneurial finance

  • The role of venture capitalists in financing startups
  • The impact of crowdfunding on small business financing
  • The effectiveness of bootstrapping as a financing strategy for startups
  • The role of angel investors in entrepreneurial finance
  • The effects of government funding on small business growth
  • The pros and cons of debt financing for startups
  • The benefits and risks of equity financing for entrepreneurs
  • The impact of tax incentives on small business financing
  • The role of corporate venture capital in financing startups
  • The impact of cryptocurrency on small business finance

Entrepreneurial marketing

  • The role of social media in the marketing strategies of successful startups.
  • Marketing strategies for new businesses targeting the millennial market.
  • The use of guerrilla marketing tactics by startups and their effectiveness in driving customer acquisition.
  • How to identify and reach niche markets as a new business.
  • The importance of customer relationship management in early-stage startups.
  • The role of influencer marketing in the promotion of new products and services.
  • Brand building strategies for startups on a limited budget.
  • The effectiveness of content marketing for startups and how to measure ROI.
  • The use of experiential marketing techniques to create buzz and build brand awareness.
  • Strategies for leveraging user-generated content as a low-cost marketing tool for new businesses.

Social entrepreneurship

  • Social entrepreneurship in developing countries: opportunities and challenges
  • Examining the role of government policy in promoting social entrepreneurship
  • Crowdfunding for social enterprises: a study of its impact and effectiveness
  • Social entrepreneurship and environmental sustainability: exploring the intersection
  • Social entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility: a comparative study
  • Measuring the social impact of social entrepreneurship ventures: current approaches and future directions
  • Social entrepreneurship and innovation: exploring the relationship and its implications
  • Non-profit organizations as social entrepreneurship ventures: a case study analysis
  • The role of social entrepreneurship in addressing societal inequalities
  • The impact of social entrepreneurship on economic development in rural areas

Women entrepreneurship

  • The role of networking in women entrepreneurship
  • Women entrepreneurship in emerging markets
  • Gender differences in entrepreneurial intentions and actions
  • How to overcome gender-related obstacles in accessing capital for women entrepreneurs
  • The impact of gender stereotypes on women entrepreneurs
  • Women entrepreneurs and work-life balance
  • The role of mentorship in supporting women entrepreneurs
  • The challenges and opportunities for women entrepreneurs in male-dominated industries
  • The importance of family support in women entrepreneurship
  • The impact of gender diversity in the leadership team on firm performance in women-led ventures

Family business entrepreneurship

  • The role of family culture in shaping entrepreneurial ventures in family businesses
  • Succession planning in family businesses: key factors for a smooth transition
  • Balancing family and business: challenges and strategies for family-owned enterprises
  • Family business governance: best practices for effective decision-making
  • How the dynamics of family relationships affect entrepreneurial performance in family businesses
  • The impact of family members’ entrepreneurial motivations on business strategy in family firms
  • Exploring the role of family ties in entrepreneurial team formation in family businesses
  • The challenges of implementing innovation in family businesses: a study of successful family entrepreneurs
  • Family business entrepreneurs and corporate social responsibility: a comparative study of family and non-family firms
  • Female successors in family businesses: opportunities and challenges for women entrepreneurs in a male-dominated field

Innovation and technology entrepreneurship

  • The impact of artificial intelligence on entrepreneurship
  • The role of intellectual property in technology entrepreneurship
  • Crowdfunding and technology entrepreneurship
  • The challenges and opportunities of blockchain technology for entrepreneurs
  • The impact of big data on entrepreneurial decision-making
  • The relationship between technology entrepreneurship and sustainability
  • Technology entrepreneurship in emerging markets
  • The role of open innovation in technology entrepreneurship
  • The intersection of entrepreneurship and cybersecurity
  • Technology entrepreneurship in the healthcare industry

Global entrepreneurship

  • The role of culture in international entrepreneurship
  • The impact of global trade policies on entrepreneurial activity
  • The effects of foreign direct investment on entrepreneurship in developing countries
  • The influence of political instability on cross-border entrepreneurship
  • The role of international networks in facilitating entrepreneurship
  • The impact of global economic trends on small business growth
  • The challenges and opportunities of exporting for small and medium-sized enterprises
  • The role of technology in enabling global entrepreneurship
  • The impact of language barriers on international entrepreneurial activity
  • The importance of cross-cultural communication in global entrepreneurial ventures

Small business management and entrepreneurship

  • The role of small businesses in local economic development
  • Factors contributing to the success or failure of small businesses
  • Effective leadership strategies for small business owners
  • Small business marketing strategies in the digital age
  • Challenges and opportunities for minority-owned small businesses
  • Financing options for small businesses: pros and cons
  • Balancing entrepreneurship with work-life balance in small business management
  • Addressing ethical dilemmas in small business management and entrepreneurship
  • Navigating legal and regulatory compliance for small businesses
  • Innovation and growth strategies for small businesses in competitive markets

Corporate entrepreneurship

  • The role of corporate culture in fostering entrepreneurial activity within established firms
  • The impact of corporate entrepreneurship on firm performance and long-term sustainability
  • Strategies for identifying and pursuing entrepreneurial opportunities within a large organization
  • Challenges and opportunities for corporate entrepreneurship in highly regulated industries
  • Balancing innovation and risk management in corporate entrepreneurship initiatives
  • Best practices for building and managing cross-functional teams to drive innovation within large organizations
  • The relationship between corporate entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility
  • The impact of corporate entrepreneurship on employee engagement and retention
  • The role of leadership in supporting and promoting a culture of entrepreneurship within a corporation
  • Examining successful case studies of corporate entrepreneurship, including both internal and external ventures

These categories provide a broad overview of the various areas of entrepreneurship research. Within each category, there are numerous research paper topics that students can explore in depth.

Choosing Entrepreneurship Research Paper Topics

Choosing the right topic is crucial when writing an entrepreneurship research paper. It should be something that interests you and aligns with your academic and career goals. Here are some expert tips to help you choose the perfect entrepreneurship research paper topic:

  • Consider your interests and passions : Start by brainstorming topics that you are passionate about or that interest you. This can help you to stay motivated throughout the research and writing process.
  • Review current trends : Stay up-to-date with current trends in entrepreneurship by reading industry publications, attending conferences, and following social media accounts of influential entrepreneurs. This can help you to identify gaps in research and potential topics to explore.
  • Consider the audience : Consider the target audience of your research paper and choose a topic that is relevant and interesting to them. For example, if your audience is investors, consider topics related to startup valuation or funding sources.
  • Look for gaps in existing research : Read existing literature on entrepreneurship to identify gaps in research. This can help you to identify potential research topics that have not been extensively explored.
  • Consider the scope of the research : Consider the scope of the research you are willing to undertake. Ensure that the topic you choose is not too broad or too narrow for the scope of your paper.
  • Focus on a specific aspect of entrepreneurship : Narrow down your topic to a specific aspect of entrepreneurship, such as social entrepreneurship or corporate entrepreneurship. This can help you to provide a more in-depth analysis of your topic.
  • Consider the resources available : Consider the resources you have available for your research. Choose a topic that you can adequately research with the resources you have.
  • Consider the potential impact : Consider the potential impact of your research topic on the field of entrepreneurship. Choose a topic that has the potential to make a significant contribution to the field.
  • Consult with your instructor or advisor : Consult with your instructor or advisor for guidance on choosing a research topic. They can provide valuable feedback and help you to narrow down your options.
  • Brainstorm with peers : Brainstorm with peers to identify potential research topics. They may provide insights and perspectives that you had not considered.

In conclusion, choosing the right entrepreneurship research paper topic is crucial to your success in academic and professional settings. By following these expert tips and considering your interests, strengths, and goals, you can choose a suitable topic that is engaging, specific, and feasible.

How to Write an Entrepreneurship Research Paper

Writing an entrepreneurship research paper can be an exciting and rewarding experience. However, it can also be a daunting task, especially if you are new to the field of entrepreneurship research. Here are some tips and guidelines to help you write a successful entrepreneurship research paper:

  • Choose a narrow and specific topic : The first step in writing an entrepreneurship research paper is to choose a narrow and specific topic that is relevant to the field. Avoid broad topics that are difficult to cover in a single research paper. Instead, choose a topic that is focused and specific, and that allows you to conduct in-depth research.
  • Conduct extensive research : Once you have chosen your topic, it’s time to conduct extensive research. This involves gathering information from a variety of sources, such as academic journals, books, and online resources. Make sure to keep track of your sources and take detailed notes.
  • Develop a strong thesis statement : Your thesis statement is the main argument of your research paper. It should be clear, concise, and specific. Make sure to provide a clear and concise overview of your research topic and the main arguments you will be making in your paper.
  • Use relevant and reliable sources : When conducting research for your entrepreneurship research paper, it’s important to use relevant and reliable sources. This includes academic journals, books, and reputable online sources. Make sure to cite all sources correctly using the appropriate citation style.
  • Organize your paper : Once you have gathered all of your research and developed your thesis statement, it’s time to organize your paper. Make sure to create an outline that includes an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. This will help you stay on track and ensure that your paper flows logically.
  • Use clear and concise language : When writing your entrepreneurship research paper, it’s important to use clear and concise language. Avoid using jargon or technical terms that may be difficult for your audience to understand. Instead, use plain language and explain any complex concepts or terms.
  • Edit and revise your paper : Once you have finished writing your entrepreneurship research paper, it’s important to edit and revise it. This involves checking for spelling and grammatical errors, as well as making sure that your paper flows smoothly and logically. Consider having a peer or mentor review your paper before submitting it.
  • Follow the appropriate citation style : When citing sources in your entrepreneurship research paper, it’s important to follow the appropriate citation style. This includes APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, or Harvard style. Make sure to follow the guidelines for your specific citation style to ensure that your citations are correct.
  • Use visuals to enhance your paper : Visuals, such as graphs, charts, and tables, can be a great way to enhance your entrepreneurship research paper. They can help to illustrate complex concepts and data in a clear and concise way. Make sure to use visuals sparingly and only when they add value to your paper.
  • Seek feedback and revision : Finally, it’s important to seek feedback on your entrepreneurship research paper and be open to revision. Consider having a peer or mentor review your paper and provide feedback. Use this feedback to revise and improve your paper before submitting it.

By following these tips and guidelines, you can write a successful entrepreneurship research paper that is well-researched, well-organized, and effectively communicates your ideas and arguments.

iResearchNet Writing Services for Entrepreneurship Research Papers

In today’s fast-paced academic world, students often struggle to find the time and resources to write a high-quality entrepreneurship research paper. This is where iResearchNet comes in – we are a professional writing service that specializes in helping students write exceptional research papers on entrepreneurship. Our team of experienced writers is well-versed in entrepreneurship and can provide students with custom-written papers that meet their specific needs. Here are the key features of our entrepreneurship research paper writing service:

  • Expert degree-holding writers : We only hire writers with advanced degrees in entrepreneurship or related fields. This ensures that our writers have the necessary knowledge and expertise to produce high-quality papers that meet the highest academic standards.
  • Custom written works : We provide custom-written papers that are tailored to the specific needs and requirements of each student. Our writers work closely with students to ensure that their papers meet their exact specifications.
  • In-depth research : Our writers conduct extensive research on each topic to ensure that the papers we provide are well-researched, accurate, and up-to-date.
  • Custom formatting : We can provide papers in any format that students require, including APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, and others.
  • Top quality : We are committed to providing the highest quality papers possible. Our writers take pride in their work and strive to deliver papers that exceed students’ expectations.
  • Customized solutions : We provide customized solutions that meet the specific needs of each student. Whether students need help with research, writing, editing, or formatting, we can provide the assistance they need.
  • Flexible pricing : We offer flexible pricing options that are designed to fit the budget of any student. Our prices are competitive, and we offer discounts and special offers to make our services even more affordable.
  • Short deadlines : We can provide papers on even the tightest deadlines. Our writers are experienced in working under pressure and can deliver high-quality papers in as little as three hours.
  • Timely delivery : We understand the importance of meeting deadlines, and we guarantee that all papers will be delivered on time.
  • 24/7 support : We provide 24/7 support to ensure that students can get the help they need when they need it. Our support team is available around the clock to answer questions, provide assistance, and address any concerns.

In conclusion, iResearchNet is a professional writing service that specializes in providing high-quality entrepreneurship research papers to students. We have a team of expert writers with advanced degrees in entrepreneurship who are committed to delivering papers that meet the highest academic standards. With our customized solutions, competitive pricing, and 24/7 support, we are the perfect choice for students who need help with their entrepreneurship research papers.

Order Custom Entrepreneurship Research Paper  from iResearchNet

In conclusion, entrepreneurship research paper topics cover a wide range of subjects that are essential for understanding the dynamics of the business world. Students who wish to excel in their academic careers and become successful entrepreneurs in the future must pay attention to the topics they choose for their research papers.

At iResearchNet, we understand the importance of entrepreneurship research and its role in the development of the business world. Our writing services are tailored to provide students with custom research papers that meet their unique requirements. With our team of expert degree-holding writers, in-depth research, and customized solutions, we guarantee top-quality papers that are delivered on time.

In addition to our writing services, we offer flexible pricing, short deadlines up to 3 hours, and 24/7 support to ensure that our clients receive the best possible experience. We also offer custom formatting in all major citation styles, including APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, and Harvard.

At iResearchNet, we value our clients’ privacy and offer absolute confidentiality in all transactions. Our easy order tracking system and money-back guarantee ensure that our clients are satisfied with the services they receive.

In summary, choosing iResearchNet as your partner in entrepreneurship research paper writing will guarantee success in your academic career and future entrepreneurial pursuits. Contact us today and experience the best writing services available in the industry.


entrepreneurship research topics pdf


145 Inspiring Entrepreneurship Research Paper Topics

Table of Contents

If you are a student pursuing a course in entrepreneurship or business management, then mostly as a part of your course, you will be asked to submit a dissertation or thesis on the latest entrepreneurship research topics. Usually, your instructors will suggest some research ideas for you to work on. But in case, you are given a chance to choose an entrepreneurship research topic on your own, possibilities are there for you to experience some challenges. Therefore, to save you from those troubles, here, in this blog, we have uploaded a list of the best 145 entrepreneurship research paper topics and ideas. Also, we have shared some amazing entrepreneurship research paper topic selection tips. Continue reading to uncover more details.

Tips for Choosing a Good Entrepreneurship Research Paper Topic

If you need a good topic for your entrepreneurship research paper, then follow the below-mentioned tips.

  • Always choose a topic that is interesting for you to research and write about.
  • Pick a topic that is neither too broad nor too narrow.
  • Give preference to a topic that has a good scope of discussion and a lot of supporting pieces of evidence to prove the thesis statement in a shorter duration.
  • Select a topic with a lot of reliable sources for reference.
  • Finalize the topic only if it meets your university’s research paper writing guidelines.

List of Entrepreneurship Research Topics and Ideas

In general, entrepreneurship is an interesting subject that is closely related to operating and growing a business successfully. So, for the preparation of an entrepreneurship research paper, you can very well choose to discuss topics that are related to marketing, promotion, finance management, deals, etc.

If you have no idea what topic to choose, explore the list of outstanding entrepreneurship research paper topics and ideas suggested below and from it, pick any topic suitable to your needs.

Outstanding Entrepreneurship Research Paper Topics

  • Entrepreneurism and its effects on economic growth
  • Cloud technology and its implications for entrepreneurship
  • The common personality traits of a successful entrepreneur
  • The major drivers of entrepreneurial growth
  • Strategies used by investors to procure the top entrepreneurs
  • The effect of corporate enterprise training initiatives
  • The major inhibitors of entrepreneurial growth
  • The benefits of becoming an entrepreneur
  • What is crowdsourcing, and how does it function?
  • How do entrepreneurs develop and grow the economy?
  • The factors affecting new venture growth
  • The effect of taxes on entrepreneurs and their decision-making process
  • What alternative marketing tactics work for small-scale food entrepreneurs?
  • Theoretical models for global entrepreneurism
  • How to create equal participation in modern entrepreneurialism?
  • Discuss the importance of entrepreneurial decision-making
  • Economics of entrepreneurship
  • Discuss two most effective leadership styles to apply by entrepreneurs
  • Why every entrepreneur must have a basic knowledge of business laws, accounting, and finance?
  • How universities and governments can assist students to pursue entrepreneurship?

Good Entrepreneurship Research Paper Topics

  • Entrepreneurship as a viable long-term solution to unemployment
  • How to be innovative in business?
  • The role of universities and governments in supporting students pursuing entrepreneurship
  • What laws and fiscal policies encourage entrepreneurship?
  • Describe the qualities and skills of a good entrepreneur.
  • Discuss the issues Indian entrepreneurs face today.
  • How to conduct a successful fundraising campaign?
  • What is the significance of gender in the entrepreneurship?
  • Exploring entrepreneurship as a viable long-term solution to unemployment
  • Regular job versus entrepreneurism: differences, pros, cons, and examples
  • The factors that affect individuals to become entrepreneurs
  • Important personality traits for becoming a good entrepreneur
  • Regular job vs. entrepreneurism: differences, pros, cons, and examples
  • Regular job versus entrepreneurship: benefits, drawbacks, and differences with examples
  • Discuss the fundamentals of becoming an entrepreneur
  • Entrepreneurial Trait Approach: Explain
  • Discuss the hard skill and soft skills every entrepreneur needs to have
  • Describe the connection between market orientation and entrepreneurship

Interesting Entrepreneurship Research Topics

  • Should you become an entrepreneur?
  • The most common risks entrepreneurs face and the ways to mitigate them
  • The basics of becoming an entrepreneur
  • Can entrepreneurship with laws and fiscal policies facilitate economic growth?
  • Why do adults perceive entrepreneurialism with passion?
  • Technological advancements and their impact on entrepreneurship
  • The most common ways entrepreneurs finance their business ideas
  • The psychology techniques entrepreneurs used to get on top of stressful situations
  • Does gender have an impact on developing entrepreneurial skills?
  • How can entrepreneurial innovation drive an organization forward?
  • The common challenges every entrepreneur faces and the ways to overcome them
  • A case study of international entrepreneurism
  • Capitalism is an economic driving factor in less developed countries.
  • Are people born with entrepreneurship, or is there a way to learn it?
  • Leading innovation and technology entrepreneurs: the lessons future entrepreneurs can learn

Unique Entrepreneurship Research Paper Topics

  • A case study on the value and resource allocation for successful entrepreneurial finance
  • Is education important to become entrepreneurs?
  • Discuss market orientation and its effects on entrepreneurship.
  • How to protect entrepreneurs by means of business laws?
  • Discuss the link between entrepreneurship and inequality.
  • Entrepreneurship as a viable long-term solution to unemployment.
  • Discuss the personality traits of an entrepreneur of your choice
  • Entrepreneurs and time management
  • Discuss the benefits of becoming an entrepreneur
  • The role and significance of entrepreneurship education
  • How to sustain enterprise in the innovative landscape?
  • The modern entrepreneurship theories and conceptualizations
  • How do entrepreneurs leverage the internet to start and grow their businesses?
  • Gender culture and entrepreneurism
  • The role of formal education in promoting entrepreneurial spirit

Latest Entrepreneurship Research Ideas

  • The effect of entrepreneurial development on the job market
  • The relation between managerial skills and the promotion of entrepreneurial activities in the private sector
  • What can governments execute in order to promote entrepreneurial ideas?
  • The effect of startup culture in entrepreneurial development in your country
  • How does venture capital drive innovation in established organizations?
  • How to become a successful multi-millionaire entrepreneur?
  • Important factors to sustain entrepreneurship
  • Strategies for improving small-scale enterprises.
  • Is it necessary for entrepreneurs to be filled with self-fulfillment?
  • What is high technology entrepreneurship?
  • Trait Approach to Entrepreneurship
  • How to source raw materials for small-scale enterprises?
  • What is the relationship between Entrepreneurship and Market Orientation?
  • How can inventors find entrepreneurs to merge talents and finance new projects?
  • What are the factors that affect individuals to become entrepreneurs?

Trending Entrepreneurship Research Paper Ideas

  • Discuss the psychology techniques entrepreneurs use to get on top of stressful situations.
  • Discuss the effectiveness of social media entrepreneurship in contemporary business society.
  • Discuss the role of educational institutes and governments in supporting students pursuing entrepreneurship.
  • The common personality traits of a successful entrepreneur.
  • Social Entrepreneurship and the ways to achieve it.
  • Identify Female Personalities Who Are Successful Entrepreneurs
  • What Is Online Entrepreneurship and How Can One Become an Entrepreneur Through the Internet?
  • Online Opportunities for Entrepreneurship
  • Is there growing expertise in a family business and global entrepreneurship?
  • The role of small scale businesses in creating employment
  • Marketing skill and promotion of small and medium-scale enterprises.
  • The impacts of microfinancing on the performance of women entrepreneurs.
  • The effects of skill acquisition on entrepreneurship development
  • An appraisal of success criteria for entrepreneurship

Great Dissertation Topics on Entrepreneurship

  • The impact of cultural factors on entrepreneurial performance
  • The impact of electrical power outrage on the operational performance of a small-scale business.
  • The effects of creativity and innovation on the entrepreneurial performance of the family business.
  • The role of enterprises in boosting foreign investment.
  • The effectiveness of social media entrepreneurship in the contemporary business society.
  • The effects of strategic planning on the performance of small and medium-sized enterprises.
  • The attitude of undergraduates of the social studies unit towards entrepreneurship
  • The development of entrepreneurship in a depressed economy.
  • Techniques for assessing the durability of small-scale business opportunities
  • The effectiveness of trade exhibition as a marketing tool in small and medium-scale entrepreneurship.
  • How does entrepreneurship help to build democracy in service-oriented business?
  • What is your opinion about building a business with relatives and acquaintances?
  • Entrepreneurship in geographical research
  • Explore the entrepreneurial mindset of students
  • The growth of entrepreneurship education in the United States

Popular Entrepreneurship Research Paper Topics

  • Education and Training of Graduate Entrepreneurship
  • Embedding entrepreneurship in a regional milieu through youth enterprise programs.
  • The effect of automobile technology on entrepreneurship for sustainable development
  • Rural Women Entrepreneurship
  • The effects of entrepreneurship development on employment generation
  • The factors influencing entrepreneurial performance in small-scale business
  • The impact of employee compensation on entrepreneurial productivity
  • The effects of entrepreneurship skills on product portfolio development.
  • Is ‘Gut Feel’ a good reason to invest in a startup?
  • E-commerce entrepreneurship
  • How does a social startup decide to commercialize?
  • Is it necessary for entrepreneurs to build trust?
  • How do emotions influence the decision-making and behaviors of entrepreneurs?
  • Entrepreneurship literature and future evolution
  • How do the international experiences of managers contribute to attracting investments from venture capitalists?

Exceptional Entrepreneurship Research Topics

  • To investigate the role of female entrepreneurs in the development of new services in the twenty-first century.
  • To investigate the key characteristics of entrepreneurs in the creation of new ‘unicorns’ (billion-dollar start-ups).
  • Through the study of academic papers, one can gain a better understanding of the entrepreneur’s need for self-fulfillment.
  • An empirical examination of the current era’s validity and significance of established theories of entrepreneurship.
  • To investigate female entrepreneurs’ perceptions in a traditional family business setting.
  • Can technology be the answer to reducing global pollution? Consider Tesla’s electric vehicles.
  • To assess the relationship between exposure to technology and entrepreneurial success, a study of entrepreneurs in India and the United States was conducted.
  • To investigate the difficulties encountered in establishing a technological start-up in developing countries.
  • The study of how Israel created a technological ecosystem framework in order to create the world’s most successful tech start-ups.
  • Entrepreneurship education and its impact on family business sustainability: A case study of Indian business families
  • Investigate the significance of microfinance availability in creating a sustainable entrepreneurship ecosystem in developing countries.
  • A case study comparing China and the United States to assess the role of culture in the development of successful entrepreneurs.
  • Investigate whether the skills and qualities of male and female entrepreneurs are the same or different.
  • An exploratory study to determine the role of government support in the development of female entrepreneurship.
  • Investigate the role of entrepreneurs in reducing the environmental impacts of businesses and industries.

Final Words

Choose the best entrepreneurship research paper topic of your desire from the list of the top 115 entrepreneurship topics suggested in this blog post. In case, you are still confused about what research topic to select and how to write an entrepreneurship essay or thesis, then get in touch with us immediately. We have numerous Entrepreneurial strategy assignment help experts on our platform to offer top-quality assistance with writing research papers on all kinds of entrepreneurship topics. Especially, based on the requirements you share with us, our scholarly writers will prepare and deliver well-structured and plagiarism-free entrepreneurship research papers. Most importantly, by availing of our affordable business management and entrepreneurship assignment help services online, you can also finish your academic work ahead of the deadline and secure the highest grades possible.

Entrepreneurship Research Paper Topics

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entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 10 Oct 2023
  • Cold Call Podcast

Scaling Two Businesses Against the Odds: Wendy Estrella’s Founder’s Journey

Entrepreneur Wendy Estrella is attempting to simultaneously scale her law practice, as well as her property management and development company. What strategy will benefit both businesses, and is there a downside to scaling them together, rather than focusing on each one separately? Harvard Business School senior lecturer Jeffrey Bussgang and Estrella discuss her unique founder’s journey – from immigrating to the U.S. to building both of her businesses in Lawrence, Massachusetts despite the specific challenges she faced as a minority entrepreneur. The related case is “Wendy Estrella: Scaling Multiple Businesses.”

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 01 Aug 2023

Can Business Transform Primary Health Care Across Africa?

mPharma, headquartered in Ghana, is trying to create the largest pan-African health care company. Their mission is to provide primary care and a reliable and fairly priced supply of drugs in the nine African countries where they operate. Co-founder and CEO Gregory Rockson needs to decide which component of strategy to prioritize in the next three years. His options include launching a telemedicine program, expanding his pharmacies across the continent, and creating a new payment program to cover the cost of common medications. Rockson cares deeply about health equity, but his venture capital-financed company also must be profitable. Which option should he focus on expanding? Harvard Business School Professor Regina Herzlinger and case protagonist Gregory Rockson discuss the important role business plays in improving health care in the case, “mPharma: Scaling Access to Affordable Primary Care in Africa.”

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 05 Jul 2023

How Unilever Is Preparing for the Future of Work

Launched in 2016, Unilever’s Future of Work initiative aimed to accelerate the speed of change throughout the organization and prepare its workforce for a digitalized and highly automated era. But despite its success over the last three years, the program still faces significant challenges in its implementation. How should Unilever, one of the world's largest consumer goods companies, best prepare and upscale its workforce for the future? How should Unilever adapt and accelerate the speed of change throughout the organization? Is it even possible to lead a systematic, agile workforce transformation across several geographies while accounting for local context? Harvard Business School professor and faculty co-chair of the Managing the Future of Work Project William Kerr and Patrick Hull, Unilever’s vice president of global learning and future of work, discuss how rapid advances in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and automation are changing the nature of work in the case, “Unilever's Response to the Future of Work.”

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 16 May 2023
  • In Practice

After Silicon Valley Bank's Flameout, What's Next for Entrepreneurs?

Silicon Valley Bank's failure in the face of rising interest rates shook founders and funders across the country. Julia Austin, Jeffrey Bussgang, and Rembrand Koning share key insights for rattled entrepreneurs trying to make sense of the financing landscape.

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 14 Mar 2023

Can AI and Machine Learning Help Park Rangers Prevent Poaching?

Globally there are too few park rangers to prevent the illegal trade of wildlife across borders, or poaching. In response, Spatial Monitoring and Reporting Tool (SMART) was created by a coalition of conservation organizations to take historical data and create geospatial mapping tools that enable more efficient deployment of rangers. SMART had demonstrated significant improvements in patrol coverage, with some observed reductions in poaching. Then a new predictive analytic tool, the Protection Assistant for Wildlife Security (PAWS), was created to use artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) to try to predict where poachers would be likely to strike. Jonathan Palmer, Executive Director of Conservation Technology for the Wildlife Conservation Society, already had a good data analytics tool to help park rangers manage their patrols. Would adding an AI- and ML-based tool improve outcomes or introduce new problems? Harvard Business School senior lecturer Brian Trelstad discusses the importance of focusing on the use case when determining the value of adding a complex technology solution in his case, “SMART: AI and Machine Learning for Wildlife Conservation.”

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 17 Jan 2023

8 Trends to Watch in 2023

Quiet quitting. Inflation. The economy. This year could bring challenges for executives and entrepreneurs, but there might also be opportunities for focused leaders to gain advantage, say Harvard Business School faculty members.

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 10 Jan 2023

Time to Move On? Career Advice for Entrepreneurs Preparing for the Next Stage

So many people shift from one job to the next, with little time to consider how the experience changed them and what they want out of future ventures. Julia Austin recommends that entrepreneurs look within and reflect on these questions before they jump into a new opportunity.

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 03 Jan 2023

Wordle: Can a Pandemic Phenomenon Sustain in the Long Term?

Wordle went from a personal game, created by a developer for his girlfriend, to a global phenomenon with two million users in just a few months. Then The New York Times made an unexpected bid to acquire it. But will Wordle outlast other pandemic pastimes? Harvard Business School senior lecturer Christina Wallace discusses the journey of software engineer and accidental entrepreneur Josh Wardle in the case, “Wordle.”

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 26 Oct 2022
  • Research & Ideas

How Paid Promos Take the Shine Off YouTube Stars (and Tips for Better Influencer Marketing)

Influencers aspire to turn "likes" into dollars through brand sponsorships, but these deals can erode their reputations, says research by Shunyuan Zhang. Marketers should seek out authentic voices on YouTube, not necessarily those with the most followers.

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 19 Oct 2022

Cofounder Courtship: How to Find the Right Mate—for Your Startup

Like any other long-term partnership, choosing the right cofounder is a complicated decision with big implications for a venture. Julia Austin offers practical advice for entrepreneurs who are searching for "the one."

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 06 Sep 2022

Reinventing an Iconic Independent Bookstore

In 2020, Kwame Spearman (MBA 2011) made the career-shifting decision to leave a New York City-based consulting job to return to his hometown of Denver, Colorado, and take over an iconic independent bookstore, The Tattered Cover. Spearman saw an opportunity to reinvent the local business to build a sense of community after the pandemic. But he also had to find a way to meet the big challenges facing independent booksellers amid technological change and shifting business models. Professor Ryan Raffaelli and Spearman discuss Spearman’s vision for reinventing The Tattered Cover, as well as larger insights around how local businesses can successfully compete with online and big box retailers in the case, “Kwame Spearman at Tattered Cover: Reinventing Brick-and-Mortar Retail.”

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 16 Aug 2022

Now Is the Time for Entrepreneurs to Play Offense

With the specter of recession looming, many worried founders and executives are aggressively shoring up cash. But shrewd entrepreneurs are using these six tactics instead to gain advantage, says Jeffrey Bussgang.

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 26 Jul 2022

Can Bombas Reach New Customers while Maintaining Its Social Mission?

Bombas was started in 2013 with a dual mission: to deliver quality socks and donate much-needed footwear to people living in shelters. By 2021, it had become one of America’s most visible buy-one-give-one companies, with over $250 million in annual revenue and 50 million pairs of socks donated. Later, as Bombas expanded into underwear, t-shirts, and slippers, the company struggled to determine what pace of growth would best allow it to reach new customers while maintaining its social mission. Harvard Business School assistant professor Elizabeth Keenan discusses the case, "Bee-ing Better at Bombas."

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 07 Jul 2022

How a Multimillion-Dollar Ice Cream Startup Melted Down (and Bounced Back)

A Brooklyn-based ice cream shop was getting buzz, and Disney was pitching a brand partnership. So how did the business wind up filing for bankruptcy? A case study by Thomas Eisenmann and Lindsay N. Hyde examines the rise and fall—and recent rebound—of Ample Hills Creamery.

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 10 May 2022

Being Your Own Boss Can Pay Off, but Not Always with Big Pay

Working for yourself might bring freedom and autonomy, but it increasingly comes with a major risk: low pay. Research by William Kerr explores the shifting sands of self-employment.

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 03 May 2022

Can a Social Entrepreneur End Homelessness in the US?

Community Solutions is a nonprofit founded in 2011 by Rosanne Haggerty, with the ambitious goal of ending chronic homelessness in America. Its “Built for Zero” methodology takes a public health approach, helping communities across the US use better data collection and outreach to improve government processes and piecemeal solutions. In 2021, Community Solutions was awarded a $100 million grant from the MacArthur Foundation, and Haggerty and her team had to decide how to prioritize projects and spending to maximize the grant’s impact. Should they continue to focus on unhoused veterans or expand their work to include families and youth in need of housing? Senior Lecturer Brian Trelstad discusses Haggerty’s approach in his case, "Community Solutions."

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 22 Feb 2022

How to Scale a Startup Marketplace for Used Furniture

AptDeco, a peer-to-peer marketplace for used furniture in the New York City area, was growing rapidly in the massive $120 billion furniture market, despite its complexity and high costs. Co-founders Reham Fagiri and Kalam Dennis were considering different options to scale the business, including converting sellers into buyers and vice versa, finding superusers to fuel the supply for their platform, expanding to new markets, and rebranding with a sustainability focus. Professor Ayelet Israeli and AptDeco co-founder Kalam Dennis discuss the best way to scale the business in the case, “AptDeco: Circular Economy Furniture Marketplace.” Open for comment; 0 Comments.

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 25 Jan 2022

How Footwear Startup Allbirds is Decarbonizing Fashion

In 2021, the footwear startup Allbirds was extending its product range into apparel and expanding beyond its online store to open more retail stores around the world. It was also freely sharing its know-how and material innovations with its competitors to try to scale its efforts to decarbonize fashion, by substituting natural materials for conventional petroleum-based materials and leather. But the company also had to find ways to remain differentiated, based on design and comfort. Professor Mike Toffel and Allbirds co-founder and CEO Joey Zwillinger discuss the growing environmental impact of the fashion industry and how the company managed the tension between advancing its environmental mission and staying ahead of competitors in the case, Allbirds: Decarbonizing Fashion. Open for comment; 0 Comments.

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 11 Jan 2022

Can Entrepreneurs and Governments Team Up to Solve Big Problems?

In 2017, Shield AI’s quadcopter, with no pilot and no flight plan, could clear a building and outpace human warfighters by almost five minutes. It was evidence that autonomous robots could help protect civilian and service member lives. But was it also evidence that Shield AI—a startup barely two years past founding—could ask their newest potential customer, the US government, for a large contract for a system of coordinated, exploring robots? Or would it scare them away? Harvard Business School professor Mitch Weiss and Brandon Tseng, Shield AI’s CGO and co-founder, discuss these and other challenges entrepreneurs face when working with the public sector, and how investing in new ideas can enable entrepreneurs and governments to join forces and solve big problems in the case, “Shield AI.” Open for comment; 0 Comments.

entrepreneurship research topics pdf

  • 10 Jan 2022

How to Get Companies to Make Investments That Benefit Everyone

Want more organizations to give back to their communities? Frank Nagle says the success of open source software offers an innovative—and unexpected—roadmap for social good. Open for comment; 0 Comments.

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Entrepreneurship Research Paper Topics

In the bustling world of commerce and innovation, entrepreneurship stands as the vital engine driving economic growth, job creation, and societal change. Aspiring entrepreneurs, business scholars, and interested observers alike continually seek deeper insights into this dynamic domain. This article aims to unveil a wide array of entrepreneurship research topics designed to catalyze your curiosity and inspire groundbreaking research. From exploring start-up strategies, innovation, and risk management to dissecting the role of leadership, cultural influences, and digital transformation in entrepreneurship, these topics span across multiple dimensions of the entrepreneurial landscape. 

What Branches Does Entrepreneurship Include?

Entrepreneurship is a dynamic and diverse field that encompasses a variety of branches. At its core, entrepreneurship involves the creation, development, and management of a new business venture with the aim of generating profit and value for stakeholders. The different branches of entrepreneurship include small business entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship, corporate entrepreneurship, and technology entrepreneurship, each with its unique characteristics, challenges, and opportunities. Regardless of the branch, entrepreneurship requires a combination of creativity, innovation, risk-taking, and strategic thinking to succeed.

How to Choose a Good Topic on Entrepreneurship ?

Choosing a good topic on entrepreneurship requires careful consideration and research. Here are five steps to help you select a suitable topic:

  • Identify your interests and expertise:

Consider your personal interests, skills, and knowledge. Entrepreneurship covers a broad range of areas, such as startups, small business management, social entrepreneurship, innovation, marketing, finance, and more. Identify the areas that you find intriguing and where you have some expertise or experience.

  • Research current trends and market demand:

Stay updated on the latest trends and market demands in the entrepreneurial landscape. Look for emerging industries, innovative business models, and areas where there is a need for solutions or improvement. Explore news articles, industry reports, market research, and entrepreneurial communities to gather insights into what topics are gaining traction.

  • Consider your target audience:

Determine the audience you want to target with your topic. Are you writing for aspiring entrepreneurs, established business owners, investors, or a specific industry? Understanding your audience's needs and interests will help you narrow down your topic choices and create content that resonates with them.

  • Evaluate competition and uniqueness:

Conduct a competitive analysis to evaluate the existing content and resources available on potential topics. Assess the level of competition and consider how you can bring a unique perspective or value to the subject matter. Look for gaps in the market or areas where you can provide a fresh viewpoint or insights.

  • Assess feasibility and long-term interest:

Evaluate the feasibility of your chosen topic in terms of research availability, accessibility of resources, and your ability to provide valuable and engaging content. Additionally, consider your long-term interest in the topic. Choose a subject that you are passionate about and willing to invest time and effort into exploring and expanding your knowledge over the long run.

Easy Entrepreneurship Research Topics

  • Factors Influencing Small Business Growth
  • Strategies for Successful Bootstrapping in Entrepreneurship
  • The Role of Mentorship in Entrepreneurial Success
  • Analysis of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Correlation
  • Challenges Faced by Women Entrepreneurs
  • Impact of Entrepreneurial Education on Venture Success
  • Significance of Entrepreneurial Networks on Business Performance
  • Importance of Market Research in Startup Development
  • Government Policies Fostering Entrepreneurship
  • Benefits and Challenges of Family-Owned Businesses
  • Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Entrepreneurial Ventures
  • Crowdfunding and Its Impact on Startup Financing
  • Rise of Social Entrepreneurship and Its Implications
  • Emotional Intelligence in Entrepreneurial Leadership
  • Relationship Between Entrepreneurial Mindset and Business Success
  • Impact of Technology on Traditional Business Models
  • Opportunities and Challenges of the Sharing Economy for Entrepreneurs
  • Role of Sustainability in Entrepreneurship
  • Cultural Factors and Their Influence on Entrepreneurial Behavior
  • Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Their Impact on Innovation and Growth

Interesting Ideas for an Entrepreneurship Essay

  • Technology’s Impact on Entrepreneurship
  • Social Entrepreneurship and Global Challenges
  • Psychology of Successful Entrepreneurs
  • Fostering an Entrepreneurial Mindset in Education
  • Networking for Entrepreneurial Success
  • Intrapreneurship Within Organizations
  • Challenges and Opportunities in the Digital Age
  • Government Policies and Small Businesses
  • Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Regional Development
  • Sustainable Entrepreneurship: Profit and Responsibility
  • Overcoming Biases: Women in Entrepreneurship
  • Failure and Resilience in Entrepreneurship
  • Rise of Solopreneurship: Benefits and Drawbacks
  • Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets
  • Cultural Factors and Entrepreneurial Success
  • Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Entrepreneurs
  • Innovation and Creativity in Ventures
  • Mentors and Advisors for Growth
  • Crowdfunding and Startup Success
  • Future Trends in Entrepreneurship

Research Paper on Entrepreneurship for High School

  • Entrepreneurial Education’s Impact on Creativity in High School
  • Entrepreneurship’s Influence on Local Economic Growth
  • Challenges and Opportunities for Young Entrepreneurs in the Digital Age
  • Promoting Women-Led Businesses in Entrepreneurship
  • Social Entrepreneurship’s Role in Addressing Social and Environmental Issues
  • Family Background’s Effect on High School Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions
  • Government Policies Promoting Youth Entrepreneurship
  • Franchise Ownership as a Pathway to High School Entrepreneurship
  • Technology and Digital Platforms Supporting Youth Entrepreneurship
  • Characteristics of Successful Young Entrepreneurs
  • Entrepreneurship Education’s Impact on High School Students’ Career Choices
  • Entrepreneurship as a Solution to Youth Unemployment
  • Mentors and Role Models in Shaping Young Entrepreneurs’ Success
  • Crowdfunding’s Effect on Capital Access for Young Entrepreneurs
  • Cultural Factors Influencing High School Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions
  • Entrepreneurial Networks and Social Capital for Young Entrepreneurs
  • Entrepreneurship’s Impact on Personal Development and Self-Efficacy
  • Innovation and Creativity in Entrepreneurial Success
  • Starting a Business While in High School: Challenges and Benefits
  • Social Media Marketing for Young Entrepreneurs

Entrepreneurship and Business Law Topics

  • Intellectual Property Protection for Startups
  • Legal Considerations for Forming a Business Partnership
  • Employment Law Essentials for Entrepreneurs
  • Regulatory Compliance for Small Businesses
  • Contract Law for Entrepreneurs
  • Liability and Risk Management in Entrepreneurship
  • Legal Issues in E-commerce and Online Businesses
  • Securities Regulations and Fundraising for Startups
  • Tax Law Implications for Small Businesses
  • Data Protection and Privacy Laws for Startups
  • Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Antitrust Laws and Their Impact on Entrepreneurship
  • Legal Challenges in International Business Expansion
  • Intellectual Property Rights in the Digital Age
  • Legal Issues in Crowdfunding and Crowdsourcing
  • Licensing and Franchising Agreements
  • Legal Aspects of Raising Venture Capital
  • Consumer Protection Laws for Startups
  • Mergers and Acquisitions: Legal Considerations
  • Legal Frameworks for Social Enterprises

Advanced Research Topics About Entrepreneurship

  • Entrepreneurial Leadership and Innovation
  • Digital Transformation in Entrepreneurial Ventures
  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Entrepreneurial Success
  • Entrepreneurial Networks and Venture Growth
  • Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Startup Success
  • Government Policies and Entrepreneurship
  • Women Entrepreneurs in Emerging Economies
  • Cultural Factors and Entrepreneurial Decision-Making
  • Intellectual Property Rights and Entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurial Orientation and Firm Performance
  • Entrepreneurial Failure and Subsequent Activities
  • Managing Entrepreneurial Risks in Dynamic Environments
  • Entrepreneurial Mindset and Intentions
  • Entrepreneurial Education and Startup Success
  • Social Networks and Opportunity Recognition
  • Angel Investors and Early-Stage Startups
  • Exit Strategies and Long-Term Entrepreneurial Success
  • Digital Platforms and Entrepreneurial Activities
  • Entrepreneurial Orientation and Sustainable Practices
  • Entrepreneurship and Regional Economic Development

Great Entrepreneurs of Our Times

  • Elon Musk: Revolutionizing the Automotive, Energy, and Space Industries
  • Jeff Bezos: Transforming E-commerce and Creating the World’s Largest Online Marketplace
  • Mark Zuckerberg: Founding Facebook and Shaping Social Media as We Know It
  • Oprah Winfrey: Building a Media Empire and Becoming a Prominent Philanthropist
  • Richard Branson: Establishing the Virgin Group and Disrupting Multiple Industries
  • Jack Ma: Founding Alibaba Group and Revolutionizing E-commerce in China
  • Steve Jobs: Co-founding Apple Inc. And Revolutionizing the Technology Industry
  • Larry Page and Sergey Brin: Creating Google and Reshaping the Internet Landscape
  • Warren Buffett: Becoming One of the World’s Most Successful Investors and Business Magnates
  • Indra Nooyi: Leading Pepsico as CEO and Driving Its Global Growth
  • Bill Gates: Co-founding Microsoft and Becoming a Prominent Philanthropist
  • Reed Hastings: Founding Netflix and Revolutionizing the Entertainment Industry
  • Arianna Huffington: Founding the Huffington Post and Shaping Digital Media
  • Tony Hsieh: Transforming Online Retail With Zappos and Focusing on Company Culture
  • Sara Blakely: Founding Spanx and Revolutionizing the Shapewear Industry
  • Larry Ellison: Co-founding Oracle Corporation and Pioneering Enterprise Software
  • Howard Schultz: Transforming Starbucks Into a Global Coffeehouse Chain
  • Angela Ahrendts: Transforming Burberry and Leading Apple’s Retail Operations
  • Brian Chesky: Co-founding Airbnb and Disrupting the Hospitality Industry
  • Travis Kalanick: Co-founding Uber and Revolutionizing the Transportation Industry

Entrepreneurship in Different Countries

  • Startup Ecosystem in Silicon Valley, USA
  • The Rise of Fintech Startups in London, UK
  • Social Entrepreneurship in India: Challenges and Opportunities
  • The Tech Startup Scene in Tel Aviv, Israel
  • Sustainable Fashion Startups in Berlin, Germany
  • Mobile Payment Startups in Kenya: Revolutionizing Financial Inclusion
  • Food Delivery Startups in China: The Battle of Giants
  • Entrepreneurship in the Renewable Energy Sector in Denmark
  • E-Commerce Startups in Brazil: Tapping Into a Growing Market
  • Blockchain Startups in Switzerland: The Crypto Hub
  • Agri-Tech Startups in the Netherlands: Innovations in Farming
  • Healthtech Startups in Singapore: Pioneering Healthcare Solutions
  • Artificial Intelligence Startups in Canada: A Hotspot for AI Innovation
  • Clean Water Startups in Mexico: Addressing Water Scarcity Challenges
  • Edtech Startups in South Korea: Transforming Education
  • Tourism Startups in Australia: Exploring Unique Travel Experiences
  • Fashion and Design Startups in Italy: Embracing Heritage and Innovation
  • Green Transportation Startups in Sweden: Building a Sustainable Future
  • Media and Entertainment Startups in Nigeria: Nollywood’s Digital Revolution
  • Financial Technology Startups in Hong Kong: Bridging the East and West in Finance

Good Entrepreneurship Questions

  • What Are the Key Attributes or Qualities of a Successful Entrepreneur?
  • Why Do Entrepreneurs Pursue and Assess Business Opportunities?
  • What Obstacles and Hurdles Do Entrepreneurs Face in the Current Business Landscape?
  • How Can Entrepreneurs Effectively Mitigate and Manage Risks in Their Ventures?
  • In What Ways Does Innovation Contribute to the Triumph of an Entrepreneurial Venture?
  • How Do Entrepreneurs Cultivate and Sustain a Robust Network of Contacts?
  • What Tactics Can Entrepreneurs Employ to Secure Funding for Their Startups?
  • Why Is Market Research Crucial in the Early Stages of a New Business?
  • What Are Some Inventive Marketing Strategies for Entrepreneurs With Limited Budgets?
  • How Do Entrepreneurs Distinguish Themselves and Their Products/Services in a Saturated Marketplace?
  • What Are the Potential Advantages and Disadvantages of Collaborating With Fellow Entrepreneurs or Businesses?
  • How Do Entrepreneurs Establish a Compelling Brand for Their Venture?
  • What Are Some Effective Methods for Managing Time and Maintaining Productivity as an Entrepreneur?
  • How Do Entrepreneurs Adeptly Lead and Motivate Their Team Members?
  • What Are the Pivotal Factors to Consider When Scaling a Business?
  • How Do Entrepreneurs Adapt to Evolving Market Trends and Shifting Customer Preferences?
  • What Ethical Considerations Should Entrepreneurs Bear in Mind While Running Their Ventures?
  • How Do Entrepreneurs Leverage Technology to Streamline Operations and Enhance Efficiency?
  • What Strategies Can Entrepreneurs Employ to Navigate and Outperform Competitors in the Entrepreneurial Space?
  • How Do Entrepreneurs Strike a Healthy Work-Life Balance While Building and Managing Their Businesses?

So, Entrepreneurship Research Topics can be particularly challenging to write due to their multidisciplinary nature, the need for originality, and the requirement to stay current with the ever-evolving business landscape. Additionally, these topics demand a deep understanding of various theories, models, and real-world case studies, which makes it time-consuming and complex for students and researchers. 

Consequently, opting for's professional writing services becomes an ideal choice in such situations. By choosing, you gain access to a team of experienced writers who are well-versed in entrepreneurship research and possess the necessary skills to deliver high-quality, well-researched, and plagiarism-free content. 

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entrepreneurship research topics pdf



List of Entrepreneurship Project Topics and Materials PDF

List of Entrepreneurship Project Topics and Research Thesis Materials PDF and DOC File Download for Final Year Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students in the University and Polytechnic.

Approved Read-Made Entrepreneurship Research Topics with Seminar Works for the Degree of National Diploma (ND), Higher National Diploma (HND), (BSC) Bachelor of Sciences, (MSC) Master of Science, and Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy).

Entrepreneurship Thesis and Dissertation Topics, Proposal Topics, Journals, Presentations, Seminar Topics, and Research Papers, and Project Reports can also be gotten from this page.

All Project Materials for the Entrepreneurship Department Listed on this Research Page have their Complete work from Chapters 1 to 5 which are: Title Page and the Case Study, Table Of Contents, Abstract, the Background of the Study, Statement of the Problem, Research Questions, Objectives of the Study, Research Hypothesis, Signification of the Study, the Scope of the Study, the Definition Of Terms, Organization of the Study, Literature Review (Theoretical Framework or Conceptual Framework), Research Methodology, Sources of Data Collection, the Population of the Study, Sampling and Sampling Distribution, Validation of Research Instrument, Method of Data Analysis, Data Analysis, Introduction, Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation, References/Bibliography/Citations and Questionnaire (Appendix).

The Topics below are for Nigerian Students, Ghanaian Students, and International Students. Countries like (Kenya, Liberia, Cameroon, United States, Uk, Canada, Germany, South Africa, Zambia, India e.t.c).

Do You Need Help? Call us or Whatsapp us  @  (+234)  08060082010, 08107932631,  09075193621  or  Via Email:  [email protected]

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Entrepreneurship and Socio-economic Development in Oron Municipality

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Effectiveness of Skill Acquisition Programmes Among Technical Education in University in Rivers State

Saleable entrepreneurial skills need of secretarial administration graduate for employability and career sustainability in ogun state, exploring the strategies adopted by small and medium enterprises to survive the corona virus pandemic in the sunyani municipality, impact of entrepreneurial orientation on smes survival potential in lagos state, the impact of covid-19 on profitability of ict small and medium scale enterprise, entrepreneurial skills required by women retirees for processing of garri as sustainable business in enugu state, poverty alleviation – the role of government and small scale businesses, the role of entrepreneurship education on graduate manpower development in lagos state.

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Assessment of potentials of FUELS-LESS generator by Alternative to energy insecurity among small business in Nasarawa state

Business education undergraduate students’ perception of community resources for the teaching and learning of entrepreneurship in rivers state university, effect of coronavirus on small medium enterprises performance in benin city, service quality and customer satisfaction in smes in benin city, an examination of job creation and its relevance to the youth development, the impact of covid-19 on smes in nigeria, the relevance of online marketing on the performance of small and medium scale enterprises (smes) in nigeria.

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Demand And Supply Of Trade/Entrepreneurial Subject Teachers In Education District 111 Of Lagos State

Syntactic innovation processes in nigerian english, influence of graduate entrepreneurship fund (gef) on youth economic inclusion.

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