It consists of two parts:
- completion of a dissertation or doctoral thesis (comprehensive academic paper) presenting the research methods and results
- an oral examination.
Both parts must be completed successfully to obtain a doctoral degree. Doctorates usually take 3-4 years to complete.
JGU offers different types of doctorates:
- Individual doctorate under the guidance of one supervisor only
- Bi-national doctorates under the joint supervision of two doctoral advisors from two different countries and a jointly awarded doctoral title ( Co-tutelle de these )
- Structured doctorate with additional integration into a structured training program. A list of all structured programs with links to their respective home pages can be found here .
- costs & funding
Hauptnavigation, doctoral dissertations, submitting printed and electronic doctoral dissertations, catalog search, website search.
To ensure a quick and smooth process, we have summarized the most important information for you.
Preparing the Printed and Electronic Versions
Have two copies of your dissertation printed, including
- One copy in metal-free hardcover binding and
- One copy in simple binding.
- You may prepare abstracts in German and/or in English if you wish.
- The acknowledgement
- The names of supervisors
- Decide whether you want to make the CV freely available in the electronic version (optional).
- Important: the electronic version must otherwise be identical to the print version (page count, title page, illustrations, bibliography, tables, etc.).
- Create a PDF file . Important: do not activate copy or password protection .
- A university account (Data Center account) is essential to upload the dissertation to the university’s publication server and should be obtained in advance from the Data Center (ZDV) .
Uploading the Electronic Version
- Upload the electronic version to Gutenberg Open Science .
- There, click the link Sign on to: > My Open Science.
- Log in with your university account.
- Click on the Start a New Submission button and select the collection Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz > JGU-Publikationen .
- On the following pages, you can describe and upload your publication step by step.
- After the publishing process is complete, you will receive an email with the license agreement.
- Please obtain the consent of all persons involved (supervisors, other participants) to name them. Alternatively, you can delete the names before uploading. It is not necessary to obtain permission from the dean to include their name, the name simply remains.
- Send the signed deposit license to [email protected] or bring it with you, printed out and signed, when submitting the copies.
- Please enter your current email address . Check your mailbox regularly until the end of the process so that you can respond quickly to queries.
- Please be aware that you may have to carry out edits on the electronic version (for example, if the pages do not match).
Table: Printed and Electronic Versions Compared
Table (PDF): Printed and Electronic Versions Compared
Checklists for marking off the required steps can be found on the following pages:
- Dissertation Checklist
- Habilitation Checklist
The printed copies can be delivered either by post or in person during service hours at the University Medical Library or via the yellow box at the entrance to the Georg Forster Building Library .
Mailing address: Mainz University Library Central Library Jakob-Welder-Weg 6 55128 Mainz
Please note that we cannot issue a receipt . A confirmation note will be sent directly to the department.
Any questions? We have created an overview for you:
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Measurement of the proton scalar polarizabilities at MAMI Mornacchi, Edoardo Ph.D. Thesis, University of Mainz, 2021 Download PhD_Mornacchi
First investigation of electromagnetic coupling of the d*(2380) hexaquark Kay, Stephen John Donald Ph.D. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2018 Download PhD_Kay
Spin Polarizability of a Proton using Polarized Photon Beam and Polarized Butanol Target at Mainz Microtron Paudyal, Dilli Ph.D. Thesis, University of Regina, 2017 Download file
Measurement of polarization Observables in π⁰ and π⁰ π⁰ Photoproduction from Protons and Neutrons at MAMI and ELSA Dieterle, Manuel Ph.D. Thesis, Basel University, 2015 Download not available
Probing Nuclear Structure through Single Polarization Observables of Compton Scattering and π⁰ Photoproduction within the Δ(1232) Resonance Region Collicott, Cristina Ph.D. Thesis, Dalhousie University, 2015 Download file
Erste Messung der π⁰-Photoproduktion an transversal polarisierten Protonen nahe der Schwelle Otte, Peter-Bernd Ph.D. Thesis, Mainz University, 2015 Download file
Experimental study of nucleon resonance contributions to η-photoproduction on the neutron Werthmüller, Dominik Ph. D. Thesis, University of Basel, 2014 Download file
First Measurement of F Polarization Observable in Pion Photoproduction Hall Barrientos, Pauline Ph.D. Thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2012 Download not available
Measuring proton spin polarizabilities with polarized Compton Scattering Martel, Philippe Ph.D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, 2012 Download file
Photoproduction of mesons off ⁷Li - properties of hadrons in nuclear matter Maghrbi, Yasser Ph. D. Thesis, University of Basel, 2011 Download file
First Doubly Polarised Photoproduction on ³He at the Photon Beam of MAMI Aguar Bartolomé, Patricia Ph.D Thesis, Mainz University, 2011 Download file
Photoproduction of neutral Kaons on Deuterium Bantawa, K. Ph.D Thesis, Kent State University, 2009 Download file
Bestimmung des Dalitz-Plot-Parameters α für den Zerfall η → 3π⁰ mit dem Crystal Ball am MAMI Unverzagt, M. Ph.D Thesis, Bonn, 2008 Download file
Double pion photoproduction off the proton at threshold and in the second resonance region Zehr, F. Ph.D Thesis, Uni Basel Download file
The Magnetic DipoleMoment of the Δ⁺(1232) Resonance Boillat, B. Ph.D Thesis, Uni Basel Download file
Study of the Helicity Dependence of Single Pion Photoproduction on the Deuteron Martinez, M. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 2007 Download file
Measurement of the branching ratio for eta-meson decay into a neutral pion and two photons Brudvik, J. Ph.D Thesis, University of California Los Angeles Download file
Aufbau des Crystal Ball-Detektorsystems und Untersuchung der Helizitätsasymmetrie in γp → pπ⁰π⁰ Krambrich, D. Dissertation, Universität Mainz, 2007 Download file
Strahlungsbegleitete π⁰ Photoproduktion am Proton Schumann, S. Ph.D Thesis, University of Bonn, 2007 Download file
Coherent π⁰ Photoproduction on Nuclei Tarbert, C.M. Ph.D Thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2007 Download file
Radiative π⁰ photoproduction in the region of the Δ(1232) resonance Downie, E. Ph.D Thesis, Uni Glasgow, 2006 Download file
Measurement of the Helicity Dependence of Deuteron Photodisintegration for Photon Energies below 450 MeV Jahn, O. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 2005 Download file
Strahlunsbegleitete Pion-Photoproduktion am Proton Rost, M. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 2005 Download not available
Photoproduction of pion pairs from calcium nuclei Bloch, F. Ph.D Thesis, Uni Basel Download file
Aufbau des GDH-Experiments und Messung der Helizitätsabhängigkeit von γ → pπ⁺π⁻ von der Schwelle bis 800 MeV Lang, M. Mainz, 2004 Download file
Pion Polarizability Measurement via Radiative Pion Photoproduction Giller, I. Ph.D Thesis, Tel Aviv University, 2004 Download not available
Messung der Polarisierbarkeiten des Pions am MAMI Caselotti, G. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 2002 Download file
Untersuchung der Helizitätsabhängigkeit der Einpionphotoproduktion am Proton Preobrajenski, I. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 2001 Download file
Photoproduktion neutraler Pionen am Proton mit linear polarisierten Photonen im Bereich der Δ(1232)-Resonanz Leukel, R. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 2001 Download file
Photoproduktion neutraler Pionen am Proton mit linear polarisierten Photonen im Bereich der Schwelle Schmidt, A. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 2001 Download file
Messung der Polarisierbarkeiten des Protons Olmos de León, V. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 2000 Download file
Erste Untersuchungen zur Messung helizitätsabhängiger γN-Wirkungsquerschnitte für das GDH-Experiment Heid, E. Mainz, 2000 Download file
Die Strahlasymmetrie in der Deuteron-Photospaltung im Bereich von 160 bis 410 MeV Wartenberg, S. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 1997 Download file
Photoproduktion neutraler Pionen am Proton im ersten und zweiten Resonanzgebiet Härter, F. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 1996 Download file
Messung der Photonasymmetrien für die geladene und neutrale Pionphotoproduktion am Proton und das E2/M1 Verhältnis Krahn, H.-P. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 1996 Download file
Comptonstreuung am Proton im Bereich der Δ Resonanz Peise, J. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 1996 Download file
Experimentelle Untersuchung der Photoproduktion neutraler Pionen am ¹²C im Bereich der Δ-Resonanz Schmitz, M. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 1996 Download file
Photoproduktion neutraler Pionen am Proton unter einem Laborwinkel von 60° im Energiebereich der ersten und zweiten Resonanz Schneider, M. Promotion, Universität Mainz, 1994 Download file
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- 07 November 2023
Nature retracts controversial superconductivity paper by embattled physicist
- Davide Castelvecchi
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
Physicist Ranga Dias is under investigation by his institution, the University of Rochester in New York. Credit: Lauren Petracca/New York Times/Redux/eyevine
Nature has retracted a controversial paper 1 claiming the discovery of a superconductor — a material that carries electrical currents with zero resistance — capable of operating at room temperature and relatively low pressure.
Why a blockbuster superconductivity claim met a wall of scepticism
The text of the retraction notice states that it was requested by eight co-authors. “They have expressed the view as researchers who contributed to the work that the published paper does not accurately reflect the provenance of the investigated materials, the experimental measurements undertaken and the data-processing protocols applied,” it says, adding that these co-authors “have concluded that these issues undermine the integrity of the published paper”. (The Nature news team is independent from its journals team.)
It is the third high-profile retraction of a paper by the two lead authors, physicists Ranga Dias at the University of Rochester in New York and Ashkan Salamat at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV). Nature withdrew a separate paper last year 2 and Physical Review Letters retracted one this August 3 . It spells more trouble in particular for Dias, whom some researchers allege plagiarized portions of his PhD thesis . Dias has objected to the first two retractions and not responded regarding the latest. Salamat approved the two this year.
“It is at this point hardly surprising that the team of Dias and Salamat has a third high-profile paper being retracted,” says Paul Canfield, a physicist at Iowa State University in Ames and at Ames National Laboratory. Many physicists had seen the Nature retraction as inevitable after the other two — and especially since The Wall Street Journal and Science reported in September that 8 of the 11 authors of the paper — including Salamat — had requested it in a letter to the journal.
Dias and Salamat did not respond to a request for comment by Nature ’s news team. The retraction states that he and two other co-authors — Nugzari Khalvashi-Sutter and Sasanka Munasinghe, both at Rochester — "have not stated whether they agree or disagree with this retraction".
This year’s report by Dias and Salamat is the second significant claim of superconductivity to crash and burn in 2023. In July, a separate team at a start-up company in Seoul described 4 , 5 a crystalline purple material dubbed LK-99 — made of copper, lead, phosphorus and oxygen — that they said showed superconductivity at normal pressures and at temperatures up to at least 127 °C (400 kelvin). There was much online excitement and many attempts to reproduce the results, but researchers quickly reached a consensus that the material was not a superconductor at all .
LK-99 isn’t a superconductor — how science sleuths solved the mystery
Superconductors are important in many applications, from magnetic resonance imaging machines to particle colliders, but their use has been limited by the need to keep them at extremely low temperatures. For decades, researchers have been developing new materials with the dream of finding one that exhibits superconductivity without any refrigeration.
Specialists in the field have been sceptical since this year’s Dias and Salamat paper was published, says Lilia Boeri, a physicist at the Sapienza University of Rome. This, she says, is in part because of controversies swirling around the team and in part because the latest paper was not written to what she considers a high standard.
“Virtually every serious condensed-matter physicist I know saw right away that there were serious problems with the work,” says Peter Armitage, an experimental physicist at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. In particular, members of the community took issue with measurements of the material’s electrical resistance, saying it was not clear whether the property truly dropped to zero, or whether Dias and Salamat had subtracted a background signal from a key plot of resistance to create the appearance that it did. Critics say that it should not be necessary to remove background from this type of measurement. In today's text, the journal stated, "An investigation by the journal and post-publication review have concluded that these concerns are credible, substantial and remain unresolved."
Stunning room-temperature-superconductor claim is retracted
Armitage adds that the publication of the paper also raises questions about the editorial review process at Nature , and why reviewers didn’t catch the issues.
“The highly qualified expert reviewers we selected raised a number of questions about the original submission, which were largely resolved in later revisions,“ says Karl Ziemelis, chief physical sciences editor at Nature . “What the peer-review process cannot detect is whether the paper as written accurately reflects the research as it was undertaken.”
“Decisions about what to accept for publication are not always easy to make,” Ziemelis continues. “And there may be conflicts, but we strive to take an unbiased position and to ensure the interests of the community always drive our deliberations.”
Nature published the now-retracted paper on 8 March. That week, Dias himself presented the results to a standing-room-only audience at a meeting of the American Physical Society in Las Vegas. Over the audible clamour of the crowd assembled outside the room’s doors — where conference staff limited entry to avoid violating fire regulations — Dias briefly described a compound made of hydrogen, lutetium and small amounts of nitrogen that was a superconductor at temperatures up to 21 °C (294 kelvin) when kept at a pressure of around 1 gigapascal (10,000 times atmospheric pressure).
‘A very disturbing picture’: another retraction imminent for controversial physicist
Many teams had already created and experimented with similar hydrogen-rich materials, called hydrides, after a milestone discovery in 2015. A group led by physicist Mikhail Eremets at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany, reported 6 superconductivity in a hydrogen–sulfur compound at −70 °C (203 kelvin); at the time, this was a record-high operating temperature for a superconductor. But Eremets’s material required a much higher pressure of 145 gigapascals (1.4 million times atmospheric pressure) — comparable to the crushing conditions at the centre of Earth.
Since then, researchers have made hydride superconductors that push closer and closer to operating at room temperature, but all of them work only under extreme pressures. When Dias and Salamat published their paper in Nature in March, they seemed to have made a significant step towards a material that could find practical applications.
But some specialists were already wary because of the first Nature retraction . And some say they immediately found the fresh claims to be improbable. For instance, the material described in the paper was supposed to have around three hydrogen atoms for every lutetium atom. But if so, the lutetium would tend to donate an electron to each hydrogen, resulting in a kind of salt, says Artem Oganov, a materials scientist at the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology in Moscow. “You get either an insulator or an extremely poor metal,” he says — not a superconductor.
One lab says it has partially reproduced Dias and Salamat’s results using a sample provided by the Rochester team 7 . But many others, which tried creating their own samples and running tests, could not. And in the meantime, other causes for concern have arisen. An investigation launched by Physical Review Letters before it retracted its paper by Dias and Salamat found “apparent data fabrication”, as Nature ’s news team reported in July . And an investigation launched by Nature ’s journals team after it received an anonymous critique of data in this year’s paper found that “the credibility of the published results are in question”, according to September’s news story in Science .
Armitage does not think that Dias and Salamat will be able to keep doing research, pointing to the investigation findings and allegations of plagiarism in Dias’s PhD thesis. The University of Rochester has confirmed to Nature that it has launched an investigation into the integrity of Dias’s work, which is being conducted now by external experts. The university’s spokesperson did not answer questions about whether the institution has yet disciplined Dias. UNLV did not answer Nature ’s queries about whether Salamat is being investigated, saying that “UNLV does not publicly discuss personnel matters”, but that it “is committed to maintaining the highest standards for research integrity campus wide”.
How would room-temperature superconductors change science?
Canfield says that the Dias–Salamat collaboration has spread a “foul vapour” over the field, which “is scaring young researchers and funding agencies away”.
“I have some colleagues who simply are afraid that this case of Dias puts a shadow of doubt on the credibility of our field in general,” Eremets says.
Ho-Kwang Mao, director of the Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research in Beijing, is more sanguine. “I do not think it will affect the funding for superconductivity research other than more careful reviews, which is not necessarily bad,” he says.
Hai-Hu Wen, director of the Center for Superconducting Physics and Materials at Nanjing University in China, agrees. “Actually, it seems more easy to get funding for the research of superconductivity since some government officials seem to be influenced by the expectation of a room-temperature superconductor,” he says.
But Boeri says she has heard researchers complain that the controversies — the allegations of PhD thesis plagiarism and the findings of apparent data fabrication — have made it harder to recruit students to work on superconductors. “We face a serious communication problem, to make people understand that the field is healthy — that although there may be some bad apples, the community’s standards are much higher,” she says.
“Serious people continue to do amazing and interesting work,” Armitage says. “Sure, they can be disheartened by this nonsense, but it won’t stop the science.”
Additional reporting by Lauren Wolf.
Dasenbrock-Gammon, N. et al. Nature 615 , 244–250 (2023); retraction https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-06774-2 (2023).
Article Google Scholar
Snider, E. et al. Nature 586 , 373–377 (2022); retraction 610 , 804 (2022).
Durkee, D. et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 127 , 016401 (2021); retraction 131 , 079902 (2023).
Lee, S. et al. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.12037 (2023).
Lee, S., Kim, J.-H. & Kwon, Y.-W. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.12008 (2023).
Drozdov, A. P., Eremets, M. I., Troyan, I. A., Ksenofontov, V. & Shylin, S. I. Nature 525 , 73–76 (2015).
Salke, N. P., Mark, A. C., Ahart, M. & Hemley, R. J. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/2306.06301 (2023).
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