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Consumer Behaviour Dissertation Topics (28 Examples) For Research
Mark Aug 11, 2021 Aug 11, 2021 Consumer Behaviour No Comments
Some of the most interesting consumer behaviour dissertation topics are listed on this site. The list of dissertation topics on consumer behaviour is developed based on emerging concepts and ideas in the field of business and marketing. Consumer behaviour is a vast area to study and has gained the attention of researchers belonging to different […]
Some of the most interesting dissertation topics on consumer behaviour are listed on this site. The list of dissertation topics on consumer behaviour is developed based on emerging concepts and ideas in the field of business and marketing. Consumer behaviour is a vast area to study and has gained the attention of researchers belonging to different fields.
The project topics on consumer behaviour and research topics on consumer behaviour are listed down, and we can also help in completing projects according to your requirements. You can explore the dissertation, project, and research topics to carry out your study.
A list of Dissertation Topics on Consumer Behaviour
How online shopping consumer behaviour affects the high-street shopping patterns in the UK?
Examining the differences between male and female customer psychologies.
Analysing how advertising stimulates excessing consumption patterns.
To conduct a literature review on the importance of understanding customer needs.
Exploring the differences in consumer buying patterns considering different consumer characteristics.
Are the consumers willing to pay a premium for convenience?
Comparing the factors influencing consumer behaviour related to clothing brands in the UK.
Evaluating the country of origin effects on consumer buying behaviour.
Studying the impact of brand association on consumer buying behaviour in the sports industry.
Examining the impact of advertising media on consumer purchasing behaviour related to food and beverage products.
To explore the factors affecting consumer’s purchase decisions in the UK’s retail market.
A quantitative study on how online shopping trends have affected the profitability of leading retailers in the UK – A case study of Tesco.
Studying the impact of trends in consumer’s food behaviour contributing to the development of marketing strategies in the fashion industry.
A review of twenty-five years research of the consumer behaviour study in different markets.
Does e-marketing influence consumer purchase decisions?
Analysing and comparing the strategies used by luxury brands to influence consumer behaviour.
Examining the role of information technology in revolutionising the marketer’s approach to motivate and influence consumers.
Assessing the impact of integrated marketing communication on consumer impulsive buying behaviour.
A literature review on the impact of branding on consumer behaviour.
Importance of ethics in building and maintaining relationships with the consumers.
The role of innovation and creativity on consumer behaviour and perceptions.
Qualitative analysis of the impact of loyalty schemes on consumer purchasing decisions and loyalty.
Impact of cross-cultural marketing on the marketing techniques used to attract and influence consumers.
A literature review on the effects of globalisation on customer behaviour.
Consumer, customer and perceived value: past, present and future.
Examining the environmental orientation of consumer behaviour: motivational component.
Impact of the external stimuli on the impulsive buying behaviour of consumers.
Studying the female consumer behaviour towards jewellery products in Asian countries.
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Home » Blog » Dissertation » Topics » Marketing » Consumer Behavior » 80 Consumer Behaviour Research Topics
80 Consumer Behaviour Research Topics
FacebookXEmailWhatsAppRedditPinterestLinkedInIntroduction: Your Gateway to Consumer Behavior Research Topics If you’re a student looking for interesting research topics in consumer behaviour, you’ve come to the right place. We have compiled a comprehensive list of dissertation topics to help you start your research journey. Why Consumer Behavior Matters in Marketing? Consumer behaviour and marketing go hand in […]
Introduction: Your Gateway to Consumer Behavior Research Topics
If you’re a student looking for interesting research topics in consumer behaviour, you’ve come to the right place. We have compiled a comprehensive list of dissertation topics to help you start your research journey.
Why Consumer Behavior Matters in Marketing?
Consumer behaviour and marketing go hand in hand, with consumer behaviour being the foundation for effective marketing strategies. By understanding consumers’ preferences, needs, and motivations, marketers can tailor their products, services, and promotional efforts to resonate with their target audience. Consumer behaviour considers various psychological, social, cultural, and environmental factors influencing consumer choices.
Exploring a Spectrum of Research Topics in Consumer Behavior:
Whether you’re an undergraduate, master’s, or doctoral student, this list will provide you with valuable ideas to explore and contribute to consumer behaviour research. So, let’s dive in and uncover the exciting world of consumer behaviour research.
A List Of Potential Research Topics In Consumer Behavior
- A review of the impact of gender roles on consumer decision-making.
- The effects of zero-waste campaigns on consumer attitudes towards package-free shopping.
- A review of consumer attitudes towards eco-friendly products.
- How colour psychology influences consumer perception of food products.
- The effects of impulse buying on household budget management – a study focused on single-parent households.
- How weather conditions influence consumer shopping behaviours in the UK.
- A review of psychological triggers that prompt impulse buying.
- A study on consumer preferences for ethnic versus mainstream food products.
- The impact of advertising frequency on consumer retention rates in the telecom industry.
- How consumer demographics affect the effectiveness of personalized marketing.
- How does a change in store location impact consumer loyalty in small businesses?
- The role of digital literacy in affecting consumer vulnerability to online scams.
- Understanding the decision-making process of elderly consumers in the pharmaceutical market.
- The effects of language and tone in shaping consumer perception of email marketing campaigns.
- A review of how social status influences consumer choices for luxury items.
- The role of corporate social responsibility in shaping consumer attitudes towards multinational corporations.
- The effects of virtual reality on consumer experience in online real estate tours.
- A comparative analysis of online and offline shopping behaviours among millennials.
- How childhood experiences influence adult consumer behaviour in purchasing nostalgic items.
- The shift in consumer spending habits in grocery shopping post-covid.
- The role of emotions in shaping consumer attitudes towards green products.
- A study on consumer reactions to controversial advertisements.
- The effects of data breaches on consumer trust in online shopping platforms.
- Post-covid consumer attitudes towards telemedicine services.
- How price anchoring affects consumer perception of value in bundle offers.
- How British consumers perceive foreign brands in comparison to local brands.
- How in-store layout design influences consumer purchase decisions in supermarkets.
- A review of consumer responses to crisis management strategies in product recalls.
- A review of consumer psychology in the UK’s travel and tourism industry.
- A study on consumer reactions to gamification strategies in mobile apps.
- The effects of price discount strategies on consumer buying behaviour – a review.
- The impact of lifestyle changes on consumer demand for fitness wearables.
- A study on consumer reactions to using AI chatbots in customer service.
- A review of how British traditions and customs shape consumer behaviour in the UK hospitality sector.
- How ease of use affects consumer adoption of mobile wallet services.
- The role of local festivals in shaping consumer buying patterns in the UK.
- Post-covid changes in consumer preferences for contactless payment options.
- A study on the impact of music tempo on consumer spending time in retail stores.
- A review of the influence of family structure on consumer spending habits.
- How the COVID-19 pandemic impacted consumer loyalty towards essential service providers.
- The influence of parental control on teenage consumer behaviour in video gaming.
- Post-covid consumer attitudes towards supporting local businesses.
- The influence of post-COVID travel restrictions on consumer preferences for local tourism .
- How the availability of self-service options affects consumer preferences in the banking sector.
- A comparative study between the shopping behaviours of rural and urban consumers in India.
- Analyzing consumer attitudes towards private label brands – a review.
- How consumer expectations affect their satisfaction level with customized products.
- A review of consumer behaviour trends in the UK housing market.
- The role of celebrity endorsements in influencing consumer perception of luxury brands .
- A review of the role of nostalgia in shaping consumer preferences for retro products.
- How does cultural background affect consumer choice in the automobile industry?
- The relationship between convenience and consumer preference for mobile payment options.
- Post-covid consumer preferences for health and wellness products.
- The effects of co-creation initiatives on consumer loyalty in the tech industry.
- The effects of sensory cues on consumer engagement in experiential retail spaces.
- The role of consumer education in promoting sustainable fashion.
- The impact of payment flexibility on consumer adoption of subscription services.
- A study on the impact of wait times on consumer satisfaction in fast-food restaurants.
- Post-covid changes in consumer attitudes towards online education platforms.
- How do consumers perceive the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods?
- How do consumers perceive the authenticity of brand storytelling in marketing campaigns?
- How do peer reviews and ratings influence consumer decisions in mobile app downloads?
- The role of social proof in influencing consumer decisions for crowdfunding campaigns.
- How do economic recessions shape consumer preferences for essential and non-essential items?
- How do ethical considerations impact consumer decisions in the fashion industry?
- How has the pandemic impacted consumer willingness to pay a premium for eco-friendly products?
- The impact of consumer activism on brand reputation in social issues.
- The role of ambient scent in shaping consumer perceptions of product quality.
- A study on the influence of humour on consumer engagement in social media campaigns.
- Psychological factors influencing consumer choice in the cosmetics industry.
- A study on consumer willingness to adopt smart home technologies.
- The impact of loyalty programs on consumer purchase frequency in the e-commerce industry.
- A study on consumer preferences for omnichannel shopping experiences.
- How do scarcity tactics influence consumer buying behaviour in limited-time promotions?
- How does brand image affect consumer loyalty in the technology sector?
- The influence of viral marketing campaigns on consumer attitudes towards new products.
- The impact of limited-time offers on consumer FOMO (Fear of Missing Out).
- A study on the impact of influencers on consumer perceptions of fast fashion .
- The effects of UK government policies on consumer trust in locally produced goods.
- The role of augmented reality in enhancing the consumer experience in online shopping.
- The relationship between consumer engagement and brand loyalty in the UK fast-food industry.
- The impact of service quality on consumer retention in the airline industry.
- The UK’s national health campaigns impact consumer choices for organic food.
- How do cultural nuances shape consumer reactions to international brand expansions?
- The impact of sensory marketing on consumer perceptions of beauty products.
- The effects of cryptocurrency awareness on consumer willingness to use blockchain-based payment systems.
- How does humour in advertising affect consumer memory retention?
- How cultural taboos affect consumer choices in the food and beverage industry.
- The role of packaging design in attracting consumer attention – a review.
- The rise in consumer interest in home improvement products post-covid.
- The role of mass media in shaping consumer attitudes towards political campaigns.
- The influence of social media marketing on consumer purchase decisions – a case study on fast food chains in the United States.
- The role of seasonal trends in shaping consumer buying patterns in the fashion industry.
- How does ethical labelling influence consumer choices for fair trade products?
- The impact of customer service quality on consumer trust in online shopping platforms.
- How perceived value impacts consumer willingness to switch brands.
- The impact of customer testimonials on consumer trust in online marketplaces.
- The influence of consumer-generated content on brand credibility in social media platforms.
- The effects of Brexit on consumer confidence and spending in the UK.
Conclusion: Embark on Your Consumer Behavior Research Journey
In conclusion, consumer behaviour research offers many intriguing topics for students pursuing dissertations. The provided list of consumer behaviour research topics is valuable for students looking to delve into this dynamic field and make meaningful contributions to the discipline. By selecting a research topic that aligns with their interests and goals, students can embark on an exciting journey of exploration and discovery.
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50+ Hot Consumer Behaviour Dissertation Topics in 5 Different Fields
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Introduction to consumer behaviour, consumer behaviour topics of geography, consumer behaviour topics on branding, consumer behaviour dissertation topics of culture, consumer behaviour topics on lifestyle, consumer behaviour topics on customer satisfaction, looking for dissertation writing assistance | experts are here.
No matter what story you tell, make your buyer a hero.
What is the gist of the initial quote? It informs you about one of the consumers' characteristics, consciously or subconsciously. They're all hoping to be the hero of their own story. Who doesn't want to buy something that makes them feel better about themselves? This idea compels every user, attracting many even if they do not believe in the product. It is one of the consumer behaviour analyses. It may also lead students studying this subject to understand their nature better.
What comes to mind when you hear "consumer behaviour"? It refers to how a customer acts when making a purchase, whether online or in person. Alternatively, it is the hierarchy of thoughts displayed when using any product. It is easier for students studying consumer behaviour to understand. Before they can graduate, they must complete several tasks. They must complete their dissertation and all academic assignments to pass the semester. This blog will help you solve one of your problems: deciding on consumer behaviour dissertation topics .
If you want to write a dissertation that will impress your professor, their expert assistance is the best. This blog will get you at least halfway there. You will be able to choose the best dissertation topics on consumer behaviour.
It studies how consumers, groups, or organisations behave while selecting, buying, or using goods and services. They ensure that their selection will ultimately meet their needs and demands. The actions of consumers in the marketplace and the motives they have underlying those actions
Marketers are expected to understand the nature of the purchase and devise strategies to persuade buyers. It is a critical subject that requires a lot of analysis, a severe problem that students learn in the academic year.
They are then expected to get good results and pick one of the best consumer behaviour dissertation topics for their academic task. That will allow the professor to understand their intelligence. Below are more than 50 dissertation topics on consumer behaviour that will make your writing easy and impressive.
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When it comes to consumer behaviour, geography plays a significant role. Customers from different locations have different mindsets when deciding on their products. In your dissertation, you should include these consumer behaviour dissertation topics .
- What might the needs of people in different geographical areas be?
- How do the people of one region differ from those of others in terms of their product and service needs?
- What factors should be taken into account when analysing consumer behaviour? About a specific product or service based on geographical conditions?
- How do geographical differences affect people's needs?
- Why is it critical to analyse people's interest in your product based on their region's topography?
- How far has consumer behaviour analysis assisted people in growing their businesses?
- What are the fundamental requirements and data required to analyse consumer behaviour?
- What challenges do linguistic barriers present during consumer behaviour analysis?
- Principles of basic consumer behaviour based on their physical location on a map
- Can we imagine a successful business without first analysing our customers' needs?
Also Read: Super Easy Ways to Write a Perfect Dissertation in Less Time
Branding and marketing are significant components that can influence consumer behaviour. Picking a branding research topics for consumer behavior research papercan make your work progressive.
- How to create a solid online brand.
- Product design and brand image influence consumer behaviour.
- The internet's contribution to brand awareness.
- Maintains brand value by innovating.
- The effect of brand and price on consumer behaviour during a recession.
- Evaluating the impact of integrated marketing communication on impulsive consumer purchasing behaviour.
- A review of the literature on the effect of branding on consumer behaviour.
- The result of creativity and innovation on consumer behaviour and perceptions.
- Investigating the environmental orientation of consumer behaviour: motivational factors.
- A qualitative examination of the effect of loyalty programmes on consumer purchasing decisions.
Many sensitivities must be maintained when attracting customers based on culture if you know the cultural impact of geographical barriers. Then picking dissertation topics on consumer behaviour concerning cultural differences is good. such as
- How do the needs for services and products change due to culture?
- How to conduct a culture-based consumer behaviour analysis.
- How does a person overcome the problem of language during cross-cultural analysis?
- Who provides data on different cultures for consumer behaviour analysis?
- Software that aids in applying consumer behaviour analysis inferences in the market.
- The best way to learn about your customers' preferences is to watch.
- How a customer activity tracker can help you learn about your customers' preferences.
- Consumer behaviour discipline is essential for marketers and business owners.
- See how modern technology is helping to overcome the barriers that prevent success.
- The most recent trends in consumer behaviour and how they can help business owners succeed.
Also Read: Stuck with Dissertation Topic? Move Ahead in 8 Easy Steps
With the change in a person's lifestyle, their behaviour also changes. Understanding how a customer will react to changes in their lifestyle is essential. It is critical to follow because people's love styles change very often. Picking a consumer behaviour dissertation topics on lifestyle will need severe research.
- How people's needs change as they live their lives.
- Is it beneficial to research consumer behaviour on both rich and poor people?
- Make your service portal smarter by incorporating a consumer activity tracker into the portal or website.
- Help from customer feedback in producing items that meet their needs.
- What types of products and services necessitate consumer behaviour analysis?
- Customer behaviour analysis mechanism.
- How this field of consumer behaviour came to be.
- People need help with analysing consumer behaviour.
- There is a difference between the lifestyles of urban and rural consumers.
- How to target the customer base of a posh locality.
Satisfying the users' needs and giving them fulfilment with the product is the core of any brand or business success. You can look for dissertation topics on consumer behaviour .
- That can explain the direction to satisfy the customer's needs.
- Thesis binding company's customer satisfaction and SWOT analysis.
- SERVQUAL model theories and concepts.
- HSBC online banking service: customer satisfaction.
- Banking customer satisfaction.
- Customer retention factors in the banking industry.
- The customer's role in supply chain management, product development and value balancing methods.
- Is customer service dependent on the website's quality of service?
- Customer satisfaction is an essential component of employee management.
- Customer satisfaction and business-to-business relationships.
- Causes and strategies for aggressive customers.
- Plan for customer satisfaction and loyalty.
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Consumer Behavior Research Paper Topics
Consumer behavior research paper topics are essential to students studying this field. This comprehensive guide from iResearchNet provides a comprehensive list of consumer behavior research paper topics divided into 10 categories, expert advice on selecting a relevant topic, and a step-by-step guide on writing a successful research paper. Additionally, iResearchNet offers writing services with expert degree-holding writers, custom written works, in-depth research, custom formatting, top quality, customized solutions, flexible pricing, short deadlines, timely delivery, 24/7 support, absolute privacy, easy order tracking, and a money-back guarantee. By following the expert advice provided and using iResearchNet’s writing services, students can produce high-quality research papers that make meaningful contributions to the field of consumer behavior.
Understanding Consumer Behavior Research
Consumer behavior research is an essential field of study that explores the processes and activities that individuals undertake when making decisions related to purchasing goods and services. This field is particularly important for marketers, advertisers, and sales professionals who seek to understand how consumers make purchasing decisions and how they can influence these decisions.
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For students studying consumer behavior, research papers are a common assignment that require them to explore various topics related to this field. However, selecting a relevant and feasible research paper topic can be challenging. Furthermore, writing a successful research paper requires attention to detail and adherence to academic standards. This comprehensive guide from iResearchNet is designed to assist students in selecting appropriate consumer behavior research paper topics and providing expert advice on how to write a successful research paper. The guide also provides information on iResearchNet’s writing services, which offer students a valuable resource for producing high-quality research papers that meet the academic standards of their instructors. By following the guidelines and using iResearchNet’s writing services, students can produce research papers that make meaningful contributions to the field of consumer behavior.
100 Consumer Behavior Research Paper Topics
Consumer behavior research encompasses a wide range of topics, each of which explores different aspects of how individuals make decisions related to purchasing goods and services. Here are ten categories of consumer behavior research paper topics that students can consider when selecting a research topic, along with ten sample topics for each category:
Perception and consumer behavior:
- The impact of package design on consumer perception of food products
- The effect of product display on consumer attention and purchase intention
- The role of brand familiarity in consumer perception of luxury goods
- The influence of product color on consumer perception and behavior
- The effect of music in advertising on consumer perception and recall
- The impact of celebrity endorsement on consumer perception of products
- The effect of font type on consumer perception of brand personality
- The role of scent in retail environments on consumer behavior
- The influence of product label claims on consumer perception of health and wellness
- The impact of product design on consumer perception of eco-friendliness
Motivation and consumer behavior:
- The influence of brand personality on consumer motivation to purchase
- The role of scarcity in marketing on consumer motivation and behavior
- The impact of rewards and incentives on consumer motivation and loyalty
- The effect of social proof on consumer motivation to purchase
- The influence of emotions on consumer motivation to purchase
- The role of self-congruity in consumer motivation and brand preference
- The impact of brand trust on consumer motivation to purchase
- The effect of personalized marketing on consumer motivation and engagement
- The influence of product involvement on consumer motivation and purchase intention
- The role of value perception in consumer motivation and price sensitivity
Attitudes and consumer behavior:
- The impact of brand image on consumer attitudes and loyalty
- The role of social responsibility in consumer attitudes towards brands
- The influence of culture on consumer attitudes towards luxury goods
- The effect of perceived risk on consumer attitudes and behavior
- The impact of celebrity endorsement on consumer attitudes towards products
- The role of nostalgia in shaping consumer attitudes towards brands
- The influence of brand authenticity on consumer attitudes and behavior
- The effect of word-of-mouth communication on consumer attitudes and behavior
- The impact of service quality on consumer attitudes and loyalty
- The role of price perception in shaping consumer attitudes towards products
Learning and consumer behavior:
- The impact of advertising on consumer learning and recall
- The role of sensory marketing in consumer learning and behavior
- The influence of online reviews on consumer learning and purchase decisions
- The effect of product placement in movies on consumer learning and recall
- The impact of social media on consumer learning and brand awareness
- The role of brand familiarity in consumer learning and recall
- The influence of product packaging on consumer learning and memory
- The effect of information overload on consumer learning and decision making
- The impact of brand slogans on consumer learning and recall
- The role of perceived value in consumer learning and purchase behavior
Memory and consumer behavior:
- The influence of brand familiarity on consumer memory and recall
- The role of nostalgia in consumer memory and brand preference
- The impact of product design on consumer memory and recall
- The effect of advertising repetition on consumer memory and brand awareness
- The influence of mood on consumer memory and recall of advertising
- The role of social media in consumer memory and brand awareness
- The impact of story-telling in advertising on consumer memory and recall
- The effect of novelty in advertising on consumer memory and recall
- The influence of age on consumer memory and recall of advertising
- The role of emotions in consumer memory and recall of advertising
Culture and consumer behavior:
- The impact of cultural differences on consumer behavior and preferences
- The role of religion in shaping consumer behavior and preferences
- The influence of gender roles on consumer behavior and preferences
- The effect of country-of-origin on consumer behavior and brand perception
- The impact of subcultures on consumer behavior and preferences
- The role of ethnicity in shaping consumer behavior and preferences
- The influence of language on consumer behavior and perception
- The effect of cross-cultural marketing on consumer behavior and perception
- The impact of cultural values on consumer behavior and decision making
- The role of consumer ethnocentrism in shaping consumer behavior and preferences
Emotions and consumer behavior:
- The impact of emotions on consumer decision making and behavior
- The role of mood on consumer decision making and purchase intention
- The influence of emotional branding on consumer behavior and loyalty
- The effect of emotional appeals in advertising on consumer behavior
- The impact of emotions on consumer satisfaction and loyalty
- The role of self-expression in shaping consumer emotional responses to brands
- The influence of nostalgia on consumer emotional responses to brands
- The effect of humor in advertising on consumer emotional responses and behavior
- The impact of product design on consumer emotional responses and behavior
- The role of perceived authenticity in shaping consumer emotional responses to brands
Social Influence and consumer behavior:
- The impact of social norms on consumer behavior and preferences
- The role of social comparison in shaping consumer behavior and preferences
- The influence of reference groups on consumer behavior and brand perception
- The effect of social media on consumer behavior and decision making
- The impact of social identity on consumer behavior and brand loyalty
- The role of social class in shaping consumer behavior and preferences
- The influence of social networks on consumer behavior and brand perception
- The effect of social proof in marketing on consumer behavior and preferences
- The impact of peer pressure on consumer behavior and decision making
- The role of social responsibility in shaping consumer behavior and brand perception
Decision Making and consumer behavior:
- The impact of information overload on consumer decision making
- The role of decision heuristics in shaping consumer behavior and preferences
- The influence of product complexity on consumer decision making and preferences
- The effect of decision context on consumer decision making and behavior
- The impact of decision fatigue on consumer behavior and decision making
- The role of decision-making style in shaping consumer behavior and preferences
- The influence of decision-making strategies on consumer behavior and preferences
- The effect of cognitive dissonance on consumer behavior and decision making
- The impact of choice architecture on consumer decision making and behavior
- The role of decision framing in shaping consumer behavior and preferences
Ethics and consumer behavior:
- The impact of corporate social responsibility on consumer behavior and brand perception
- The role of ethical consumption in shaping consumer behavior and preferences
- The influence of perceived ethicality on consumer behavior and brand loyalty
- The effect of green marketing on consumer behavior and purchase intention
- The impact of fair trade on consumer behavior and brand perception
- The role of animal welfare in shaping consumer behavior and preferences
- The influence of social justice issues on consumer behavior and brand perception
- The effect of cause-related marketing on consumer behavior and brand loyalty
- The impact of transparency in marketing on consumer behavior and trust
- The role of consumer activism in shaping consumer behavior and preferences
These ten categories provide a broad range of consumer behavior research paper topics for students to explore within the field of consumer behavior. By selecting a topic that aligns with their interests and research goals, students can produce a high-quality research paper that contributes to the knowledge base of consumer behavior.
Choosing a Consumer Behavior Topic
Choosing a topic for a research paper in consumer behavior can be a challenging task, especially given the vast array of potential topics. To help students navigate this process, it is important to consider a few key factors when selecting a topic.
- First , it is essential to choose a topic that aligns with your interests and passions. When you are passionate about a topic, it is easier to stay engaged throughout the research process and to produce high-quality work. Additionally, having a personal connection to the topic can inspire new and unique perspectives, leading to original research.
- Second , consider the relevance and significance of the topic. The best research papers are those that make a meaningful contribution to the field of consumer behavior. Look for topics that are timely, relevant, and offer a new perspective on existing theories or practices. A topic that is of current interest to industry professionals, policymakers, or academics can also provide opportunities for real-world impact.
- Third , consider the available resources and access to data. Research papers require a significant amount of data and research, so it is important to choose a topic that allows for access to relevant data and resources. Consider the availability of data sources, academic journals, and industry reports that may be needed to support your research.
- Fourth , consider the scope and focus of the research paper. A topic that is too broad or too narrow can make the research process more challenging. It is essential to identify a specific research question or hypothesis that can be effectively addressed within the scope of the research paper. Additionally, it is important to consider the level of analysis, such as individual or group-level behaviors, and whether the research will be qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods.
- Fifth , consider seeking guidance from your instructor or a research advisor. They can provide valuable insight and feedback on potential topics and can help guide the research process. Additionally, they may be able to offer suggestions for data sources or research methodologies that can strengthen the research paper.
Ultimately, the key to choosing a successful topic for a consumer behavior research paper is to identify a topic that aligns with your interests, offers relevance and significance, has available data sources and resources, has a focused research question or hypothesis, and seeks guidance from a research advisor or instructor. By carefully considering these factors, students can select a topic that inspires them and leads to a high-quality research paper.
How to Write a Consumer Behavior Research Paper
When it comes to writing a research paper on consumer behavior, there are several key steps to follow to ensure a successful outcome. Here are some tips to help guide you through the writing process:
- Develop a clear and concise research question : The first step in writing a research paper on consumer behavior is to develop a clear and concise research question. This question should be focused and specific, and should guide your research and analysis throughout the writing process.
- Conduct a thorough literature review : Before beginning your research, it is important to conduct a thorough literature review to identify existing theories and research related to your topic. This review will help you to identify any gaps in the existing research that your paper can address.
- Choose appropriate research methods : There are a variety of research methods that can be used in consumer behavior research, including surveys, experiments, and case studies. Choose the appropriate method(s) based on your research question and the data you are trying to collect.
- Collect and analyze data : Once you have identified your research question and chosen your research method, it is time to collect and analyze your data. This may involve conducting surveys or experiments, analyzing existing data sets, or conducting interviews or focus groups.
- Organize and present your findings : After analyzing your data, it is important to organize your findings in a clear and concise manner. This may involve creating charts or graphs to visually represent your data, or using tables to compare and contrast your findings. It is also important to provide a clear and concise summary of your findings in your conclusion.
- Use appropriate formatting and citation styles : When writing a research paper on consumer behavior, it is important to use appropriate formatting and citation styles. Most papers in this field will use either APA or MLA style formatting and citations.
- Revise and edit your paper : Once you have completed your first draft, it is important to revise and edit your paper to ensure clarity, conciseness, and accuracy. This may involve reorganizing sections, cutting out extraneous information, or rephrasing sentences for clarity.
By following these steps, you can produce a high-quality research paper on consumer behavior that contributes to the field and provides valuable insights for academics, policymakers, and industry professionals alike.
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Home » Blog » Dissertation » Topics » Psychology » Consumer » 99 Consumer Psychology Research Topics | Dissertation Ideas
99 Consumer Psychology Research Topics | Dissertation Ideas
By Adam Oct 14, 2023 in Consumer , Psychology | No Comments
The study of the psychological bases behind consumers and their consumption decisions is termed consumer psychology. Research topics in consumer psychology relate to the psychological reasoning behind consumption habits and practices and are intricately linked to people’s reasons for buying things. This relationship can be deduced between genders, between different socio-economic groups, and so on. […]
The study of the psychological bases behind consumers and their consumption decisions is termed consumer psychology. Research topics in consumer psychology relate to the psychological reasoning behind consumption habits and practices and are intricately linked to people’s reasons for buying things. This relationship can be deduced between genders, between different socio-economic groups, and so on.
Dissertation topics in consumer psychology also aim to understand the rationale behind consumption choices, especially in the current age when marketing channels have exploded and people are surrounded by persuasive tactics to enable them to make consumption choices based on maximum knowledge about the products available.
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The following is a list of consumer psychology research topics to help the researcher make a choice for his study:
A list of Research topics in consumer psychology:
An exploration of the role of scarcity in consumer decision-making and purchase intentions.
The effects of personalized recommendations on consumer purchase decisions in online retail.
An exploration of consumer perceptions and behaviors towards organic food in the UK.
Investigating the role of uncertainty avoidance in consumer preferences for familiar versus novel products.
The impact of customer service on consumer satisfaction and loyalty in the UK retail banking sector.
A comparative study of the impact of discount sales at shopping malls between two generations of shoppers.
A comparative exploration of the buying behaviors of entrepreneurs and salaried people in the UK.
An overview and synthesis of research on the influence of cultural factors on consumer behavior.
Understanding the role of consumer emotions in brand attachment in the UK automobile industry.
A systematic literature review of customer intentions and buying behaviors for second-hand/used items in emerging economies.
A comprehensive review of the factors affecting consumer trust in e-commerce platforms.
The influence of peer pressure on adolescent consumer purchasing decisions.
A critical review of the effects of brand personality on consumer perceptions and attitudes.
A systematic literature review of consumption changes from traditional shops to expansive shopping malls in developed countries across a span of fifty years.
Understanding the influence of social influence and peer pressure on consumer impulsive buying behavior.
The role of price promotions on consumer purchasing decisions in the UK fast food industry.
The effects of personalized marketing on consumer engagement in the UK financial services sector.
A systematic review of studies on the role of social influence on consumer decision-making.
An examination of the role of nostalgia in shaping consumer attitudes and behavior towards products.
The effects of mood states on consumer perceptions and responses to advertising messages.
A comparative analysis of consumer perception and response to sustainability initiatives in the UK retail sector.
Investigating the impact of online communities on consumer product knowledge and preferences.
Analyzing the influence of cultural congruence in advertisements on consumer attitudes and purchase intentions.
The role of self-identity in shaping consumer preferences for sustainable products.
The impact of consumer psychology on personal financial counseling strategies .
Investigating the influence of social media advertising on consumer preferences in the UK beauty industry.
The role of brand loyalty in influencing consumer behavior in the UK grocery market.
Investigating the influence of parental communication on adolescent consumer socialization.
Consumer health wearables- fashion, necessity, or something else? A UK-based perspective.
Understanding the changes in consumer expectations and preferences for customer service in the post-COVID-19 world.
An exploration of the impact of discount deals on fast food outlets on consumer eating choices in shopping mall food courts- perspectives from the UK.
An overview and synthesis of studies on the role of nostalgia in consumer behavior.
Women’s fixations for branded clothing in the UK- following fashion or brands?
Habits or customer loyalty? Exploring the difference for retail brands in the UK.
The psychological effects of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer purchasing decisions.
The relationship between advertising and consumer experiences- the cosmetics experience.
Targeting youth through sport ambassadors- a study on the attitudes and perceptions of youth on the utility and experience of energy drinks in the UK.
A meta-analysis of research on the psychological factors influencing consumer impulse buying behavior.
Analyzing the impact of in-store music and ambient scent on consumer perceptions and shopping behavior.
Investigating the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer attitudes towards sustainable and ethical consumption.
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer perceptions of privacy and data security in e-commerce.
The role of hedonic and utilitarian motivations in consumer preferences for experiential products.
The impact of sound and visual effects on the retail experience of men and women in the UK- a qualitative study.
Technological facilitation for shopping and impact on customer buying behaviors- a qualitative study from the UK.
How can retail outlets create customer loyalty? A study of branded retailers in the UK.
Examining the impact of store atmospherics on consumer purchasing behavior in UK department stores.
A comparative review of consumer behavior models in online and offline retail environments.
Investigating the role of anticipated emotions in consumer decision-making and choice.
The effects of product placement in movies on consumer attitudes and purchase intentions.
Investigating the impact of cultural priming on consumer perceptions and attitudes towards advertisements.
The effects of brand transgressions on consumer trust and brand image.
An exploration of the consumption trends for men in the UK for fashion clothing brands.
Understanding the effects of product packaging on consumer perceptions and purchasing decisions in the UK beverage industry.
The evolving role of Internet banking and its impact on consumer buying behaviors in the UK.
Analyzing the role of fear appeals in public health communication during the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects on consumer behavior.
Examining the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer trust in traditional retail versus e-commerce.
Exploring the effects of AI-powered customer service on consumer satisfaction and loyalty.
Analyzing the impact of consumer involvement in the co-creation of products on brand loyalty.
Understanding the role of regret aversion in consumer decision-making and post-purchase evaluations.
A systematic review of research on the role of gender in consumer decision-making and preferences.
Understanding the effects of customization and personalization in online shopping on consumer satisfaction and loyalty.
Analyzing the effects of humor in advertising on consumer perceptions and purchase intentions.
Analyzing changes in consumer purchasing behavior and preferences in the post-COVID-19 era.
A qualitative investigation of the negative impacts of social media on product consumption in the UK.
Exploring the intersection of consumer psychology and developmental psychology in adolescents’ buying behavior.
Making food fashionable- an exploration of food courts in shopping malls and determinants of consumption patterns in the UK.
How do men respond to fashion advertising? Perspectives from the UK.
Investigating the impact of economic uncertainty and job insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer spending habits.
An exploration of online shopping behaviors of men and women in the UK.
Analyzing the impact of cross-cultural advertising on consumer responses and attitudes towards global brands.
An exploration of the perceptions and practice trends for green purchase behavior in the UK- a qualitative study.
Analyzing the influence of mobile app interfaces on consumer engagement and satisfaction in e-commerce.
Exploring the impact of online customer reviews on purchasing decisions in the UK hospitality industry.
Investigating the impact of cognitive dissonance on consumer post-purchase behavior.
An examination of the impact of consumer emotions on brand loyalty: A literature review.
A critical review of the impact of online reviews and ratings on consumer purchasing decisions.
Investigating the effects of consumer skepticism on advertising effectiveness and brand trust.
Analyzing the effects of product packaging design on consumer attention and memory.
The relationship between consumer trust and e-commerce adoption in the UK retail market.
The effect of celebrity endorsements on consumer attitudes and buying behavior in the UK fashion industry.
The role of psychological ownership in shaping consumer preferences and behavior.
Happiness and shopping- exploring the psychological essence behind the cliché through a review of literature.
Do visual aesthetics affect the purchasing behaviour for basic home cleaning items in the UK? A study.
Analyzing the influence of word-of-mouth communication on consumer perceptions of new technology products.
Exploring the role of online shopping and digital platforms in shaping consumer behavior during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.
The effects of brand activism on consumer perceptions and brand loyalty.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer perceptions of safety and hygiene in the hospitality industry.
The influence of green advertising on environmentally conscious consumer behavior.
The effects of transparency in marketing practices on consumer trust and brand loyalty.
What type of consumers consider the price of the product above all else? A mixed methods investigation.
How is social media changing consumption patterns in the UK? An analysis.
The role of social comparison in influencing consumer preferences for luxury products.
A systematic review of the impact of advertising appeals on consumer purchase intentions.
Online shopping behaviors of youth- a comparative study of developing and developed economies.
A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of gamification in influencing consumer engagement and behavior.
Investigating the influence of nostalgia marketing on consumer preferences in the UK confectionery market.
Investigating the effects of informational versus emotional appeals in public health campaigns on consumer behavior.
Analyzing the effects of persuasive messaging on consumer attitudes towards environmental sustainability.
A meta-analysis of research on the influence of scarcity appeals on consumer responses.
There you go. Use the list of research topics in consumer psychology well and let us know if you have any comments or suggestions for our topics related blog posts for the future or looking to get help with dissertation writing , send us an email at [email protected] .
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Consumer Psychology Dissertation Ideas
Published by Owen Ingram at January 2nd, 2023 , Revised On August 11, 2023
Consumer psychology has always been a well-known yet understudied field in psychology. The psychology of consumption describes how people adopt, use, and eventually dispose of goods, services, or concepts.
Earning a degree in this area opens up a range of employment opportunities. The first step to completing your degree to the highest possible academic grade is choosing excellent consumer behaviour or consumer psychology topics for your dissertation.
Consumer Psychology Dissertation Topics & Ideas To Help You
- A Consumer Psychology and Empirical Analysis of Trademark Distinctiveness.
- The Development of Psychological Ownership in Consumer Psychology across History.
- Empirical Links between Cognitive Style and Need for Cognition: Implications for Consumer Psychology.
- The market of ideology: “Elective affinities” in political psychology and their effects on purchasing decisions.
- Compulsive purchasing behaviour typologies: a constrained cluster-wise regression approach.
- An overview of the participants in focus groups’ self-presentational concerns and reaction patterns conceptually.
- Situated, embodied thought: Examining orientation cues impacts product evaluation and selection.
- Understanding consumer mythology: A structural view of buying habits.
- Automatic and deliberate grounds for suspicion: evidence of the sinister attribution error.
- Examine the metacognitive effects of one-sided versus two-sided message framing on attitude certainty.
- Appealing to persuasion to activate culture: The bicultural consumer is examined.
- Evidence from fMRI and behavioural investigations suggests that increasing sensitivity to implementation can lessen the consequences of self-control depletion.
- How do children react to advertisements? What is the process of consumer socialization?
- Does advertising encourage binge-eating? What impact does it have on those who are more susceptible to addictions?
- Psychological tricks to manipulate clients’ thoughts? Is market manipulation limited to advertising?
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Choosing the right consumer psychology dissertation ideas and topics is an important step for any student. You will conduct your research, consult sources, and solve problems related to your topic based on the topic you choose. We hope we came up with the best ideas by keeping our students’ needs in mind. Get in touch with our dissertation help experts immediately if you require a professional dissertation service to be supplied right before you.
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- Analyze online shopping behavior.
- Examine cultural influences on buying.
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Psychological factors and consumer behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic
Contributed equally to this work with: Adolfo Di Crosta, Irene Ceccato
Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing
Affiliation Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, G. d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing
Roles Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology
Affiliation Department of Psychological, Health and Territorial Sciences, G. d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Roles Investigation, Writing – review & editing
Roles Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing
Affiliations Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, G. d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy, Center for Advanced Studies and Technology (CAST), G. d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
Affiliation Department of Business Studies, Grenon School of Business, Assumption University, Worcester, MA, United States of America
Roles Conceptualization, Writing – review & editing
Roles Conceptualization, Methodology, Writing – review & editing
* E-mail: [email protected]
Roles Conceptualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing
- Adolfo Di Crosta,
- Irene Ceccato,
- Daniela Marchetti,
- Pasquale La Malva,
- Roberta Maiella,
- Loreta Cannito,
- Mario Cipi,
- Nicola Mammarella,
- Riccardo Palumbo,
- Published: August 16, 2021
- Reader Comments
The COVID-19 pandemic is far more than a health crisis: it has unpredictably changed our whole way of life. As suggested by the analysis of economic data on sales, this dramatic scenario has also heavily impacted individuals’ spending levels. To better understand these changes, the present study focused on consumer behavior and its psychological antecedents. Previous studies found that crises differently affect people’s willingness to buy necessities products (i.e., utilitarian shopping) and non-necessities products (i.e., hedonic shopping). Therefore, in examining whether changes in spending levels were associated with changes in consumer behavior, we adopted a fine-grained approach disentangling between necessities and non-necessities. We administered an online survey to 3833 participants (age range 18–64) during the first peak period of the contagion in Italy. Consumer behavior toward necessities was predicted by anxiety and COVID-related fear, whereas consumer behavior toward non-necessities was predicted by depression. Furthermore, consumer behavior toward necessities and non-necessities was predicted by personality traits, perceived economic stability, and self-justifications for purchasing. The present study extended our understanding of consumer behavior changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results could be helpful to develop marketing strategies that consider psychological factors to meet actual consumers’ needs and feelings.
Citation: Di Crosta A, Ceccato I, Marchetti D, La Malva P, Maiella R, Cannito L, et al. (2021) Psychological factors and consumer behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. PLoS ONE 16(8): e0256095. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256095
Editor: Marcel Pikhart, University of Hradec Kralove: Univerzita Hradec Kralove, CZECH REPUBLIC
Received: March 8, 2021; Accepted: July 31, 2021; Published: August 16, 2021
Copyright: © 2021 Di Crosta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All data are available from the figshare database (accession number(s) DOI: 10.6084/m9.figshare.14865663.v2 , URL: https://figshare.com/articles/dataset/RawData_PO_sav/14865663 ).
Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) refers to an infection (SARS-CoV-2) of the lower respiratory tract [ 1 , 2 ], which was first detected in Wuhan (China) in late December 2019. Since then, the number of contagions by COVID-19 has been increasing globally each day [ 3 ]. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a global pandemic [ 4 ]. Subsequently, several national governments implemented long-term full or partial lockdown measures to reduce the spread of the virus. Although these strict measures have proven to be quite effective in containing the further spread of the virus, they have severely impacted the global economic system and caused an unprecedented shock on economies and labor markets [ 5 ]. As a matter of fact, the COVID-19 pandemic can be defined as far more than just a health crisis since it has heavily affected societies and economies. COVID-19 outbreak has unpredictably changed how we work, communicate, and shop, more than any other disruption in this decade [ 6 ]. As reflected by the analysis of economic data on sales, this dramatic situation has greatly influenced consumer attitudes and behaviors. According to a study conducted by the Nielsen Company, the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic led to a globally manifested change in spending levels related to consumer behavior [ 7 ]. Specifically, a growing tendency in the sales of necessities has been observed: consumer priorities have become centered on the most basic needs, including food, hygiene, and cleaning products. In Italy, consumer shopping preferences have changed throughout the pandemic. Initially, when Italy was the first country in Europe to experience the spreading of COVID-19 (between March and April 2020). Consumer behavior tended to compulsively focus on purchasing essential goods, especially connected with preventing the virus, such as protective devices and sanitizing gel [ 8 ]. The pandemic changed the consumption patterns, for instance reducing sales for some product categories (e.g., clothes), and improving sales for other categories (e.g., entertainment products) [ 9 ]. Also, research indicated that job insecurity and life uncertainty experienced during the pandemic negatively impacted on consumer behavior of Italian workers [ 10 ].
It comes as no surprise that in such a situation of emergency, the need for buying necessities takes precedence [ 11 ]. However, the investigation of antecedent psychological factors, including attitudes, feelings, and behaviors underlying changes in consumer behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic, have received less attention. Nevertheless, understanding the psychological factors which drive consumer behavior and products choices can represent a crucial element for two main reasons. First, such investigation can extend our understanding of the underpinnings of the changes in consumer behavior in the unprecedented context of COVID-19. Second, obtained results could be helpful in the development of new marketing strategies that consider psychological factors to meet actual consumers’ needs and feelings [ 12 ]. On the one side, companies could benefit from this knowledge to increase sales during the COVID-19 pandemic [ 13 ]. Moreover, understanding these needs and feelings could be fundamental to improve the market’s preparedness to face future pandemics and emergencies [ 14 , 15 ]. On the other hand, consumers could take advantage of this new market’s preparedness to respond to their actual needs and feelings. As a result, in case of future emergency, factors such as anxiety and a perceived shortage of essential goods could be reduced [ 16 ], whereas well-being and the positive sense of self of the consumers could be supported [ 17 ]. Furthermore, the novelty of the present study lies in two main aspects. First, based on previous studies highlighting that crises differently affect people’s willingness to buy necessities and non-necessities products [ 11 , 18 ], we adopted a fine-grained approach and disentangled between necessities and non-necessities. Second, considering the unprecedented context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we adopted an integrative approach to investigate the role of different psychological factors such as fear, anxiety, stress, depression, self-justifications, personality traits, and perceived economic stability in influencing consumer behavior. Noteworthy, all these factors have been implicated in consumer behavior in previous research, but, to our knowledge, no study has considered all of them at once. Therefore, considering both the lack of studies that have focused on these factors at once and the unique opportunity to study them in the context of such an unprecedented global pandemic, we adopted an integrative approach to get one of the first overviews of the role of the several psychological factors influencing consumer behavior.
Previous studies in consumer psychology and behavioral economics have highlighted that several psychological factors impact consumer behavior differently [ 18 – 20 ]. Consumer behavior refers to the study of individuals or groups who are in the process of searching to purchase, use, evaluate, and dispose of products and services to satisfy their needs [ 12 ]. Importantly, it also includes studying the consumer’s emotional, mental, and behavioral responses that precede or follow these processes [ 21 ]. Changes in consumer behavior can occur for different reasons, including personal, economic, psychological, contextual, and social factors. However, in dramatic contexts such as a disease outbreak or a natural disaster, some factors, more than others, have a more significant impact on consumer behavior. Indeed, situations that potentially disrupt social lives, or threaten individuals’ health, have been proven to lead to strong behavioral changes [ 22 ]. An example is panic buying, a phenomenon occurring when fear and panic influence behavior, leading people to buy more things than usual [ 23 ]. Specifically, panic buying has been defined as a herd behavior that occurs when consumers buy a considerable amount of products in anticipation of, during, or after a disaster [ 24 ]. A recent review on the psychological causes of panic buying highlighted that similar changes in consumer behavior occur when purchase decisions are impaired by negative emotions such as fear and anxiety [ 25 ]. Noteworthy, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, Lins and Aquino [ 23 ] showed that panic buying was positively correlated with impulse buying, which has been defined as a complex buying behavior in which the rapidity of the decision process precludes thoughtful and deliberate consideration of alternative information and choice [ 25 ]. The analysis of the different psychological factors involved in consumer behavior and changes in purchase decisions still represents an area that is scarcely explored. Arguably, during an uncertain threatening situation, such as a health crisis or a pandemic, the primitive part of our brain usually becomes more prominent, pushing individuals to engage in behaviors that are (perceived as) necessary for survival [ 26 – 29 ]. Importantly, these primitive instinctual behaviors can override the rational decision-making process, having an immense impact on usual consumer behavior. Therefore, the basic primitive response of humans represents the core factor responsible for changes in consumer behavior during a health crisis [ 16 ]. Specifically, fear and anxiety originated from perceived feelings of insecurity and instability, are the factors driving these behavioral changes [ 30 ]. In line with the terror management theory [ 31 ], previous studies have shown that external events, which threaten the safety of individuals, motivate compensatory response processes to alleviate fear and anxiety [ 32 , 33 ]. These response processes can prompt individuals to make purchases to gain a sense of security, comfort, and momentarily escape, which can also serve as a compensatory mechanism to alleviate stress. However, as such buying motivation represents an attempt to regulate the individuals’ negative emotions, the actual need for the purchased products is often irrelevant [ 34 ].
Pandemics and natural disasters are highly stressful situations, which can easily induce negative emotions and adverse mental health states [ 35 – 37 ] such as perceived lack of control and instability, which are core aspects of emergency situations, contribute directly to stress. In turn, research has highlighted that stress is a crucial factor in influencing consumer behavior. For example, past studies have shown that individuals may withdraw and become passive in response to stress, and this inaction response can lead to a decrease in purchasing [ 38 , 39 ]. However, some studies point out that stress can lead to an active response, increasing impulsive spending behaviors [ 40 , 41 ]. Moreover, event-induced stress can lead to depressive mood. In some cases, the depressive mood may translate into the development of dysfunctional consumer behavior, such as impulsive (the sudden desire to buy something accompanied by excessive emotional response) and/or compulsive buying (repetitive purchasing due to the impossibility to control the urge) [ 41 , 42 ]. In this context, Sneath and colleagues [ 37 ] highlighted that changes in consumer behavior often represent self-protective strategies aimed at managing depressive states and negative emotions by restoring a positive sense of self. Importantly, a recent study conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic showed that depression predicted the phenomenon of the over-purchasing, which was framed as the degree to which people had increased their purchases of some necessities goods (e.g. food, water, sanitary products, pharmacy products, etc.) because of the pandemic [ 43 ].
A recent study recommended a differentiation between necessity and non-necessity products to better understand consumer behavior in response to stressful situations [ 18 ]. According to the authors, contrasting findings on the link between stress and consumer behavior may be due to the fact that stress affects certain purchasing behaviors negatively, but others positively, depending on the type of product under investigation. On one side, it has been argued that consumers may be more willing to spend money on necessities (vs. non-necessities) by making daily survival products readily available. Accordingly, recent research documented an increase in buying necessities products (i.e., utilitarian shopping) during and after a traumatic event [ 11 ]. However, other findings showed that impulsive non-necessities purchasing (i.e., hedonic shopping) could also increase as an attempt to escape or minimize the pain for the situation. That is, non-necessities buying is used as an emotional coping strategy to manage stress and negative emotional states [ 44 ]. To reconcile these findings, Durante and Laran [ 18 ] proposed that people adopt strategic consumer behavior to restore their sense of control in stressful situations. Hence, high stress levels generally lead consumers to save money and spend strategically on products perceived as necessities. Importantly, regarding the impact of perceived stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer behavior, a recent study showed that the likelihood of purchasing quantities of food larger than usual increased with higher levels of perceived stress [ 45 ].
Another psychological factor implicated in consumer behavior that deserves special attention is self-justification strategies [ 46 ]. Self-justification refers to the cognitive reappraisal process by which people try to reduce the cognitive dissonance stemming from a contradiction between beliefs, values, and behaviors. People often try to justify their decisions to avoid the feeling of being wrong to maintain a positive sense of self [ 17 ]. In consumer behavior research, it is widely acknowledged that consumers enhance positive arguments that support their choices and downplay counterarguments that put their behavior in question [ 47 ]. Based on previous research, it is plausible that, within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, self-justifications for buying non-necessities products may also include pursuing freedom and defying boredom [ 11 , 48 ]. Further, the hedonistic attitude of “I could die tomorrow” or “You only live once” could certainly see a resurgence during the COVID-19 emergency [ 48 ], and become a crucial mechanism accounting for individual differences in consumer behavior. Based on these considerations, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, self-justifications strategies could be relevant for non-necessities, since products for fun or entertainment could be more suited to the pursuit of freedom and to defy boredom. Conversely, self-justifications strategies related to necessities could be implemented to a lesser degree, due to the very nature of the products. The unprecedented context of the pandemic could already justify the purchase of those essential goods by itself, and additional justifications may not be necessary.
Furthermore, several studies have shown that household income has a significant impact in determining people’s expenses [ 49 – 51 ]. Not surprisingly, the research highlighted a positive relationship between income and spending levels [ 52 ]. Income is defined as money received regularly from work or investments. Interestingly, a different line of research pointed out that self-perceived economic stability is a more appropriate determinant of consumer behavior than actual income [ 53 , 54 ]. Usually, people tend to report subjective feelings of income inadequacy, even when their objective financial situation might not support such attitude [ 55 ]. An interesting explanation for this bias draws on the social comparison process. Indeed, the study of Karlsson et colleagues [ 53 ] showed that, compared to families who considered themselves to have a good financial situation, households which considered themselves to be worse off economically than others reported fewer purchases of goods, perceived the impact of their latest purchase on their finance to be greater, and planned purchases more carefully. Furthermore, a recent study in the context of the COVID-19 emergency showed that people who believed to have limited financial resources were the most worried about the future [ 56 , 57 ]. Therefore, in the present study, we measured both the income and the perceived economic situation of the respondents to respectively consider the objective economic information and the subjective perception of respondents. However, considering the state of uncertainty experienced by many households during the COVID-19 pandemic [ 58 ], we changed the comparison from other families to participants’ economic situation in different time frames. We asked respondents to report perceived economic stability before, during, and after the emergency.
Finally, besides situational factors related to the specific emergency, the individuals’ personality traits are likely to have a role in determining consumer behavior as well. Past research has highlighted that the Big Five personality traits [ 59 ] can differently predict consumer behavior [ 60 ]. Specifically, conscientiousness, openness, and emotional stability (alias neuroticism) were related to compulsive buying, impulsive buying, and utilitarian shopping. Nevertheless, how different personality traits are related to consumer behavior is still an open question [ 61 ].
We conducted a nationwide survey in the Italian population to examine consumer behavior during the lockdown phase due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the COVID-19 emergency has emphasized the usefulness of essential goods (e.g. food, medications, etc.) compared to non-essential products (e.g. luxury items such as clothes and accessories) [ 62 ], in our study, we categorized products in necessities and non-necessities. Furthermore, changes in spending levels (necessities vs. non-necessities) were examined to confirm the effect that COVID-19 had on people’s expenses. Moreover, we tried to clarify the relationship between changes in spending levels and changes in consumer behavior. Finally, we focused on the psychological factors underlying changes in consumer behavior toward the target products. Based on the literature, we expected to find an increase in purchases with a more noticeable rise in necessity products. Specifically, we explored potential underpinnings of consumer behavior by examining mood states and affective response to the emergency, perceived economic stability, self-justification for purchasing, and personality traits. All these factors have been implicated in consumer behavior in previous research, but, to our knowledge, no study has considered all of them at once. Therefore, in this study, we adopted an integrative approach to study the contribution of different psychological factors by considering their mutual influence (see Fig 1 ). Specifically, based on the empirical findings and theoretical accounts presented above, we hypothesized that during the COVID-19 pandemic:
- Higher levels of anxiety and COVID-related fear would explain changes in consumer behavior, increasing the need for buying necessities.
- Higher levels of stress would lead consumers to save money or, in alternative, would increase the need to spend money on necessities (i.e., utilitarian shopping).
- Higher levels of depressive state would be associated with an increase in the need for buying, both necessities and non-necessities.
- Higher implementation of self-justification strategies would be associated with a higher need for buying, especially for non-necessities.
- Higher perceived economic stability would be associated with an increase in the need for both necessities and non-necessities.
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The construct involved in the study is placed in the center of the figure. Arrows depart from these constructs to show the hypothesized relationship between the constructs and the outcomes of the present study (Necessities and Non-necessities). The symbol “±” was used to take into consideration two possible opposite directions.
Materials and methods
Data were collected through a series of questionnaires, using a web-based survey implemented on the Qualtrics software. The survey was active in the period starting from April 1st, 2020, to April 20th, 2020, during the first peak of the contagion in Italy. We used a convenience sample due to the exceptional situation of the COVID-19 pandemic and the time constraints to conduct our investigation. Therefore, participants were recruited through word-of-mouth and social media. Inclusion criteria were the age over 18 and be resident in Italy. First, socio-demographic information was collected, including gender, age, annual income, and education. Then, questions on spending levels and consumer behavior, both before the COVID-19 pandemic and during the first week of lockdown in Italy, were presented, separating necessities and non-necessities. Finally, a series of specifically created questionnaires and standardized measures were administered to investigate psychological and economic variables.
A total of 4121 participants were initially recruited. For the present study, we adopted a rigorous approach, excluding 104 participants over the age of 64, since they relied on retirement benefits and -from an economic point of view- were considered a specific population, not comparable to the rest of the sample [ 63 ]. Furthermore, we excluded 184 participants who did not report spending any money before the COVID-19 pandemic on buying necessities and/or non-necessities. Therefore, 3833 Italian participants (69.3% women, age M = 34.2, SD = 12.5) were included in this study. All participants provided their written informed consent before completing the survey. The study was conducted following the ethical standards of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Psychology (IRBP) of the Department of Psychological, Health and Territorial Sciences at G. d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara (protocol number: 20004). Participants did not receive monetary or any other forms of compensation for their participation.
A demographic questionnaire was administered to collect background information. The questions considered age, gender, annual income, and education. The annual income was then categorized into five levels, based on the income brackets established by the Italian National Statistical Institute [ 64 ]. Education was categorized into five levels, from elementary to school to postgraduate degree.
Consumer behavior during COVID-19
We created this questionnaire from scratch to get a comprehensive overview of people’s economic attitudes and behaviors during the COVID-19 emergency. The idea of this new questionnaire was developed based on a series of previous studies on consumer behavior [ 43 , 65 – 67 ]. However, specific items were developed from scratch adapting them to the specific unprecedented context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, these items were created following a series of group discussions between all co-authors of the present study. To directly measure changes in consumer behavior due to the COVID-19 pandemic, participants were requested to compare their actual behavior to their normal behavior before the COVID-19 outbreak. Therefore, the initial statement in the questionnaire underlined that answers had to be given by referring to the COVID-19 emergency period compared to everyday life before the outbreak.
The factor structure and reliability were evaluated in the larger sample ( n = 4121), using principal component analysis (PCA) and Cronbach’s alpha. The results revealed a six-factor structure and satisfactory reliability values (see S1 Table for more details). Note that the PCA and reliability analyses were also conducted on the current subsample, and the pattern of results did not change.
For the present study’s aims, we focused on three scales: “Necessities”, “Non-necessities”, and “Self-justifications”. Items are shown in Table 1 . The first two scales investigated consumer behavior toward the different framed products. Specifically, items addressed the individual’s attitudes, feelings, and behaviors toward necessities and non-necessities. Thus, higher scores reflected greater value (e.g., need, utility) placed on the target products.
The self-justifications scale referred to consumers’ thoughts to justify their purchases, with no distinction between necessity and non-necessity products. Higher scores reflected a frequent use of self-justifications in purchasing items.
For all these scales, responses were given on a Likert scale ranging from 0 ( not at all ), to 100, ( extremely ). Total scores on each scale were obtained by averaging all items.
Change in spending levels due to COVID-19
A fourth scale, i.e. “Spending Habits,” was extracted from the questionnaire mentioned above. As we aimed at measuring changes in the spending levels due to the COVID-19 emergency, we decided to use single items instead of the total scale score (items are presented in Table 1 ). Specifically, we created three percentage scores: “Changes in General Spending”, “Changes in Necessities spending”, and “Changes in Non-necessities spending” considering the difference between the money spent during the first week of lockdown, and the money spent on average in a week before the emergency (see Table 1 notes). Scores reflect the change in the amount (in Euro) that people devolved in purchasing the target products (hypothetical range from -1999 to +1999).
Big Five Inventory 10-item (BFI-10)
Big Five Inventory 10-item (BFI-10) is a short scale designed to briefly assess the five personality traits with two items for each trait. Specifically, these traits are: Agreeableness (example item: “I see myself as someone who is generally trusting”), Conscientiousness (example item: “I see myself as someone who does a thorough job”), Emotional stability (example item: “I see myself as someone who is relaxed, handles stress well”), Extraversion (example item: “I see myself as someone who is outgoing, sociable”), and Openness (example item: “I see myself as someone who has an active imagination”) [ 68 ]. In addition, respondents are asked to indicate whether they agree or disagree with each statement on a 5-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 ( not agree at all ) to 5 ( totally agree ). A previously validated Italian version was used in the present study [ 69 ].
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7)
The GAD-7 [ 70 ] is a 7-item self-reported measure designed to screen for generalized anxiety disorder and to measure the severity of symptoms, based on the DSM-IV criteria. This measure is often used in both clinical practice and research. Specifically, respondents are asked the frequency they have experienced anxiety symptoms in the past two weeks (e.g., “Not being able to stop or control worrying”) on a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 0 ( not at all ) to 3 ( nearly every day ). The total score ranges from 0 to 21, with higher scores indicating worse anxiety symptomatology.
Patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9)
The patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) is a 9-item self-reported brief diagnostic measure for depression [ 71 ]. Specifically, respondents are asked of the frequency they felt bothered by several depressive symptoms during the past two weeks (e.g., “Little interest or pleasure in doing things”) on a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 0 ( not at all ) to 3 ( nearly every day ). Total score ranges from 0 to 27, with higher scores indicating higher depressive symptoms.
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)
The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a 14-item self-report measure designed to assess the degree to which situations are appraised as stressful [ 72 ]. Each item (e.g., “In the last month, how often have you been upset because of something that happened unexpectedly?”) is rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 0 ( never ) to 4 ( very often ). Thus, the total score ranges from 0 to 56, with a higher score indicating a higher level of perceived stress during the COVID-19 emergency.
Fear for COVID-19
We administered the Fear for COVID-19 questionnaire to measure fear and concerning beliefs related to the COVID-19 pandemic [ 35 , 36 , 73 ]. This questionnaire was created from the assumption that, during a health crisis, the individual’s fear is determined by both the hypothesized susceptibility (i.e., probability of contracting a disease) and the expected severity of the event (i.e., perceived consequences of being infected) [ 25 ]. Therefore, the 8 items dealt with the perceived probability of being infected by COVID-19 (Belief of contagion) and the possible consequences of the contagion (Consequences of contagion). See Table 1 for the complete list of the items. Previous studies have reported the PCA and reliability of the questionnaire [ 36 ]. Responses were given on a Likert scale ranging from 0 ( not at all ), to 100, ( extremely ). A total score was obtained by averaging the items (range 0–100).
Perceived economic stability
This questionnaire was developed to assess the subjective perception of an individual’s economic situation. The PCA in the larger sample revealed a unidimensional structure (see S2 Table for more details). The scale assessed perceived economic stability in three different timepoints: before, during, and after (in terms of expectation) the COVID-19 pandemic. Responses were given on a Likert scale ranging from 0 ( not at all ), to 100, ( extremely ). The total score was calculated by averaging these three items (range 0–100).
We preliminary investigated changes in spending levels due to the COVID-19 pandemic, comparing expenses before the emergency to expenses during the COVID-19 pandemic. First, we analyzed changes in the average general spending level. Then, we performed dependent (paired) sample t -tests between “Changes in necessities spending” and “Changes in non-necessities spending” to examine differences between products framed as necessities and non-necessities.
Afterward, we checked whether changes in spending levels were associated with changes in consumer behavior by conducting Pearson’s correlation analyses, respectively between “Changes in necessities spending” and “Necessities”, and “Changes in non-necessities spending” and “Non-necessities” scores.
Finally, to investigate the psychological underpinnings of consumer behavior, we performed two hierarchical multiple regressions, respectively, with “Necessities” (Model 1) and “Non-necessities” (Model 2) as outcomes. The same predictors were entered in Model 1 and Model 2. Specifically, the order of the steps was designed to include at first the socio-demographic information as control variables. Hence, we entered the age, gender, annual income brackets, and education in the first step. In Step 2, we included the personality measures (i.e., Big-Five personality traits) since these traits are stable and are not affected by the specific situation. In Step 3, Anxiety, Depression, and Stress were entered, to analyze the impact of emotional antecedents of consumer. Further, we decided to include Fear for the COVID-19 in a separate fourth step to evaluate the effect of this specific aspect. We included perceived economic stability at Step 5 after the psychological variables. This choice allowed to analyze the impact of the perceived economic stability after controlling for the role of emotional antecedents on consumer behavior. Finally, following the same logic, we included self-justifications strategies.
Considering “Changes in General spending”, our results showed that our sample reported, on average, an increase of 60.48% in the general spending level during the first week of lockdown. Furthermore, significant differences between “Changes in Necessities spending” and “Changes in Non-necessities spending”, t (3832) = 11.99, p < .001, were detected. Indeed, the spending level for necessities products showed an increase of 90.69%, while for non-necessities products, the average increase was only 36.11%. Means and standard deviations are presented in Table 2 .
The results of the correlation analyses indicated that there was a significant positive association between “Changes in necessities spending” and “Necessities”, r (3831) = .22, p < .001. Furthermore, a significant positive association was highlighted between “Changes in non-necessities spending” and “Non-necessities”, r (3831) = .23, p < .001. Therefore, people’s changes in spending levels were related to their attitudes and feelings toward specific products. This finding supported our choice to investigate the psychological underpinnings of people’s consumer behavior.
Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed on the two consumer behavior scores. In addition, control variables, psychological factors, and economic variables were entered as predictors as detailed above.
Regarding Model 1 (Necessities), results showed that all the steps explained a significant amount of additional variance (see Table 3 for detailed results). When personality traits were entered in the model (Step 2), only agreeableness, openness, and emotional stability negatively predicted the outcome. However, when anxiety, depression, and stress were entered in the model (Step 3), only openness remained statistically significant. The variables entered in Step 3 contributed to explaining 7% of the variance, with anxiety and stress positively predicting the outcome. Adding fear for COVID-19 in the following step increased the explained variance by 6%, reduced the impact of anxiety, and completely overrode the effect of stress, which became non-significant. In the following steps, perceived economic stability offered a small but significant contribution (1%), and Self-justifications explained even further variance (4%). Overall, in the final step, the final model explained 23% of the variance in Necessities. Inspecting coefficients, we found that, after accounting for control variables, openness ( p < .001), anxiety ( p < .001), fear for COVID-19 ( p < .001), perceived economic stability ( p < .001), and self-justifications ( p < .001) emerged as significant predictors.
In Model 2 (Non-necessities), results indicated that each step significantly contributed to explaining the outcome (see Table 4 ). In Step 2, personality traits explained 2% of the outcome variance, with consciousness and openness emerging as significant predictors and remaining significant until the final step. Notably, consciousness was negatively associated with non-necessities behavior, while high scores in openness were associated with higher scores on the Non-necessities scale. In Step 3, only depression was significantly and positively related to the outcome and remained so in subsequent models. Both fear for COVID-19 and perceived economic stability further significantly explained the outcome, albeit weakly (about 1% of variance each one). Higher levels of fear and perceived economic stability were associated with higher scores on the Non-necessities scale. Noteworthy, adding Self-justifications in the final step explained a substantial share of variance, equal to 12%. Specifically, higher scores on self-justifications were associated with higher scores on the Non-necessities scale. Furthermore, self-justifications also had a greater impact on non-necessities compared to those had on necessities, t (7664) = -10.60, p < .05. Total variance explained in the final step was 22%, with conscientiousness ( p < .001), openness ( p = .001), depression ( p = .002), perceived economic stability ( p = .009), and self-justifications ( p < .001) being significant predictors.
The present study aimed to examine changes in consumer behavior and their psychological antecedents during the lockdown period due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We were specifically interested in separating necessity and non-necessity products since previous studies suggested that such a distinction is helpful to better understand consumer behavior[ 18 , 74 ]. First, our results indicated a 61% increase in spending levels during the first week of the lockdown, compared to the average expenses before the health crisis. Furthermore, spending levels were differently increased for buying products framed as necessities (91%) and non-necessities (36%). Second, we examined consumer behavior through Necessities and Non-necessities scales, which included measures related to the psychological need of buying, the specific aspects of the purchase experience (e.g., impulsiveness, perceived utility, satisfaction), and the number of products purchased. Our results highlighted that changes in consumer behavior were positively associated with changes in spending levels during the COVID-19 emergency.
Finally, we focused on psychological factors that can explain these changes in consumer behavior. In this context, our hypothesis about the role of the identified psychological factors in predicting consumer behavior during COVID-19 was supported. Also, our findings confirmed the importance of separating necessities from non-necessities products, as we found that they had different psychological antecedents. Regarding the investigation on spending levels, our findings are in line with sales data reporting that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, consumer priorities have become more centered on necessities, including food, hygiene, and cleaning products[ 7 , 62 ]. Therefore, the present study confirmed the greater tendency to buy necessities products during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is noteworthy to mention that our sample also reported an increase in spending levels related to non-necessities products. These data can be explained by referring to previous research that considered increases in non-necessities spending levels to respond to the hedonistic pursuit of freedom, defying boredom, restoring the sense of self, and compensatory mechanism, to alleviate negative psychological states[ 16 , 32 , 34 , 37 , 44 , 75 ]. However, as highlighted in the study by Forbes and colleagues[ 76 ] these hedonic needs and compensatory mechanisms can have a different impact during or in the aftermath of a crisis. In addition, the authors highlighted that the consumption of non-necessities products increased, as a way of coping to alleviate negative psychological states, particularly in the short term after a natural disaster. According to these results, a recent study conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic suggested that some factors, such as the degree of perceived threat, may vary during the COVID-19 pandemic, thus, having a different impact on consumer behavior[ 77 ]. Therefore, future research could delve into the analysis of changes in consumer behavior over time in relation to the different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Regarding our investigation of consumer behavior’s antecedent psychological factors, we found partly different antecedents for necessities and non-necessities. Regarding demographic effects, in the present study, we found that men were more oriented in terms of needs and feelings toward non-necessities than women. A possible explanation could consider the context of the COVID-19, whereas the lockdown has imposed the closure of physical stores. In this context, it could be appropriate to refer to those studies that found several gender differences between consumer e-commerce adoption and purchase decision making. Specifically, research has shown that men and women have different psychological pre-disposition of web-based purchases, with men having more positive attitudes toward online shopping[ 78 , 79 ]. Furthermore, a study conducted during COVID-19 showed that women spent more time on necessities such as childcare and chores compared to men[ 80 ]. Regarding age differences, we found that younger people were more oriented toward non-necessities products. A study conducted in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted that older adults showed lower negative emotions than younger adults[ 73 , 81 , 82 ]. In this view, it is possible that lower emotional antecedents, such as depressive states, lowered the need to buy non-necessities for more aged people. Another study conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic showed that older adults, aged 56 to 75, had significantly reduced the purchase of non-necessities goods compared to younger people[ 83 ]. Furthermore, considering the closure of physical stores, it is possible that younger people were more able and got used to buy a broader range of non-necessities products by e-commerce. However, it is important to note that we excluded in the present study people aged over 65. We also found a positive effect of income on necessities. A possible explanation is that people more stable from an economic point of view were more oriented to feel the need to buy products. However, surprisingly we did not find this effect for non-necessities. Finally, we found a positive effect of education on non-necessities. This data is congruent with another study conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, showing that people with higher education (e.g., bachelor’s degrees and graduate or professional degrees) tended to buy an unusual amount of goods than people with lower education[ 84 ].Furthermore, another study highlighted that during COVID-19 pandemic entertainment and outdoor expenses significantly varied across different education groups[ 85 ]. Considering the present results, further studies should better investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on the need to purchase necessities and non-necessities during health emergency and natural disaster.
Furthermore, after accounting for control variables (gender, age, income brackets, and education), consumer behavior toward necessities was explained by personality traits (openness), negative emotions (anxiety and COVID- related fear), perception of economic stability, and self-justifications. On the other side, consumer behavior toward non-necessities was explained by conscientiousness, openness, depression, perceived economic stability, and self-justifications.
Present findings showed that negative feelings have a considerable role in predicting changes in consumer behavior related to necessities products. This result is consistent with previous literature showing that, during a health crisis, fear and anxiety are developed from perceived feelings of insecurity and instability[ 30 ]. To reduce these negative feelings, people tend to focus on aspects and behaviors that can help them regain control and certainty, such as buying[ 86 ]. Therefore, changes in consumer behavior could be explained as a remedial response to reduce fear and anxiety related to the COVID-19 emergency. According to our hypothesis, present findings indicated that fear and anxiety play an important role in predicting changes in consumer behavior related to necessities. In contrast, no significant effects were found on non-necessities. A possible explanation for this remarkable difference can be provided by research in survival psychology, which highlighted that individuals might undergo behavioral changes during events such as natural disasters or health crises, including herd behavior, panic buying, changes in purchasing habits, and decision making[ 8 , 76 ]. Following these changes, individuals can be more engaged in behaviors that are necessary for survival[ 26 , 87 ]. In this view, COVID-related fear and anxiety could lead individuals to feel the need to buy necessities products useful for daily survival.
Stress is another factor suggested to differently affect changes in consumer behavior toward necessities and non-necessities[ 18 ]. It is noticeable that consumers experiencing stressful situations may show increased spending behavior, explicitly directed toward products that the consumer perceives to be necessities and that allow for control in an otherwise uncontrollable environment[ 18 ]. Our results partly support this position, showing that stress has a specific role in predicting changes in consumer behavior related to necessities but not to non-necessities. However, the role of stress was no longer significant when fear was entered in the regression model. Noteworthy, we focused on fear for COVID-19, therefore, it is possible that in such an exceptionally unprecedented situation, fear had a prominent role compared to stress. Moreover, previous literature shows that the relationship between fear and consumer behavior increases as the type of fear measured becomes more specific[ 88 ]. In this sense, further studies could delve into the relationship between fear and stress in relation to consumer behavior.
Notably, past studies had found a relationship between depressive states and consumer behavior, suggesting that changes in consumer behavior can represent self-protective behaviors to manage negative affective states[ 37 ]. The role of depression was highlighted by our results in respect to consumer behavior only related to non-necessities. Therefore, conversely to the study conducted in the UK and Ireland during the COVID-19 pandemic by Bentall et colleagues (2021), we did not find a relationship between depression and buying necessities. It is important to note that we described non-necessities products as “products for fun or entertainment”. In our opinion, people with higher levels of depressive symptoms may feel a greater need for this kind of product. Thus, people were drawn more toward this category of purchases because it was better suited to satisfy compensatory strategies to improve their negative emotional states. However, future studies are required to investigate this possibility and deepen the relationship between depressive states and the need to buy necessities and non-necessities. Furthermore, considering that depressive mood can be related to severe dysfunctional aspects of consumer behavior, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, future clinical studies should further investigate this relationship.
Furthermore, based on the limited and contrasting literature on this topic, we considered the role of personality traits. As suggested by previous studies, conscientiousness and openness were found to be associated with consumer behavior[ 89 – 91 ]. Interestingly, we found that personality traits were more relevant in consumer behavior toward non-necessities than necessities products. Only openness had a role in (negatively) predicting consumer behavior toward necessities, whereas conscientiousness (negatively) and openness (positively) predicted consumer behavior toward non-necessities. Unexpectedly, we found that people with a high level of openness showed high scores in consumer behavior toward non-necessities but low scores in necessities products. We speculated that individuals with higher levels of openness, which are more inclined to develop interests and hobbies[ 92 ], might have experienced a higher need to purchase non-necessities products during the lockdown. On the other hand, individuals with lower scores of openness, which tend to prefer familiar routines to new experiences and have a narrower range of interests, might have been more focused on purchasing necessity products. However, further studies should investigate the different roles of openness on necessities vs non-necessities consumer behavior. Globally, we acknowledge that the specific role and directions of these different personality traits on consumer behavior toward necessities and non-necessities is still an unexplored question, fully deserving of further investigations.
Finally, in both regression models, perceived economic stability and self-justifications predicted changes in consumer behavior. It comes as no surprise that individuals who perceived themselves and their family as more economically stable were prone to spend more in both products categories, necessities and non-necessities [ 52 , 53 ]. More intriguing, we found that the self-justifications that consumers adopted to motivate their purchases were a strong predictor of consumer behavior, especially in relation to non-necessities, where it explained the largest amount of variance (12%). Therefore, our hypothesis on the greater impact of self-justifications strategies on non-necessities compared to necessities was confirmed. Non-necessities, framed as products for fun or entertainment, seem more suited to satisfy that pursuit of freedom and the need to defy boredom that people increasingly experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic[ 48 ]. Therefore, we confirmed that the hedonistic attitude is an important predictor of consumer behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. This result supported and extended previous literature showing that, during a crisis, changes in consumer behavior are related to self-justifications and rationalizations that people formulate to feel right in making their purchases, including the pursuit of freedom and the reduction of boredom[ 11 , 48 ]. Companies and markets can acknowledge this process and use it to develop new marketing strategies to meet consumers’ actual needs, feelings, and motivation to purchase during the COVID-19 emergency[ 12 ]. On the one hand, satisfying these needs could support and favor well-being and the positive sense of self, which are essentially sought by the consumer developing such self-justification strategies[ 17 ]. On the other hand, focusing on strategies that consider these psychological self-justifications could be a winning marketing strategy for increasing sales, contributing to the economic recovery after the COVID-19 outbreak[ 13 ].
The results of the present study highlighted that the COVID-19 pandemic had a considerable impact on consumer behavior. In our sample, this impact resulted in increased spending levels accompanied by an increase in the psychological need to purchase both necessities and non-necessities products. Furthermore, our findings demonstrated that several psychological factors predicted these changes in consumer behavior. Notably, consumer behavior respectively toward necessities and non-necessities differed on some psychological predictors.
Some limits of the current study need to be acknowledged. First, we studied consumer behavior from a broad perspective on a non-clinical sample, therefore we did not include dysfunctional aspects related to consumer behavior, such as impulsivity and compulsivity buying and hoarding behavior, which the emergency may elicit. Hence, in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic, it would be interesting to integrate our results with investigations of dysfunctional aspects of consumer behavior. Furthermore, since the unique opportunity to study psychological factors and consumer behavior during this unprecedented period, we adopted an integrative approach to consider the impact of several psychological factors at once, obtaining one of the first overviews of consumer behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, combining all these psychological factors could have led to an aggregation bias[ 93 ], which could have masked the specific roles of each of the individual factors influencing consumer behavior. Therefore, future studies could adopt a more fine-grained approach to disentangle the role of each factor. Another limit is that we collected data during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. Notably, we reasoned that focusing on the very first period of the lockdown would likely allow us to capture the greater shift in consumer behavior, thus offering compelling evidence on the first impact of the pandemic on consumers. Nevertheless, it is likely that consumer behavior will undergo further changes in the longer term. Hence, future studies should investigate the evolution of consumer behaviors in relation to the development of the pandemic. Indeed, it is likely that when the “sense of urgency” and the negative affective reaction to the emergency will decrease, also the need for buying and purchases preferences would change. Furthermore, since we asked participants to estimate their weekly expenditures before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to keep in mind that our study focused on the people’s perception of changes in expenses. We did not know how much reliable these estimations were, and it is possible that objective assessment of change in the amount of money spent before and during the pandemic diverge from subjective views. In the present study, we focused on individual internal factors that could influence consumer behavior. However, other external factors, including the lockdown restrictions as the closure of physical stores, had certainly had a further impact on consumer behavior. Notwithstanding these limitations, this study represents one of the first attempts to examine changes in consumer behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic from a behavioral economic perspective, providing a thorough analysis of the psychological factors driving changes in consumer behavior, with a direct link to previous psychological research in consumer behavior. Furthermore, our results provided new evidence on the role of psychological factors influencing necessities and non-necessities spending and extended our knowledge of the antecedents of consumer behavior changes during the unprecedented health crisis we are experiencing.
In conclusion, the present study, by shedding new light on changes in people’s behavior due to the pandemic, fits into the growing body of research which helps increase economic and psychological preparedness in the face of future health emergencies.
S1 table. pattern matrix of the pca for the questionnaire on consumer behavior during the covid-19 pandemic..
S2 Table. PCA for the “Perceived economic stability” questionnaire.
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- 6. Despin T. Knock-on Effects Of COVID-19 On Consumer Behavior And How Businesses Can Prepare For Them. In: Entrepreneur [Internet]. 11 May 2020 [cited 12 Jun 2020]. Available: https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/350457
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- 31. Greenberg J, Solomon S, Pyszczynski T. Terror Management Theory of Self-Esteem and Cultural Worldviews: Empirical Assessments and Conceptual Refinements. In: Zanna MP, editor. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Academic Press; 1997. pp. 61–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60016-7
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- 92. McCrae RR, Costa PT. Conceptions and Correlates of Openness to Experience. In: Hogan R, Johnson J, Briggs S, editors. Handbook of Personality Psychology. San Diego: Academic Press; 1997. pp. 825–847. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012134645-4/50032-9
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Exploring consumer behavior: must-read research topics.
Understanding consumer behavior can contribute to decoupling economic growth from environmental degradation, one of the tasks set by the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal #8: decent work and economic growth.
In anticipation of the shopping season, we have curated a list of leading article collections that redefine our knowledge of consumer behavior. Accumulating over 500,000 views, scientists investigated patterns emerging from the online shopping era, the drivers of buying decisions, and the environmental impact of consumer purchases, including:
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10 Great Marketing Dissertation Topics On Consumer Behavior
Many factors will end up influencing your dissertation topic, including what the focus of your doctoral program is, and what funds are available for your research, but choosing a topic can be a daunting task. You’ll likely spend several years of your life researching, reading, and writing about it, so it’s an important decision.
The first consideration for choosing a dissertation topic is your personal interest. Because you’ll be spending so much time with it, you’ll want a topic that you won’t get sick of easily. It’s also crucial to choose a topic that you can structure a sound research methodology for. Many marketing doctoral programs will require that you’re research be structured around testing a hypothesis, analyzing trends in data, or exploring a causal relationship. In many ways this is the biggest difference between a dissertation or thesis and the other paper’s you’ve written in college.
If you’re already interested in a specific doctoral program, try looking at what current professor’s, students, and fellows specialize in. This will give you an idea of what areas there are already funding for in the program. Either way, you’ll still need a preliminary idea for a topic before you apply for a program. Though chances are it will change as you start your background research, refine your methodology, and begin working with your research advisor. Even as you choose a topic, you’ll need to be open to it changing.
Here are 10 topics about consumer behavior to get you started:
- 1. How is consumer behavior different for purchasing within social networks compared to individual spaces?
- 2. Have consumer buying patterns shifted with a transition from brick and mortar stores to online retailers?
- 3. What are the major antecedents of consumer behavior for social network purchasing?
- 4. How much does competitive nature drive purchasing in online auctions?
- 5. What are the major factors that contribute to the consumer’s evaluation of whether a product is worth the price?
- 6. How do corporate sustainability and social responsibility initiatives influence consumer choices?
- 7. How much of a premium are consumers willing to pay for convenience?
- 8. How much do consumers value cost transparency?
- 9. What are the primary factors that influence the decision whether to replace a technology product with a newer model?
- 10. How effective is product placement in different genres of movies?
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How to write a consumer behavior dissertation?
To write a dissertation on consumer behaviour, deeper knowledge and understanding of the subject is a must, to be acquired by hard work and strong research. Consumer behaviour is the study of processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use or dispose products, services, idea or experiences. It focuses on how individuals make decisions and spend their available resources on consumption related including what they buy, why they buy, when they buy, where they buy it, how often they buy it how often they use it, how they evaluate it after they purchase and the impact of such evaluations on future purchases.
A good research dissertation must collate sources, collect data, do statistical analysis, and then write. The methodology of research must be discussed with the supervisor. A lot of data can be collected through interviewing as well. So the questionnaire for interview must cover all the research topics.
The important first step in the planning of the dissertation is the selection of an appropriate Topic on consumer behaviour to be followed by good research. Organising that research systematically will be a task. In general, the dissertation consumer behaviour can take the following architecture.
Title page or cover page that will carry the following points:
- Topic of the consumer behaviour dissertation
- Author’s name
- Name of the degree for which this dissertation is targeted
- Name of the university and department followed by month and year
- Acknowledgement of gratitude to the people who helped the author in writing the dissertation
The abstract can give a summary of the consumer behaviour dissertation and incorporate the following points:
- Background of the topic
- Aim of the study
- Overview of research methodology
- Table of contents where chapters have to be listed with page numbers.
The dissertation on consumer behaviour must tell in its introduction what the paper is going to discuss and the research question and concludes with the statement.
Literature review must give a synopsis of previously published works on consumer behaviour.
Here the research methods have to be explained and the reasons thereof for selecting those methods.
Here you should present the facts and findings of the research.
In the discussion part of dissertation, the findings obtained from the research on current available literature can be examined. The discussion is focused to prove the topic question giving your consumer behaviour dissertation theories.
In this section of the dissertation, sources can be cited in an accurate manner.
Graphs, tables, figures, interviews, questionnaires, summaries of survey, and statistical results can be accommodated in this section.
As the result of all the research findings and their analysis, the author will come up with further suggestions for future work and further improvement in the field.
To conclude, the student must explain the methods and processes used for research in the methodology section as most jury members are concerned about the resources used for information collection. So a broad road map and a transparent approach can lead the student to his goal of writing a rich dissertation that can earn powerful grades.
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100 Hot Consumer Behavior Essay Topics
In this article you will find a brief overview of consumer behavior research and consumer psychology examples as well as a practical guideline on how to write an essay on consumer behavior. Most importantly, this article will provide you with 100 hot consumer behavior essay topics that will make choosing a topic so much easier for you. This list is a real gem if you are looking for:
- essays topics
- topics for presentation
- assignment topics
- topics for projects
Consumer Behavior Research
Consumer behavior is social science that involves marketing, psychology, sociology, ethnography, behavioral economics, and anthropology. The concept of consumer behavior involves intentions, decisions, and actions connected with purchasing goods and services, using them, and disposal activities. In essence, any behavior associated with purchasing anything can be considered as consumer behavior.
When we investigate consumer behavior, the topics of research include, but are not limited to:
- Motives of purchase
- Impact of the society/social group on purchase intentions
- Usage rates
- Possibility of repurchase
- Word of mouth
- Ethnographic factors of consumer behavior
- Methods of impacting and predicting consumer behavior
- Consumer decision styles
- Role of emotions in consumer behavior
- Customer loyalty
Consumer Psychology Examples
In the market environment, customers seek to purchase goods and services to meet their needs, while sellers strive to develop marketing strategies that would be the most impactful in motivating consumers to buy. That being said, marketing strategies are often designed to make the product more appealing to customers by influencing emotions and feelings.
Consumer psychology examples include the ways in which marketing campaigns influence consumer behavior. Appealing to customers by making a marketing campaign touching, emotional, or funny, are all examples of consumer psychology.
Let us consider several examples of consumer psychology, both good and bad, to get a better understanding of how marketing manipulates feelings of customers.
- Successful consumer psychology example
Procter & Gamble’s “Thank you, Mom” Campaign is emotional and strong, focusing on how mothers support their children no matter what. This campaign was tied to the 2018 Winter Olympics and promoted inclusion, diversity, and family values.
- Consumer psychology failure example
One of the most notable marketing failures of the 2010s is, without a doubt, Pepsi commercial in 2017 . The ad exploited unity, freedom, and diversity as a way to communicate to every customer, depicting a carbonated soda as an element equally important as protest, democracy, and equality. An attempt to manipulate customer feelings was so obvious that the ad was taken down after a severe backlash.
How to Write an Essay on Consumer Behavior: Outline
Generally, just about any essay includes 3 major parts, namely introduction, body paragraph, and conclusion . Whichever of the hot consumer behavior essay topics you choose and whatever length your essay is, you can use the following outline to construct a logically structured essay that will engage your readers and will reflect your topic to the full.
- Hook – the first sentence or two in your introduction that grabs readers’ attention. Can be a quote, relevant statistical data, interesting fact about your topic, a question, or a strong statement. Hook is like a good ad campaign – it sells the rest of the essay to your readers and motivates them to continue reading. Hook also demonstrates your skills of presenting your topic of choice
- Presentation of the topic – reveal what you will write about. Make sure to be clear and concise
- Topic background – reveal the general perspective in which you will research specific concept or phenomenon
- Thesis statement – a sentence that contains the main idea of your essay
- Transitional hook – typically the last sentence in an introduction that smoothly connects the introduction with body paragraph. Refer to what you will write about in the body paragraph to bridge the introduction with the rest of the paper
2. Body paragraph – the number of body paragraphs can vary depending on essay length, while their general structure and elements are uniform
- Topic sentence – reveal in the nutshell what the paragraph is about
- Details about the sub-topic , such as statistical data, findings from relevant and credible sources, interim conclusions, etc.
- Concluding sentence – summarize the paragraph
- Transition sentence – ensure logical transition between body paragraphs. Concluding and transition sentences can be merged into one sentence.
3. Conclusion – summary of your essay. Don’t simply rewrite your main findings, but reveal them in logical sequence, demonstrating connection among facts, cause and effect relationships, and concepts. Restate your thesis statement with regard to the findings you write about in your body paragraphs.
How to Research Consumer Behavior
Here is a list of 7 unconventional sources of information about consumer behavior that will help you find out more about your chosen topic:
- Customer review websites and customer reviews for different products
- Conduct a survey on survey website, such as Survey Monkey
- Interview your friends, family, or basically anyone you would like to
- Social media pages of brands and customer comments on them
- Blogs on products and brands
- Newspaper articles on market trends
- Your own experience – you are a customer and your opinion is a source of information that matters
Consumer Behavior Essay Do’s and Don’ts
- Research your topic in various sources
- Outline your essay before writing
- Reconsider thesis statement after writing every body paragraph
- Don’t simply paraphrase thesis statement in conclusion, but restate it with regard to information you’ve researched in body paragraph
- Make introduction and conclusion clear and concise, optimal length for each is around 10% of the essay
- Use citations not only to avoid plagiarism, but to demonstrate your dedication and hard work researching your topic
- Write your introduction after completing the body paragraph and conclusion – this is a secure way to write an introduction that represents your paper in the best way possible because you know what the paper is about
- Proofread your essay to make sure you avoid grammar mistakes
- Rely solely on your opinion, opinions of your interviewees, or results of a survey if you conduct one – it is unprofessional and you will most likely miss a lot of aspects of the topic
- Write lengthy intros and conclusions – your intro is supposed to intrigue and interest, while conclusion remind of major points rather than include actual research
- Avoid topic sentences – these are important elements of essay structure
- Ignore coordinating thesis statement after writing the paper – it can turn out to be out of touch with your body paragraph content
The topics below are designed to be versatile, interesting, topical, and truly compelling for essays, presentations, assignments, and projects.
Let’s get started!
- Influence of price on consumer behavior
- Price change and consumer behavior in luxury goods market
- Customer luxury value perception
- Mass marketing of luxury and consumer behavior
- Prestige-seeking consumer behavior
- Customer behavior and marketing strategy in luxury segment
- Review and analysis of successful/unsuccessful examples of marketing strategies in luxury segment
- Self-concept in consumer behavior
- Symbolism and market behavior
- Impulsive purchasing
- Attachment and consumer behavior
- Cross-cultural consumer behavior
- Cultural dimensions and consumer behavior: the role of indulgence
- Convergence and divergence in consumer behavior
- Greenwashing as a marketing strategy
- Consumer reaction to “green” brand claims
- Current problems in consumer behavior
- Consumerism as a form of consumer behavior
- Risk taking in consumer behavior
- Consumer value and consumer behavior
- Consumer behavior trends in online shopping
- Sensory marketing and consumer behavior
- Consumer perception of price
- Consumer perception of quality
- Brand extensions and brand relatedness
- Mainstream vs trendy products and consumer behavior
- Personal values and consumer behavior
- Word of mouth and electronic word of mouth as a factor influencing consumer behavior
- Brand ambassadors and consumer behavior
- Corporate social responsibility as a factor influencing consumer behavior
- Brand image and consumer behavior
- The role of customer trust in consumer behavior
- The impact of negative online reviews on product perception and purchase intention
- The role of social media peer communication in shaping consumer behavior
- Is consumer behavior rational?
- The role of value maximization in consumer behavior
- Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and consumer behavior
- Impact of prior experience on purchase intention
- Neuromarketing in consumer behavior
- Neuromarketing and ethics
- The role of aesthetic taste in consumer behavior
- Customer retention methods
- Effects of sexual advertising on consumer purchase intentions
- The role of packaging in consumer purchase intention
- Brand sustainability as a positive factor of consumer purchase intention
- Product placement and its effect on consumer behavior
- Innovations as a factor influencing consumer behavior
- Color-emotion associations
- Pink for girls, blue for boys: gender differentiation of children’s’ goods
- Marketing power of emotions
- Emotions and brand attitude
- Measures of purchase intention
- Customer satisfaction measures
- Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty
- Customer loyalty and repurchase intentions
- Brand familiarity and purchase intention
- Smartphones, e-waste, and disposal activities
- How fast fashion brands attract customers
- Perceived quality and purchase intention
- Organic food customer perception
- Purchase intention and celebrity endorsements
- Social media influencers and consumer behavior
- Do customers care about business ethics?
- Purchase intention and controversial products
- Consumer animosity
- Impact of the country of origin image on consumer behavior
- Determinants of purchase intention
- Repurchase intention in services
- Customer satisfaction and repurchase intention
- Consumer clothing disposal behaviors
- Personal factors of consumer disposal tendencies
- Masstige brands and consumer behavior
- Brand advocacy development
- Customer relationship management trends
- Purchasing power and consumer behavior
- Economic conditions and consumer behavior
- Education level of consumer behavior
- Consumer decision style overview
- Hedonistic decision style
- Brand-conscious customer choice
- Social status and consumer behavior
- Impact of sales associates on consumer purchase intention and behavior
- Product life cycle and consumer behavior
- New product adoption types
- Factors that cause brand-switching
- Online consumer behavior types
- Guerilla marketing and consumer behavior
- Concept of brand awareness and its impact on consumer behavior
- Impact of the Internet on buying process
- Perfectionist consumer decision style
- Behavior of a healthcare customer
- Consumer behavior of Generation Y
- Shopping behavior of baby boomers
- Generation Y vs Baby Boomer consumer behavior
- Brand loyalty of Millenials
- Brand awareness and social media
- Generation Z consumer behavior
- Future consumer trends 2020
- Situational variables and consumer behavior
- Methods of predicting consumer behavior
- More Referencing guides Blog Automated transliteration Relevant bibliographies by topics
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- Relevant bibliographies by topics
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Dissertations / Theses on the topic 'Consumers Consumer behavior. Consumers' preferences. Marketing'
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Azizi, Taha. "Exploring an experiential marketing phenomenon : the dining experience." Thesis, Lethbridge, Alta. : University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Management, c2011, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10133/3233.
Hall, Edward John. "The influence of occasion on consumer choice: an occasion based, value oriented investigation of wine purchase, using means-end chain analysis." Title page, contents and abstract only, 2003. http://web4.library.adelaide.edu.au/theses/09PH/09phh1756.pdf.
Bailey, John Franklin. "Customer buying behavior at selected petroleum shops in Cape Town." Thesis, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11838/973.
Nelson, Kim Allen. "Consumer decision-making and image theory: Understanding the socially responsible consumer." Diss., The University of Arizona, 1994. http://hdl.handle.net/10150/186868.
Beauchamp, Michelle Bednarz. "The need for retail shopping convenience an empirical examination of its antecedents and consequences in Mexican-American consumers and white, non-Hispanic consumers in the United States /." Diss., Mississippi State : Mississippi State University, 2007. http://library.msstate.edu/etd/show.asp?etd=etd-04042007-105430.
Park, Jongmin. "Casual attributions and expectancy estimates of commercial web surfers /." free to MU campus, to others for purchase, 1999. http://wwwlib.umi.com/cr/mo/fullcit?p9962552.
Plüg, Simóne Nikki. "#KeepItReal: discursive constructions of authenticity in South African consumer culture." Thesis, Rhodes University, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/10962/64973.
Hammill, Amanda C. "Approach/avoidance motivation extensions of the congruency effect /." Cleveland, Ohio : Cleveland State University, 2008. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=csu1216741968.
Mishra, Arul. "The influence of spatial groupings on consumer decisions." Diss., University of Iowa, 2007. http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/176.
Brits, Corné. "The influence of designer paper shopping bags on consumer interest and their shopping experience." Thesis, [Bloemfontein?] : Central University of Technology, Free State, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/11462/178.
Nakayama, Chika. "Awareness of global warming and car purchasing behavior in Singapore." CSUSB ScholarWorks, 2008. https://scholarworks.lib.csusb.edu/etd-project/3372.
Jaatinen, Salla, and Laura Aho. "Recommendations’ and preferences’ impact on online travel purchases : A quantitative study investigating Instagram influencers’ travel recommendations and consumers’ travel preferences effect on online travel purchases." Thesis, Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, 2020. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-48272.
Fong, John. "Electronic word-of-mouth and country-of-origin effects a cross-cultural analysis of discussion boards /." Phd thesis, Australia : Macquarie University, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/1959.14/28611.
Soesilo, Primidya KM. "NO LONGER GREEN WITH ENVY: HOW TURNING EMOTIONS INTO OBJECTS ENABLES CONSUMERS TO PHYSICALLY DESTROY THEM." Diss., Temple University Libraries, 2014. http://cdm16002.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p245801coll10/id/272755.
Kao, Ling-Jing. "Data augmentation for latent variables in marketing." Columbus, Ohio : Ohio State University, 2006. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc%5Fnum=osu1155653751.
Ronsini, Neto Mário José. "Country of origin effect: evidences from European consumers' of a Brazilian fashion brand." reponame:Repositório Institucional do FGV, 2016. http://hdl.handle.net/10438/17743.
Ahmadov, Vugar. "Consumer preferences for differentiated food products." Online access for everyone, 2008. http://www.dissertations.wsu.edu/Dissertations/Spring2008/v_ahmadov_042508.pdf.
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Increased threat of war enhances pup survival
Animal offspring may survive better when their groups are in greater conflict with rival factions, research from the University of Bristol has shown for the first time.
Battles between competing groups can lead to serious injury or death and intergroup conflict has always been thought to have a negative effect on reproductive success.
But findings published today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B turn that long-held belief on its head.
Using a decade of life-history data from a wild population of dwarf mongooses, University of Bristol researchers found that pup survival rate actually increased when the cumulative threat of conflict with rival groups was greater.
Lead author, Dr Amy Morris-Drake, from Bristol's School of Biological Sciences, said: "Groups engaged in more intergroup interactions did not produce more young. Rather, a greater threat from outsiders was associated with a higher survival likelihood of pups once they emerged from the breeding burrow."
The team conducted detailed behavioural observations of the study groups in South Africa to investigate what might drive the improved pup survival. They found that when rivals or indicators of their recent presence are encountered, adults increase their sentinel (raised guarding) behaviour.
Senior author, Professor Andy Radford, also from Bristol, explained: "Increased sentinel behaviour is likely an attempt to gather more information about the other group. But sentinels also detect predatory threats and warn groupmates of danger, so vulnerable pups are potentially safer as a consequence."
The general expectation is that intergroup conflict will have negative consequences for reproductive success. In a rare previous study, for example, chimpanzee foetal survival was lower and inter-birth intervals were longer when there was a greater threat level from other groups.
Prof Radford said: "We are not suggesting that conflict has a direct positive effect on breeding success. Instead, there could be byproduct benefits of behavioural changes -- such as increased vigilance -- that result from an increased threat level."
Dr Morris-Drake concluded: "Our work suggests that if we are to understand the importance of warfare on societies, we must consider threats as well as actual fights. Moreover, we need to investigate not just actions on the battleground but the wider consequences too."
Dwarf mongooses are Africa's smallest carnivore, living in cooperatively breeding, territorial groups of 5-30 individuals. The work was conducted as part of the Dwarf Mongoose Research Project, which has studied habituated wild groups continuously since 2011. The study animals are individually marked with blonde hair dye, are trained to climb onto a balance scale to weigh themselves, and can be watched from a few feet away as they go about their natural behaviour in ecologically valid conditions.
The study was funded by a European Research Council Consolidator Grant awarded to Prof Radford.
- Chronic Illness
- Human Biology
- Diseases and Conditions
- Medical Topics
- Racial Issues
- Consumer Behavior
- Conflict resolution research
- Conflict resolution
- Calorie restricted diet
- Ego psychology
Materials provided by University of Bristol . Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Journal Reference :
- Amy Morris-Drake, Benjamin Cobb, Julie M. Kern, Andrew N. Radford. A positive effect of cumulative intergroup threat on reproductive success . Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 2023; 290 (2011) DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2023.1853
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