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How to Create an Effective Thesis Statement in 5 Easy Steps
Creating a thesis statement can be a daunting task. It’s one of the most important sentences in your paper, and it needs to be done right. But don’t worry — with these five easy steps, you’ll be able to create an effective thesis statement in no time.
Step 1: Brainstorm Ideas
The first step is to brainstorm ideas for your paper. Think about what you want to say and write down any ideas that come to mind. This will help you narrow down your focus and make it easier to create your thesis statement.
Step 2: Research Your Topic
Once you have some ideas, it’s time to do some research on your topic. Look for sources that support your ideas and provide evidence for the points you want to make. This will help you refine your argument and make it more convincing.
Step 3: Formulate Your Argument
Now that you have done some research, it’s time to formulate your argument. Take the points you want to make and put them into one or two sentences that clearly state what your paper is about. This will be the basis of your thesis statement.
Step 4: Refine Your Thesis Statement
Once you have formulated your argument, it’s time to refine your thesis statement. Make sure that it is clear, concise, and specific. It should also be arguable so that readers can disagree with it if they choose.
Step 5: Test Your Thesis Statement
The last step is to test your thesis statement. Does it accurately reflect the points you want to make? Is it clear and concise? Does it make an arguable point? If not, go back and refine it until it meets all of these criteria.
Creating an effective thesis statement doesn’t have to be a daunting task. With these five easy steps, you can create a strong thesis statement in no time at all.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
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- How to Write a Results Section | Tips & Examples
How to Write a Results Section | Tips & Examples
Published on August 30, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on July 18, 2023.
A results section is where you report the main findings of the data collection and analysis you conducted for your thesis or dissertation . You should report all relevant results concisely and objectively, in a logical order. Don’t include subjective interpretations of why you found these results or what they mean—any evaluation should be saved for the discussion section .
Table of contents
How to write a results section, reporting quantitative research results, reporting qualitative research results, results vs. discussion vs. conclusion, checklist: research results, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about results sections.
When conducting research, it’s important to report the results of your study prior to discussing your interpretations of it. This gives your reader a clear idea of exactly what you found and keeps the data itself separate from your subjective analysis.
Here are a few best practices:
- Your results should always be written in the past tense.
- While the length of this section depends on how much data you collected and analyzed, it should be written as concisely as possible.
- Only include results that are directly relevant to answering your research questions . Avoid speculative or interpretative words like “appears” or “implies.”
- If you have other results you’d like to include, consider adding them to an appendix or footnotes.
- Always start out with your broadest results first, and then flow into your more granular (but still relevant) ones. Think of it like a shoe store: first discuss the shoes as a whole, then the sneakers, boots, sandals, etc.
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If you conducted quantitative research , you’ll likely be working with the results of some sort of statistical analysis .
Your results section should report the results of any statistical tests you used to compare groups or assess relationships between variables . It should also state whether or not each hypothesis was supported.
The most logical way to structure quantitative results is to frame them around your research questions or hypotheses. For each question or hypothesis, share:
- A reminder of the type of analysis you used (e.g., a two-sample t test or simple linear regression ). A more detailed description of your analysis should go in your methodology section.
- A concise summary of each relevant result, both positive and negative. This can include any relevant descriptive statistics (e.g., means and standard deviations ) as well as inferential statistics (e.g., t scores, degrees of freedom , and p values ). Remember, these numbers are often placed in parentheses.
- A brief statement of how each result relates to the question, or whether the hypothesis was supported. You can briefly mention any results that didn’t fit with your expectations and assumptions, but save any speculation on their meaning or consequences for your discussion and conclusion.
A note on tables and figures
In quantitative research, it’s often helpful to include visual elements such as graphs, charts, and tables , but only if they are directly relevant to your results. Give these elements clear, descriptive titles and labels so that your reader can easily understand what is being shown. If you want to include any other visual elements that are more tangential in nature, consider adding a figure and table list .
As a rule of thumb:
- Tables are used to communicate exact values, giving a concise overview of various results
- Graphs and charts are used to visualize trends and relationships, giving an at-a-glance illustration of key findings
Don’t forget to also mention any tables and figures you used within the text of your results section. Summarize or elaborate on specific aspects you think your reader should know about rather than merely restating the same numbers already shown.
A two-sample t test was used to test the hypothesis that higher social distance from environmental problems would reduce the intent to donate to environmental organizations, with donation intention (recorded as a score from 1 to 10) as the outcome variable and social distance (categorized as either a low or high level of social distance) as the predictor variable.Social distance was found to be positively correlated with donation intention, t (98) = 12.19, p < .001, with the donation intention of the high social distance group 0.28 points higher, on average, than the low social distance group (see figure 1). This contradicts the initial hypothesis that social distance would decrease donation intention, and in fact suggests a small effect in the opposite direction.
Figure 1: Intention to donate to environmental organizations based on social distance from impact of environmental damage.
In qualitative research , your results might not all be directly related to specific hypotheses. In this case, you can structure your results section around key themes or topics that emerged from your analysis of the data.
For each theme, start with general observations about what the data showed. You can mention:
- Recurring points of agreement or disagreement
- Patterns and trends
- Particularly significant snippets from individual responses
Next, clarify and support these points with direct quotations. Be sure to report any relevant demographic information about participants. Further information (such as full transcripts , if appropriate) can be included in an appendix .
When asked about video games as a form of art, the respondents tended to believe that video games themselves are not an art form, but agreed that creativity is involved in their production. The criteria used to identify artistic video games included design, story, music, and creative teams.One respondent (male, 24) noted a difference in creativity between popular video game genres:
“I think that in role-playing games, there’s more attention to character design, to world design, because the whole story is important and more attention is paid to certain game elements […] so that perhaps you do need bigger teams of creative experts than in an average shooter or something.”
Responses suggest that video game consumers consider some types of games to have more artistic potential than others.
Your results section should objectively report your findings, presenting only brief observations in relation to each question, hypothesis, or theme.
It should not speculate about the meaning of the results or attempt to answer your main research question . Detailed interpretation of your results is more suitable for your discussion section , while synthesis of your results into an overall answer to your main research question is best left for your conclusion .
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I have completed my data collection and analyzed the results.
I have included all results that are relevant to my research questions.
I have concisely and objectively reported each result, including relevant descriptive statistics and inferential statistics .
I have stated whether each hypothesis was supported or refuted.
I have used tables and figures to illustrate my results where appropriate.
All tables and figures are correctly labelled and referred to in the text.
There is no subjective interpretation or speculation on the meaning of the results.
You've finished writing up your results! Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis.
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The results chapter of a thesis or dissertation presents your research results concisely and objectively.
In quantitative research , for each question or hypothesis , state:
- The type of analysis used
- Relevant results in the form of descriptive and inferential statistics
- Whether or not the alternative hypothesis was supported
In qualitative research , for each question or theme, describe:
- Recurring patterns
- Significant or representative individual responses
- Relevant quotations from the data
Don’t interpret or speculate in the results chapter.
Results are usually written in the past tense , because they are describing the outcome of completed actions.
The results chapter or section simply and objectively reports what you found, without speculating on why you found these results. The discussion interprets the meaning of the results, puts them in context, and explains why they matter.
In qualitative research , results and discussion are sometimes combined. But in quantitative research , it’s considered important to separate the objective results from your interpretation of them.
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How To Write The Results/Findings Chapter
For quantitative studies (dissertations & theses).
By: Derek Jansen (MBA). Expert Reviewed By: Kerryn Warren (PhD) | July 2021
So, you’ve completed your quantitative data analysis and it’s time to report on your findings. But where do you start? In this post, we’ll walk you through the results chapter (also called the findings or analysis chapter), step by step, so that you can craft this section of your dissertation or thesis with confidence. If you’re looking for information regarding the results chapter for qualitative studies, you can find that here .
Overview: Quantitative Results Chapter
- What exactly the results/findings/analysis chapter is
- What you need to include in your results chapter
- How to structure your results chapter
- A few tips and tricks for writing top-notch chapter
What exactly is the results chapter?
The results chapter (also referred to as the findings or analysis chapter) is one of the most important chapters of your dissertation or thesis because it shows the reader what you’ve found in terms of the quantitative data you’ve collected. It presents the data using a clear text narrative, supported by tables, graphs and charts. In doing so, it also highlights any potential issues (such as outliers or unusual findings) you’ve come across.
But how’s that different from the discussion chapter?
Well, in the results chapter, you only present your statistical findings. Only the numbers, so to speak – no more, no less. Contrasted to this, in the discussion chapter , you interpret your findings and link them to prior research (i.e. your literature review), as well as your research objectives and research questions . In other words, the results chapter presents and describes the data, while the discussion chapter interprets the data.
Let’s look at an example.
In your results chapter, you may have a plot that shows how respondents to a survey responded: the numbers of respondents per category, for instance. You may also state whether this supports a hypothesis by using a p-value from a statistical test. But it is only in the discussion chapter where you will say why this is relevant or how it compares with the literature or the broader picture. So, in your results chapter, make sure that you don’t present anything other than the hard facts – this is not the place for subjectivity.
It’s worth mentioning that some universities prefer you to combine the results and discussion chapters. Even so, it is good practice to separate the results and discussion elements within the chapter, as this ensures your findings are fully described. Typically, though, the results and discussion chapters are split up in quantitative studies. If you’re unsure, chat with your research supervisor or chair to find out what their preference is.
What should you include in the results chapter?
Following your analysis, it’s likely you’ll have far more data than are necessary to include in your chapter. In all likelihood, you’ll have a mountain of SPSS or R output data, and it’s your job to decide what’s most relevant. You’ll need to cut through the noise and focus on the data that matters.
This doesn’t mean that those analyses were a waste of time – on the contrary, those analyses ensure that you have a good understanding of your dataset and how to interpret it. However, that doesn’t mean your reader or examiner needs to see the 165 histograms you created! Relevance is key.
How do I decide what’s relevant?
At this point, it can be difficult to strike a balance between what is and isn’t important. But the most important thing is to ensure your results reflect and align with the purpose of your study . So, you need to revisit your research aims, objectives and research questions and use these as a litmus test for relevance. Make sure that you refer back to these constantly when writing up your chapter so that you stay on track.
As a general guide, your results chapter will typically include the following:
- Some demographic data about your sample
- Reliability tests (if you used measurement scales)
- Descriptive statistics
- Inferential statistics (if your research objectives and questions require these)
- Hypothesis tests (again, if your research objectives and questions require these)
We’ll discuss each of these points in more detail in the next section.
Importantly, your results chapter needs to lay the foundation for your discussion chapter . This means that, in your results chapter, you need to include all the data that you will use as the basis for your interpretation in the discussion chapter.
For example, if you plan to highlight the strong relationship between Variable X and Variable Y in your discussion chapter, you need to present the respective analysis in your results chapter – perhaps a correlation or regression analysis.
Need a helping hand?
How do I write the results chapter?
There are multiple steps involved in writing up the results chapter for your quantitative research. The exact number of steps applicable to you will vary from study to study and will depend on the nature of the research aims, objectives and research questions . However, we’ll outline the generic steps below.
Step 1 – Revisit your research questions
The first step in writing your results chapter is to revisit your research objectives and research questions . These will be (or at least, should be!) the driving force behind your results and discussion chapters, so you need to review them and then ask yourself which statistical analyses and tests (from your mountain of data) would specifically help you address these . For each research objective and research question, list the specific piece (or pieces) of analysis that address it.
At this stage, it’s also useful to think about the key points that you want to raise in your discussion chapter and note these down so that you have a clear reminder of which data points and analyses you want to highlight in the results chapter. Again, list your points and then list the specific piece of analysis that addresses each point.
Next, you should draw up a rough outline of how you plan to structure your chapter . Which analyses and statistical tests will you present and in what order? We’ll discuss the “standard structure” in more detail later, but it’s worth mentioning now that it’s always useful to draw up a rough outline before you start writing (this advice applies to any chapter).
Step 2 – Craft an overview introduction
As with all chapters in your dissertation or thesis, you should start your quantitative results chapter by providing a brief overview of what you’ll do in the chapter and why . For example, you’d explain that you will start by presenting demographic data to understand the representativeness of the sample, before moving onto X, Y and Z.
This section shouldn’t be lengthy – a paragraph or two maximum. Also, it’s a good idea to weave the research questions into this section so that there’s a golden thread that runs through the document.
Step 3 – Present the sample demographic data
The first set of data that you’ll present is an overview of the sample demographics – in other words, the demographics of your respondents.
- What age range are they?
- How is gender distributed?
- How is ethnicity distributed?
- What areas do the participants live in?
The purpose of this is to assess how representative the sample is of the broader population. This is important for the sake of the generalisability of the results. If your sample is not representative of the population, you will not be able to generalise your findings. This is not necessarily the end of the world, but it is a limitation you’ll need to acknowledge.
Of course, to make this representativeness assessment, you’ll need to have a clear view of the demographics of the population. So, make sure that you design your survey to capture the correct demographic information that you will compare your sample to.
But what if I’m not interested in generalisability?
Well, even if your purpose is not necessarily to extrapolate your findings to the broader population, understanding your sample will allow you to interpret your findings appropriately, considering who responded. In other words, it will help you contextualise your findings . For example, if 80% of your sample was aged over 65, this may be a significant contextual factor to consider when interpreting the data. Therefore, it’s important to understand and present the demographic data.
Step 4 – Review composite measures and the data “shape”.
Before you undertake any statistical analysis, you’ll need to do some checks to ensure that your data are suitable for the analysis methods and techniques you plan to use. If you try to analyse data that doesn’t meet the assumptions of a specific statistical technique, your results will be largely meaningless. Therefore, you may need to show that the methods and techniques you’ll use are “allowed”.
Most commonly, there are two areas you need to pay attention to:
#1: Composite measures
The first is when you have multiple scale-based measures that combine to capture one construct – this is called a composite measure . For example, you may have four Likert scale-based measures that (should) all measure the same thing, but in different ways. In other words, in a survey, these four scales should all receive similar ratings. This is called “ internal consistency ”.
Internal consistency is not guaranteed though (especially if you developed the measures yourself), so you need to assess the reliability of each composite measure using a test. Typically, Cronbach’s Alpha is a common test used to assess internal consistency – i.e., to show that the items you’re combining are more or less saying the same thing. A high alpha score means that your measure is internally consistent. A low alpha score means you may need to consider scrapping one or more of the measures.
#2: Data shape
The second matter that you should address early on in your results chapter is data shape. In other words, you need to assess whether the data in your set are symmetrical (i.e. normally distributed) or not, as this will directly impact what type of analyses you can use. For many common inferential tests such as T-tests or ANOVAs (we’ll discuss these a bit later), your data needs to be normally distributed. If it’s not, you’ll need to adjust your strategy and use alternative tests.
To assess the shape of the data, you’ll usually assess a variety of descriptive statistics (such as the mean, median and skewness), which is what we’ll look at next.
Step 5 – Present the descriptive statistics
Now that you’ve laid the foundation by discussing the representativeness of your sample, as well as the reliability of your measures and the shape of your data, you can get started with the actual statistical analysis. The first step is to present the descriptive statistics for your variables.
For scaled data, this usually includes statistics such as:
- The mean – this is simply the mathematical average of a range of numbers.
- The median – this is the midpoint in a range of numbers when the numbers are arranged in order.
- The mode – this is the most commonly repeated number in the data set.
- Standard deviation – this metric indicates how dispersed a range of numbers is. In other words, how close all the numbers are to the mean (the average).
- Skewness – this indicates how symmetrical a range of numbers is. In other words, do they tend to cluster into a smooth bell curve shape in the middle of the graph (this is called a normal or parametric distribution), or do they lean to the left or right (this is called a non-normal or non-parametric distribution).
- Kurtosis – this metric indicates whether the data are heavily or lightly-tailed, relative to the normal distribution. In other words, how peaked or flat the distribution is.
A large table that indicates all the above for multiple variables can be a very effective way to present your data economically. You can also use colour coding to help make the data more easily digestible.
For categorical data, where you show the percentage of people who chose or fit into a category, for instance, you can either just plain describe the percentages or numbers of people who responded to something or use graphs and charts (such as bar graphs and pie charts) to present your data in this section of the chapter.
When using figures, make sure that you label them simply and clearly , so that your reader can easily understand them. There’s nothing more frustrating than a graph that’s missing axis labels! Keep in mind that although you’ll be presenting charts and graphs, your text content needs to present a clear narrative that can stand on its own. In other words, don’t rely purely on your figures and tables to convey your key points: highlight the crucial trends and values in the text. Figures and tables should complement the writing, not carry it .
Depending on your research aims, objectives and research questions, you may stop your analysis at this point (i.e. descriptive statistics). However, if your study requires inferential statistics, then it’s time to deep dive into those .
Step 6 – Present the inferential statistics
Inferential statistics are used to make generalisations about a population , whereas descriptive statistics focus purely on the sample . Inferential statistical techniques, broadly speaking, can be broken down into two groups .
First, there are those that compare measurements between groups , such as t-tests (which measure differences between two groups) and ANOVAs (which measure differences between multiple groups). Second, there are techniques that assess the relationships between variables , such as correlation analysis and regression analysis. Within each of these, some tests can be used for normally distributed (parametric) data and some tests are designed specifically for use on non-parametric data.
There are a seemingly endless number of tests that you can use to crunch your data, so it’s easy to run down a rabbit hole and end up with piles of test data. Ultimately, the most important thing is to make sure that you adopt the tests and techniques that allow you to achieve your research objectives and answer your research questions .
In this section of the results chapter, you should try to make use of figures and visual components as effectively as possible. For example, if you present a correlation table, use colour coding to highlight the significance of the correlation values, or scatterplots to visually demonstrate what the trend is. The easier you make it for your reader to digest your findings, the more effectively you’ll be able to make your arguments in the next chapter.
Step 7 – Test your hypotheses
If your study requires it, the next stage is hypothesis testing. A hypothesis is a statement , often indicating a difference between groups or relationship between variables, that can be supported or rejected by a statistical test. However, not all studies will involve hypotheses (again, it depends on the research objectives), so don’t feel like you “must” present and test hypotheses just because you’re undertaking quantitative research.
The basic process for hypothesis testing is as follows:
- Specify your null hypothesis (for example, “The chemical psilocybin has no effect on time perception).
- Specify your alternative hypothesis (e.g., “The chemical psilocybin has an effect on time perception)
- Set your significance level (this is usually 0.05)
- Calculate your statistics and find your p-value (e.g., p=0.01)
- Draw your conclusions (e.g., “The chemical psilocybin does have an effect on time perception”)
Finally, if the aim of your study is to develop and test a conceptual framework , this is the time to present it, following the testing of your hypotheses. While you don’t need to develop or discuss these findings further in the results chapter, indicating whether the tests (and their p-values) support or reject the hypotheses is crucial.
Step 8 – Provide a chapter summary
To wrap up your results chapter and transition to the discussion chapter, you should provide a brief summary of the key findings . “Brief” is the keyword here – much like the chapter introduction, this shouldn’t be lengthy – a paragraph or two maximum. Highlight the findings most relevant to your research objectives and research questions, and wrap it up.
Some final thoughts, tips and tricks
Now that you’ve got the essentials down, here are a few tips and tricks to make your quantitative results chapter shine:
- When writing your results chapter, report your findings in the past tense . You’re talking about what you’ve found in your data, not what you are currently looking for or trying to find.
- Structure your results chapter systematically and sequentially . If you had two experiments where findings from the one generated inputs into the other, report on them in order.
- Make your own tables and graphs rather than copying and pasting them from statistical analysis programmes like SPSS. Check out the DataIsBeautiful reddit for some inspiration.
- Once you’re done writing, review your work to make sure that you have provided enough information to answer your research questions , but also that you didn’t include superfluous information.
If you’ve got any questions about writing up the quantitative results chapter, please leave a comment below. If you’d like 1-on-1 assistance with your quantitative analysis and discussion, check out our hands-on coaching service , or book a free consultation with a friendly coach.
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How to Write the Findings of a Dissertation
After the collection of the data, you need to write the findings of a dissertation. Many students studying in UK University face issues in determining how to start writing the dissertation finding a chapter for a dissertation. They have questions such as when to write dissertation findings, what not to include in the findings chapter etc. Our professional team is providing the complete guidelines about How to write dissertation findings.
The finding of the dissertation serves the objectives of presenting the key outcomes of research without interpretation of the meaning. It is considered to be one of the most interesting sections of the dissertation. In the dissertation finding chapter you need to include the things which you have observed during the investigation. The main purpose of the finding section in the dissertation is to provide essential and relevant findings of the research.
- You should not include detailed information as it might give rise to confusion and misunderstanding.
- It is important for you to write a dissertation findings chapter in the past tense.
Important guidelines for writing dissertation findings
At the time of start writing the dissertation section, you should provide the background information. It is the tactics that will help the reader in developing an understanding of the dissertation results. You should also repeat the problem statement and also the objectives of the study. This is one of the best approaches which will help you in developing a positive impression on readers. The 3 steps of writing the findings for dissertations are:
- Step 1: At the initial step of writing the dissertation finding chapter you need to identify the outcomes which you intend to present in a specific chapter.
- Step 2: In the next step, you should first develop a basic understanding of techniques for writing the finding section. It is the strategy that will help you in gaining the knowledge which could be helpful in relation to arranging the specific section in a chronological manner.
- Step 3: Then after that you need to organize the information in a proper and accurate manner. You can structure your findings chapter of the thesis in a chronological manner. It means that you should begin every paragraph by writing the most crucial outcomes first.
“You can conclude the dissertation findings by writing a short summary of key findings” When writing the dissertation section you should keep in mind that unexpected outcomes can have a significant influence on the investigation”.
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When writing the findings chapter of the dissertation?
After collection and analysis of information, you need to start writing the dissertation finding section for the dissertation. While writing the finding section in the dissertation, you need to relate your observations with a hypothesis or research questions that you have to formulate the introduction section. In case you have to write a dissertation by making a collection of primary information then you should present the findings separately. If you are writing the descriptive dissertation then in such a situation you can include the finding chapter with discussion. At the time of writing the findings section of the dissertation, you should emphasize on analyzing the case studies or interpreting the results.
How to report Quantitative Findings?
One best technique to report quantitative findings is to arrange them according to the research hypothesis. While presenting the quantitative findings, you need to state the procedure you will execute for analyzing the information. However, analyzing findings will help you in determining the way findings are related to the research questions. At the time of writing the finding section of the dissertation, you should highlight meaningful relationships. You should include the findings which are not directly related to your findings in the appendix.
You should use charts, graphs for presenting the findings of your dissertation. The chart charts, graphs or tables which you will include would help the reader in developing the understanding of different patterns. At the time of writing the dissertation finding chapter you should only provide a summary of a few parts of results. You should provide descriptive labels below your tables and charts.
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How to report Qualitative Findings?
One of the biggest issues in reporting the qualitative findings is that all the outcomes are relevant to the study. The best technique to report Qualitative findings is to write the findings according to themes which you have designed after analyzing the information. You should clearly mention the pattern, any developments and independent responses of the participants in the dissertation finding section.
Things to avoid while writing Dissertation Findings
While writing the dissertation finding chapter you should not use interpretive and subjective phrases. You should not use words reveals, suggest, validates, etc. Such terms are more appropriate for the discussion section where you will expect to write an interpretation of outcomes in detail. You should not provide detail findings.
Things to do while writing dissertation findings.
The following things you should keep in mind at the time of writing findings section for the dissertation are:
- You should only include your own research findings. In simple words, it means that you should include only those facts which have been observed during the investigation.
- Researchers can utilize charts and graphs for presenting the data in a systematic manner.
- Investigators can use SPSS, Excel and other software for analyzing information.
- While preparing the findings section for the thesis writing you should first be clear about the organization of your work.
- You should organize and arrange the dissertation findings in such a manner that it makes sense.
- It is very much important for you to include negative outcomes in the dissertation finding section. It is the tactics that will help you in demonstrating the validity of outcomes.
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Structure of dissertation finding chapter
Appropriate words and phrases should be used for presenting the findings in a systematic manner. After completion of the dissertation findings chapter, you should confirm that the entire paragraph in a specific section consists of logical sentences and they are properly linked with each other. One best technique for arranging the dissertation finding section is to first arrange outcome and then provides an explanation of key findings. In simple words, you can provide a brief synopsis.
Another technique is to first present the results and after that provide an explanation for the same. You can do this for all the results. Secondly, you can write the conclusion of the section by writing overall synopsis. Such type of structure the researcher uses when they have to write lengthy dissertations that consist of multiple results. You can also write a brief conclusion for linking all results and providing transitions to the dissertation discussion chapter.
Tips for Writing Findings of a Dissertation
Some tips for writing the dissertation findings chapter are: You need to present the result in the proper sequence. There should be clarity in your findings. It is very much important to avoid a lengthy debate while doing the interpretation of outcomes. While writing the dissertation findings chapter, you should mainly concentrate on providing the explanation of observations in a clear and precise manner. The length of the finding chapter is completely based on the type of research and the amount of information. You should not include irrelevant results in the dissertation finding chapter.
From the above article it has been concluded from the above article that the finding section in the dissertation consists of crucial data which is collected through investigation. Another fact which has been discovered from the above is that tables and charts help in presenting the findings in a systematic manner.
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How to Write the Dissertation Findings or Results – Steps & Tips
Published by Grace Graffin at August 11th, 2021 , Revised On October 9, 2023
Each part of the dissertation is unique, and some general and specific rules must be followed. The dissertation’s findings section presents the key results of your research without interpreting their meaning .
Theoretically, this is an exciting section of a dissertation because it involves writing what you have observed and found. However, it can be a little tricky if there is too much information to confuse the readers.
The goal is to include only the essential and relevant findings in this section. The results must be presented in an orderly sequence to provide clarity to the readers.
This section of the dissertation should be easy for the readers to follow, so you should avoid going into a lengthy debate over the interpretation of the results.
It is vitally important to focus only on clear and precise observations. The findings chapter of the dissertation is theoretically the easiest to write.
It includes statistical analysis and a brief write-up about whether or not the results emerging from the analysis are significant. This segment should be written in the past sentence as you describe what you have done in the past.
This article will provide detailed information about how to write the findings of a dissertation .
When to Write Dissertation Findings Chapter
As soon as you have gathered and analysed your data, you can start to write up the findings chapter of your dissertation paper. Remember that it is your chance to report the most notable findings of your research work and relate them to the research hypothesis or research questions set out in the introduction chapter of the dissertation .
You will be required to separately report your study’s findings before moving on to the discussion chapter if your dissertation is based on the collection of primary data or experimental work.
However, you may not be required to have an independent findings chapter if your dissertation is purely descriptive and focuses on the analysis of case studies or interpretation of texts.
- Always report the findings of your research in the past tense.
- The dissertation findings chapter varies from one project to another, depending on the data collected and analyzed.
- Avoid reporting results that are not relevant to your research questions or research hypothesis.
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1. Reporting Quantitative Findings
The best way to present your quantitative findings is to structure them around the research hypothesis or questions you intend to address as part of your dissertation project.
Report the relevant findings for each research question or hypothesis, focusing on how you analyzed them.
Analysis of your findings will help you determine how they relate to the different research questions and whether they support the hypothesis you formulated.
While you must highlight meaningful relationships, variances, and tendencies, it is important not to guess their interpretations and implications because this is something to save for the discussion and conclusion chapters.
Any findings not directly relevant to your research questions or explanations concerning the data collection process should be added to the dissertation paper’s appendix section.
Use of Figures and Tables in Dissertation Findings
Suppose your dissertation is based on quantitative research. In that case, it is important to include charts, graphs, tables, and other visual elements to help your readers understand the emerging trends and relationships in your findings.
Repeating information will give the impression that you are short on ideas. Refer to all charts, illustrations, and tables in your writing but avoid recurrence.
The text should be used only to elaborate and summarize certain parts of your results. On the other hand, illustrations and tables are used to present multifaceted data.
It is recommended to give descriptive labels and captions to all illustrations used so the readers can figure out what each refers to.
How to Report Quantitative Findings
Here is an example of how to report quantitative results in your dissertation findings chapter;
Two hundred seventeen participants completed both the pretest and post-test and a Pairwise T-test was used for the analysis. The quantitative data analysis reveals a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of the pretest and posttest scales from the Teachers Discovering Computers course. The pretest mean was 29.00 with a standard deviation of 7.65, while the posttest mean was 26.50 with a standard deviation of 9.74 (Table 1). These results yield a significance level of .000, indicating a strong treatment effect (see Table 3). With the correlation between the scores being .448, the little relationship is seen between the pretest and posttest scores (Table 2). This leads the researcher to conclude that the impact of the course on the educators’ perception and integration of technology into the curriculum is dramatic.
Paired samples correlation, paired samples test.
Also Read: How to Write the Abstract for the Dissertation.
2. Reporting Qualitative Findings
A notable issue with reporting qualitative findings is that not all results directly relate to your research questions or hypothesis.
The best way to present the results of qualitative research is to frame your findings around the most critical areas or themes you obtained after you examined the data.
In-depth data analysis will help you observe what the data shows for each theme. Any developments, relationships, patterns, and independent responses directly relevant to your research question or hypothesis should be mentioned to the readers.
Additional information not directly relevant to your research can be included in the appendix .
How to Report Qualitative Findings
Here is an example of how to report qualitative results in your dissertation findings chapter;
How do I report quantitative findings?
The best way to present your quantitative findings is to structure them around the research hypothesis or research questions you intended to address as part of your dissertation project. Report the relevant findings for each of the research questions or hypotheses, focusing on how you analyzed them.
How do I report qualitative findings?
The best way to present the qualitative research results is to frame your findings around the most important areas or themes that you obtained after examining the data.
An in-depth analysis of the data will help you observe what the data is showing for each theme. Any developments, relationships, patterns, and independent responses that are directly relevant to your research question or hypothesis should be clearly mentioned for the readers.
Can I use interpretive phrases like ‘it confirms’ in the finding chapter?
No, It is highly advisable to avoid using interpretive and subjective phrases in the finding chapter. These terms are more suitable for the discussion chapter , where you will be expected to provide your interpretation of the results in detail.
Can I report the results from other research papers in my findings chapter?
NO, you must not be presenting results from other research studies in your findings.
The last question of the interview focused on the need for improvement in Thai ready-to-eat products and the industry at large, emphasizing the need for enhancement in the current products being offered in the market. When asked if there was any particular need for Thai ready-to-eat meals to be improved and how to improve them in case of ‘yes,’ the males replied mainly by saying that the current products need improvement in terms of the use of healthier raw materials and preservatives or additives. There was an agreement amongst all males concerning the need to improve the industry for ready-to-eat meals and the use of more healthy items to prepare such meals. The females were also of the opinion that the fast-food items needed to be improved in the sense that more healthy raw materials such as vegetable oil and unsaturated fats, including whole-wheat products, to overcome risks associated with trans fat leading to obesity and hypertension should be used for the production of RTE products. The frozen RTE meals and packaged snacks included many preservatives and chemical-based flavouring enhancers that harmed human health and needed to be reduced. The industry is said to be aware of this fact and should try to produce RTE products that benefit the community in terms of healthy consumption.
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What to Avoid in Dissertation Findings Chapter
- Avoid using interpretive and subjective phrases and terms such as “confirms,” “reveals,” “suggests,” or “validates.” These terms are more suitable for the discussion chapter , where you will be expected to interpret the results in detail.
- Only briefly explain findings in relation to the key themes, hypothesis, and research questions. You don’t want to write a detailed subjective explanation for any research questions at this stage.
The Do’s of Writing the Findings or Results Section
- Ensure you are not presenting results from other research studies in your findings.
- Observe whether or not your hypothesis is tested or research questions answered.
- Illustrations and tables present data and are labelled to help your readers understand what they relate to.
- Use software such as Excel, STATA, and SPSS to analyse results and important trends.
Essential Guidelines on How to Write Dissertation Findings
The dissertation findings chapter should provide the context for understanding the results. The research problem should be repeated, and the research goals should be stated briefly.
This approach helps to gain the reader’s attention toward the research problem. The first step towards writing the findings is identifying which results will be presented in this section.
The results relevant to the questions must be presented, considering whether the results support the hypothesis. You do not need to include every result in the findings section. The next step is ensuring the data can be appropriately organized and accurate.
You will need to have a basic idea about writing the findings of a dissertation because this will provide you with the knowledge to arrange the data chronologically.
Start each paragraph by writing about the most important results and concluding the section with the most negligible actual results.
A short paragraph can conclude the findings section, summarising the findings so readers will remember as they transition to the next chapter. This is essential if findings are unexpected or unfamiliar or impact the study.
Our writers can help you with all parts of your dissertation, including statistical analysis of your results . To obtain free non-binding quotes, please complete our online quote form here .
Be Impartial in your Writing
When crafting your findings, knowing how you will organize the work is important. The findings are the story that needs to be told in response to the research questions that have been answered.
Therefore, the story needs to be organized to make sense to you and the reader. The findings must be compelling and responsive to be linked to the research questions being answered.
Always ensure that the size and direction of any changes, including percentage change, can be mentioned in the section. The details of p values or confidence intervals and limits should be included.
The findings sections only have the relevant parts of the primary evidence mentioned. Still, it is a good practice to include all the primary evidence in an appendix that can be referred to later.
The results should always be written neutrally without speculation or implication. The statement of the results mustn’t have any form of evaluation or interpretation.
Negative results should be added in the findings section because they validate the results and provide high neutrality levels.
The length of the dissertation findings chapter is an important question that must be addressed. It should be noted that the length of the section is directly related to the total word count of your dissertation paper.
The writer should use their discretion in deciding the length of the findings section or refer to the dissertation handbook or structure guidelines.
It should neither belong nor be short nor concise and comprehensive to highlight the reader’s main findings.
Ethically, you should be confident in the findings and provide counter-evidence. Anything that does not have sufficient evidence should be discarded. The findings should respond to the problem presented and provide a solution to those questions.
Structure of the Findings Chapter
The chapter should use appropriate words and phrases to present the results to the readers. Logical sentences should be used, while paragraphs should be linked to produce cohesive work.
You must ensure all the significant results have been added in the section. Recheck after completing the section to ensure no mistakes have been made.
The structure of the findings section is something you may have to be sure of primarily because it will provide the basis for your research work and ensure that the discussions section can be written clearly and proficiently.
One way to arrange the results is to provide a brief synopsis and then explain the essential findings. However, there should be no speculation or explanation of the results, as this will be done in the discussion section.
Another way to arrange the section is to present and explain a result. This can be done for all the results while the section is concluded with an overall synopsis.
This is the preferred method when you are writing more extended dissertations. It can be helpful when multiple results are equally significant. A brief conclusion should be written to link all the results and transition to the discussion section.
Numerous data analysis dissertation examples are available on the Internet, which will help you improve your understanding of writing the dissertation’s findings. Here is one such example.
Problems to Avoid When Writing Dissertation Findings
One of the problems to avoid while writing the dissertation findings is reporting background information or explaining the findings. This should be done in the introduction section .
You can always revise the introduction chapter based on the data you have collected if that seems an appropriate thing to do.
Raw data or intermediate calculations should not be added in the findings section. Always ask your professor if raw data needs to be included.
If the data is to be included, then use an appendix or a set of appendices referred to in the text of the findings chapter.
Do not use vague or non-specific phrases in the findings section. It is important to be factual and concise for the reader’s benefit.
The findings section presents the crucial data collected during the research process. It should be presented concisely and clearly to the reader. There should be no interpretation, speculation, or analysis of the data.
The significant results should be categorized systematically with the text used with charts, figures, and tables. Furthermore, avoiding using vague and non-specific words in this section is essential.
It is essential to label the tables and visual material properly. You should also check and proofread the section to avoid mistakes.
The dissertation findings chapter is a critical part of your overall dissertation paper. If you struggle with presenting your results and statistical analysis, our expert dissertation writers can help you get things right. Whether you need help with the entire dissertation paper or individual chapters, our dissertation experts can provide customized dissertation support .
FAQs About Findings of a Dissertation
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Dissertations 5: findings, analysis and discussion: home.
The time has come to show and discuss the findings of your research. How to structure this part of your dissertation?
Dissertations can have different structures, as you can see in the dissertation structure guide.
Dissertations organised by sections
Many dissertations are organised by sections. In this case, we suggest three options. Note that, if within your course you have been instructed to use a specific structure, you should do that. Also note that sometimes there is considerable freedom on the structure, so you can come up with other structures too.
A) More common for scientific dissertations and quantitative methods:
- Results chapter
- Discussion chapter
- Literature review
if you write a scientific dissertation, or anyway using quantitative methods, you will have some objective results that you will present in the Results chapter. You will then interpret the results in the Discussion chapter.
B) More common for qualitative methods
- Analysis chapter. This can have more descriptive/thematic subheadings.
- Discussion chapter. This can have more descriptive/thematic subheadings.
- Case study of Company X (fashion brand) environmental strategies
- Successful elements
- Lessons learnt
- Criticisms of Company X environmental strategies
- Possible alternatives
C) More common for qualitative methods
- Analysis and discussion chapter. This can have more descriptive/thematic titles.
- Case study of Company X (fashion brand) environmental strategies
If your dissertation uses qualitative methods, it is harder to identify and report objective data. Instead, it may be more productive and meaningful to present the findings in the same sections where you also analyse, and possibly discuss, them. You will probably have different sections dealing with different themes. The different themes can be subheadings of the Analysis and Discussion (together or separate) chapter(s).
If the structure of your dissertation is thematic , you will have several chapters analysing and discussing the issues raised by your research. The chapters will have descriptive/thematic titles.
- Background on the conflict in Yemen (2004-present day)
- Classification of the conflict in international law
- International law violations
- Options for enforcement of international law
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- Last Updated: Aug 4, 2023 2:17 PM
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How to Prepare an Effective Dissertation Finding Analysis
- 1. Dissertation Finding Analysis Chapter– A Comprehensive Overview
- 2. What is the Significance of the Findings Section in a Dissertation?
- 3.1 Structure of the Findings Analysis Chapter
- 3.2 Content of the Findings Analysis Chapter
- 4. How to Organize the Dissertation Findings Analysis Section?
- 5. Valuable Tips for Writing the Dissertation Finding Analysis Chapter Effectively
- 6. Final Thoughts
A dissertation is one of the most important academic assignments that a student will undertake in their academic career. It is a rigorous and challenging task that requires extensive research, critical thinking, and analysis. The dissertation finding analysis is an essential component of the dissertation, as it presents the findings of the study and their significance. It is crucial to prepare a good dissertation finding analysis to ensure that your research is presented accurately, effectively, and persuasively. In this article, we will provide a step-by-step guide on how to prepare a good dissertation finding analysis and provide some valuable tips to present and organize it effectively. In case you are struggling to prepare your dissertation, you can simply ask us to write a paper for me and get a high-quality thesis prepared by expert professionals in the field.
Dissertation Finding Analysis Chapter– A Comprehensive Overview
The findings and analysis section of a dissertation is where you present the results of the study- both narrating to the readers and accompanied by statistics, diagrams, graphs, and figures. This section includes both the presentation of the results and the analysis and interpretation of these results. It aims to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses that were developed in the earlier stages of the research. This section presents the significant and relevant findings, including the data that was collected, the methods used to analyze the data, and the conclusions that were drawn from the analysis, in a logical and systematic order.
Coming to the analysis part, this section involves critically evaluating the results, identifying patterns and relationships, and drawing conclusions based on the evidence presented. This process helps make the research more meaningful and relevant by providing a deeper understanding of the research problem and its significance. The process involves using statistical methods to analyze the data or applying theoretical frameworks to understand the significance of the findings. The analysis should be guided by the research question and should be presented in a way that is logical and coherent.
Furthermore, the findings section of the dissertation can be combined with the literature review to provide a comprehensive understanding of the differences between the newly generated data and the previously published information.
The findings analysis typically includes a summary of the data, as well as an explanation of how the results support or refute the research question or hypothesis. This process is essential in any research study, as it helps to validate the findings, identify areas for further research, and contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the field.
Overall, the findings and analysis section is a critical component of the dissertation. It presents the results of the research and demonstrates the researcher’s ability to analyze data and draw conclusions based on the findings. It also contributes to the existing body of knowledge in the respective field and helps to advance the understanding of the research question.
You might also be interested in learning how to write a hypothesis when learning about dissertation writing.
What is the Significance of the Findings Section in a Dissertation?
The findings section of a dissertation is significant because it presents the results of the research conducted by the student and answers the research questions and hypotheses developed earlier in the research process. This section is often considered the heart of the dissertation because it provides the evidence to support the research claims.
The significance of the findings section can be summarized in the following points:
- Validates the Research Questions and Hypotheses: The findings section presents the results that directly address the research questions and test the hypotheses developed earlier in the research process. The findings section helps to validate the research questions and hypotheses and provides evidence to support the research claims.
- Contributes to Existing Knowledge: This section contributes to the existing knowledge in the field by providing new insights, ideas, and theories. The findings may either support or challenge the existing literature, which helps to advance the field.
- Informs Future Research: This also informs future research by identifying gaps in the existing knowledge and suggesting avenues for further research. The researcher may also provide recommendations for future research based on the findings of the study.
- Demonstrates Research Skills: One important factor is that it demonstrates the student’s research skills, including data collection, analysis, and interpretation. This section also shows the student’s ability to communicate the findings effectively and concisely.
- Impacts Practice: The findings section may impact practice by providing evidence-based recommendations that can be applied in real-world settings. The research may also inform policy decisions and guide the development of new practices.
Bear in mind that writing the results section requires careful and thorough analysis and observation. So, you must first have a strong idea about what is a dissertation and how to write one.
Dissertation Finding Analysis– Structure and Content
Below, we have provided a brief outline of the structure and content of the findings and analysis chapter of a dissertation.
Structure of the Findings Analysis Chapter
The structure of the findings analysis chapter may vary depending on the type of research you have conducted, but the following are the most common sections:
- Introduction: This section should introduce the research questions or hypotheses and provide a brief overview of the research design and research methodology .
- Descriptive Statistics: This section presents the descriptive statistics of the data collected during the research process, such as mean, standard deviation, and frequency distribution.
- Inferential Statistics: This section presents the results of inferential statistics, such as t-tests, ANOVA, and regression analysis. The results should be presented using tables, graphs, or charts.
- Qualitative Analysis: This section presents the results of qualitative data analysis, such as themes or patterns identified in the data. This section may also include direct quotes from participants to support the findings.
- Comparison with Previous Research: This section compares the research findings with previous research in the field to highlight the similarities and differences between the studies.
- Discussion: This section provides an in-depth analysis of the findings in the context of the research questions or hypotheses. The discussion should include the implications of the findings, limitations of the study, and recommendations for future research.
Content of the Findings Analysis Chapter
The content of the findings analysis chapter depends on the research questions or hypotheses and the type of research conducted. However, the following are some common elements that should be included in the chapter:
- Description of the sample: The section begins with a brief description of the sample, including the size of the sample, demographic characteristics, and any other relevant information.
- Presentation of the data: The data collected during the research process is presented in this section using tables, charts, statistics, or graphs. The presentation of data should be clear and easy to understand.
- Analysis of the results: The results should be analyzed in the context of the research questions or hypotheses. The analysis should explain the findings and how they relate to the research questions or hypotheses.
- Interpretation of the results: The interpretation of the results should relate to the research questions or hypotheses and explain what the results mean in the context of the research study.
- Comparison with previous research: The findings should be compared with previous research in the field to contextualize the results and provide a basis for future research.
Overall, the Results/Findings section in a dissertation is a crucial part of the research process as it provides evidence to support the research questions or hypotheses. It also highlights the original contributions of the study to the field of research and provides a basis for further research in the future.
How to Organize the Dissertation Findings Analysis Section?
Organizing the findings and analysis section of a dissertation is a critical step in presenting the research findings effectively. Below are the steps to follow in structuring and organizing this section:
The introduction to the findings and analysis section should provide a brief overview of the research questions and objectives. It should also summarize the methodology used and the data collected, and provide a roadmap for the presentation of results and analysis.
- Organizing the Findings
The second step in preparing a good dissertation finding analysis is to organize your findings. This involves categorizing the data collected and presenting it logically and coherently. The findings should be presented in a way that is easy to understand and follow. It is essential to use headings and subheadings to break down the findings into smaller, manageable sections. This will make it easier for the reader to navigate through the analysis.
- Presentation of Results
The results section should present the findings of the study clearly and concisely. The results should be presented in a logical order, following the research questions and hypotheses. This section should include tables, charts, and graphs that help to illustrate the data. The results should be presented in enough detail to allow the reader to understand and interpret the findings.
- Analyze your Findings
This involves examining the data collected and identifying patterns, themes, and trends. It is essential to use data visualization tools such as graphs, charts, and tables to present the findings. This will help to illustrate the patterns and trends identified in the data. It is also important to provide a detailed explanation of the findings and their significance.
- Interpretation of Results
After analyzing the results, the interpretation should explain the meaning and significance of the findings. This involves explaining the patterns and relationships observed in the data and how they relate to the research questions and hypotheses. The interpretation should be based on sound reasoning and supported by evidence from the data. This will help the readers to understand the implications of the research and its significance. It is also important to relate the findings to the research question and to discuss how they contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the field.
- Comparison to Previous Research
The comparison to previous research involves highlighting the similarities and differences between the current study and previous studies and explaining the reasons for these differences. This section should demonstrate how the current study contributes to the existing knowledge in the field.
- Implications of Findings
The implications of the findings should be discussed in terms of their contribution to the research field and practice. This involves examining the practical applications of the research and its potential impact on the field. It is essential to consider the research limitations and to discuss how they have affected the interpretation of the findings. It is also important to suggest future research directions that could build on the findings presented in the analysis.
- Limitations of the Study
The limitations of the study should be identified, including any methodological or data-related limitations. This section should also provide suggestions for how these limitations can be addressed in future research.
The conclusion should summarize the key findings and their implications. This section should reiterate the significance of the findings in the context of the research questions and objectives. The conclusion should also provide suggestions for future research.
Looking for some great dissertation topics ? Check out this article for some really interesting and relevant dissertation topics on various subjects.
Valuable Tips for Writing the Dissertation Finding Analysis Chapter Effectively
Here are some important tips to keep in mind when preparing the findings and analysis section:
- Start with a clear outline: A clear outline will help you organize your thoughts and structure your chapter effectively. Ensure that your outline reflects your research questions or hypotheses.
- Use past tense: Since you have already conducted your study, you already have your results. So, you want to show your readers what you have found rather than showing what you are finding.
- Be critical and objective: Avoid making biased assumptions or overstating your findings. Be objective and honest about your results, and acknowledge any limitations or challenges encountered during the research process.
- Be concise and clear: The findings analysis chapter should be concise and easy to understand. Use clear and simple language to convey your findings and analysis.
- Use visual aids: Tables, graphs, and charts are effective ways to represent your findings. They make it easier for readers to understand and interpret your results.
- Connect your findings to previous literature: Demonstrate the significance of your findings by connecting them to previous research. Discuss how your results contribute to the existing body of knowledge and highlight any gaps or areas for future research.
- Discuss the limitations: Discuss the limitations of your study, such as sample size or data collection methods, and how they may have affected the results.
- Relate to the research questions or hypotheses: Always relate the findings to the research questions or hypotheses to ensure that the analysis stays focused.
- Seek feedback: Seek feedback from your supervisor or peers to improve the quality of your chapter. Their feedback can help you identify areas that need improvement and provide valuable insights on how to improve your writing.
- Be organized: Ensure that your findings analysis chapter is well-organized and easy to navigate. Use headings and subheadings to break up your chapter into sections and ensure that each section flows logically.
- Edit and proofread: Edit and proofread your chapter carefully to ensure that it is free of errors. Ensure that your chapter adheres to the formatting guidelines and requirements specified by your institution.
By following these tips, you can write an effective and well-structured dissertation findings analysis chapter.
Preparing an effective dissertation finding analysis is a critical component of the writing process. It requires careful planning, organization, and analysis of the results found. A well-crafted finding and analysis section can help you to demonstrate the significance of your research, contribute to the existence of knowledge, and establish yourself as an expert in your area of study.
By understanding the purpose of the analysis, organizing and analyzing your findings, interpreting the results, discussing the implications, and suggesting future research directions, you can create a dissertation finding analysis that is clear, concise, and persuasive. It is also essential to present the findings in a clear and systematic manner and to provide a sufficient context for your findings and a thorough interpretation and analysis of the same.
Overall, preparing a good dissertation finding analysis requires patience, attention to detail, and a thorough understanding of your research question and methods. By following the steps outlined in this guide and keeping these tips in mind, you can create a dissertation finding analysis that effectively communicates the significance of your research and contributes to the academic discourse in your field.
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