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Master the Art of Presentation with These Free PPT Template Designs
In today’s digital age, presentations have become an integral part of our professional and personal lives. Whether you are a student, entrepreneur, or working professional, chances are you have had to create and deliver a presentation at some point. However, creating visually appealing and engaging presentations can be a daunting task. This is where free PowerPoint (PPT) template designs come into play. With these templates, you can easily master the art of presentation and captivate your audience with stunning visuals. In this article, we will explore the benefits of using free PPT template designs and how they can elevate your presentations to the next level.
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This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
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How to Develop a Work Project Plan
Developing a work plan helps to articulate the steps required for achieving a goal. These plans help simplify the process when things get too complicated. Many companies use work project plans, and these guidelines explain how to create them.
What Is a Work Project Plan?
A project plan is a document that represents and specifies the goals, objectives and tactics of a program or project, as well as its tasks, leading activities, timing, sequencing and who will be responsible for everything. It sets demonstrable objectives with measurable objectives that are possible to be transformed into concrete actions. When team collaboration is effective, a work plan project document can act as a tool for guidance to help companies realize outcomes. Many companies use project plan templates to help them develop their work project plans from beginning to end.
Create an Outline
The work project plan should consist of an outline that’s broken down into goals, strategies, objectives and tactics. In this way, you’ll be able to better determine the overall outcome for success. Your goal should state the mission of your project. When outlining your strategies, you should focus on your goals and what you need to achieve them. Your objectives tie into your strategies in the form of deliverables. For example, if you want to make your business more profitable, an objective could be reducing marketing costs, and the strategy for that could be achieving a reduction of 25 percent per acquisition. The tactics you add to your outline are the checklists you’re using to achieve your goals, strategies and objectives.
Define Your Goals
Create a clear and concise definition of your goals so that you can develop your work plan project around specific goals. Defining your goals as narrowly as possible will help you develop an understanding of your overall needs. In doing so, you’ll ensure that deadlines will met, the project will stay on track, there will be enough resources available and the task will be completed. You’ll see more success if you keep your work project plan organized, plan it around your team and make sure it’s not designed solely around the project’s process.
Measure Your Team’s Progress
When you’re working on developing a work project plan, you need to remember to measure your team’s progress. You’ll be responsible for looking at the work they’ve accomplished, as well as what they still need to do to reach their goals. However, it is important to note that looking at too much information will muddle the results. So don’t focus too much on the results. Instead, focus on the project itself.
Planning Activities and Resource Management
Utilize planning worksheets to develop step-by-step activities and tasks for your team to follow throughout the project. Use an outline or template to create these worksheets, like a health and safety plan template or a campaign plan template. Assign specific activities to team members to help meet the objectives of your work project plan. Also look at how you’re managing your resources. For example, if you’re working on a project that calls for 25 people and your team currently consists of 15, you’ll need to recruit temporary workers (perhaps using a recruitment plan template) or be strategic with how the work is assigned to each member of your team.
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Hypothesis Development: Where Research Questions Come From
Published by Robyn Chambers Modified over 8 years ago
Presentation on theme: "Hypothesis Development: Where Research Questions Come From"— Presentation transcript:
Week 2: Finding and reading a paper. See StudyDirect for the names of your tutors Please remember our first names for submission of your course work Only.
Chapter 2: Where to Start Appendix A: Writing Research Reports.
Week 2: Finding and reading a paper. ◦ See StudyDirect for the names of your tutors ◦ Please remember our first names for submission of your course work.
Chapter Two: Research Ideas and Hypotheses. The Research Idea You find a research idea when you find a gap in the current knowledge or an unanswered question.
Lecture 2 Psyc 300A. Where Do Research Ideas Come From? Curiosity In mature areas, there are usually competing theories Theory-based research will usually.
Find 8 scholarly articles related to your dependent variable and target population. How does the literature theoretically define your dependent variable?
Research Ideas Chapter 2 Dusana Rybarova Psyc 290B May
1 Reading (and Writing) About Research Studies Is this fun? Not usually but we can be duped by others if we don’t know the research!!! Peer-reviewed.
Library Research. Learning Objectives Summarize the fundamentals of conducting library research in psychology, including the use of PsycINFO Summarize.
DEFINING THE PROBLEM: LITERATURE REVIEWS DEFINING THE PROBLEM Decision maker’s objectives Background of problem Differentiate problem from symptoms Determine.
Topics - Reading a Research Article Brief Overview: Purpose and Process of Empirical Research Standard Format of Research Articles Evaluating/Critiquing.
Reading the Literature
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The Literature of Health Education Chapter 9.
Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.1 Chapter 2 The Research Process: Getting Started Researcher as a detective Seeking answers to questions.
Reviewing the Literature PE 357. Why a Lit Review? Helps round out the problem Identifies what has been done Identifies potential methodology and procedures.
Planning for action research
All about Empirical Research Articles What’s in them and how to read them… Developed by Debbie Lahav and Elana Spector-Cohen.
Finding Scholarly Articles and Research Data in Education Kathleen Carter Arnulfo L. Oliveira Memorial Library
Introduction to Theory & Research Design
© 2023 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.
The Research Process� Theoretical framework and �hypothesis development
- The need for theoretical framework
- Components of theoretical framework
- Variables and its types
- Identify and label variables associated with any given situation.
- Defining hypothesis
- Null and alternative hypothesis
- Managerial implications
The Steps for Research process –Step 4-5
A theoretical framework represents your beliefs on how certain phenomena
(or variables or concepts) are related to each other (a model) and an explanation on why you believe that these variables are associated to each other (a theory).
A framework is a model of how one theorizes or makes logical sense of the relationships among several factors that have been identified as important to the problem. (Sekaran, 2001)
Components of Theoretical Framework
- Identify and label the variables correctly.
- State the relationships among the variables : known as formulate hypotheses.
- Explain how or why you expect these relationships.
So, Theoretical Framework is ?
- A mechanism that helps to clarify a big idea .
- A means through which you can explore the multiple dimensions of a big idea.
- An instrument for judgment .
- A filter through which you can consider various ideas in order to further clarify a position.
So, Theoretical Framework is?
- A guides to your research , determining what things you will measure , and what statistical relationships you will look for .
- A simply the structure of the idea or concept and how it is put together.
- An essay that interrelate the theories involved in the question.
- So it is the foundation to proceed with the research, and involve nothing more than identifying the network of relationship among the variables . So it is vital to understand, what a variable mean and what are its different types .
“Any concept or construct that
varies or changes in value is called variable .”
Cases are objects whose behavior or characteristics we study. Usually, the cases are persons, but they can also be groups, departments, organizations, Job satisfaction, etc.
Variables are characteristics of cases. Qualities of the cases that we measure or record . For example, if the case is a person, the variables could be sex, age, height, weight, feeling, ability (Physical/ Intellectual), etc.
Types of Variables
- Dependent variable (DV)
- Independent variable (IV)
- Moderating variable
- Mediating variable (or intervening)
- 1-Dependent variable (DV) (Criterion Variable)
- DV is a primary interest to the researcher. The goal of the research project is to understand, predict or explain the variability of this variable.
- What is been observed.
- What is been measured.
- 2-Independent variable (IV) (Or Predictor)
- Something that is changed by the scientist/researcher is called IV.
- Influences that DV have, either positive/negative way, on a variable is IV.
- What is tested.
- What is manipulated.
Examples for Dependent Variables
- An applied researcher wants to increase the performance of organizational members
- in particular bank.
- The dependent variable is organizational performance because it is the primary
- variable of interest to the applied researcher. Independent variables could be Wages,
- bonuses, Organizational culture, etc
- Example 2: A marketing manager wonders why the recent advertisement strategy does not work . What would be the dependent variable here?
- The dependent variable is advertisement strategy because the marketing manager is interested in knowing why the recent strategy does not work. And IV could be advertising channel, distributer, market segment, etc.
- Research studies indicate that successful new product development has an influence on the stock market price of the company. That is, the more successful the new product turns out to be, the higher will be the stock market price of the firm.
- Dependent Variable is the stock market price .
- And new product success is independent variable.
- Exercise: If in above example if New product
- success is dependent variable (DV) then what
- could be Independent variables (IVs)?
3-Moderating Variable (Through Example)
It has been found that there is a relationship between the availability of Reference Manuals that manufacturing employees have access to, and the Product rejects . That is, when workers follow the procedures laid down in the manual, they are able to manufacture products that are flawless . So,
Dependent Variable : Number of Rejects/faulty products.
Independent Variable : Availability of Reference Manuals.
- Moderating Variable (Example Continued)
- Although this relationship is true in general for all workers, but it is not true for workers who are not using the manual every time they need it .
- Thus, the interest and inclination of the workers is a Moderating Variable .
- So, moderator is qualitative (e.g., gender, race, class) or quantitative (e.g.,
- level of reward) variable that affects the direction and/or strength of
- relation between independent and dependent variable .
- Moderating Variable - (Example-2)
- A prevalent theory is that the diversity of the workforce (according to different ethnic origins, races, and nationalities) contributes more to organizational effectiveness because each group brings it own special expertise and skills to the workplace. This synergy can be exploited, however, only if managers know how to harness the special talents of the diverse work group; otherwise, they will remain untapped.
- 4-Intervening Variable
- Is one that surfaces between the time the independent variables start operating to influence the dependent variable and the time their impact is felt on it .
- Follow the Last Example:
- The dependent variable: The organizational effectiveness.
- The independent variable: The workforce diversity.
- The intervening variable: That surfaces as a function of the
- diversity in the workforce is creative synergy.
The Intervening Variable
- This creative synergy results from the "diverse" workforce interacting and bringing together their expertise in problem solving.
- Note that creative synergy , the intervening variable , surfaces at time t2 , as a function of workforce diversity, which was in place at time t1 , to bring about organizational effectiveness in time t3 . The dynamics of these relationships are illustrated in Figures 6 and 7 .
- Assignment: (Hand written/Due in next class)
- Try to explain the following examples
- Suppose a patient is feeling some normal headache . She/he is looking to get rid off it. Explain DV, IVs first.
- Suppose a patient is feeling some serious problem in stomach . She/he is looking to get rid off it. Explain DV, IVs first. Then Moderating and intervening variable with your own explanation.
The Relationship Between the � Literature Survey and the Theoretical Framework
- The literature survey provides a solid foundation for developing the theoretical framework .
- The literature survey identifies the variables that might be important, as determined by previous research findings.
- The theoretical framework elaborates the relationships among the variables , explains the theory underlying these relations , and describes the nature and direction of the relationships .
- The theoretical framework provides the logical base for developing testable hypotheses .
DEFINE THE PROBLEM AND DEVELOP THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK .
The probability of cancer victims successfully recovering under treatment was studied by a medical researcher in a hospital. She found three variables to be important for recovery:
- Early and correct diagnosis by the doctor .
- The nurse’s careful follow-up of the doctor’s instructions.
- Peace and quit in the vicinity.
In a quiet atmosphere, the patient rested well and recovered sooner. Patients who were admitted in advanced stages of cancer did not respond to treatment even though the doctor’s diagnosis was performed immediately on arrival, the nurses did their best, and there was plenty of peace and quit in the area.
- Thus, Stage of cancer is a moderating variable.
- Also, we could use the patient rest as an intervening variable .
Definition of Hypotheses :
A logical relationship between two or more variables (DV & IV)
expressed in the form of a testable statement .
(e.g.) Women are more motivated than men.
- Must be adequate (sufficient/satisfactory) for its purpose
- Must be testable
- Must be better than its rivals
Directional and No-directional Hypotheses
DIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESES :
The direction of the relationship between the variables (positive/negative) is indicated.
- The greater the stress experienced in the job, the lower the job satisfaction of employees.
- Women are more motivated than men.
Directional and Nondirectional Hypotheses
NONDIRECTIONAL HYPOTHESES :
…are those which shows no indication of the direction of the relationships between variables .
- There is a relationship between age and Job satisfaction.
- There is a differences between the work ethic values of American and Arabian employees.
Null and Alternate Hypotheses
… is a proposition that states a definitive, exact relationship between two variables .
- In general , the null statement is expressed as no (significant) difference between two groups.
H0: µM = µw
- It can also be stated as the population correlation between two variables is equal to zero (or some definite number).
H0: µ M - µ w = 0
Where H0 represents the null hypotheses ,
µ M is the mean motivational level of the men,
µ w is the mean motivational level of women.
- Alternate Hypotheses
- … is a statement expressing a relationship between two variables or indicating differences between groups .
- (e.g.) Women are more motivated than men .
- The alternate hypotheses for the above example is
- HA : µM < µw
- If we reverse the above statement like
- Men are more motivated than women.
- HA : µM > µw
- Where HA represents the alternate hypotheses.
Examples for the Non directional relationship
- There is a difference between the work ethic of American and Arabian employees.
- The null hypotheses would be:
- Ho: µAM = µAR
- Ho: µAM - µAR = 0
- µAM is the mean work ethic value of Americans
- µAR is the mean work ethic value of Arabs.
- The alternate hypotheses for the above example would statistically be set as:
- HA: µAM ≠ µAR
- HA represents the alternate hypotheses.
At this junction, we have understood the
- Broad problem area
- Preliminary data gathering
- Theoretical framework based on literature review
- Hypotheses formulation for testing on the bases of experience and intuition.
Also understanding of variables and its types help the mangers/researcher to associate the
link of problem and there reasons (Why & How).
When an external researcher submitted a report to particular manager for decision
and manager has a knowledge of issues as mentioned in above 4 points, manager have
better understating of how that researcher reached to particular conclusion. Also manager
can check the validity by interpreting how this research reached to given decision.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT
Jan 07, 2020
310 likes | 582 Views
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT. The Research Process. Variables. Independent variables Dependent variables
- hypotheses development
- theoretical framework
- dependent variables
- hypotheses development cont
- alternate hypothesis statement expressing
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKHYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT
The Research Process
Variables • Independent variables • Dependent variables • Moderating variables: a second independent variable that is included because it is believed to have significant contributory or contingent effect on the originally stated IV-DV relationship
Variables (Cont’d) • Extraneous variables • Infinite number of variables has little or no effect on a given situation can be safely ignored • Extraneous variables as the control
Variables (Cont’d) • Intervening variables: the factor which theoretically affects the observed phenomenon but cannot be seen, measured, or manipulated; its effect must be inferred from the effects of the independent and moderator variables on the observed phenomenon
Theoretical Framework • Theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research project is based • Logically developed, described, and elaborated network of association among the variables deemed relevant to the problem situation and identified through such processes as interviews, observations, and literature survey. • Experience and intuition
Theoretical Framework (Cont’d) • 5 basic features that should be incorporated in any theoretical framework: • Variables considered relevant to the study should be clearly identified and labeled in the discussions • The discussions should state how two or more variables are related to one another
Theoretical Framework (Cont’d) • 5 basic features that should be incorporated in any theoretical framework (Cont’d): • There should be an indication in the discussions as to whether the relationships would be positive or negative • There should be a clear explanation of why we would expect these relationships to exist • A schematic diagram should be given so that the reader can see and easily comprehend the theorized relationships
Hypotheses Development • Hypothesis: a logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of a testable statement • Formulating such testable statement is called hypotheses development
Hypotheses Development (Cont’d) • Statement of hypotheses: Formats • If-Then statement • Directional and nondirectional hypotheses • Null and alternate hypotheses • Null hypothesis: expressed as no (significant) relationship between two variables or no (significant) difference between two groups • Alternate hypothesis: statement expressing a relationship between two variables or indicating differences between groups
Hypotheses Testing • Steps to be followed in hypothesis testing: • State the null and alternate hypotheses • Choose the appropriate statistical test depending whether the data collected are parametric or nonparametric • Determine the level of significance desired • See if the output results indicate that the significance level is met • When the resultant value > critical value, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternate is accepted. If calculated value < critical value, the null is accepted and the alternate rejected
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- Scientific Methods
What is Hypothesis?
We have heard of many hypotheses which have led to great inventions in science. Assumptions that are made on the basis of some evidence are known as hypotheses. In this article, let us learn in detail about the hypothesis and the type of hypothesis with examples.
A hypothesis is an assumption that is made based on some evidence. This is the initial point of any investigation that translates the research questions into predictions. It includes components like variables, population and the relation between the variables. A research hypothesis is a hypothesis that is used to test the relationship between two or more variables.
Characteristics of Hypothesis
Following are the characteristics of the hypothesis:
- The hypothesis should be clear and precise to consider it to be reliable.
- If the hypothesis is a relational hypothesis, then it should be stating the relationship between variables.
- The hypothesis must be specific and should have scope for conducting more tests.
- The way of explanation of the hypothesis must be very simple and it should also be understood that the simplicity of the hypothesis is not related to its significance.
Sources of Hypothesis
Following are the sources of hypothesis:
- The resemblance between the phenomenon.
- Observations from past studies, present-day experiences and from the competitors.
- Scientific theories.
- General patterns that influence the thinking process of people.
Types of Hypothesis
There are six forms of hypothesis and they are:
- Simple hypothesis
- Complex hypothesis
- Directional hypothesis
- Non-directional hypothesis
- Null hypothesis
- Associative and casual hypothesis
It shows a relationship between one dependent variable and a single independent variable. For example – If you eat more vegetables, you will lose weight faster. Here, eating more vegetables is an independent variable, while losing weight is the dependent variable.
It shows the relationship between two or more dependent variables and two or more independent variables. Eating more vegetables and fruits leads to weight loss, glowing skin, and reduces the risk of many diseases such as heart disease.
It shows how a researcher is intellectual and committed to a particular outcome. The relationship between the variables can also predict its nature. For example- children aged four years eating proper food over a five-year period are having higher IQ levels than children not having a proper meal. This shows the effect and direction of the effect.
It is used when there is no theory involved. It is a statement that a relationship exists between two variables, without predicting the exact nature (direction) of the relationship.
It provides a statement which is contrary to the hypothesis. It’s a negative statement, and there is no relationship between independent and dependent variables. The symbol is denoted by “H O ”.
Associative and Causal Hypothesis
Associative hypothesis occurs when there is a change in one variable resulting in a change in the other variable. Whereas, the causal hypothesis proposes a cause and effect interaction between two or more variables.
Examples of Hypothesis
Following are the examples of hypotheses based on their types:
- Consumption of sugary drinks every day leads to obesity is an example of a simple hypothesis.
- All lilies have the same number of petals is an example of a null hypothesis.
- If a person gets 7 hours of sleep, then he will feel less fatigue than if he sleeps less. It is an example of a directional hypothesis.
Functions of Hypothesis
Following are the functions performed by the hypothesis:
- Hypothesis helps in making an observation and experiments possible.
- It becomes the start point for the investigation.
- Hypothesis helps in verifying the observations.
- It helps in directing the inquiries in the right direction.
How will Hypothesis help in the Scientific Method?
Researchers use hypotheses to put down their thoughts directing how the experiment would take place. Following are the steps that are involved in the scientific method:
- Formation of question
- Doing background research
- Creation of hypothesis
- Designing an experiment
- Collection of data
- Result analysis
- Summarizing the experiment
- Communicating the results
Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs
What is hypothesis.
A hypothesis is an assumption made based on some evidence.
Give an example of simple hypothesis?
What are the types of hypothesis.
Types of hypothesis are:
- Associative and Casual hypothesis
State true or false: Hypothesis is the initial point of any investigation that translates the research questions into a prediction.
Define complex hypothesis..
A complex hypothesis shows the relationship between two or more dependent variables and two or more independent variables.
Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. Click ‘Start Quiz’ to begin!
Select the correct answer and click on the “Finish” button Check your score and answers at the end of the quiz
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The Craft of Writing a Strong Hypothesis
Table of Contents
Writing a hypothesis is one of the essential elements of a scientific research paper. It needs to be to the point, clearly communicating what your research is trying to accomplish. A blurry, drawn-out, or complexly-structured hypothesis can confuse your readers. Or worse, the editor and peer reviewers.
A captivating hypothesis is not too intricate. This blog will take you through the process so that, by the end of it, you have a better idea of how to convey your research paper's intent in just one sentence.
What is a Hypothesis?
The first step in your scientific endeavor, a hypothesis, is a strong, concise statement that forms the basis of your research. It is not the same as a thesis statement , which is a brief summary of your research paper.
The sole purpose of a hypothesis is to predict your paper's findings, data, and conclusion. It comes from a place of curiosity and intuition . When you write a hypothesis, you're essentially making an educated guess based on scientific prejudices and evidence, which is further proven or disproven through the scientific method.
The reason for undertaking research is to observe a specific phenomenon. A hypothesis, therefore, lays out what the said phenomenon is. And it does so through two variables, an independent and dependent variable.
The independent variable is the cause behind the observation, while the dependent variable is the effect of the cause. A good example of this is “mixing red and blue forms purple.” In this hypothesis, mixing red and blue is the independent variable as you're combining the two colors at your own will. The formation of purple is the dependent variable as, in this case, it is conditional to the independent variable.
Different Types of Hypotheses
Types of hypotheses
Some would stand by the notion that there are only two types of hypotheses: a Null hypothesis and an Alternative hypothesis. While that may have some truth to it, it would be better to fully distinguish the most common forms as these terms come up so often, which might leave you out of context.
Apart from Null and Alternative, there are Complex, Simple, Directional, Non-Directional, Statistical, and Associative and casual hypotheses. They don't necessarily have to be exclusive, as one hypothesis can tick many boxes, but knowing the distinctions between them will make it easier for you to construct your own.
1. Null hypothesis
A null hypothesis proposes no relationship between two variables. Denoted by H 0 , it is a negative statement like “Attending physiotherapy sessions does not affect athletes' on-field performance.” Here, the author claims physiotherapy sessions have no effect on on-field performances. Even if there is, it's only a coincidence.
2. Alternative hypothesis
Considered to be the opposite of a null hypothesis, an alternative hypothesis is donated as H1 or Ha. It explicitly states that the dependent variable affects the independent variable. A good alternative hypothesis example is “Attending physiotherapy sessions improves athletes' on-field performance.” or “Water evaporates at 100 °C. ” The alternative hypothesis further branches into directional and non-directional.
- Directional hypothesis: A hypothesis that states the result would be either positive or negative is called directional hypothesis. It accompanies H1 with either the ‘<' or ‘>' sign.
- Non-directional hypothesis: A non-directional hypothesis only claims an effect on the dependent variable. It does not clarify whether the result would be positive or negative. The sign for a non-directional hypothesis is ‘≠.'
3. Simple hypothesis
A simple hypothesis is a statement made to reflect the relation between exactly two variables. One independent and one dependent. Consider the example, “Smoking is a prominent cause of lung cancer." The dependent variable, lung cancer, is dependent on the independent variable, smoking.
4. Complex hypothesis
In contrast to a simple hypothesis, a complex hypothesis implies the relationship between multiple independent and dependent variables. For instance, “Individuals who eat more fruits tend to have higher immunity, lesser cholesterol, and high metabolism.” The independent variable is eating more fruits, while the dependent variables are higher immunity, lesser cholesterol, and high metabolism.
5. Associative and casual hypothesis
Associative and casual hypotheses don't exhibit how many variables there will be. They define the relationship between the variables. In an associative hypothesis, changing any one variable, dependent or independent, affects others. In a casual hypothesis, the independent variable directly affects the dependent.
6. Empirical hypothesis
Also referred to as the working hypothesis, an empirical hypothesis claims a theory's validation via experiments and observation. This way, the statement appears justifiable and different from a wild guess.
Say, the hypothesis is “Women who take iron tablets face a lesser risk of anemia than those who take vitamin B12.” This is an example of an empirical hypothesis where the researcher the statement after assessing a group of women who take iron tablets and charting the findings.
7. Statistical hypothesis
The point of a statistical hypothesis is to test an already existing hypothesis by studying a population sample. Hypothesis like “44% of the Indian population belong in the age group of 22-27.” leverage evidence to prove or disprove a particular statement.
Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis
Writing a hypothesis is essential as it can make or break your research for you. That includes your chances of getting published in a journal. So when you're designing one, keep an eye out for these pointers:
- A research hypothesis has to be simple yet clear to look justifiable enough.
- It has to be testable — your research would be rendered pointless if too far-fetched into reality or limited by technology.
- It has to be precise about the results —what you are trying to do and achieve through it should come out in your hypothesis.
- A research hypothesis should be self-explanatory, leaving no doubt in the reader's mind.
- If you are developing a relational hypothesis, you need to include the variables and establish an appropriate relationship among them.
- A hypothesis must keep and reflect the scope for further investigations and experiments.
Separating a Hypothesis from a Prediction
Outside of academia, hypothesis and prediction are often used interchangeably. In research writing, this is not only confusing but also incorrect. And although a hypothesis and prediction are guesses at their core, there are many differences between them.
A hypothesis is an educated guess or even a testable prediction validated through research. It aims to analyze the gathered evidence and facts to define a relationship between variables and put forth a logical explanation behind the nature of events.
Predictions are assumptions or expected outcomes made without any backing evidence. They are more fictionally inclined regardless of where they originate from.
For this reason, a hypothesis holds much more weight than a prediction. It sticks to the scientific method rather than pure guesswork. "Planets revolve around the Sun." is an example of a hypothesis as it is previous knowledge and observed trends. Additionally, we can test it through the scientific method.
Whereas "COVID-19 will be eradicated by 2030." is a prediction. Even though it results from past trends, we can't prove or disprove it. So, the only way this gets validated is to wait and watch if COVID-19 cases end by 2030.
Finally, How to Write a Hypothesis
Quick tips on writing a hypothesis
1. Be clear about your research question
A hypothesis should instantly address the research question or the problem statement. To do so, you need to ask a question. Understand the constraints of your undertaken research topic and then formulate a simple and topic-centric problem. Only after that can you develop a hypothesis and further test for evidence.
2. Carry out a recce
Once you have your research's foundation laid out, it would be best to conduct preliminary research. Go through previous theories, academic papers, data, and experiments before you start curating your research hypothesis. It will give you an idea of your hypothesis's viability or originality.
Making use of references from relevant research papers helps draft a good research hypothesis. SciSpace Discover offers a repository of over 270 million research papers to browse through and gain a deeper understanding of related studies on a particular topic. Additionally, you can use SciSpace Copilot , your AI research assistant, for reading any lengthy research paper and getting a more summarized context of it. A hypothesis can be formed after evaluating many such summarized research papers. Copilot also offers explanations for theories and equations, explains paper in simplified version, allows you to highlight any text in the paper or clip math equations and tables and provides a deeper, clear understanding of what is being said. This can improve the hypothesis by helping you identify potential research gaps.
3. Create a 3-dimensional hypothesis
Variables are an essential part of any reasonable hypothesis. So, identify your independent and dependent variable(s) and form a correlation between them. The ideal way to do this is to write the hypothetical assumption in the ‘if-then' form. If you use this form, make sure that you state the predefined relationship between the variables.
In another way, you can choose to present your hypothesis as a comparison between two variables. Here, you must specify the difference you expect to observe in the results.
4. Write the first draft
Now that everything is in place, it's time to write your hypothesis. For starters, create the first draft. In this version, write what you expect to find from your research.
Clearly separate your independent and dependent variables and the link between them. Don't fixate on syntax at this stage. The goal is to ensure your hypothesis addresses the issue.
5. Proof your hypothesis
After preparing the first draft of your hypothesis, you need to inspect it thoroughly. It should tick all the boxes, like being concise, straightforward, relevant, and accurate. Your final hypothesis has to be well-structured as well.
Research projects are an exciting and crucial part of being a scholar. And once you have your research question, you need a great hypothesis to begin conducting research. Thus, knowing how to write a hypothesis is very important.
Now that you have a firmer grasp on what a good hypothesis constitutes, the different kinds there are, and what process to follow, you will find it much easier to write your hypothesis, which ultimately helps your research.
Now it's easier than ever to streamline your research workflow with SciSpace Discover . Its integrated, comprehensive end-to-end platform for research allows scholars to easily discover, write and publish their research and fosters collaboration.
It includes everything you need, including a repository of over 270 million research papers across disciplines, SEO-optimized summaries and public profiles to show your expertise and experience.
If you found these tips on writing a research hypothesis useful, head over to our blog on Statistical Hypothesis Testing to learn about the top researchers, papers, and institutions in this domain.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
1. what is the definition of hypothesis.
According to the Oxford dictionary, a hypothesis is defined as “An idea or explanation of something that is based on a few known facts, but that has not yet been proved to be true or correct”.
2. What is an example of hypothesis?
The hypothesis is a statement that proposes a relationship between two or more variables. An example: "If we increase the number of new users who join our platform by 25%, then we will see an increase in revenue."
3. What is an example of null hypothesis?
A null hypothesis is a statement that there is no relationship between two variables. The null hypothesis is written as H0. The null hypothesis states that there is no effect. For example, if you're studying whether or not a particular type of exercise increases strength, your null hypothesis will be "there is no difference in strength between people who exercise and people who don't."
4. What are the types of research?
• Fundamental research
• Applied research
• Qualitative research
• Quantitative research
• Mixed research
• Exploratory research
• Longitudinal research
• Cross-sectional research
• Field research
• Laboratory research
• Fixed research
• Flexible research
• Action research
• Policy research
• Classification research
• Comparative research
• Causal research
• Inductive research
• Deductive research
5. How to write a hypothesis?
• Your hypothesis should be able to predict the relationship and outcome.
• Avoid wordiness by keeping it simple and brief.
• Your hypothesis should contain observable and testable outcomes.
• Your hypothesis should be relevant to the research question.
6. What are the 2 types of hypothesis?
• Null hypotheses are used to test the claim that "there is no difference between two groups of data".
• Alternative hypotheses test the claim that "there is a difference between two data groups".
7. Difference between research question and research hypothesis?
A research question is a broad, open-ended question you will try to answer through your research. A hypothesis is a statement based on prior research or theory that you expect to be true due to your study. Example - Research question: What are the factors that influence the adoption of the new technology? Research hypothesis: There is a positive relationship between age, education and income level with the adoption of the new technology.
8. What is plural for hypothesis?
The plural of hypothesis is hypotheses. Here's an example of how it would be used in a statement, "Numerous well-considered hypotheses are presented in this part, and they are supported by tables and figures that are well-illustrated."
9. What is the red queen hypothesis?
The red queen hypothesis in evolutionary biology states that species must constantly evolve to avoid extinction because if they don't, they will be outcompeted by other species that are evolving. Leigh Van Valen first proposed it in 1973; since then, it has been tested and substantiated many times.
10. Who is known as the father of null hypothesis?
The father of the null hypothesis is Sir Ronald Fisher. He published a paper in 1925 that introduced the concept of null hypothesis testing, and he was also the first to use the term itself.
11. When to reject null hypothesis?
You need to find a significant difference between your two populations to reject the null hypothesis. You can determine that by running statistical tests such as an independent sample t-test or a dependent sample t-test. You should reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is less than 0.05.