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Thesis / Dissertation
Cite a thesis or dissertation (unpublished, published online, or accessed through a database). Use other forms to cite books , journal articles , reports , and conference proceedings .
APA 7th Edition Citation Examples
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- Page Numbers
- Undated Sources
- Citing a Source Within a Source
- In-Text Citations
- Academic Journals
- Encyclopedia Articles
- Book, Film, and Product Reviews
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- Court Decisions
- Treaties and Other International Agreements
- Federal Regulations: I. The Code of Federal Regulations
- Federal Regulations: II. The Federal Register
- Executive Orders
- Charter of the United Nations
- Federal Statutes
Format for dissertations and theses
Dissertations and theses database.
- Interviews, E-mail Messages + Other Personal Communications
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- Business Sources
Author last name, first initial. (Year). T itle of dissertation/thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, University]. Database. URL
- Author: List the last name, followed by the first initial (and second initial). See Authors for more information.
- Year: List the year between parentheses, followed by a period.
- Title of dissertation/thesis: In italics. Capitalize the first word of the title, subtitle, and proper nouns.
- Publication number: Can be found in Dissertations and Theses database, listed in the item record as “Dissertation/thesis number.”
- Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis: List whether it is a dissertation or a thesis.
- University: List the university associated with the dissertation/thesis.
- Database: List database the dissertation/thesis was found in, if found in a database.
- URL: List URL if found on the free Web rather than in a database.
See specific examples below.
Pecore, J. T. (2004). Sounding the spirit of Cambodia: The living tradition of Khmer music and dance-drama in a Washington, DC community (Publication No. 3114720) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resitance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons from the Milgram experiment (Publication No. 10289373) [Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin - Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
APA calls for the citation to include a unique identifying number for the dissertation, labeling it “Publication No.” That number can be found in Dissertations and Theses database, listed in the item record as “Dissertation/thesis number.”
Karamanos, X. (2020). The influence of professional development models on student mathematics performance in New Jersey public elementary schools [Doctoral dissertation, Seton Hall University]. Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs). https://scholarship.shu.edu/dissertations/2732
Bordo, V. C. (2011). Making a case for the use of foreign language in the educational activities of nonprofit arts organizations [Master's thesis, University of Akron]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=akron1311135640
Caprette, C. L. (2005). Conquering the cold shudder: The origin and evolution of snake eyes [Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University].
Angelova, A. N. (2004). Data pruning [Master's thesis, California Institute of Technology].
See Publication Manual , 10.6.
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Dissertation or thesis available from a database service:
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (year of publication). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No.)
For an unpublished dissertation or thesis:
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (year of creation). Title of dissertation or thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis). Name of Institution, Location.
See Ch 7 pp. 207-208 APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules
- Italicize the title
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APA Citation Style, 7th Edition: Dissertations & Thesis
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Citing Dissertations & Theses in APA Format
Dissertations & Theses
Dissertations and theses are formatted the same way in APA 7th edition. Theses are generally the culminating work for a master's or undergraduate degree and dissertations are often original research completed by doctoral students. Here are examples of a dissertation & a thesis, and how they would be formatted:
Dissertation found in Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global:
Banks, B. (2020). Addressing institutional racism in healthcare: A case study (Publication No. 28154307) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global.
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):
In-Text Citation (Direct Quote):
(Banks, 2020, p. 157).
Master's thesis from a University scholarship database:
Sears, L. B. (2017). The public voice and sustainable food systems: Community engagement in food action plans [Unpublished master's thesis]. University of Kansas. https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/26899
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):
(Sears, 2017, p. 24).
Carrie Forbes, MLS
Citation information has been adapted from the APA Manual (7th Edition). Please refer to page 333 of the APA Manual (7th Edition) for more information.
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APA 7th Referencing Style Guide
- Theses and dissertations
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Terminology - Thesis, dissertation or exegesis?
Published theses and dissertations, unpublished theses and dissertations.
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Thesis and dissertation can mean different things depending on where the degree is awarded. Always check the title page, or subsequent pages, to determine exactly what the work is and use the information for your reference.
Auckland University of Technology (and other NZ universities)
- Thesis is either for a doctoral or a master's degree.
- Dissertation is either for a master's or a bachelor's degree with honours.
- Exegesis is the written component of a practice-based thesis where the major output is a creative work; e.g., a film, artwork, novel.
Other parts of the world
- In North America and some other countries, dissertation is used for a doctoral degree and thesis for a master's degree.
Theses available in a database, a university archive or from a personal website.
Theses published online (e.g. in institutional repositories), theses from proquest dissertations and theses global.
Find how to cite in text on the In-text citation page.
Unpublished thesis or dissertations are usually sourced directly from the university in print form.
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NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.
Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-.
Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition.
Chapter 5 dissertations and theses.
Created: October 10, 2007 ; Last Update: August 11, 2015 .
A. Entire Dissertations and Theses
- Sample Citation and Introduction
- Citation Rules with Examples
B. Parts of Dissertations and Theses
- A. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Entire Dissertations and Theses
The general format for a reference to entire dissertation, including punctuation:
The general format for a reference to entire master's thesis, including punctuation:
- Examples of Citations to Entire Dissertations and Theses
Dissertations and theses are rigorous reports of original research written in support of academic degrees above the baccalaureate level. Although some countries use the term "thesis" to refer to material written for a doctorate, the term in this chapter is reserved for work at the master's level, while "dissertation" is used for the doctorate.
Citations to dissertations and theses are similar to the standard book, with the following important points:
- With rare exceptions, dissertations have only one author. Most master's theses also have a single author, but occasionally will have two.
- The place of publication for a thesis or dissertation is the city where the university or other institution granting the degree is located. Many dissertations, particularly those of US universities, do not state the place of publication. When this occurs, obtain the city name from another source and place it in square brackets.
- The publisher is the university or other institution granting the degree.
The chief source for information about a dissertation or thesis is its title page. The back of the title page, called the verso page, and the cover are additional sources of authoritative information not found on the title page.
Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Dissertations and Theses .
Continue to Examples of Citations to Entire Dissertations and Theses .
- Citation Rules with Examples for Entire Dissertations and Theses
Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R after the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O after the name means it is optional.
Author (R) | Title (R) | Content Type (O) | Type of Medium (R) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O)
Author for a Dissertation or Thesis (required)
General rules for author.
- List names in the order they appear in the text
- Enter surname (family or last name) first for each author
- Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. For example: Van Der Horn or van der Horn; De Wolf or de Wolf or DeWolf.
- Convert given (first) names and middle names to initials for a maximum of two initials following each surname
- Separate author names from each other by a comma and a space
- End author information with a period
Specific Rules for Author
- Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them
- Other surname rules
- Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle
- Degrees, titles, and honors following a personal name
- Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III
- Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese)
- Options for author names
Surnames with hyphens and other punctuation in them.
Other surname rules.
Given names containing punctuation, a prefix, a preposition, or particle.
Degrees, titles, and honors following a personal name.
Designations of rank in a family, such as Jr and III.
Names in non-roman alphabets (Cyrillic, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Korean) or character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese).
Options for author names.
Examples for Author
1. standard dissertation, 2. standard master's thesis, 3. dissertation or thesis with optional full name(s) for author, 4. dissertation or thesis with more than one author (rare), 5. dissertation or thesis with authors showing designations of rank within the family, title for a dissertation or thesis (required), general rules for title.
- Enter the title of a dissertation or thesis as it appears in the original document and in the original language
- Capitalize only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms
- Use a colon followed by a space to separate a title from a subtitle, unless another form of punctuation (such as a question mark, period, or an exclamation point) is already present
- Follow non-English titles with a translation whenever possible; place the translation in square brackets
- End a title with a period unless a question mark or exclamation point already ends it or a Content Type or Type of Medium follows it, then end with a space
Specific Rules for Title
- Titles not in English
- Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character
Titles not in English.
Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character.
Examples for Title
6. dissertation or thesis with titles ending in punctuation other than a period, 7. dissertation or thesis with titles containing a chemical formula, greek letter, or other special characters, 8. dissertation or thesis with non-english titles, 9. dissertation or thesis with non-english titles, with translation, content type for a dissertation or thesis (optional), general rules for content type.
- Place [dissertation] or [master's thesis] after the title to alert the user that the reference is not to a standard book
- Follow the bracketed type with a period unless the dissertation or thesis is in a non-print medium (see Type of Medium below)
Specific Rules for Content Type
- Titles ending in punctuation other than a period
- Non-English titles with translation
Titles ending in punctuation other than a period.
Non-English titles with translation.
Examples for Content Type
10. dissertation or thesis in a microform, type of medium for a dissertation or thesis (required), general rules for type of medium.
- Indicate the specific type of medium (microfiche, ultrafiche, microfilm, microcard, etc.) following the title and the content type when a dissertation or thesis is published in a microform
- Place the name of the medium inside the square brackets for the content type, preceded by the word "on". For example: [dissertation on microfiche].
- End with a period following the closing bracket
- Add information about the medium according to the instructions under Physical Description below
- See Chapter 15 for dissertations or theses in audiovisual formats; Chapter18 and Chapter 22 for those in electronic formats
Specific Rules for Type of Medium
Examples for type of medium, place of publication for a dissertation or thesis (required), general rules for place of publication.
- Place is defined as the city where the university or other institution granting the degree is located
- Follow US and Canadian cities with the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province (see Appendix E ) to avoid confusion when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as Palm Springs (CA) and Palm Springs (FL)
- Follow cities in other countries with the name of the country, either written out or as the two-letter ISO country code (see Appendix D ), when citing lesser known cities or when cities in different locations have the same name, such as London (ON) and London (England)
- Use the anglicized form for a non-US city, such as Vienna for Wien
- End place information with a colon
Specific Rules for Place of Publication
- Non-US cities
- No place of publication can be found
No place of publication can be found.
Examples for Place of Publication
11. dissertation or thesis with place of publication not found on title page, publisher for a dissertation or thesis (required), general rules for publisher.
- The publisher is the university or other institution granting the degree
- Record the name of the institution as it appears in the publication, using whatever capitalization and punctuation is found there
- Abbreviate well-known words in institutional names, such as Univ. for University, if desired
- When a division or other subsidiary part of an institution appears in the publication, enter the main institutional name first. For example: University of Illinois at Chicago, Health Sciences Center.
- End publisher information with a semicolon
Specific Rules for Publisher
- Abbreviations in publisher names
- Non-English names of institutions
- Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher
Abbreviations in publisher names.
Non-English names of institutions.
Government agencies and other national and international bodies as publisher.
Examples for Publisher
12. dissertation or thesis publisher with subsidiary part included, 13. dissertation or thesis issued by a governmental body, 14. dissertation or thesis issued by other than a university, date of publication for a dissertation or thesis (required), general rules for date of publication.
- Always give the year of publication, i.e., the year the degree was granted
- Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. For example: MM to 2000.
- Include the month of publication, if desired, after the year, such as 2004 May
- Use English names for months and abbreviate them to the first three letters, such as Jan
- End date information with a period
Specific Rules for Date of Publication
- Non-English names for months
- Seasons instead of months
- Options for date of publication
Non-English names for months.
Seasons instead of months.
Options for date of publication.
Examples for Date of Publication
15. dissertation or thesis date with month included, 16. dissertation or thesis date with season, pagination for a dissertation or thesis (optional), general rules for pagination.
- Provide the total number of pages on which the text of the dissertation or thesis appears
- Do not count pages for such items as introductory material, appendixes, and indexes unless they are included in the pagination of the text
- Follow the page total with a space and the letter p
- For dissertations or theses published in more than one physical volume, cite the total number of volumes instead of the number of pages, such as 2 vol
- End pagination information with a period
Specific Rules for Pagination
- No numbers appear on the pages
No numbers appear on the pages.
Examples for Pagination
17. dissertation or thesis submitted in more than one volume, physical description for a dissertation or thesis (optional), general rules for physical description.
- Give information on the physical characteristics if a dissertation or thesis is published in a microform (microfilm, microfiche, microcard, etc.), such as 3 microfiche: black & white, 2 x 4 in.
Specific Rules for Physical Description
- Language for describing physical characteristics
Language for describing physical characteristics.
Examples for Physical Description
Language for a dissertation or thesis (required), general rules for language.
- Give the language of publication if other than English
- Capitalize the language name
- Follow the language name with a period
Examples for Language
Notes for a dissertation or thesis (optional), general rules for notes.
- Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself
- Complete sentences are not required
Specific Rules for Notes
Dissertations or theses accompanied by a videocassette, CD-ROM, DVD, etc.
- Other types of material to include in notes
Other types of material to include in notes.
Examples for Notes
18. dissertation or thesis with availability statement included, 19. dissertation or thesis with location of a library or other holding institution where the dissertation/thesis may be found, 20. dissertation or thesis with note on specific type of degree, 21. dissertation or thesis with sponsorship or support note included, 22. dissertation or thesis accompanied by a cd-rom, dvd, or other medium, 23. dissertation or thesis with supplemental material on the internet.
Jones DL. The role of physical activity on the need for revision total knee arthroplasty in individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee [dissertation]. [Pittsburgh (PA)]: University of Pittsburgh; 2001. 436 p.
Liu-Ambrose TY. Studies of fall risk and bone morphology in older women with low bone mass [dissertation]. [Vancouver (BC)]: University of British Columbia; 2004. 290 p.
Zhao C. Development of nanoelectrospray and application to protein research and drug discovery [dissertation]. Buffalo (NY): State University of New York at Buffalo; 2005. 276 p.
Roguskie JM. The role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1244 pilin glycan in virulence [master's thesis]. [Pittsburgh (PA)]: Duquesne University; 2005. 111 p.
Weisbaum LD. Human sexuality of children and adolescents: a comprehensive training guide for social work professionals [master's thesis]. Long Beach (CA): California State University, Long Beach; 2005. 101 p.
Baldwin, Karen Brandt. An exploratory method of data retrieval from the electronic medical record for the evaluation of quality in healthcare [dissertation]. Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago, Health Sciences Center; 2004. 116 p.
Kolotylo C, MacDonald JM. Exploration of the relationships among personal and illness-related factors, migraine headache pain, the chronic pain experience, coping, depressive symptomatology, disability, and quality of life in women with migraine headache [dissertation]. [Milwaukee (WI)]: University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee; 1999. 295 p.
Korir J, Karr-Kidwell PJ. The relationship between self esteem and effective educational leadership: a literary review, recommendations, and interviews [master's thesis]. [Denton (TX)]: Texas Woman's University; 2000 May. 98 p.
Daugherty RH 3rd. Social work education and public assistance workers in Kentucky 1936-2001 [dissertation]. Louisville (KY): University of Louisville; 2004. 203 p.
Boyer CL. Do rural Medicare patients have different post-acute service patterns than their non-rural counterparts? [dissertation]. [Cleveland (OH)]: Case Western Reserve University; 2004. 131 p.
Martin EJ. 1,1-dichloroethylene -induced mitochondrial aberrations precede apoptotic and necrotic cell death in murine liver and lung [dissertation]. Kingston (ON): Queen's University; 2004. 149 p.
Greek letters may be written out if special fonts are not available
Goel R. Characterization of α-thrombin -induced rapid phase of PI 3-kinase [dissertation]. St. Louis (MO): Saint Louis University; 2004. 141 p.
Goel R. Characterization of alpha-thrombin -induced rapid phase of PI 3-kinase [dissertation]. St. Louis (MO): Saint Louis University; 2004. 141 p.
Superscripts/subscripts may be enclosed within parentheses if fonts are not available
Uddemarri S. Aging affects stretch-induced p70 S6k and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in fast- and slow-twitch muscle [master's thesis]. [Huntington (WV)]: Marshall University; 2005. 151 p.
Uddemarri S. Aging affects stretch-induced p70(S6k) and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in fast- and slow-twitch muscle [master's thesis]. [Huntington (WV)]: Marshall University; 2005. 151 p.
Montes Alvarez MJ. Parametros predictivos de complicaciones macroangiopaticos en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 que precisa insulinoterapia [dissertation]. Cadiz (Spain): Universidad de Cadiz; 2005. 180 p. Spanish.
Cisse A. Connaissances et comportements sexuels des jeunes de 15-29 ans sur les M.T.S. et le SIDA a Bamako [master's thesis]. [Quebec (QC)]: Laval University; 1993. 69 p. French.
Montes Alvarez MJ. Parametros predictivos de complicaciones macroangiopaticos en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 que precisa insulinoterapia [Predictive parameters for macroangiopathy complications in Type 2 diabetes which requires insulin] [dissertation]. Cadiz (Spain): Universidad de Cadiz; 2005. 180 p. Spanish.
Cisse A. Connaissances et comportements sexuels des jeunes de 15-29 ans sur les M.T.S. et le SIDA a Bamako [Sexual knowledge and behavior of young people 15-29 years of age concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and AIDS in Bamako] [master's thesis]. [Quebec (QC)]: Laval University; 1993. 69 p. French.
Craft LL. Exercise and clinical depression: examining psychological mechanisms [dissertation on microfiche]. [East Lansing (MI)]: Michigan State University; 2002. 116 p. 2 microfiche: black & white, negative, 4 x 6 in.
Peppas D. Der Anatom Eduard Jacobshagen (1886-1967) [The anatomist Eduard Jacobshagen (1886-1967)] [dissertation on microfiche]. [Marburg (Germany)]: Marburg University; 2001. 133 p. 2 microfiche: black & white, negative, 4 x 6 in. German.
Brill S. Hygieia: health and medicine in Plato's Republic [dissertation on microfilm]. [College Park (PA)]: Pennsylvania State University; 2004. 311 p. 1 reel: black & white, negative, 35 mm.
Johnston PG. A survey of nursing school libraries in the city of Philadelphia [master's thesis on microcard]. Philadelphia: Drexel Institute of Technology; 1955. 55 p. 3 microcards: 3 x 5 in.
Campbell E. Childbearing and choice: views of young Chinese professional women [dissertation]. [Claremont (CA)]: Claremont Graduate University; 1996. 147 p.
Metry KJ. NAT polymorphism in breast cancer risk [master's thesis]. Louisville (KY): University of Louisville, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology; 2004. 71 p.
Miller LE, Sperry BM. Central American women's experience of prenatal care [master's thesis]. [Boston (MA)]: Massachusetts General Hospital, Institute of Health Professions; 1992. 66 p.
Schauppner CE. Some ramifications of compensation limitations in personal services contracts for direct health care providers [master's thesis]. Monterey (CA): Naval Postgraduate School (US); 1990. 74 p.
Kazerouni NN. Family history of breast cancer as a determinant of the risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancers: a nationwide cohort study [dissertation]. [Bethesda (MD)]: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (US), Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics; 2002.
Kan H. Does the Medicare principal inpatient diagnostic cost group model adequately adjust for selection bias? [dissertation]. Santa Monica (CA): RAND Graduate School; 2002. 101 p.
Lemov RM. The laboratory imagination: experiments in human and social engineering. [Berkeley (CA)]: University of California, Berkeley; 2000 Spring. 2 vol.
Hanson CA. Embodying erudition: English art, medicine, & antiquarianism in the age of empiricism [dissertation]. [Chicago]: University of Chicago, Department of Art History; 2003. 2 vol.
Boyer CL. Do rural Medicare patients have different post-acute service patterns than their non-rural counterparts? [dissertation]. [Cleveland (OH)]: Case Western Reserve University; 2004. 131 p. Available from: UMI, Ann Arbor, MI; AAT 3145345.
Overlock JA. The relationship between balance and fundamental motor skills in children five to nine years of age [master's thesis]. [Corvallis (OR)]: Oregon State University; 2004. 111 p. Available from: Kinesiology Publications, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR; PSY 2317.
Akerstrom B. Adults with autism and mental retardation: a life-span perspective [dissertation]. Uppsala (Sweden): S. Academiae Upsaliensis; 2001. 156 p. Located at: National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD; W1 AC955 v.20 2001.
Ari AB. Eye injuries on the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan: public health implications [master's thesis]. Anchorage (AK): University of Alaska; 2005. 48 p. Master of Public Health.
Verhovsek EL. Examining stages in curriculum change: implementation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) [dissertation]. [Morgantown (WV)]: West Virginia University; 2003. 197 p. Doctor of Education.
Kanika K. Labor market implications of employer provided health insurance [dissertation]. Evanston (IL): Northwestern University; 1997. 204 p. Sponsored by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.
Tuitele BA. The current practices in injury prevention and safety helmet use in an Air Force medical center [master's thesis]. [Bethesda (MD)]: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; 2000. 59 p. Supported by the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Protocol No. T061AK-01.
Lukasik-Sedmak DM. How to develop an interactive MRI brain cross-sectional anatomy CD-ROM and Web-based educational materials to meet the needs of medical imaging specialists working in magnetic resonance imaging [dissertation]. [Milwaukee (WI)]: Cardinal Stritch University; 2002. 113 p. Accompanied by: 1 CD-ROM.
Morgan JC. VISIO/KINESIS: a mixed media installation and performance [master's thesis]. Dominguez Hills (CA): California State University, Dominguez Hills; 2001. 47 p. Accompanied by: 1 videocassette.
Wyatt TH. Pilot testing Okay with Asthma (TM) : a digital story for psychosocial asthma management [dissertation]. [Charlottesville (VA)]: University of Virginia; 2003. 109 p. Web site for the program available at: http://okay-with-asthma.org/ .
- B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Parts of Dissertations and Theses
The general format for a reference to a part of a dissertation, including punctuation:
The general format for a reference to a part of a master's thesis, including punctuation:
- Examples of Citations to Parts of Dissertations and Theses
Rather than citing a dissertation or thesis as a whole, separately identified portions of them may be cited. Chapters, sections, tables, charts, graphs, photographs, appendixes, and the like are considered parts of dissertations/theses when they are written or compiled by the authors of the dissertation or thesis. In general, most modern texts have standardized to three types of parts: figures, tables, and appendixes. However, many other names may be found for parts.
Because a reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication, begin a reference to a part of a dissertation or thesis with the citation to the dissertation or thesis itself, then follow it with the information about the part. See Chapter 2C Parts of Books for further details on citing parts.
Medical texts frequently contain charts, figures, and other illustrative material that has been reproduced with permission from other sources. Do not cite these as parts using the instructions presented here. Consult the original publication and cite the particular item from there.
Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Dissertations and Theses .
Continue to Examples of Citations to Parts of Dissertations and Theses .
- Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Dissertations and Theses
Dissertation or Thesis (R) | Name and Number/Letter (R) | Title (R) | Location (Pagination) (R)
Dissertation or Thesis (required)
- Cite the dissertation or thesis according to Chapter 5A Entire Dissertations or Theses
Name and Number/Letter of the Part for a Dissertation or Thesis (required)
General rules for name and number/letter.
- Enter the name of the part, such as Chapter, Table, Figure, or Appendix
- Do not abbreviate names. For example, convert Fig. to Figure.
- Follow the name with any accompanying number or letter, such as Chapter 12, Table 2, Figure 3.1, or Appendix A
- Use arabic numbers only. For example: convert VI or Six to 6.
- End name and number/letter information with a comma and a space
Specific Rules for Name and Number/Letter
- Non-English names for parts
- No letter or number follows the name
- No name appears
Non-English names for parts.
No letter or number follows the name.
No name appears.
Examples for Name and Number/Letter
1. chapter in a dissertation or thesis, 2. table in a dissertation or thesis, 3. figure in a dissertation or thesis, 4. appendix in a dissertation or thesis, 5. other part of a dissertation or thesis, 6. other part of a dissertation or thesis, without name and number/letter, 7. part of a dissertation or thesis in a language other than english, title of the part for a dissertation or thesis (required).
- Enter the title of the part as it appears in the dissertation or thesis
- End title information with a semicolon and a space
- Non-English titles for parts
- Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or other special character
- No title appears
Non-English titles for parts.
Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or other special character.
No title appears.
Location (Pagination) of the Part for a Dissertation or Thesis (required)
General rules for location (pagination).
- Begin location with "p." followed by a space
- Enter the page number or numbers on which the part appears. Examples: p. 438 and p. 663-4.
- Do not repeat page numbers unless they are followed by a letter. For example: 126-127 becomes p. 126-7, but p. 126A-127A is correct.
- Include a letter (often S for Supplement or A for Appendix) when it precedes the page number. For example: p. S10-8.
- End page information with a period
Specific Rules for Location (Pagination)
- Roman numerals for page numbers
- Part paginated separately
- No page numbers appear on the pages of the part
Roman numerals for page numbers.
Part paginated separately.
No page numbers appear on the pages of the part.
Examples for Location (Pagination)
Lemov RM. The laboratory imagination: experiments in human and social engineering [dissertation]. [Berkeley (CA)]: University of California, Berkeley; 2000 Spring. Chapter 2, Running the maze: animal and human experiments; p. 67-130.
Christensen PM. Infant nutrition and child health on Tarawa, Kiribati: a nutritional anthropological approach [master's thesis]. Sydney (Australia): University of New South Wales, Centre for South Pacific Studies; 1995. Chapter 3.1, Breastfeeding practices on Tarawa; p. 46-53.
Hayenga ES. Dieting through the decades: a comparative study of weight reduction in America as depicted in popular literature and books from 1940 to the late 1980's [dissertation]. [Minneapolis (MN)]: University of Minnesota; 1988. Chapter 3C, Science and health; p. 257-70.
Cornwell D. A cost benefit of telemedicine: an assessment of aero-medical evacuation patients throughout the Pacific Basin [master's thesis]. [Waco (TX)]: Baylor University, US Army-Baylor University Graduate Program; 1995. Table 4, Total air-evacs vs total potential telemedicine patients; p. 45.
Munoz JA. What is the quality of care in a developing country? Measuring physician practice and health outcomes [dissertation]. Santa Monica (CA): Rand Graduate School; 2002. Table 4.8, Mean objective measures of health for healthcare facility users; p. 4-33.
Bicks C. Lurking in the gossip's bowl: genealogy, gynecology, and the politics of midwifery in Shakespeare's England [dissertation]. [Stanford (CA)]: Stanford University, Department of English; 1997 Jun. Figure 9, Syringe for emergency in utero baptism; p.194.
Roberts PR. Snakes and ladders: the pursuit of a safety culture in New Zealand public hospitals [master's thesis]. [Wellington (New Zealand)]: Victoria University of Wellington, Institute of Policy Studies and Health Services Research Centre; 2002. Figure 2.1, Schema showing relationship of paradigms to human performance and links to and through culture; p. 13.
Deutsch B. Lifestyle and contaminants in Greenland 1994-1996: evaluation of the AMAP, Human Health Subprogram [master's thesis]. Aarhus (Denmark): University of Aarhus; 1999. Figure 2, Histograms of birth weight and gestational age; p. 20.
Grant MM. Under the microscope: "race," gender, and medical laboratory science in Canada [dissertation]. [Toronto (ON)]: University of Toronto, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education; 2004. Appendix, Survey on the career patterns and professional experiences of Canadian medical laboratory technologists; p. 285-92.
Kneale C. Health claims: an exploration of the current debate in Australia [master's thesis]. Sydney (Australia): University of Sydney, Nutrition Research Foundation; 1996 Oct. Appendix 4, Health claims questionnaire; p. 49.
Munoz JA. What is the quality of care in a developing country? Measuring physician practice and health outcomes [dissertation]. Santa Monica (CA): Rand Graduate School; 2002. Appendix 1, Background on problems of less developed countries; p. A1-8.
Powers JC. Herman Boerhaave and the pedagogical reform of eighteenth-century chemistry [dissertation]. [Bloomington (IN)]: Indiana University, Department of History and Philosophy of Science; 2001 May. Epilogue, Boerhaave's legacy; p. 296-301.
Mackowski MP. Human factors: aerospace medicine and the origins of manned space flight in the United States [dissertation]. [Tempe (AZ)]: Arizona State University; 2002 May. Part 2, Space medicine; p. 188-377.
Kairo JG. A review of the ecology and restoration of mangroves systems [dissertation]. Brussels (Belgium): Vrije University; 2001. Ecology and restoration of mangrove systems in Kenya; p. 2-15.
Kneale C. Health claims: an exploration of the current debate in Australia [master's thesis]. Sydney (Australia): University of Sydney, Nutrition Research Foundation; 1996 Oct. Summary recommendations; p. 44.
Stewart EP. Who shall decide when doctors disagree? Hoaxes and American men of science in the nineteenth century [dissertation]. Washington: American University, Faculty of the College of Arts and Sciences; 2003. "Doctor" Dionysius Lardner; p. 132-48.
Mackowski MP. Human factors: aerospace medicine and the origins of manned space flight in the United States [dissertation]. [Tempe (AZ)]: Arizona State University; 2002 May. [Map], Germany 1946: showing Allied zones of occupation; p. 188.
Tamayo Lorenzo PA. Descentralizacion y financiacion de la asistencia sanitaria publica en Espana: un estudio desde la perspectiva de la equidad [dissertation]. Madrid: Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia; 1999. Tabla 5.11, Resumen de los resultados de los estudios evaluados, en terminos de necesidad para cada comunidad autonoma; p. 238. Spanish.
Tamayo Lorenzo PA. Descentralizacion y financiacion de la asistencia sanitaria publica en Espana: un estudio desde la perspectiva de la equidad [Decentralization and financing of public health assistance in Spain: a study from the perspective of equality] [dissertation]. Madrid: Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia; 1999. Tabla 5.11, Resumen de los resultados de los estudios evaluados, en terminos de necesidad para cada comunidad autonoma [Table 5.11, Summary of the results of the evaluated studies, in terms of need for each independent community]; p. 238. Spanish.
- Cite this Page Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-. Chapter 5, Dissertations and Theses. 2007 Oct 10 [Updated 2015 Aug 11].
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA
How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in MLA
Citing a thesis or dissertation.
Thesis – A document submitted to earn a degree at a university.
Dissertation – A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university.
The formatting for thesis and dissertation citations is largely the same. However, you should be sure to include the type of degree after the publication year as supplemental information. For instance, state if the source you are citing is an undergraduate thesis or a PhD dissertation.
MLA Thesis and Dissertation Citation Structure (print)
Last, First M. Title of the Thesis/Dissertation. Year Published. Name of University, type of degree.
MLA Thesis and Dissertation Citation Structure (online)
Last, First M. Title of the Thesis/Dissertation. Year Published. Name of University, type of degree. Website Name , URL.
Wilson, Peggy Lynn. Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of English Language in Secondary Public Schools in Parker County . 2011. University of Maryland, PhD dissertation.
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Citing a published thesis, citing an unpublished thesis, citing a thesis in online database or repository.
- CMS 14.224: Theses and dissertations
Titles of unpublished works appear in "quotation marks"—not in italics . This treatment extends to theses and dissertations, which are otherwise cited like books.
The kind of thesis, the academic institution, and the date follow the title. Like the publication data of a book, these are enclosed in parentheses in a note but not in a bibliography.
If the document was consulted online, include a URL or, for documents retrieved from a commercial database, give the name of the database and, in parentheses, any identification number supplied or recommended by the database.
For dissertations issued on microfilm, see 14.120 . For published abstracts of dissertations, see 14.197 .
First-name Last-name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle," (Publisher, Year).
Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty,” PhD diss., (University of Chicago, 2008).
Last-name, "Title of Thesis."
Choi. “Contesting Imaginaires ."
Last-name, First-name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Year.
Choi, Mihwa. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss. University of Chicago, 2008.
Last-name, First-name. Year. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle."
Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss. University of Chicago.
Note #. First-name Last-name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle," Unpublished thesis type, University. Year.
Barry C. Hosking, "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes in Sheep with the Amino-acetonitrile Derivative, Monepantel with a Particular Focus on Australia and New Zealand," PhD diss., (Ghent University, 2010).
Note #. Last-name,"Title of Thesis."
Barry C. Hosking, "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes."
Last-name, First-name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Unpublished thesis type. University. Year.
Hosking, Barry C. "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes in Sheep with the Amino-acetonitrile Derivative, Monepantel with a Particular Focus on Australia and New Zealand." PhD diss., Ghent University, 2010.
Last-name, First-name. Year. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Unpublished thesis type. University.
Hosking, Barry C. 2010. "The Control of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes in Sheep with the Amino-acetonitrile Derivative, Monepantel with a Particular Focus on Australia and New Zealand." PhD diss., Ghent University.
Note #. First-name Last-name, "Title of Thesis: Subtitle," Database Name (Identifier if given), Year, Internet address.
12. Meredith Stewart, "An Investigation into Aspects of the Replication of Jembrana Disease Virus, " Australasian Digital Theses Program (WMU2005.1222), 2005, http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20051222.104106.
Note #. Last-name, "Title of Thesis."
21. Stewart, "An Investigation into Aspects."
Last-name, First-name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Database Name (Identifier if given), Year. Internet address.
Stewart, Meredith. "An Investigation into Aspects of the Replication of Jembrana Disease Virus ." Australasian Digital Theses Program (WMU2005.1222), 2005. http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20051222.104106.
Last-name, First-name. Year. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Database Name (Identifier if given), Internet address.
Stewart, Meredith. 2005. "An Investigation into Aspects of the Replication of Jembrana Disease Virus ." Australasian Digital Theses Program (WMU2005.1222), http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20051222.104106.
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How do I cite a dissertation in MLA style?
Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook . For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook .
A dissertation is a unique type of source. It is a finished, stand-alone work written under the auspices of an institution. In a change from the previous edition of the MLA Handbook , we do not distinguish between published and unpublished dissertations. To cite a dissertation, include in the entry the author, title, and date of publication as core elements. As an optional element, list the institution granting the degree and a description of the work.
Njus, Jesse. Performing the Passion: A Study on the Nature of Medieval Acting . 2010. Northwestern U, PhD dissertation.
If you accessed the dissertation through an online repository, include this fact as the title of the second container:
Njus, Jesse. Performing the Passion: A Study on the Nature of Medieval Acting . 2010. Northwestern U, PhD dissertation. ProQuest , search.proquest.com/docview/305212264?accountid=7432.
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To be made up of:
- Year of submission (in round brackets).
- Title of thesis (in italics).
- Degree statement.
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- Available at: URL.
- (Accessed: date).
Smith, E. R. C. (2019). Conduits of invasive species into the UK: the angling route? Ph. D. Thesis. University College London. Available at: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10072700 (Accessed: 20 May 2021).
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Quoting and integrating sources into your paper
In any study of a subject, people engage in a “conversation” of sorts, where they read or listen to others’ ideas, consider them with their own viewpoints, and then develop their own stance. It is important in this “conversation” to acknowledge when we use someone else’s words or ideas. If we didn’t come up with it ourselves, we need to tell our readers who did come up with it.
It is important to draw on the work of experts to formulate your own ideas. Quoting and paraphrasing the work of authors engaged in writing about your topic adds expert support to your argument and thesis statement. You are contributing to a scholarly conversation with scholars who are experts on your topic with your writing. This is the difference between a scholarly research paper and any other paper: you must include your own voice in your analysis and ideas alongside scholars or experts.
All your sources must relate to your thesis, or central argument, whether they are in agreement or not. It is a good idea to address all sides of the argument or thesis to make your stance stronger. There are two main ways to incorporate sources into your research paper.
Quoting is when you use the exact words from a source. You will need to put quotation marks around the words that are not your own and cite where they came from. For example:
“It wasn’t really a tune, but from the first note the beast’s eyes began to droop . . . Slowly the dog’s growls ceased – it tottered on its paws and fell to its knees, then it slumped to the ground, fast asleep” (Rowling 275).
Follow these guidelines when opting to cite a passage:
- Choose to quote passages that seem especially well phrased or are unique to the author or subject matter.
- Be selective in your quotations. Avoid over-quoting. You also don’t have to quote an entire passage. Use ellipses (. . .) to indicate omitted words. Check with your professor for their ideal length of quotations – some professors place word limits on how much of a sentence or paragraph you should quote.
- Before or after quoting a passage, include an explanation in which you interpret the significance of the quote for the reader. Avoid “hanging quotes” that have no context or introduction. It is better to err on the side of your reader not understanding your point until you spell it out for them, rather than assume readers will follow your thought process exactly.
- If you are having trouble paraphrasing (putting something into your own words), that may be a sign that you should quote it.
- Shorter quotes are generally incorporated into the flow of a sentence while longer quotes may be set off in “blocks.” Check your citation handbook for quoting guidelines.
Paraphrasing is when you state the ideas from another source in your own words . Even when you use your own words, if the ideas or facts came from another source, you need to cite where they came from. Quotation marks are not used. For example:
With the simple music of the flute, Harry lulled the dog to sleep (Rowling 275).
Follow these guidelines when opting to paraphrase a passage:
- Don’t take a passage and change a word here or there. You must write out the idea in your own words. Simply changing a few words from the original source or restating the information exactly using different words is considered plagiarism .
- Read the passage, reflect upon it, and restate it in a way that is meaningful to you within the context of your paper . You are using this to back up a point you are making, so your paraphrased content should be tailored to that point specifically.
- After reading the passage that you want to paraphrase, look away from it, and imagine explaining the main point to another person.
- After paraphrasing the passage, go back and compare it to the original. Are there any phrases that have come directly from the original source? If so, you should rephrase it or put the original in quotation marks. If you cannot state an idea in your own words, you should use the direct quotation.
A summary is similar to paraphrasing, but used in cases where you are trying to give an overview of many ideas. As in paraphrasing, quotation marks are not used, but a citation is still necessary. For example:
Through a combination of skill and their invisibility cloak, Harry, Ron, and Hermione slipped through Hogwarts to the dog’s room and down through the trapdoor within (Rowling 271-77).
When integrating a source into your paper, remember to use these three important components:
- Introductory phrase to the source material : mention the author, date, or any other relevant information when introducing a quote or paraphrase.
- Source material : a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary with proper citation.
- Analysis of source material : your response, interpretations, or arguments regarding the source material should introduce or follow it. When incorporating source material into your paper, relate your source and analysis back to your original thesis.
Ideally, papers will contain a good balance of direct quotations, paraphrasing and your own thoughts. Too much reliance on quotations and paraphrasing can make it seem like you are only using the work of others and have no original thoughts on the topic.
Always properly cite an author’s original idea, whether you have directly quoted or paraphrased it. If you have questions about how to cite properly in your chosen citation style, browse these citation guides . You can also review our guide to understanding plagiarism .
University Writing Center
The University of Nevada, Reno Writing Center provides helpful guidance on quoting and paraphrasing and explains how to make sure your paraphrasing does not veer into plagiarism. If you have any questions about quoting or paraphrasing, or need help at any point in the writing process, schedule an appointment with the Writing Center.
Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. A.A. Levine Books, 1998.
- How to cite a thesis in MLA and APA formatting styles correctly and easily
How to cite a thesis in MLA formatting style
When you get to the point of writing a thesis and then defending it, you are at the end of your important educational journey stage. How to cite a thesis in MLA? This paper should showcase your skills and ability to search for relevant data in a specific discipline and present research results in your original content. Feel free to use this guide as well as our help with writing a thesis if you need assistance in citing your thesis in MLA style (Modern Language Association).
A thesis is a final result of your independent doctoral work. You need to write the best one to earn a master’s degree. Whenever you include information in your English paper, state how and where you retrieved it in the right order and based on university rules.
The importance of citing sources
Your bibliography or reference list should contain all the online directories, magazines, studies and books that you use to design and write your thesis. Ensure that you have a background research plan. It will help you find a database of interesting sources. The more details you note down about each source (its author, published date or year, URL, and others), the simpler it will be to find.
When you are writing your thesis, use sources to remind you of background information or different facts that can help you strengthen your research. Every time you use data from other places, you need to cite them. You need to know how to cite a thesis in MLA style because if you fail to do that in the right format or style, you risk facing plagiarism problems and low grades.
Popular referencing formats
There are certain academic standards that you should use to document all sources of information in your thesis. What are referencing formats? Most professors ask their students to write a thesis in MLA and APA referencing styles, but there are also Chicago, Turabian, and other alternatives.
The number of sources may vary, but you should provide readers with the same basic information about each one (dates, titles, and authors). MLA style requirements call a page with references as Works Cited. Please contact your tutors to determine the right set of rules to cite your thesis correctly.
Key information to cite in your thesis
Make a list to keep track of different magazines, books, and sites that you visit while following your thesis research plan. It will become a bibliography later. Write down key information for every source you use:
- Publication date;
- Author names;
- Publication titles;
- Publishing companies;
- Publication places;
- Page numbers;
- Editor names if available;
- Page titles if available;
- Volume numbers if needed;
- Organizations or companies posting web pages;
- The date you visited a web page.
Where to find bibliographic information?
You can find bibliographic data for different types of sources that you use in your thesis writing in many different places. That’s why it’s necessary to do some detective work to get the necessary details for to cite them all and references in your paper correctly. What are the best places to check? Try searching in:
- Article headings;
- Title pages of dictionaries, books, or encyclopedias;
- Contents pages of magazines or journals;
- Second, front, or editorial pages of newspapers;
- Contact or About pages of websites;
- Footers or headers of web pages.
What to do next?
When it’s time to turn your notes into a thesis bibliography, type all the sources into a special list and use formatting examples to ensure that you cite each of them correctly. List them all in the right alphabetical order using the last names of authors and follow the necessary thesis guidelines based on the MLA style.
What if sources have more than one author? Alphabetize them using the first one. If authors are unknown, alphabetize such sources of information based on their title to cite them properly in your thesis and earn the grade you deserve.
Why is it important?
You should cite your thesis in MLA style to let readers know that the facts and details you use have their authors or sources. The credibility and strength of your thesis paper depend on their validity, not only on your ability to represent sources of information clearly and without plagiarizing. If you don’t do that, academic consequences will be severe.
If you still have problems or difficulties with writing references in MLA style, get our professional help online to benefit from their effective solutions. Our qualified and experienced writers are willing to give their assistance whenever you need it and guarantee the best final result. Grab their helping hand and enjoy our service benefits!
Dissertations and Master's Theses
Master's thesis or dissertation can be used by others as sources. Following the 8th edition of MLA style rules, there is no difference in published or unpublished papers.
Here are the main elements of a dissertation citation in MLA style (in fact, they are the same as for a book): author's name, title (written in italics), and the date of publishing. In the end, you should write the type of document (e.g. "Ph.D. dissertation"). Include the institution before the type (it's not a necessary step). If you have accessed this manuscript online, please make sure you have placed it after all other elements as a second container.
Margareth, Joan Walter. Worldwide Institutional Agency: Strategic Reading in the NTSC Campaign. 2015. Whinston University. Ph.D. dissertation.
Samuel, George. Friendship, Communication, and Revised Critical Views: Worldwide Partnership. 2009. Saint Louis University,
Ross, Mary. The Impact of Brands on the Value of Received Capital: Evidence from Worldwide Companies. 1999. Ph.D. dissertation. ProGuide Theses and Dissertations.
Example and Explanations
Below, you can view an example and explanations of the cited work in MLA style:
Lois, Fridrich. How Stress Management Helps to Increase the Effectivity of Work. MS Thesis, The College of St. Patrick, 2018.
Autor: Lois, Fridrich.
Write the last name at the start and add the first and middle names.
Title and subtitle: How Stress Management Helps to Increase the Effectivity of Work.
Separate the title and subtitle by a colon. The proper words should be capitalized. Italicize the title and end it with a period.
Publishing Status: MA Thesis,
Place a comma after the status. If it's a dissertation or a project, please use the words "MA project" or "dissertation".
Name of Institution of the Granted Degree: The College of St. Patrick,
Add the name of the college and place a comma in the end.
Year of Publication: 2018.
Place the year and end your citation with a period. Don't miss our guide on Chicago dissertation citation and research denfense to get more useful details.
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All you need to know about citations
How to cite a master's thesis in MLA
To cite a master's thesis in a reference entry in MLA style 9th edition include the following elements:
- Author(s) name: Give the last name and name as presented in the source (e. g. Watson, John). For two authors, reverse only the first name, followed by ‘and’ and the second name in normal order (e. g. Watson, John, and John Watson). For three or more authors, list the first name followed by et al. (e. g. Watson, John, et al.)
- Thesis title: Titles are italicized when independent. If part of a larger source add quotation marks and do not italize.
- Year of publication: Give the year of publication as presented in the source.
- University: Give the name of the institution.
- Degree: Type of degree.
Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a master's thesis in MLA style 9th edition:
Author(s) name . Thesis title . Year of publication . University , Degree .
Take a look at our works cited examples that demonstrate the MLA style guidelines in action:
A psychology master's thesis with one author
Bauger, Lars . Personality, Passion, Self-esteem and Psychological Well-being among Junior Elite Athletes in Norway . 2011 . U of Tromsø , Master's Thesis .
A master's thesis with one author
Aube, Kyle Eric . A Comparison of Water Main Failure Prediction Models in San Luis Obispo, CA . 2019 . Cal Poly , Master's Thesis .
This citation style guide is based on the MLA Handbook (9 th edition).
More useful guides
- MLA 8th ed. Style Guide: Dissertations, Theses
- MLA, 8th Edition: Master's Thesis or Project
- How do I cite a dissertation in MLA style?
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