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Capstone Project: Definition, Types, Structure, and Examples
by Antony W
September 5, 2021
If you're reading this, chances are that you're in your final year of school and the words "capstone project" have come up somewhere in your first or second semester.
You're probably looking for a quick score on the topic - what it's about, a project template, or even a sample. If so, you're in the right place.
Before we get into it, you' need to know that you're in the hands of consummate capstone project experts.
Help for Assessment is composed of scholars at all levels of academic achievement including Masters and Ph.D., all inspired and motivated to help students like you achieve their academic goals. The expertise and experience we have spans years. Even better, this combined academic expertise is placed at your disposal. If your capstone research project is already giving you goosebumps, we will do it for you from scratch including the project proposal, research, write up, and final review before submission.
Remember, you can trust Help for Assessment to complete your capstone project successfully and earn you top grades. All you have to do is order the service here on our service page.
In the meantime, let us explore the definition of the capstone project, types of projects for students, and a sample capstone project.
What Is a Capstone Project?
A capstone project in college is a final independent project undertaken in a program of study designed to assess the skills, knowledge, and expertise acquired by the student.
As the name suggests, it is the capstone or crowning achievement of academic life and the last class taken before graduation. It gives you the final credits required to pass the course, which is why every student must take the project.
Since it is designed to assess knowledge and skills gained in a particular discipline, capstone projects vary from school to school and discipline to discipline.
Such a project might involve something as simple as research on a topic, an evaluation of a new technique or method, development of a health program, research into a historical figure or event, or even composing a skit or theatre presentation.
No matter what kind of project you choose to undertake, the result is the same. You get to showcase your understanding of the coursework material learned and display your readiness to enter the professional world to start your career. It is a rewarding experience if done right, but can mess up your final year and possibly your graduation if you manage to mess it up.
Do you know that a successful capstone project also helps to land you lucrative jobs? That’s right, capstone projects are one of the ways potential employers find out just how learned, resourceful, and talented you are. Think of it as a kind of thesis.
Capstone projects are also called culminating projects, experience, senior exhibition, or other similar names. The project is usually self-directed, and most students find it a challenge to even come up with the right capstone project topic.
Capstone Project Vs. Thesis
A capstone project and a thesis are both very similar in that they represent a final effort from the student just before graduation.
They are done in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the course being undertaken. The comprehensive approach and assessment involved are very similar, and sometimes the structure and methodology might overlap.
Both also have to be reviewed and approved by the institution and will remain in the public domain after publishing.
However, there are some important differences.
- A thesis is purely academic while a capstone project focuses more on the practical preparation of the student for the real world/job market.
- A thesis is guided by a research question resulting in the addition of new knowledge to the field, while a capstone project is guided by the practical importance of the project to the field.
- A thesis involves academic research and analysis, while a capstone project can be anything including a dance or film.
- A thesis is expected to be original and authentic, while a capstone project will have more loose requirements. You can borrow another person’s capstone project ideas , so long as you demonstrate your own advancement in the field.
- A capstone project will usually only have a brief write-up or report, while a thesis generates a detailed, extensive writeup.
- The final presentation of a thesis, called a defense, is meant to prove and show that you have mastered the subject. You are supposed to be a mini-expert in the field. A capstone project presentation comes off as a kind of exhibition where you showcase your project without having to defend it.
Types of Capstone Projects
Capstone projects vary not just in the type of project, also in the level at which they are done.
There are projects for juniors and seniors in college as well as for postgraduate students.
Here are some examples of the forms of projects depending on the academic level.
- In-depth research projects.
- Developing the concept of a product, tool, or service.
Capstone projects can be conducted either individually or in a group.
However, the key thing is to make sure that the project proposal has been reviewed and approved by the instructor/panel/institution in charge before proceeding.
Senior Capstone Project
Senior projects are so called because they are done by high school students in their senior year.
Just like other projects, they represent a culmination of the coursework with an interdisciplinary application of knowledge and skills gained so far.
The project usually takes the better part of the final academic year and will have different parts to it, depending on the type of project chosen.
It will also require a presentation where the student(s) explain and describe the project to an audience, including their classmates.
Sample Capstone Project Outline
The write up for a project consists of several parts. However, even before starting the write-up, you need to do a few things:
- Come up with an idea for your project. What will be your subject matter, topic, or premise?
- Find sources for the project and review them beforehand to ensure that they will be of help to you.
- Come up with a step-by-step methodology for your project.
Using this information, you will then write a capstone project proposal for your project. It informs your instructor or review panel exactly what you intend to present so that they can approve or reject it.
Once approved, you can go on to the next stage. The final write-up has the following parts.
- A title page.
- Project outline.
- A description/abstract.
- Rationale/relevance/reason for doing the project.
- Objectives of the project.
- Research and analysis.
- Evaluation of results and findings.
- Conclusion and future work/suggestions.
- Bibliography/works cited/reference list.
Note that the project is carried out in stages. Once approved, you will need to be submitting weekly or monthly status reports to your supervisor. After the project report is submitted, you will also have to make a presentation about the whole project.
This brief outline is only meant to be a rough guide. We have a much more detailed article detailing how you can do your capstone project, including a project template.
Capstone Project Examples
Help for Assessment has extensive experience when it comes to capstone projects of all kinds.
Whether it’s a high school project, a college capstone, or a senior capstone project, you can trust us to carry it out successfully for you.
As proof, you can check out various capstone project samples here . (hyperlink to be inserted.)
Get Help With Your Capstone Project
Capstone projects in every level of school are a make or break it deal. Given that they complete the graduation credits required, it makes sense to leave this important part of your coursework to experts.
We are proud to offer you a guide on how to write a capstone project here . If you need help, you can take advantage of our capstone project writing service at affordable, student-friendly rates with amazing discounts.
Check it out here and make your order to experience excellence, peace of mind, and success thanks to our stellar services.
About the author
Antony W is a professional writer and coach at Help for Assessment. He spends countless hours every day researching and writing great content filled with expert advice on how to write engaging essays, research papers, and assignments.
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Capstone Presentation Example Templates
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After reading this article, you will be able to create a successful capstone presentation. In this article, you will access the top 10 Capstone presentation example templates , explore a specific topic, and present your findings in an organized and effective manner.
Capstone presentations are complicated to create, but they deliver a return that can be invaluable. Here are examples of completed capstone presentation examples that include a sample assignment. In case you're wondering how to make your Capstone Presentation
1. Blue Technology Presentation Template
The blue technology marketing case is inspired by the careers of famous alternative media figures and their demands for underrepresented voices and outsider perspectives. Getting into an outsider's mind can be difficult but more rewarding when expressed through controversial and insightful topics.
2. Fresh Academic Presentation Template
The Capstone program presents one of the best ways to resume your education with a professional work resume. This presentation template is designed to give students a better understanding of the real world. As a student, you must take three courses, each taking four months to complete.
3. General Students Course Report Presentation
You can also share your capstone presentation with your professor and review what others have used. Finally, use this start and finish structure to format teaching information or instructions without repeating the same information. In the template, you can also use this structure for different purposes.
4. Green Course Report Presentation Template
Present your information visually. This involves not only knowing how to talk but also knowing how to present your topic in an engaging way. It's not enough to talk about the issue at hand--you need to use graphic tools such as dashboards and infographics to develop a visual theme that will intrigue people.
5. Blue Class Project Report Presentation Template
These templates are professionally designed to be used for capstone projects. They also give you some formats and ideas on how to make your capstone report. The purpose of these templates is to provide ideas for design and ideas for application.
6. Chalkboard Hand-Painted Work Report Presentation Template
Our team of marketing professionals pulled together some templates that can help you roll out that excellent product review! With these presentation templates, you can present your findings and generate information on how to market your product more effectively.
7. Green and Yellow Course Report Presentation
So, now you are the presenter, it's time to start packing up the vital information and laying out your presentation! Try not to forget any of your materials! Label each sheet accordingly, write your name on the front of each sheet, and make yourself so presentable for ages! The WPS in this together spread the word and save the future world of presentations!
8. Fresh Plant Education Presentation
A Capstone presentation is a complex, time-consuming task that can seem like a lot of work until you finish it. There are many possible presentation options for students to complete, but what makes this presentation a capstone is that you need to sit down and write a final report with the outcome of your project.
9. Fresh Health Presentation Template
Quality presentations should break down and organize critical points across a topic. They should be rounded, diverse, and structured. This gives the audience various ways to engage with the content, thus increasing the chances of post-event retention.
10. Corona Virus Disease Presentation Template
Designating a format appropriate for the audience, the topic, and expectations is essential. You can convey your message to the audience much more effectively with a flexible layout to adapt to different learning styles and assist in making the information accessible. After all, the first rule of presentation design is to use your audience’s needs to lead the way.
Studies show that about two-thirds of people never mention what they learned in their capstone presentation. So keep this in mind before you head into the game. Even if you are high-functioning, those extra few seconds of preparation can make all the difference.
Ensure you jot down a quick summary before your game to ensure you are covered in case anything goes wrong. Use the WPS Office capstone presentation example templates and make your project presentation attractive.
If you are posting your presentation online, don't forget to include these if you are in a rush. Download the WPS office and get free access to its features and tools.
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Designing effective capstone experiences and projects for entry-level doctoral students in occupational therapy: One program’s approaches and lessons learned
Entry-level doctoral occupational therapy programs require students to complete a capstone experience and project that supports advanced skills through an in-depth learning experience with a student-selected mentor. Strong curriculum design and mentorship are vital aspects of successful capstone experiences and projects. Through the application of these key components, students are supported, in collaboration with mentors, to achieve mutually beneficial projects allowing advancement of the profession through dissemination of capstone work.
The first entry-level occupational therapy doctoral (OTD) program in the US was accredited in 1998 ( American Occupational Therapy Association [AOTA], 2014 ), and the initial entry-level OTD education accreditation standards were set forth by the American Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE) in 2006. The doctoral section of the ACOTE standards were subsequently updated in 2011 and 2018 ( ACOTE, 2018 ; AOTA, 2011 ). In 2015, there were six accredited entry-level OTD programs in the US; currently, approximately 170 entry-level OTD programs are either fully accredited, in the application process for accreditation, or in the development phase of accreditation ( AOTA, 2019 ). A steady increase of new OTD programs emerging has resulted in major changes to the accreditation standards that outline the uniqueness of the doctoral degree compared with the master’s degree.
One pivotal and consistent component of the doctoral standards is the requirement for students to complete an advanced competency experience at the end of the curriculum. The most recent ACOTE standards, to be implemented in the summer of 2020, changed the name from the previously entitled “doctoral experiential component” to the “capstone experience and project” ( ACOTE, 2018 , p. 38). Capstone components in entry-level OTD curricula support previous literature, both inside and outside of the profession, that asserts that graduates from these programs must engage in experiences and projects that demonstrate synthesis and application of knowledge gained through the curriculum ( ACOTE, 2018 ; Campbell, 2011 ). In addition, the literature reflects the view that doctoral students should participate in professional scholarly endeavors ( ACOTE, 2018 ; Jirikowic et al., 2015 ). The OTD capstone is an essential component of entry-level OTD programs that prepare graduates to accept responsibility and professional autonomy in assuming leadership roles in the health care delivery system ( AOTA, 2013 ). According to ACOTE standards, the capstone should not be designed as a third fieldwork; rather, it should provide students with an in-depth experience in one or more of eight identified focus areas: clinical practice skills, research skills, administration, leadership, program and policy development, advocacy, education, and theory development ( ACOTE, 2018 ). Further, compared with the previous ACOTE standards, the newest standards provide more detail on the requirements for students, educational programs, and capstone mentors.
The entry-level OTD capstone is divided into a 14-week capstone experience and project (herein called capstone), which ACOTE requires to be aligned with each program’s vision, mission, and curricular design ( ACOTE, 2018 ). During the capstone, students are mentored by an individual with expertise in the student’s area of interest, and students complete an individual capstone project that demonstrates synthesis of advanced knowledge as well as application of gained knowledge ( ACOTE, 2018 ). Through capstone experiences and projects, occupational therapy (OT) students are afforded significant opportunities to enhance knowledge, skills, and motivation by engaging in emerging practice areas, primary care, interprofessional teams, and specialty practice areas ( Olsen et al., 2010 ). Capstone experiences and projects are widely used as a component of teaching in graduate health profession programs and are often associated with higher levels of student learning because of the deeper approach that allows students to gain experience integrating ideas into real-world practice ( Campbell, 2011 ). Clinical doctoral programs, many of which include capstone projects, have become the new educational standard among most health professions ( Brownell & Swaner, 2009 ; Campbell, 2011 ). An entry-level schema for clinical doctorates is a precedent that has been established by a variety of health-related professions, including OT.
Both the increasing number of entry-level OTD programs in the US and demands to recruit and support new capstone opportunities have created a need to describe the capstone curricula and educational methods of existing programs as potential models for other programs. Having gained experience and addressed key challenges in designing and implementing OTD capstone curricula, the authors are motivated to share the program’s model and lessons learned with peers in academic and nonacademic OT settings. This paper will describe the curriculum design of this institution’s capstone program as well as the processes of academic preparation, the roles and responsibilities of capstone partners, the mentor selection processes, approaches to capstone evaluation and outcomes, and lessons learned. The intent of this article is to support academic colleagues in informing the development and implementation of effective new capstone programs for OTD students
Key ACOTE Standards Related to Capstone
ACOTE is an associated advisory council of the executive board of AOTA and is the recognized accrediting agency for OT education. Academic resources outlined in the A.2.0 ACOTE (2018) standards address the roles, qualifications, general responsibilities, and release-time expectations of the capstone coordinator (CC). Capstone definitions and requirements are addressed in the eight D standards ( ACOTE, 2018 ). These capstone-specific standards address the design of the doctoral capstone and its reflection of the curriculum design, preparation for capstone, contractual agreements, duration of the capstone experience, mentor requirements, mechanism of evaluation, and doctoral project stipulations ( ACOTE, 2018 ). In the following sections, key ACOTE standards are summarized for capstone experiences and projects, demonstrating approaches to achieving these standards most effectively.
Doctoral Program Overview
This university’s OT program is 33 months in length and comprises 2 years of didactic coursework. It includes three Level I fieldwork rotations, 6 months of Level II fieldwork, and a 14-week capstone that occurs in the final semester. When the inaugural cohort of students were enrolled, six other accredited entry-level OTD programs existed nationwide, with numerous others in varying stages of accreditation. With limited numbers of similar programs as guiding models, the faculty created a capstone curriculum through alignment with the program’s vision, mission, and targeted educational outcomes for students. Curriculum development was guided by the ACOTE standards, with the faculty actively seeking advice through extensive faculty discussions and networking with other OTD programs. To date, this program has four cohorts of capstone students totaling 131 students and capstone projects. This OTD program follows the practice-scholar model as a prominent thread in the curriculum. The design of this model is to support students in developing professional skills and abilities to be lifelong learners and effective consumers of evidence, students who are evidence-informed and evidence-based practitioners and who have a drive for research design and innovation ( Crist et al., 2005 ). Regarding the curriculum and the OTD capstone, significant time and effort is spent building and following the practice-scholar model tenants in an already densely packed curriculum. This approach presents unique challenges because priority is placed on service learning where the allotment of resources is in areas outside of minimum curricular requirements, including numerous experiences in community engagement and project-based learning; thus, there is a risk of not emphasizing foundational knowledge and skills. To address these and other challenges in the capstone process, the program incorporates several distinguishing features in the following areas: capstone curriculum; role delineation for the faculty, CC, mentor, and student; dissemination; and the themes and characteristics of the mentors’ and students’ projects.
The OT students take three designated courses related to capstone: (a) Doctoral Capstone Planning, (b) Doctoral Capstone, and (c) Practice-Scholar Culmination. Jirikowic et al. (2015) and DeIuliis and Bednarski (2019) outline a similar structure for capstone development centered around four stages: idea development, planning, implementation, and dissemination. Although the first capstonerelated course (idea development and planning) begins in the fifth semester, or spring of the students’ second year, students are encouraged to develop and document ideas of interest from the start of the program. A successful strategy that students have employed for collecting ideas is creating a shared online document to store topics and capstone project ideas gleaned from interactions with guest lecturers, community partners, and faculty. This early and student-directed collection of capstone ideas from the start of the program allows students to generate ideas to cultivate by the time the capstone planning class occurs. The second and third capstone-related courses (implementation and dissemination) occur during the sixth and final semester of the program ( DeIuliis & Bednarski, 2019 ). The following section includes examples of assignments and activities that have been successful in the planning, preparation, implementation, and dissemination phases for our OTD students.
Doctoral Capstone Planning
During the initial capstone class, students engage in a 15-week capstone planning course that consists of traditional lecture, in-class and online discussions, self-study, and guest panel presentations. This course supports students in designing individualized capstone level plans, with faculty direction to guide the development and implementation of the 14-week doctoral capstone. The student’s plan will reflect the desired outcomes from the doctoral capstone, which are to acquire practice-scholar competencies reflecting the degree program’s sequence and scope of content in the curriculum design. The goals of the capstone planning course include identifying interest areas, topics, and mentors, as well as finalizing a draft of the capstone plan. Because the initial capstone plans are created a year in advance, much can change for a mentor and mentor site. Thus, capstone plans need to be fluid, working documents that allow for changes to meet the evolving needs of the students, mentors, and sites. The high value coursework included in the capstone planning class, above and beyond the ACOTE requirement of needs assessment and literature review, is described as follows:
- Students explore capstone ideas and supporting evidence in an online discussion board. The final capstone idea is derived from this initial discussion board work.
- Students create individualized marketing materials to send to potential mentors. Materials include a flyer that defines capstone, details student ideas, and clearly identifies mentor roles.
- Students are encouraged to be creative in capstone flyer design while also adhering to health care literacy standards and accessibility standards.
- Using the content from the flyer, students work in small groups to hone a capstone elevator speech for mentors.
- Students engage in peer-to-peer teaching via feedback assignments through online discussion boards. Students upload marketing materials and provide one another with constructive feedback.
- Current capstone experience students in the community return to campus to present capstone projects to the planning class. Students are required to include information regarding the journey of planning, mentor selection, collaboration process with mentors, and the challenges and successes experienced. Students who complete capstones farther from campus are asked to submit video summaries to the online learning system detailing capstones work.
- Examples of exemplar capstone projects are shared with the students to support developing capstone ideas and selecting of mentors.
An ACOTE requirement is that students must complete a literature review and needs assessment before the capstone experience. One of the fundamental challenges is that students have not yet completed longer clinical rotations and do not have the context for application to practice for a robust needs assessment. Another challenge is that students may not identify a mentor during the planning class and need to complete these two requirements while on fieldwork where the focus is on developing entrylevel practice skills. While students become proficient in literature reviews during the program, most do not have enough relevant experience to envision focus areas and application in practice. To meet these challenges, content in the capstone planning class was designed to support students in fulfilling these requirements so that they are not doing this activity while on fieldwork. Students must identify a topic of interest; a search strategy inclusive of search engines, search terms, and article yields; and a summary of topic-focused articles that can be shared with potential mentors. Students complete a needs assessment via a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis based on the literature or in collaboration with a mentor (if identified early in the planning class) ( Rizzo & Kim, 2005 ).
Another component in the class is the development of a student’s capstone plan. This consists of eight parts: (a) mentor information, (b) capstone overview relating the plan to AOTA’s Vision 2025 and to the program’s overall mission and goals, (c) focus areas identified (d) mentor name and qualification information, (e) learning objectives (based on focus area), (f) proposed learning activities, (g) proposed evidence or deliverables of the project (what is being provided to the mentor/site), and (h) the project timeline ( AOTA, 2017 ). In this capstone plan are weekly activity tracking forms, program created midterm evaluation forms (narrative), and the program created final capstone evaluation form, all of which are requirements in the D standards of ACOTE (2018) .
The students complete the capstone during the final semester of the program in one or more of the eight identified focus areas per ACOTE. Several programs elect to embed the capstone project throughout their curriculum; often, faculty serve as the mentors for the project, and students identify a mentor to implement projects during the experience portion. In contrast to students in other entry-level OTD capstone programs, the students in this program complete projects and experiences in the same semester with identified mentors in the community ( DeIuliis & Bednarski, 2019 ). This approach supports the collaboration between community-based mentors and students to ensure that sustainable and site or practice-related projects are created. During the implementation phase, students remain engaged with the faculty and peers through online discussion posts during Weeks 2, 7, and 12. These serve as check-ins on progress and completed work. Also, the program has designed its own internal evaluation form embedded in a student’s capstone plan. Key components of evaluations include progress toward learning activities, projects, remaining work, sustainability of projects, mentor-perceived value of projects, and narrative summaries from both students and mentors. Evaluations of capstone are completed at midterm (Week 7) with the CC and the final (Week 14) with the student and mentor.
Students and mentors complete a midterm evaluation at Week 7. Students provide a summary of progress toward individualized objectives and projects and summarize completed activities and plans for the remaining seven weeks. Further, mentors can provide feedback and complete an evaluation to date at this time. The capstone plan has the embedded evaluative measure that allows mentors to indicate whether projects are achieved, in progress, or discontinued; in addition, the evaluation includes the mentors’ comments on the overall practicality and sustainability of projects. This midterm evaluation is uploaded to the online learning platform for the CC to review. The students and mentors also complete a midterm phone call and/or site visit.
During Week 14, students and mentors complete the final evaluation of the capstone. Specifically, students describe progress toward proposed learning activities and evidence and project deliverables. Mentors provide feedback regarding individual learning objectives and activities and evaluate whether the objectives were achieved, if evidence of a deliverable was provided, if the project or deliverable is sustainable, if the project is valuable to the setting, and if students have identified future projects and overall mentor feedback.
Dissemination is achieved through the third capstone-related class and is driven by the practice-scholar model to allow for a demonstration of synthesis of skills learned throughout the program, wrapping up three exemplary components: capstone presentations and artifacts, practice-scholar apprentice presentations, and professional development presentations. Final evaluation of the capstone is completed by the CC during this dissemination phase and feedback is given through the designed rubrics.
Through this feature of the class, the practice-scholar model epitomizes the goal of cultivating highly respected OT practitioners who are also scholars with the ability and interest to establish knowledge translation and practice-based evidence projects, support research initiatives, and who can translate observed changes from interventions into outcome studies. A practice-scholar is not only a consumer of evidence but creates evidence in context. This class, occurring in the final semester, is a blend of online and on-campus assignments and activities. The online assignments include:
- resume writing and marketing self as a future occupational therapy practitioner, and
- professional development presentation preparation, in which students work in small groups to create a conference-style presentation with active learning components to be provided on campus to peers and community practitioners.
The final week of the semester the students are on campus to complete the following activities:
- provide an evaluation and reflection to the program related to the didactic portion of the curriculum, fieldwork rotations, and capstone experience;
- engage in several opportunities to practice and collaborate with peers, faculty, and mentors to finalize culminating presentations for a half day symposium;
- prepare for future employment: Students attend several training sessions that focus on the application process for the national certification examination and state licensure, in addition to understanding employment options and interviewing techniques;
- present during the final day to a symposium capstone presentations, professional development presentations, and practice-scholar projects to peers, faculty, university leadership, and community practitioners;
- present in a “Floor us in 4 Minutes” model, which allows the student to clearly and succulently summarize capstone work. This innovative approach to dissemination is designed to improve students’ communication skills as well as the capacity to present research, scholarship, and/or creative works effectively;
- present a 50-min small group professional development presentation composed of students with like interests. The team creates a conference-style presentation that focuses on a topic that was learned in the program and/or fieldwork. Each team is required to create a presentation that includes learning objectives, the evidence to support the material presented, and an active learning strategy for the attendees; and
- present an outcome of the research that was accomplished in the practice-scholar team. Outcomes may include a manuscript, poster presentation, or program developed.
Roles of Faculty, Capstone Coordinators, Students, and Mentors
Faculty members, other than the CC, may support the capstone experience in several ways. A student may select a faculty member to be the capstone mentor if doing so aligns with the student’s learning outcomes; however, our faculty serve as designated capstone mentors only in limited instances. One reason is that this role poses challenges to faculty if workload is not allocated to support the mentoring work. To address this issue, faculty who choose to serve as designated capstone mentors fold the mentoring time and work into scholarship or research allocated time. To date, there have been three faculty members who have served as capstone mentors and, when serving as a mentor, are required to complete all of the mentor roles and responsibilities as outlined in the program’s MOU. More frequently, when a faculty member’s area of expertise aligns with a student’s interest area, the faculty member will provide guidance on capstone ideas, identify potential mentors, assist in making mentor selection, and help the student develop the capstone plan.
Academic Fieldwork Coordinator (AFWC)
The AFWC works closely with the CC on similar tasks, but these are two distinct roles in the department ( DeIuliis & Bednarski, 2019 ). Effective collaboration between the AFWC and the CC is crucial in identifying potential capstone sites and mentors, managing contracts, and ensuring that sitespecific requirements are known to both the AFWC and the CC.
Capstone Coordinator (CC)
The CC in the program is a full-time, 12-month, core faculty member who oversees and supports the capstone portion of the program to ensure compliance with ACOTE D standards ( ACOTE, 2018 ). Broadly, the minimum responsibilities of the coordinator are to provide a framework for students to develop, plan, implement, and disseminate capstone work ( DeIuliis & Bednarski, 2019 ; Jirikowic et al., 2015 ). A major challenge facing programs is how to structure the CC position to meet the needs of mentors and students, as well as faculty expectations. To that end, the CC has other responsibilities in the department, college, and university, including teaching non-capstone courses, providing service, and engaging in research. In contrast to other OTD program models, in which faculty serve as mentors or there are capstone committees, the program’s CC is solely responsible for oversight of each aspect of the capstone ( DeIuliis & Bednarski, 2019 ). The coordinator and students select and work collaboratively with mentors from the community to implement the capstone. The results of this intentional approach are a clear communication path for capstone contact for students, a primary point of contact for mentors, and a single point of contact to manage contracts, the memorandum of understanding (MOU), and capstone plans.
Capstone is a student-driven process in which the onus falls on the student to create an idea, search the literature, complete a needs assessment, and identify a mentor. Students struggle at times to convey capstone interests beyond general themes, such as an interest in stroke rehabilitation, and to understand how project-based work unfolds in a real-world setting. When students lack clarity, it is difficult for mentors to understand how to best support a capstone student. Assignments in the planning class, such as refining a student’s capstone idea in a capstone elevator speech, address this issue directly. At a minimum, students are required to complete the following activities:
- develop a personal definition and explanation of capstone for potential mentors;
- complete a capstone plan, which includes a plan for supervision and culminating project identification;
- develop an objective evaluative measure of achievement for capstone; and
- develop a timetable for capstone with week-by-week objectives.
At a minimum, students are responsible for the achieving the following objectives and milestones:
- success of the culminating project,
- meeting with the mentor on a routine basis to assess progress toward the capstone plan and culminating project,
- contacting the CC about concerns regarding progress that the mentor is not able to address,
- meeting with the CC and mentor to complete a midterm visit and program developed evaluation, and
- meeting with the mentor to complete final program developed evaluation of the capstone and culminating project.
A mentor is defined by ACOTE (2018) as an individual with expertise consistent with the student’s area of focus. Mentoring is further defined as “the relationship between two people in which one person (the mentor) is dedicated to the personal and professional growth of the other (the mentee). A mentor has more experience and knowledge than the mentee” ( ACOTE, 2018 , p. 51). The mentor does not have to be an occupational therapist. The mentor identification and selection process begins in the fifth semester of the program during the capstone planning class. As illustrated in Figure 1 , there are nine identifiable steps in the program’s mentor selection process, several of which are imbedded as planning class assignments. Mentors appear to best serve students when there is a clear understanding of the differences between a Level II fieldwork rotation and the capstone experience. In addition, capstone mentors are most effective when the differences between mentoring and supervision are well understood. Most capstones are a blend of supervision and mentoring, and collaborations are successful when mentors and students clearly define expectations. Capstone mentors are responsible for the following activities, deliverables, and milestones:
- providing the CC with a resume, curriculum vitae, or bio sketch that provides evidence of the mentor’s expertise consistent with the student’s area of interest;
- reviewing and signing the MOU before the capstone begins;
- providing feedback on and final approval of the capstone plan;
- providing the student with the mentorship and resources required to fulfill the capstone responsibilities and achieve the highest educational goals;
- reaching out to the CC with any concerns or questions that cannot be resolved with the capstone student; and
- coming to an agreement with the student and the program as to proprietorship and/or authorship for capstone projects.
Flow Chart of Mentor Selection Process
The Capstone Component
To date, in four cohorts, 131 students in the OTD program have successfully completed capstones with 127 mentors, with two mentors having taken multiple students. Core to the program is the mission to serve the state population and support its workforce for OT. While students are required to complete Level I and Level II fieldwork rotations in the state, with a few exceptions, capstone can be completed outside the state or internationally. In keeping with the mission, many students are selecting capstone sites and mentors in the state (see Figure 3 ). In the inaugural cohort, 13 of the 23 (56%) mentor sites were cultivated from existing fieldwork contracts and relationships. In subsequent cohorts, 38 (29%) mentors have returned to mentor another student on new projects (see Figure 2 ). To date, 93 out of 127 (73%) were first-time mentors for the program’s capstone students (see Figure 3 ).
4-year Mentor Demographics
4-year Capstone Locations Summary
Nearly all of this program’s students (96%) select two or more focus areas for capstone projects, and 20% of students select at least four focus areas (see Figure 4 ). The most selected focus areas are clinical practice skills and program development. There appears to be emerging focus trends in capstone, with the most apparent surrounding clinical skill development and program development. Students are frequently drawn to clinicians who practice in specialty areas or are recognized for advanced level of practice, so it makes sense that clinical skill development would be a focus for students. Students most frequently collaborate with mentors on program development projects, with none choosing theory development to date (see Figure 4 ). This theme indicates that students and mentors are, in fact, collaborating on projects that meet a site need or clinical practice initiative.
Selected Capstone Focus Area Outcomes
Students typically take one of three paths toward mentor selection (see Figure 5 ). First, the mentor-focused path involves selecting the mentor based on shared interest or expertise. This approach can be student-driven but also offers the chance that mentors already have projects for students to join, so students do not necessarily generate the ideas. Second, the idea/project-focused path involves an outof-the-box or emerging practice area, perhaps something that students may or may not have a chance to do in the future. This is the most student-driven approach, as students approach potential mentors with ideas already in formation. Third, the location-focused path involves selecting the location site where students plan to live and work and then finding a mentor. This path narrows the students’ scope in terms of finding both a mentor and site open to taking a capstone student. This is emerging as the least studentdriven pathway, tending to be more mentor-directed in terms of project availability and clinical practice exposures.
Capstone Selection Pathways
The capstone was initially entitled residency when the program first started to distinguish it from fieldwork and set it apart from other student experiences. However, this term has different meanings in medical models and health care settings, and in some cases, the term residency was prohibited because it is designated for medical students. After faculty discussion and feedback from community stakeholders and students, the department changed the name to doctoral experiential component (DEC) to align with the 2011 ACOTE standard terminology. In accordance with the most recent 2018 ACOTE standards, the term capstone is now used to ensure the experience and project are consistently represented in the profession. This term more closely aligns with the project nature of the clinical doctorate outcomes. The multiple name changes have been a barrier for the CC to overcome, as clarification is needed to update mentors and students on the overarching goals of capstone.
Close communication with the AFWC is essential to build mentors and sites for capstone. The AFWC is key in providing sites and potential mentors with site-specific examples of capstone opportunities. This is accomplished during all Level II fieldwork rotations, during which the AFWC completes 90% of midterm evaluations in person. Based on experiences over the past 4 years, it seems non-occupational therapy mentors and occupational therapists in nontraditional roles readily engage in mentoring capstone students more so than traditional occupational therapists. Examples of nonoccupational therapy mentors to date are child life specialist, director of pediatric hospice program, primary school teacher, recreation therapists, life coach, yoga instructor, volunteer program coordinator of non-profit organization, and director for youth foster congregate care homes. At times, it has been easier to recruit non-occupational therapists because these mentors do not necessarily have the constraints of productivity and clinical practice responsibilities, and there is not a need to differentiate between a capstone and fieldwork student.
The department chair, faculty, CC, and AFWC all work to communicate a single message and theme of capstone when collaborating or communicating with the program’s numerous stakeholders. Capstone mentors and project ideas can and do come from these relationships. For example, during an OT state association lunch, an occupational therapist identified a need to collect and analyze data on the evaluation process and discharge recommendation practice habits of the staff. The CC helped define the project question and research questions and connected a capstone student for the project. This resulted in policy and program changes in the mentor’s practice setting and created elevation of practice in discharge planning. Collaborating with existing mentors to get the word out on capstone has been well received at AOTA and state conferences. As a bonus, not only does this provide mentors to engage in scholarship through presentations, potential mentors hear from mentors who have been through the process and can relate best how capstone translates in clinical practice.
Social media platforms are an effective way to share capstone stories and projects. Students, mentors, and projects are routinely showcased on the program’s numerous social media platforms. Students create the narrative to be shared, which benefits the university, OT program, and mentors.
Each year, there is a period of developing and evolving expectations with each new cohort of OTD students and mentors ( Hansen et al., 2007 ). New mentors and students require time to explore capstone projects and collaborations to determine if capstone is a good fit for the mentor and student. Most capstones are a blend of supervision and mentoring, and collaborations are successful when mentors and students clearly define expectations, allocate time for clinical skills and projects, and discuss communication styles.
There currently are few resources available for academic programs and mentors to guide capstone curricular development or clinical site capstone programs. Mentors seeking this information have access to fieldwork resources and rely on adapting them to meet the needs of capstone students in the practice setting. Feedback from mentors and students indicates that the structure of a consistent capstone plan is preferred rather than every capstone plan being in a different format. Uniformity has helped with familiarizing mentors to the program and supports branding and expectations of student projects.
A challenge facing students and programs is that people who excel in professional fields are not always master educators or mentors, and mentoring involves a complex and dynamic exchange between mentors and mentees ( Smith, 2007 ). However, capstone mentors, when knowledgeable about the expectations and components of capstone, can further personal professional development and achieve a higher level of mastery ( Stoffel et al., 2014 ). Mentor sites, when familiar with the expectations and potential for program development, may bolster recruitment and retention of staff and highlight new programs by engaging in capstone mentoring partnerships with students and academic programs. Occupational therapists are familiar with fieldwork because all occupational therapists go through the process. There is a plethora of fieldwork literature, frameworks, and supports for fieldwork educators to follow. There currently are few frameworks and resources for OT capstone mentors outside of academia. CCs need to provide capstone mentors with resources and education regarding the capstone for mentors to feel more confident in their responsibilities and understanding of the differences between fieldwork and capstone requirements.
The capstone experience is an important and vital element of entry-level OTD programs. It is an individualized component of entry-level OTD education to produce a culminating project ( Case-Smith et al., 2014 ). In this student-informed process, the onus is on students and mentors to develop programs and envision how projects are springboards for future practice, such as research, quality improvement projects, and staff development ( Fortune et al., 2012 ). AOTA’s Vision 2025 charges occupational therapists to increase capacity and collaboration ( AOTA, 2017 ). OT mentors can meet Vision 2025 by engaging in mentor partnerships with capstone students. Through curriculum design, academia can promote capstone partnerships with occupational therapists and non-occupational therapist mentors that offer the opportunity not only to engage in scholarship, but also to advance programs that are of importance to the student, mentor, community, and or facility. The future holds exciting opportunities among established and developing OTD programs to share structural elements of capstone curriculum and program outcomes, to clarify language used for descriptions, and to better engage mentors in capstone collaborations.
Technical editing was provided by Laurence Green and supported, in part, by NIH/NIMHD RCMI U54MD012388 (Baldwin/Stearns-MPI). Special thanks to our Founding Chair Patricia Crist, PhD, OTR, PC, FAOTA, for her direction and support in the development of the program.
Conflicts of Interest: None
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Capstone PowerPoint Presentation: Outline, Examples & Tips
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O U T L I N E , E X A M P L E S & T I P S
you preparing a capstone <strong>PowerPoint</strong> presentation?<br />
gathered some tips and tricks on how to make it<br />
effective and memorable. Learn how to engage<br />
audience using our tips on how to create a<br />
presentation outline and present in front of<br />
how do you make a capstone presentation outline?<br />
are several presentation requirements you should<br />
and comply with for the best results. In general,<br />
will be presenting it to a group of faculty members,<br />
with your mentor and parents. The requirements<br />
such presentation include:<br />
presentation should be at least eight minutes of<br />
student should turn in the capstone service hours<br />
at least 40 hours of service.<br />
presentation should have at least four pictures,<br />
videos are also allowed with at most three<br />
in length.<br />
text limit on every slide must be adherent to the 3<br />
5 rule, but there must not be more than three text<br />
Each line must not be more than five words.<br />
TO OUTLINE A<br />
project’s description: It should contain information<br />
what this capstone project involved, its location,<br />
was served and who the people you worked with.<br />
must also include ways you knew this capstone<br />
was needed.<br />
description of reasons this project was selected:<br />
are the opportunities you discovered or you<br />
presented? What was your thought process?<br />
of your concerns, fears and expectation<br />
had before you started the capstone project<br />
of your mentor’s role in this project<br />
of your project’s impact on those that you<br />
of the significant lesson learned<br />
of things you’d do differently if you’re to start<br />
of advice you’d like to give someone that<br />
to take over the capstone project<br />
if you would like to keep working on the<br />
and reasons to or not to<br />
the following, let us discuss how to create a capstone<br />
<strong>PowerPoint</strong> presentation.<br />
INFORMATION TO INCLUDE<br />
FOR CREATING A GOOD<br />
the slide or scene length: One thing to<br />
– avoid too much text or it will kill the PPT.<br />
the rule stated earlier. Instead of putting too<br />
text, focus on eye contact and building rapport.<br />
explaining what each slide is all about in your<br />
use more than 10 slides for an effective<br />
Just as said earlier, you should present<br />
at least eight minutes but not more than 20<br />
listeners retain info you’re sharing by being<br />
As they say, info without emotion is not<br />
Be 100% sure of what you’re saying and<br />
with your heart. Connect to your<br />
good fonts and graphics.<br />
presentation more visually appealing and less<br />
for the eyes.<br />
on the value of your presentation. Know<br />
the audience wants and needs to figure out how<br />
you’d take a look at a good capstone presentation<br />
you can figure out what to avoid in making the<br />
Some of the blunders to avoid include the<br />
They can make<br />
to add value to your presentation.<br />
MISTAKES TO AVOID
engaging the audience<br />
smiling Not<br />
being ready for surprises<br />
customized presentation<br />
too many things on the PPT slide<br />
your back or looking at your laptop all the<br />
from creating a capstone presentation outline, you<br />
also learn how to prepare for the presentation in<br />
Tell stories. After all, humans respond to them because<br />
are with emotions. These stories also help them to<br />
attention to what you’re saying and to recall things<br />
say. you<br />
Connect with the audience. There is no better way to<br />
and make the audience listen than to connect<br />
them. Look at them in the eye. You must also let<br />
passion for the subject shine through. Be at your<br />
real self. Be honest and enthusiastic.<br />
Focus on the audience’s wants and needs. What value<br />
they get from the presentation? Focus on what they<br />
to know and what they need.<br />
TO PREPARE FOR THE<br />
IN FRONT OF THE<br />
front of your audience. Here are some tips to use.
Concentrate on the core message. Don’t say things<br />
won’t contribute to your main message.<br />
Keep smiling to build rapport and make the<br />
more personal.<br />
these tips and tricks and create a memorable<br />
project <strong>PowerPoint</strong> presentation that will wow<br />
more ideas? Visit our website for an<br />
capstone presentation example<br />
your audience.<br />
- More documents
CAPSTONE POWERPOINT PRESENTATION O U T L I N E , E X A M P L E S & T I P S
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- Page 4 and 5: the slide or scene length: One thin
- Page 6: Concentrate on the core message. Do
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How To Write A Capstone Project Outline: Steps and Example
18 Dec 2021
📑Types of Capstone Projects
✍️Choosing a Topic
📃Capstone Project Outline
📌Mistakes to Avoid
Working on a capstone project requires a lot of effort. To write this assignment successfully, the first stage of the process is to develop an outline for this type of paper. With the capstone project outline, students can write the right structure for their paper. Are you unaware of how to write it or just need a clear example or a capstone project template with proper formats? Or do you want to learn what to include in the outline? You've come to the right place. This piece will teach you everything you need to know about these outlines.
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What Is Capstone Project?
It is a vital part of most courses in universities. You may have heard of it from the older students. The form of it can vary, but the main ideas are always similar. Generally, it is research conducted by a defined group of students to find and come up with a solution for some actual issues that happened in the world. It is crucial to take this seriously, as such a unique chance to have all the tools and supervision of the best professors on the way to finding a proposal for the issue is rare. Of course, it is time-consuming and stressful, but the reward part after the proposal is sent is priceless.
This research is always the last task of the course, so the student has the opportunity to gather all the knowledge during the course and apply it to the capstone project writing. The main aim is to prepare future specialists for finding practical solutions for the real world.
In simple terms, what is the capstone project ? This is a type of paper used to showcase the level of the skills you have developed since the beginning of the study. This type is also referred to as a capstone project. It's a significant task that must be carried out with a high level of skill and proficiency. But what is its importance? Completing this paper is an essential part of your education program because it shows that you are a professional.
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Types of Capstone Projects
As mentioned before, they can be different as well as requirements. There are ones for junior students and senior students, and postgraduate students. Depending on the degree, there are such types of research:
- Developing the concept of a product, tool, or service
- In-depth projects
As they vary, they can be conducted individually or in a group. The main thing is that the instructor has to review the final capstone project proposal at the finishing stage.
Choosing a Topic
The best advice is to pick an area you are genuinely interested in. Otherwise, there is no point in research. The process is long, and the demands are high. There is some general advice on how to choose the theme for the research project format.
- Avoid broad subjects that objectively cannot be managed in a given time. If your theme appears too wide, you will have hardship covering all the necessary issues.
- Moreover, beware of too narrow subjects, as you may have difficulty finding relevant published articles and inspirations from other research made earlier.
- Choose themes that are suitable to your classroom background or career goals.
- Do primary research before deciding, as it is the only way to understand how the problem was covered and whether there are any solutions.
- Do not pick only one theme. Have at least a few paper project ideas to be flexible when obstacles appear.
- Be sure that the area of research meets the guidelines of the course. It is better to ask beforehand than change everything at the last minute.
Should you find the task of picking the theme too challenging, there's a way out of this trouble. You can always buy capstone project online and save time and effort while getting an excellent result. Using services of trusted platforms guarantees you high-quality and timely delivery.
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How to create a capstone project outline.
When you begin working on this format, it's important to keep in mind that the nature and formats of the written paper may vary depending on the faculty, the topic, and the goals for the writing papers. You can buy it online or find a written template to save some time, especially since a lot of effort is required. Starting from the contents, you need to create a capstone paper outline to help you structure your content according to your instructor's rules.
Without any doubt, a capstone study will simplify everything for you. Considering the importance of it, you must learn how to write it or use outline templates. So, how do you go about it? Take note of the following steps.
- Research how to write it, including developing the structure and the types of outlines used for tasks like this. If you have previous experience creating designs and know what would best suit this project, you may skip this step.
- Decide on a number format to use in the study. If you are given a specific form, make sure you follow it. But if the instructor specifies no format, choose whatever works best for you. Furthermore, make sure that the design you have picked is suitable for readers.
- Next, select the preferable model. You can research how to create project outline templates online.
- Set up the structure for the headings and subheadings in the sample capstone project outline template. The number of titles and subheadings will depend on the nature of your paper.
- Split the headings and subheadings further. However, remember that you can make changes later on.
- Identify the content you intend to put into each section and fill it with texts, figures, and other illustrations. Don't forget to use citation styles and appropriate formatting. Your instructor may choose to provide the instructions for your project using different formats.
- When you are done, read it once more and try to make sure that each fragment is meaningful. You may also decide to rewrite incomplete pieces and find any logical mistakes.
- Finally, review for grammatical errors, fix them, and check for plagiarism.
If you intend to take an easy route to all the steps listed above, you may get an example of the study summary and follow it. According to experts, the best approach to writing your culmination study is to start with a list of papers you wrote, a list of studies you have undertaken, and an article you have published or assisted in.
For most universities, you will be required to write the title and intro page. If the case warrants it, you may need to rewrite these pages a few times. The title must be catchy, and the intro urges readers to go deeper into the text. The introduction should shift from specific to general terms. It should also focus on the research, topic, and possible methodology adopted in the paper. Before starting, check whether the presentation format will be needed. You could gather information during the research project and add points from existing materials step by step. Remember that it is an important part and you better be prepared.
If you require a detailed plan to complete your outline, write out all the elements on the subject. When designing, keep in mind that you may meet or write some sections before others. However, the most significant thing is finishing the entire paper and taking specific steps like presentation preparation to make it possible. It's time to start your project when all the outline sections have been properly written. You may ask someone to review your progress before proceeding with the entire paper.
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Example Of A Capstone Project Outline
It's almost impossible to come up with an example or template that would be useful for every student in every school. There are just too many elements to take note of simultaneously. However, we can do our best by including some of the most common factors that you would find in any paper.
When compiling an outline, you can include the following chapters:
- A brief overview. Your resume should not be more than a few sentences, and it serves as the intro of the papers.
- Research that was useful in creating the paper. Here, you can mention the historical background of the subject in question. You may also add a table or list to illustrate your paper further.
- The executive summary of your study. The executive summary of your research shows the study's goal, how it's done, and everything you need to accomplish the capstone project.
- Essential details and information from your instructor.
- Description of the task. You should give a detailed breakdown of your paper and the steps you took to accomplish it.
- The summary or presentation.
These are examples of any culmination study contents. Still, the system can vary depending on the topic in question. Make sure that you carry out research and write down inquiries from your instructor to find out the outline that will be most useful for your project.
Mistakes to Avoid in a Capstone Project Outline
Coming up with an executive summary for this type of paper is a lot of work. As a result, people tend to make simple mistakes that greatly affect the quality of their work. However, many of these mistakes are avoidable, especially if you had examined the materials given like outline templates or academic project ideas existing on the subject. Apply academic thinking, find the information on the writing process as well as format requirements, pay attention to elements required for an assignment, check the research problem and the research question properly.
If you intend to make a summary, you need to look out for the following mistakes:
Avoid topics that require a lot of calculation. You may have difficulties coming up with the best type. You may find it difficult to make a reasonable strategy. When presenting these cases, the additional emphasis on numbers will bore listeners and prevent them from keeping up with what you say.
Beware of reuse, repetitions, and self-plagiarism. This means that you should note what you have included previously. Adding too many related headings may lead to self-plagiarism later in the project.
Never underestimate the meaning of capstone projects. It's common for many students to play down the importance of this type of project. As a result, they end up handling everything haphazardly. This type of action would greatly influence the quality of the final writing.
When writing, avoid using long sentences. Understandably, you may be intent on clearly stating your points most of the time. Nevertheless, long sentences will only make it tougher. Do your best to go straight to the end. This type of project doesn't require a lot of talks, discussion, or emphasis. The only things you need to display are your academic skills and proper sentences.
When you are done, take your time to proofread and edit the final result. Make sure that you never skip this stage. Proofreading will reveal any hidden mistakes that may ruin the overall quality.
Create a summary of your text
Many students find it difficult to write their project because it requires a big one. Some may even give up initially because they doubt their abilities. But this shouldn't be the case. If you can't handle any aspect of your project yourself, it may be worth hiring capstone writing services to help out. They will approach the creation of your outline from a professional angle.
The benefit of hiring this service provider is the level of success they guarantee. Professional hands will handle your project. They can prepare a top-class project for you with all the essential details within the shortest time possible.
This type of project is one of the introductory assignments college students will do before finishing their education. Considering the importance of a capstone study, the design must be created smoothly. The system can be confusing because there are different types of capstone studies. However, with the help of PapersOwl and understandable requirements for this kind of paper, it's possible to achieve something reasonable.
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Also called a capstone experience , culminating project , or senior exhibition , among many other terms, a capstone project is a multifaceted assignment that serves as a culminating academic and intellectual experience for students, typically during their final year of high school or middle school, or at the end of an academic program or learning-pathway experience . While similar in some ways to a college thesis, capstone projects may take a wide variety of forms, but most are long-term investigative projects that culminate in a final product, presentation, or performance. For example, students may be asked to select a topic, profession, or social problem that interests them, conduct research on the subject, maintain a portfolio of findings or results, create a final product demonstrating their learning acquisition or conclusions (a paper, short film, or multimedia presentation, for example), and give an oral presentation on the project to a panel of teachers, experts, and community members who collectively evaluate its quality.
Capstone projects are generally designed to encourage students to think critically, solve challenging problems, and develop skills such as oral communication, public speaking, research skills, media literacy, teamwork, planning, self-sufficiency, or goal setting—i.e., skills that will help prepare them for college, modern careers, and adult life. In most cases, the projects are also interdisciplinary, in the sense that they require students to apply skills or investigate issues across many different subject areas or domains of knowledge. Capstone projects also tend to encourage students to connect their projects to community issues or problems, and to integrate outside-of-school learning experiences, including activities such as interviews, scientific observations, or internships.
While capstone projects can take a wide variety of forms from school to school, a few examples will help to illustrate both the concept and the general educational intentions:
- Writing, directing, and filming a public-service announcement that will be aired on public-access television
- Designing and building a product, computer program, app, or robot to address a specific need, such as assisting the disabled
- Interning at a nonprofit organization or a legislator’s office to learn more about strategies and policies intended to address social problems, such as poverty, hunger, or homelessness
- Conducting a scientific study over several months or a year to determine the ecological or environmental impact of changes to a local habitat
- Researching an industry or market, and creating a viable business plan for a proposed company that is then “pitched” to a panel of local business leaders
For related discussions, see authentic learning , portfolio , relevance , and 21st century skills .
As a school-reform strategy, capstone projects are often an extension of more systemic school-improvement models or certain teaching philosophies or strategies, such as 21st century skills, community-based learning , proficiency-based learning , project-based learning , or student-centered learning , to name just a few.
The following are a few representative educational goals of capstone projects:
- Increasing the academic rigor of the senior year. Historically, high school students have taken a lighter course load or left school early during their twelfth-grade year, which can contribute to learning loss or insufficient preparation for first-year college work. A more academically and intellectually challenging senior year, filled with demanding but stimulating learning experiences such as a capstone project, the reasoning goes, can reduce senior-year learning loss , keep students in school longer (or otherwise engaged in learning), and increase preparation for college and work.
- Increasing student motivation and engagement. The creative nature of capstone projects, which are typically self-selected by students and based on personal interests, can strengthen student motivation to learn, particularly during a time (twelfth grade) when academic motivation and engagement tend to wane.
- Increasing educational and career aspirations. By involving students in long-term projects that intersect with personal interests and professional aspirations, capstone projects can help students with future planning, goal setting, postsecondary decisions, and career exploration—particularly for those students who may be unfocused, uncertain, or indecisive about their post-graduation plans and aspirations.
- Improving student confidence and self-perceptions. Capstone projects typically require students to take on new responsibilities, be more self-directed, set goals, and follow through on commitments. Completing such projects can boost self-esteem, build confidence, and teach students about the value of accomplishment. Students may also become role models for younger students, which can cultivate leadership abilities and have positive cultural effects within a school.
- Demonstrating learning and proficiency. As one of many educational strategies broadly known as demonstrations of learning , capstone projects can be used to determine student proficiency (in the acquisition of knowledge and skills) or readiness (for college and work) by requiring them to demonstrate what they have learned over the course of their project
In recent years, the capstone-project concept has also entered the domain of state policy. In Rhode Island, for example, the state’s high school graduation requirements stipulate that seniors must complete two out of three assessment options, one of which can be a capstone project. Several other states require students to complete some form of senior project, while in other states such projects may be optional, and students who complete a capstone project may receive special honors or diploma recognition.
Most criticism of or debate about capstone projects is not focused on the strategy itself, or its intrinsic or potential educational value, but rather on the quality of its execution—i.e., capstone projects tend to be criticized when they are poorly designed or reflect low academic standards, or when students are allowed to complete relatively superficial projects of low educational value. In addition, if teachers and students consider capstone projects to be a formality, lower-quality products typically result. And if the projects reflect consistently low standards, quality, and educational value year after year, educators, students, parents, and community members may come to view capstone projects as a waste of time or resources.
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How to Perfectly Use a Capstone Project Sample
You might have one of the best sample projects with you but fail to capitalize on this simply because you do not know how to use it. One of the main reasons for using a sample project is so that you can have an idea of what is needed in your project. So the first thing you need to learn from the sample you have is the writing format used to create that sample. Each project has its own designated format and failure to follow the appropriate format may result in submitting a poor quality project which is something you want to avoid by all means. You should, therefore, use the sample to learn on the format you use and make sure to follow that format when writing your project.
Capstone Project Sample
Vitamin B12 is also referred to as cobalamin and it identifies a water-soluble vitamin utilized within the normal neurological function together with the development of the red blood cells. B12 is also identified as a cofactor within two metabolic pathways as it is utilized within the conversion of homocysteine together with methionine and within the conversion of methylmalonic acid (MMA) to succinyl-CoA (Alemras et al. 2007). The main sources of B12 include animal products such as meat, poultry, fish, and milk; fortified foods including breakfast cereal together with B12 supplements. The recommended allowance does not incorporate a tolerable upper intake limit, as there is limited research on the toxicity capacity and limited data supporting the stipulation of an upper limit. Vitamin B12 is vital as it comprises an important element in DNA synthesis and individual neurological functioning. This necessitates the continuous intake of the vitamin to enhance the prevention of possible hematologic and neuropsychiatric disorders upon lack of continued intake of the vitamin.
Through the analysis of the American and European intake of the vitamin, the intake levels identified to meet the stipulated recommended daily allowance. However, keenness has to be observed regarding the absorption levels to ensure that individuals meet the required levels. This is particularly vital for vegetarians, as they do not consume animal products, which create the bulk of Vitamin B12 sources. In addition, individuals under any form of medication, gastrointestinal patients, individuals over 50 years of age and anyone experiencing poor bouts of health remain at risk of having low levels of Vitamin B12 within their systems. Lack of vitamin B12 is influenced by poor adherence of the dietary stipulations leads to the identification of vitamin B12 deficiency among individuals.
Vitamin D is regarded as a unique hormone as it may be produced within the skin through increased exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D is identified in two main forms: D2 and D3. Vitamin D2 is obtained through the UV irradiation of the yeast sterol ergosterol, which is naturally identified within sun-exposed mushrooms. Vitamin D3 synthesis process occurs within the skin and is identified within several oil-rich fish including salmon, mackerel, and herring. It is also available in synthesized form from the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is identified within the skin and may be obtained from lanolin. Vitamin D2 and D3 are utilized in the food fortification process and also within vitamin D supplements. The ingested vitamin D is integrated within chylomicrons that are consequently absorbed within the lymphatic system through the blood. Vitamin D ingested through the skin or diet remains biologically inert, which necessitates hydroxylation within the liver through the use of the vitamin D-25-hydroxylase to 25 (OH) D (3, 8). This necessitates further hydroxylation of 25 (OH) D within the kidneys through the use of 25 (OH)-1-OHase (CYP27B1) to develop a biologically active form of vitamin D 1, 25 (OH)2 D. This enhances the interaction processes with vitamin D nuclear receptor in existence within the small intestine, kidneys together with other tissues within the body. 1, 25 (OH) 2 D influences the absorption of intestinal calcium. This identifies vitamin D as a vital element in the absorption of calcium and phosphorous as a lack of the vitamin would identify 10 to 15% absorption of dietary calcium and 60% absorption of phosphorus. This identifies that vitamin D sufficiency influences calcium and phosphorous absorption by up to 30-40% and 80% respectively. Through increased interactions between 1, 25 (OH) 2 D and the vitamin B receptor within the osteoblast enhance the stimulation of the expression of receptor activator of a nuclear factor-kB ligand. This enhances the interaction with the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB aimed at inducing immature monocytes to develop into mature osteoclasts that influence the dissolution of the matrix leading to increased production of calcium together with other minerals from the skeleton. The above identifies that the vitamin D receptor remains present within the majority of the tissues and cells within the body thus providing 1, 25 (OH) 2 D with a myriad of biological functions including the inhibition of cellular proliferation and the inducing of terminal differentiation, the inhibition of renin production and the stimulation of macrophage cathelicidin production. The above seeks to identify that vitamin D is vital within the body as it enhances the regulation of cell growth, bone formation, immune function, increased muscle strength, hair growth, fighting off infections and the reduction of risk of autoimmune diseases.
Background and Significance of the Problem
Vitamin B12 deficiency can influence the identification of numerous hematologic and neuropsychiatric disorders, which may, however, be reversed upon the identification of early diagnosis and immediate treatment. However, the exact prevalence levels of vitamin B12 within the general population remain unknown. However, the incidence is identified as increasing with age. A study conducted by Packer et al. (2007) identified that 15% of adults who were older than 65 years projected high deficiencies of vitamin B12. Continued ubiquitous utilization of gastric acid-blocking agents influences the identified decreased levels of vitamin B12, which influence the increased levels of vitamin B12 deficiency realized. Through the analysis of the increasing use of the gents coupled with an increasingly aging population among the developed nations, the actual prevalence of vitamin B12 may be identified higher in comparison to the provided statistics. The common symptoms of B12 deficiency include neuropathic (paresthesia, numbness, and weakness), myelopathic (abnormal gait), cerebral (dementia, depression, memory loss) and in dire cases, the deficiency is identified as hematologic whereby the patient suffers from severe anemia. In addition, vitamin B12 deficiency has been linked to indirect cardiovascular effects. Vitamin B12 deficiency may enhance the production of hyperhomocysteinemia, which identifies a risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. Folic acid supplementation is provided to influence the reduction of homocysteine levels as an avenue utilized in the prevention of coronary artery disease. However, there has been limited emphasis on the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in the development of cardiovascular disease. This possibility is increasingly vital in the consideration of vitamin replacement therapy as folic acid supplementation may hide a growing vitamin B12 deficiency, which will influence the progression of the experienced neurologic disease. This necessitates the determination of vitamin B12 deficiency prior to the initiation of folic acid therapy.
In the human body system, two enzyme reactions remain dependent upon vitamin B12. The first reaction involves the conversion of methylmalonic acid into succinyl-CoA through the utilization of B12 as a cofactor. This identifies that vitamin B12 deficiency may influence the identification of increased levels of serum methylmalonic acid. The second reaction involves the conversion of homocysteine to methionine through the utilization of vitamin B12 together with folic acid as the cofactors. In this reaction, the identification of a deficiency in vitamin B12 or folic acid may influence the identification of increased levels of homocysteine. This necessitates the development of an intricate understanding of vitamin B12’s absorption cycle to provide a better analysis of the potential causes of deficiency. The existence of the acidic environment within the stomach influences the breakdown of B12 identified within the food. Through the release of the intrinsic factor by the parietal cells within the stomach, vitamin B12 remains bound to the duodenum. The intrinsic factor influences the absorption of vitamin B12 within the terminal ileum. There also exists an alternate system of vitamin B12 absorption that does not require the intrinsic factor as influences the binding of vitamin B12 upon absorption to transcobalamin II, which is consequently transported throughout the body. Therefore, interruption of either step places an individual at a high risk of developing a deficiency.
Vitamin D deficiency is characterized by the identification of inadequate provision of minerals to the skeleton. In children, vitamin D deficiency influences the development of rickets, which involves the widening at the end of the long bones, rachitic rosary together with other deformations within the skeleton including outward and inward deformities of the lower limbs leading to the identification of bowed legs and knocked-knees. Among adults, vitamin D deficiency leads to the identification of a mineralization defect within the skeleton leading to the development of osteomalacia. In addition, vitamin D deficiency among adults initiates the mobilization of calcium from the skeleton leading to the development of porotic bone. The identification of a change within the production of vitamin D3 may influence the identification of a vitamin D deficient state. Additionally, the identification of any alterations within the 1, 25 (OH) 2 D within its receptor may influence the identification of vitamin D3 deficiency, which is characterized by metabolic bone disease together with the manifestation of a myriad of biochemical abnormalities. As previously identified vitamin D deficiency influences the identification of a decrease in the levels of ionized calcium within the blood, which influences the identification of an increase in the production and secretion capacity of PTH. PTH influences the mobilization of calcium the skeleton, which enhances the conservation of renal loss of calcium leading to the identification of an increase in the renal excretion of phosphorus. This leads to the identification of normal fasting serum calcium with low-normal serum phosphorous.
Statement of the Problem
Increased deficiency levels of vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 levels within the body necessitate the integration of further research and analysis regarding the importance of conducting regular check up on the existent levels among individuals.
Statement of the Purpose
This study seeks to provide a conclusive analysis regarding the importance of checking the levels of vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 levels within the body. This will be enhanced through the integration of a conclusive analysis of the deficiency levels identified through the analysis of the healthy and unhealthy levels required within the body. This study will incorporate analysis from previous research conducted by several authors within the field, who have provided an analysis of the diagnosis, causes of deficiency and the most preferred follow-up procedure that may be incorporated. The study will incorporate a literature review section, which will provide an analysis of the importance of checking vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 as conducted by other researchers within the field. This is vital for the study as it will enhance the provision of a wide array of data that will provide conclusive analysis from the past, present and future efforts that may be integrated to limit the levels of deficiency experienced. The study will also incorporate a methodology section, which will outline the data collection methods to be utilized within the study, which provide great relevance and enhance the achievement of the study objectives. This will be followed through the integration of the findings and discussion section, which will provide an analysis of the study and enhance the development of the study recommendations and conclusion.
Review of Literature
The diagnosis of B12 has over time developed its basis upon the analysis of low serum vitamin B12 levels, which are identified at less than 200pg per mL together with the analysis of the available clinical evidence pertaining to the disease. However, the majority of studies identify that older patients present more of neuropsychiatric disease in the absence of hematologic findings. In addition, the provision of measurements of metabolites including methylmalonic acid and homocysteine are identified more sensitive to the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency in comparison to the individual measurement of serum B12 levels. A recent study conducted on 406 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency indicated that 98.4% had elevated serum methylmalonic acid levels with 95.9% identified as having elevated serum homocysteine levels. Only one patient from the 406 had indicated normal levels of both metabolites, which raised the sensitivity level to 99.8% at the period when the methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels are utilized during the diagnosis. Twenty-eight percent of the patients within the study exhibited normal hematocrit levels with 17% identifying normal mean corpuscular volumes. In a study conducted by Lin et al. (2011) regarding patients with known pernicious anemia who had not been provided with the necessary maintenance levels of vitamin B12 injections for a period spanning several months to years, they exhibited an increase in methylmalonic acid together with decreased levels of hematocrit. The findings from the study identify that methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels may be utilized as early markers for tissue vitamin B12 prior to the identification of hematologic indications.
Continued utilization of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels within the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency has enhanced the provision of varied results. In the event that increased homocysteine or methylmalonic acid levels or through the normalization of the metabolites in response to replacement therapy, they are utilized as diagnostic criteria for vitamin B12 deficiency. The majority of the patients subjected to the process accounting for 50% have identified high levels of serum vitamin B12. This espouses that the utilization of a low serum vitamin B12 level as the main diagnosis may eliminate half of the patients with actual tissue B12 deficiency.
Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Factors influencing the identification of vitamin B12 deficiency are incorporated into three main categories: nutritional deficiency, malabsorption syndromes together with other gastrointestinal causes.
The main dietary sources for vitamin B12 include meat and dairy products. In a typical diet, an individual derives 5 to 15 mcg of vitamin B12 on a daily basis, which is identified higher than the recommended daily dosage stipulated at 2 mcg. This identifies that the majority of individuals maintain a high vitamin B12 reserve, which has the capability of lasting two to five years. However, nutritional deficiency may be identified within certain populations. For instance, elderly patients who regularly take up tea and toast diets and consume high levels of alcohol are identified as having a higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency. In addition, the dietary stipulations followed by strict vegetarians place them at high risk of experiencing stipulated deficiency levels.
The main disorder identified within this category is the pernicious anemia, which refers to an autoimmune disease that affects the gastric parietal cells. Therefore, any form of destruction identified among these cells limits the effective production of intrinsic factor, which limits the absorption levels identified regarding vitamin B12. Laboratory evidence incorporated regarding parietal cell antibodies is identified at 85% to 90% sensitive regarding the diagnosis of pernicious anemia. However, the majority of tests identify that the presence of parietal cell antibodies remains nonspecific and occurring within other autoimmune states. The intrinsic factor antibody is identified as being 50% sensitive but is identified as being highly specific for the diagnosis of pernicious anemia. In addition, a Schilling test may be utilized in the development of a distinction among intrinsic factor-related malabsorption in the diagnosis process of pernicious anemia. Schilling test results have been used over time to enhance the determination process regarding whether the patient requires parenteral or oral vitamin B12 supplementation. However, the development of this distinction is rendered unnecessary as the majority of the recent evidence espouses towards the utilization of a B12 absorption pathway that remains independent of intrinsic factors. In addition, several studies have identified that oral replacement is identified equal in efficacy to intramuscular therapy. However, several studies espouse that successful treatment may also be realized through the utilization of oral replacement therapy. This has enhanced the development of several questions regarding the utility of the Schilling test as it is regarded as complicated to perform. This has rendered the identification of vitamin B12 difficult together with increased complexities within the results interpretation process for patients suffering from renal insufficiency. The process of food-bound malabsorption is identified when vitamin B12 bound to protein within food is incapable of being cleaved and released. This is influenced by the integration of any process that provides some level of interference with gastric acid production that may lead to the identification of certain levels of impairment. Atrophic gastritis together with hypochlorhydria is regarded as a major cause among the elderly. In addition, subtotal gastrectomy may influence the identification of vitamin B12 deficiency. Widespread and prolonged use of histamine H2-receptor blockers together with proton pump inhibitors for ulcer disease influence irregular breakdown of vitamin B12 from food leading to increased malabsorption and consequent depletion of B12 levels within the body.
Recent studies espouse that long-term utilization of omeprazole may influence the identification of decreased levels of serum vitamin B12 levels. However, more studies require to be incorporated to enhance the identification of the incidence and prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency through increased screening for subclinical BB12 deficiency should be enhanced among patients who have experienced long-term acid-suppression therapy.
Patients who have exhibited vitamin B12 deficiency together with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms including dyspepsia, recurrent peptic ulcers or diarrhea necessitate the integration of an evaluation process regarding several factions including Whipple’s disease, which refers to a bacterial infection that limits the absorption levels identified within the body. In addition, the patient may be tested for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, which influences the development of peptic ulcers and diarrhea. In addition, patients who have had a history of intestinal surgery, strictures or blind lops may identify high levels of bacterial overgrowth, which may limit the provision of the necessary amounts of vitamin B12 within the small bowel together with increased manifestation of tapeworms and other intestinal parasites. In addition, congenital transport-protein deficiency may influence the lack of vitamin B12 leading to the identification of increased deficiency levels.
Vitamin D deficiency
Vitamin D deficiency among adults is described as being endemic. There has been an increasing number in children and adolescents who are identified as being vitamin D deficient. Historically, vitamin D deficiency has been defined as a 25 (OH)D of less than 20 ng/ml. Therefore, vitamin D insufficiency is defined as 25(OH) of 21-29 ng/ml. Through the analysis of the provided definitions, several estimates identify that 20-100% of the American and European elderly men and women within the community exhibit high vitamin D deficiency levels. Vitamin deficiency is identified commonly in Australia, the Middle East, India, Africa, and South America. The deficiency levels are also identified high in the United States as 50% of the Hispanic and African-American adolescents together with 8% of white preadolescent girls exhibited 25 (OH)D below 20 ng/ml. Additionally, 42% of African-American girls and women within the ages of 15 and 49 years identified a blood level of 25 (OH) D below 15 ng/ml. Pregnant and lactating women consuming prenatal vitamins together with calcium supplements with vitamin D are identified as being at high risk for vitamin D deficiency.
Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency
The main source of vitamin D for children and adults remains as increased exposure to sunlight. This is vital as limited foods contain vitamin D. This identifies the main cause for vitamin D deficiency as limited exposure to sunlight. In addition, wearing sunscreen with sun protection limits the level of vitamin D synthesis on the skin by up to 95%. This identifies that individuals with a darker skin tone are provided with natural sun protection hence, they require three to five times longer identifying the same levels of vitamin D as individuals with white skin tone.
There exists an inverse correlation between serum 25 (OH) D and the body mass index (BMI) greater than 20k/m2, which identifies that obese individuals experience vitamin D deficiency. Patients identifying one of the fat malabsorption syndromes together with bariatric patients are identified as challenged in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamin D together with patients with nephrotic syndrome lose 25 (OH) D and remain bound to vitamin D-binding protein within the urine. In addition, patients administering a wide range of medication including anticonvulsant together with antiviral drugs are identified at higher risk as the drugs influence the catabolism of 25 (OH)D and 1,25 (OH)2D. Patients with chronic granuloma-forming disorders including some lymphomas and primary hyperparathyroidism identify high levels of a metabolism at 25 (OH) D to 1, 25 (OH) 2 D are identified at high risk of vitamin D deficiency.
References Almeras, L., Eyles, D., Benech, P. (2007). Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters brain protein expression in the adult rat: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders. Proteomics,7(5):769-80. Andres, E., Loukili, N., Noel, E., (2004). Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency in elderly patients. Can Med Assoc J, 171(3):251-259. Andres, E., Vidal-Alaball, J., Federici, L. (2007).Clinical aspects of cobalamin deficiency in elderly patients. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestations, and treatment with a special focus on oral cobalamin therapy. Eur J Intern Med, 18:456-462. Bodnar, M., Simhan, N., Powers, W. (2007). High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates. J Nutr, 137(2):447-52. Duerksen, R., Fallows, G., Bernstein, N. (2006). Vitamin B12 malabsorption in patients with limited ileal resection. Nutrition, 22:1210-1213. Féron, F., Burne, H., Brown, J. (2005). Developmental vitamin D3 deficiency alters the adult rat brain. Brain Res Bull, 65(2):141-8. Hvas, M., Nexo, E. (2005). Holotranscobalamin – a first choice assay for diagnosing early vitamin B deficiency? J Intern Med, 2005; 257(3):287-298. Headstrom, D., Rulyak, J., & Lee, SD. (2008). Prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis, 14(2):217-223. Kwong, C., Carr, D., & Dhalla, A. (2005). Oral vitamin B12 therapy in the primary care setting: a qualitative and quantitative study of patient perspectives. BMC Fam Pract, 6 (8). Ladhani S, Srinivasan L, Buchanan C, Allgrove J. (2004). Presentation of vitamin D deficiency. Arch Dis Child, 89(8):781-4. Pajecki, D., Dalcanalle, L., & Souza de Oliveira. (2007). Follow-up of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients at 5 or more years postoperatively. Obesity Surgery, 17:601-607. Rucker D, Allan JA, Fick GH, Hanley DA. (2002). Vitamin D insufficiency in a population of healthy western Canadians. CMAJ, 166(12):1517-24. Roth De, Martz P, Yeo R. (2005). Are national vitamin D guidelines sufficient to maintain adequate blood levels in children? Can J Public Health, 96(6):443-9. Ting, Z, Szeto, C, & Chan, H. (2006). Risk factors of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients receiving metformin. Arch Intern Med, 166:1975-1979. Vidal-Alaball J, Butler CC, Cannings-John, R. (2005). Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 20;(3): CD004655.
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Once you have acquired a capstone project example, you should certainly use it as your guide and not your source of information. The example is supposed to act as a blueprint and so you should use in that way. Now there are those who just duplicate the content in the project example and expect to be awarded good grades for their projects. That cannot happen especially so if the professor responsible for marking your projects knows your writing standards, he will certainly recognize that the project you submitted is not actually yours. You should, therefore, learn how to plan your content in the project by using the example and not use it the data in the example.
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CapstoneProjectWriter.com is a quality-focused custom capstone project writing service that provides professional support to students in writing their papers. All our services, including capstone projects, PowerPoint presentations, and research papers, are meant for assistance purposes only, requiring proper referencing when used as it is.