Keep up-to-date on postgraduate related issues with our quick reads written by students, postdocs, professors and industry leaders.
Thesis and Dissertation Appendicies – What to Include
- By DiscoverPhDs
- August 12, 2020
An appendix is a section at the end of a dissertation that contains supplementary information. An appendix may contain figures, tables, raw data, and other additional information that supports the arguments of your dissertation but do not belong in the main body.
It can be either a long appendix or split into several smaller appendices. Each appendix should have its own title and identification letters, and the numbering for any tables or figures in them should be reset at the beginning of each new appendix.
Purpose of an Appendix
When writing the main body of your dissertation, it is important to keep it short and concise in order to convey your arguments effectively.
Given the amount of research you would have done, you will probably have a lot of additional information that you would like to share with your audience.
This is where appendices come in. Any information that doesn’t support your main arguments or isn’t directly relevant to the topic of your dissertation should be placed in an appendix.
This will help you organise your paper, as only information that adds weight to your arguments will be included; it will also help improve your flow by minimising unnecessary interruptions.
Note, however, that your main body must be detailed enough that it can be understood without your appendices. If a reader has to flip between pages to make sense of what they are reading, they are unlikely to understand it.
For this reason, appendices should only be used for supporting background material and not for any content that doesn’t fit into your word count, such as the second half of your literature review .
What to Include in a Dissertation Appendix
A dissertation appendix can be used for the following supplementary information:
There are various ways in which research results can be presented, such as in tables or diagrams.
Although all of your results will be useful to some extent, you won’t be able to include them all in the main body of your dissertation. Consequently, only those that are crucial to answering your research question should be included.
Your other less significant findings should be placed in your appendix, including raw data, proof of control measures, and other supplemental material.
Details of Questionnaires and Interviews
You can choose to include the details of any surveys and interviews you have conducted. This can include:
- An interview transcript,
- A copy of any survey questions,
- Questionnaire results.
Although the results of your surveys, questionnaires or interviews should be presented and discussed in your main text, it is useful to include their full form in the appendix of a dissertation to give credibility to your study.
Tables, Figures and Illustrations
If your dissertation contains a large number of tables, figures and illustrative material, it may be helpful to insert the less important ones in your appendix. For example, if you have four related datasets, you could present all the data and trend lines (made identifiable by different colours) on a single chart with a further breakdown for each dataset in your appendix.
Letters and Correspondence
If you have letters or correspondence, either between yourself and other researchers or places where you sought permission to reuse copyrighted material, they should be included here. This will help ensure that your dissertation doesn’t become suspected of plagiarism.
List of Abbreviations
Most researchers will provide a list of abbreviations at the beginning of their dissertation, but if not, it would be wise to add them as an appendix.
This is because not all of your readers will have the same background as you and therefore may have difficulty understanding the abbreviations and technical terms you use.
Note: Some researchers refer to this as a ‘glossary’, especially if it is provided as an appendix section. For all intended purposes, this is the same as a list of abbreviations.
Finding a PhD has never been this easy – search for a PhD by keyword, location or academic area of interest.
How to Format a Dissertation Appendix
In regards to format, you can include one lengthy appendix or structure it into several smaller appendices.
Although the choice is yours, it is usually better to opt for several different appendices as it allows you to organise your supplementary information into different categories based on what they are.
The following guidelines should be observed when preparing your dissertation appendices section:
- Each appendix should start on a new page and be given a unique title and identifying letter, such as “Appendix A – Raw Data”. This allows you to more easily refer to appendix headings in the text of your main body should you need to.
- Each appendix should have its own page numbering system, comprising the appendix identification letter and the corresponding page number. The appendix identification letter should be reset for each appendix, but the page number should remain continuous. For example, if ‘Appendix A’ has three pages and ‘Appendix B’ two pages, the page numbers should be A-1, A-2, A-3, B-4, B-5.
- The numbering of tables and figures should be reset at the beginning of each new appendix. For example, if ‘Appendix A’ contains two tables and ‘Appendix B’ one table, the table number within Appendix B should be ‘Table 1’ and not ‘Table 3’.
- If you have multiple appendices instead of a single longer one, insert a ‘List of Appendices’ in the same way as your contents page.
- Use the same formatting (font size, font type, spacing, margins, etc.) as the rest of your report.
Example of Appendices
Below is an example of what a thesis or dissertation appendix could look like.
Referring to an Appendix In-Text
You must refer to each appendix in the main body of your dissertation at least once to justify its inclusion; otherwise, the question arises as to whether they are really needed.
You can refer to an appendix in one of three ways:
1. Refer to a specific figure or table within a sentence, for example: “As shown in Table 2 of Appendix A, there is little correlation between X and Y”.
2. Refer to a specific figure or table in parentheses, for example: “The results (refer to Table 2 of Appendix A) show that there is little correlation between X and Y”.
3. Refer to an entire appendix, for example: “The output data can be found in Appendix A”.
Appendices vs Appendixes
Both terms are correct, so it is up to you which one you prefer. However, it is worth noting that ‘appendices’ are used more frequently in the science and research community, so we recommend using the former in academic writing if you have no preferences.
Where Does an Appendix Go?
For a dissertation, your appendices should be inserted after your reference list.
Some people like to put their appendices in a standalone document to separate it from the rest of their report, but we only recommend this at the request of your dissertation supervisor, as this isn’t common practice.
Note : Your university may have its own requirements or formatting suggestions for writing your dissertation or thesis appendix. As such, make sure you check with your supervisor or department before you work on your appendices. This will especially be the case for any students working on a thesis.
You’ve impressed the supervisor with your PhD application, now it’s time to ace your interview with these powerful body language tips.
In Finland, all new PhD holders are given a traditional Doctoral Hat and Doctoral Sword during a Conferment Ceremony, symbolising the freedom of research.
The purpose of research is to enhance society by advancing knowledge through developing scientific theories, concepts and ideas – find out more on what this involves.
Join thousands of other students and stay up to date with the latest PhD programmes, funding opportunities and advice.
Browse PhDs Now
Multistage sampling is a more complex form of cluster sampling for obtaining sample populations. Learn their pros and cons and how to undertake them.
This post explains where and how to write the list of figures in your thesis or dissertation.
Chris is making minor corrections to his PhD thesis post-viva at the University of Nottingham. His research was on optimising the cost-effectiveness of risk-based screening for diabetic retinopathy.
Dr Pattison gained his PhD in Cosmology from the University of Portsmouth. He is now finishing a short term post-doc within the same research group and developing a career in science communication and science education.
Join Thousands of Students
The Graduate College at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Refer to either the Sample (Straight Numbering) or Sample (Decimal Numbering) pages as you read through this section. Note: For the Appendices, you should use the same numbering style you chose for the Main Text.
The appendix is a section that is placed at the end of the thesis and may contain material such as tables, figures, maps, photographs, raw data, computer programs, musical examples, interview questions, sample questionnaires, CDs, and many other types of material.
- An appendix is considered a chapter equivalent and the appendix title should be formatted like a chapter title.
- Multiple appendices should be numbered A, B, C, and so on. Each appendix should be treated as a separate chapter equivalent and will therefore start on a new page.
- Page numbers used in the appendix must continue from the main text.
- As a best practice, include your IRB approval letter (if applicable) in an appendix.
- Do not include a curriculum vitae or author's biography in your thesis; the Graduate College no longer accepts these sections.
As part of the thesis, any appendix materials must be reviewed and approved by the director of research and committee.
The thesis or dissertation itself should be understandable without the supplemental appendix materials.
As part of the ETD submission, students may upload supplemental electronic files as part of their thesis or dissertation. These files are considered appendix items, and an appendix page must be included as part of the thesis and should be numbered accordingly. This page should include an appendix title, such as “Appendix A: Interview Transcriptions,” and a brief description of the material along with the name of the file in which the material is contained.
- Library Catalogue
Formatting your thesis: Appendices & supplemental material
On this page
Introduction, materials included in appendices, supplemental material, order of appendices, appendix headings, formatting help.
Appendices provide supplementary information to the main thesis and should always appear after the references/bibliography. If you are unsure about whether content should be included in the thesis or in an appendix, consult with your supervisor. The thesis and appendices must be uploaded in a single file.
For more information about appendices, please see the Thesis Template Instructions .
Note: Signatures, personal phone numbers, or personal email addresses (ones that contains part of a person’s name) must be redacted from your thesis. This means that the text is fully removed, and cannot be copied & pasted out of the document.
If including copyrighted materials as appendices, see Copyright at SFU .
Examples of material included in appendices are as follows--also refer to Formatting Help .
- interview questions
- participant letters / forms
- surveys / questionnaires (if not your own work, these require copyright permission)
- supplemental tables / figures / graphs / image
If you have material that cannot be included within your document (data, audio, video, hi-resolution images, embedded media (ie. GIFs)), or any hyperlinks to data that has a destruction timeline as per Ethics, you can upload supplemental material files to your library submission record (in addition to your thesis document). The maximum file size for each file is 2GB . If you have a larger file size, please contact [email protected] .
If you are including supplemental material in your submission, you must also include an appendix within your thesis document, which contains an overall description of the subject matter, credits, and file name(s). This assists in “linking” your document to any additional supplementary material, as well as providing further information and context about the file(s).
- Upload .mp3 (audio) and .mp4 (video) files for embedded playback at the document's Summit page
- Summit supports H.264 HD video
- Lossless audio (.wav, .aif, .flac) can be packaged into a zip file for download.
- video file example
- raw data (.txt), Microsoft Excel (.xls and .xlsx), and zip file (.zip)
- data file example
It is recommended to upload the best file formats to allow for data files to be preserved in the most straightforward way, so that they remain usable through software upgrades and changes in the computing environment. More information can be found at Research Data Management (RDM)'s website for more information about the handling and organization of data during your research.
Appendices appear in the order in which they are introduced in the text.
You may include one appendix or a number of appendices.
If you have more than one appendix, you would letter each accordingly (i.e., Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.). Write your appendix headings in the same manner as your chapter headings.
- Transfer the text and re-format using the template styles as necessary, or
- Convert the documents into images and insert them into your document, one image per page.
Have a language expert improve your writing
Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.
- Knowledge Base
- Research paper
- Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates
Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates
Published on August 4, 2022 by Tegan George and Kirsten Dingemanse. Revised on July 18, 2023.
An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper , dissertation , or thesis without making your final product too long.
Appendices help you provide more background information and nuance about your thesis or dissertation topic without disrupting your text with too many tables and figures or other distracting elements.
We’ve prepared some examples and templates for you, for inclusions such as research protocols, survey questions, and interview transcripts. All are worthy additions to an appendix. You can download these in the format of your choice below.
Download Word doc Download Google doc
Table of contents
What is an appendix in a research paper, what to include in an appendix, how to format an appendix, how to refer to an appendix, where to put your appendices, other components to consider, appendix checklist, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about appendices.
In the main body of your research paper, it’s important to provide clear and concise information that supports your argument and conclusions . However, after doing all that research, you’ll often find that you have a lot of other interesting information that you want to share with your reader.
While including it all in the body would make your paper too long and unwieldy, this is exactly what an appendix is for.
As a rule of thumb, any detailed information that is not immediately needed to make your point can go in an appendix. This helps to keep your main text focused but still allows you to include the information you want to include somewhere in your paper.
Scribbr Citation Checker New
The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:
- Missing commas and periods
- Incorrect usage of “et al.”
- Ampersands (&) in narrative citations
- Missing reference entries
An appendix can be used for different types of information, such as:
- Supplementary results : Research findings are often presented in different ways, but they don’t all need to go in your paper. The results most relevant to your research question should always appear in the main text, while less significant results (such as detailed descriptions of your sample or supplemental analyses that do not help answer your main question), can be put in an appendix.
- Statistical analyses : If you conducted statistical tests using software like Stata or R, you may also want to include the outputs of your analysis in an appendix.
- Further information on surveys or interviews : Written materials or transcripts related to things such as surveys and interviews can also be placed in an appendix.
You can opt to have one long appendix, but separating components (like interview transcripts, supplementary results, or surveys ) into different appendices makes the information simpler to navigate.
Here are a few tips to keep in mind:
- Always start each appendix on a new page.
- Assign it both a number (or letter) and a clear title, such as “Appendix A. Interview transcripts.” This makes it easier for your reader to find the appendix, as well as for you to refer back to it in your main text.
- Number and title the individual elements within each appendix (e.g., “Transcripts”) to make it clear what you are referring to. Restart the numbering in each appendix at 1.
It is important that you refer to each of your appendices at least once in the main body of your paper. This can be done by mentioning the appendix and its number or letter, either in parentheses or within the main part of a sentence. It’s also possible to refer to a particular component of an appendix.
Appendix B presents the correspondence exchanged with the fitness boutique. Example 2. Referring to an appendix component These results (see Appendix 2, Table 1) show that …
It is common to capitalize “Appendix” when referring to a specific appendix, but it is not mandatory. The key is just to make sure that you are consistent throughout your entire paper, similarly to consistency in capitalizing headings and titles in academic writing .
However, note that lowercase should always be used if you are referring to appendices in general. For instance, “The appendices to this paper include additional information about both the survey and the interviews .”
Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services
Discover proofreading & editing
The simplest option is to add your appendices after the main body of your text, after you finish citing your sources in the citation style of your choice. If this is what you choose to do, simply continue with the next page number. Another option is to put the appendices in a separate document that is delivered with your dissertation.
Remember that any appendices should be listed in your paper’s table of contents .
There are a few other supplementary components related to appendices that you may want to consider. These include:
- List of abbreviations : If you use a lot of abbreviations or field-specific symbols in your dissertation, it can be helpful to create a list of abbreviations .
- Glossary : If you utilize many specialized or technical terms, it can also be helpful to create a glossary .
- Tables, figures and other graphics : You may find you have too many tables, figures, and other graphics (such as charts and illustrations) to include in the main body of your dissertation. If this is the case, consider adding a figure and table list .
All appendices contain information that is relevant, but not essential, to the main text.
Each appendix starts on a new page.
I have given each appendix a number and clear title.
I have assigned any specific sub-components (e.g., tables and figures) their own numbers and titles.
My appendices are easy to follow and clearly formatted.
I have referred to each appendix at least once in the main text.
Your appendices look great! Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis.
If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!
- Anchoring bias
- Halo effect
- The Baader–Meinhof phenomenon
- The placebo effect
- Nonresponse bias
- Deep learning
- Generative AI
- Machine learning
- Reinforcement learning
- Supervised vs. unsupervised learning
- Grammar Checker
- Paraphrasing Tool
- Text Summarizer
- AI Detector
- Plagiarism Checker
- Citation Generator
Yes, if relevant you can and should include APA in-text citations in your appendices . Use author-date citations as you do in the main text.
Any sources cited in your appendices should appear in your reference list . Do not create a separate reference list for your appendices.
An appendix contains information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to it. For example:
- Interview transcripts
- Detailed descriptions of equipment
Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text (e.g. quoting from an interview transcript). If you don’t, it should probably be removed.
When you include more than one appendix in an APA Style paper , they should be labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.
When you only include a single appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in the main text.
Appendices in an APA Style paper appear right at the end, after the reference list and after your tables and figures if you’ve also included these at the end.
You may have seen both “appendices” or “appendixes” as pluralizations of “ appendix .” Either spelling can be used, but “appendices” is more common (including in APA Style ). Consistency is key here: make sure you use the same spelling throughout your paper.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
George, T. & Dingemanse, K. (2023, July 18). Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved November 3, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/appendix/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, dissertation table of contents in word | instructions & examples, what is a glossary | definition, templates, & examples, figure and table lists | word instructions, template & examples, what is your plagiarism score.
What is an Appendix in a Dissertation?
An appendix is an index at the end of a dissertation or thesis that gives additional information about the dissertation. The purpose of an appendix is to include information that is does directly answers your main question or is not important to understand your answer. New information can be used as items included in the appendices. The information should be relevant, but not crucial to your dissertation argument. The role of an appendix is to explain certain terms and words used in the dissertation and provide data that is relevant to the dissertation but not as important as points that are directly involved in the main body of the dissertation.
An appendix is an important part of a dissertation . It comes after the conclusion. No main point should go in the appendix. Everything except the main points can be included in a dissertation appendix. It should be secondary knowledge provided to the reader in order to make them more aware of the subject addressed in the dissertation. All ‘relational information’ can be included in the appendices.
Appendices are usually long. The information provided comes under distinct headings. The reader chooses to read whatever seems beneficial to their understanding of the topic of dissertation and leaves the rest.
This Article Covers
Items to be included in appendices, tips to help write an appendix, guidelines to formatting of an appendix.
- Meanings of words/phrases:
In the case of abbreviations used throughout the dissertation, it would help to create a glossary at the beginning or end of your dissertation. A glossary can be included in the appendix. Readers would refer to it to know the full form of an abbreviation or the contextual meaning of a word.
- Forms of usage
While discussing different words used in a similar context, be sure to mention them in the appendix. Also, the same word used in a different context should be included in the appendix.
- Context behind a research methodology/question/subjects of study/objects used etc
You can state your purpose for using particular data points. This context should not be highly important to your research question, though.
- Information about an area of research
This can include the modes of transport you used to visit a particular region to collect information or data, the problems you faced while collecting data in a region, the exact location, geography and ethnography of that region etc.
- Additional results and surveys
This will help the readers to see what you have based your research on. Be careful not to include main results, but only those that are not directly connected to your dissertation findings. They need to be extra ones you collected/made while working on your dissertation.
- Tables, diagrams, graphs
Use as many tables and graphs that support your dissertation question but cannot be included in the main body. Show the reader how much data you have collected as part of your dissertation.
- Dates, time, places
All the skeptical readers who want to dig in to the date, place and time of your research can refer to the appendix where they will find your systematic archive of days, months, places of data collection. It is part of explaining a context behind an event or data point.
- Any other connected information
Your dissertation cannot be without further information that is connected to your main points in certain ways. It can be absorbed along with its ambiguous nature in the dissertation appendix. You can state your purpose for using particular data points. This context should not be highly important to your research question, though.
- Go through your dissertation and mark phrases or words
Before you start writing an appendix at the end of your research paper or dissertation, read your dissertation from introduction to conclusion and make a list of all the words and phrases that need an explanation. At the same time, note the points that need to be explained more with the help of diagrams, tables, graphs etc. The additional explanations, tables, graphs etc can go in the appendix.
- Use a dictionary
Despite your knowledge of a word or a phrase and its usage, please refer to a dictionary as you prepare a glossary. The appropriate meaning is important to be given in an appendix in order to avoid miscommunications of any sort. Give the usage of the word along with the meaning.
- State what the table/diagram/survey is in reference to
The additional survey/table/diagram that is included in the appendix needs to specify its connection to the point made in the main body of the dissertation . It should be in reference to the main body of the dissertation. Page numbers need to be stated, accordingly, along with the title or the subheading the respective point of reference in the main body (survey/diagram/table/data) comes under. This will help the reader refer to these diagrams in relation to the information given in the main body of your dissertation.
- Try to include the date and time of data collection
If the date and time of collecting data for your dissertation is not directly relevant to your findings or not affecting the collected data in a certain way, you can include them in the dissertation appendices. In this way you need not bombard your reader with unnecessary information, and yet include it in your dissertation.
- Do not worry about giving TMI (Too Much Information)
The purpose of an appendix is to give extra information to a reader. There is no way the information or data you provide in your appendix will overwhelm the reader because of its size. Appendices are supposed to be long and tedious. It is up to the reader to go over the information in the appendices.
- Look at a few examples
Each book, dissertation, research paper, academic article has an appendix or several appendices at the end. It would help you to go through a few appendices before you start writing your own dissertation appendix. Examples may provide you with an idea of the structure and format of an appendix and components that may be included in it. Many of these examples are available online.
- Referring to an appendix
As you prepare an appendix, add a few notes in the main body of your dissertation referring to the appendix. Refer to particular points or elements at a time. Do not just say ‘Refer to the appendix given at the end of the dissertation ’. Instead, use something like- ‘Refer to point number 4 of Appendix 2, to get more information about table 2.3’.
- Create multiple appendices if you need
To give information in a logical order and avoid confusion on the part of the reader, it is better to divide this information in to various appendices, starting with Appendix 1, Appendix 2, and so on. The first appendix can be a glossary, the second one with tables, graphs or diagrams and the third can include information about the institutes or papers referred.
- Write point-wise
While creating an appendix, each new word/phrase/element should be a separate point. Number each point properly. It would be easier to find the required table or word if it is a separate point.
- The contents explained should be in the order of their appearance in the dissertation
The order of words and phrases should be maintained in the appendix. You cannot put one above the other when their order of occurrence is the opposite. Haphazard content is very off-putting. If a word occurs on the 3 rd page of a dissertation and another on the 4 th , the one on the 3 rd should be explained before the one on the 4 th .
- Have a minimum of two columns to divide elements and their explanation
As you prepare an appendix, write the words or phrases in one column and their explanation in the next column. This would make your appendix neat and tidy. A word and its explanation should be on the same horizontal line to make the appendix systematic.
- Title and label the tables and graphs
All tables and graphs need to be assigned a title, that clarifies their contents. They also need to be labelled so that they are beneficial to the reader. They need to make their position in the dissertation clear.
- Put these appendices in the right order
Order is very important in making dissertation appendices proper and appealing. Do not go all over the place with your appendices. Try to put them in a rational order, with proper spacing between two appendices. Start each appendix on a new page.
An appendix, though not part of the main body of a dissertation, is relevant to it. All explanations that cannot be included in the main body of the dissertation can be part of the Appendix. The role of an appendix is to show minor details that are part of the dissertation process. However, appendices need to be well structured and the items included in the appendices systematically organized. There is no point in losing the purpose of an appendix. Refer to your appendices wherever needed in the main body. In order to be able to refer to it, structure your appendix well. Do not ignore it just because it comes at the end of your dissertation.
Leave a Reply Cancel reply
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *
Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
The Plagiarism Checker Online For Your Academic Work
Start Plagiarism Check
Editing & Proofreading for Your Research Paper
Get it proofread now
Online Printing & Binding with Free Express Delivery
Configure binding now
- Academic essay overview
- The writing process
- Structuring academic essays
- Types of academic essays
- Academic writing overview
- Sentence structure
- Academic writing process
- Improving your academic writing
- Titles and headings
- APA style overview
- APA citation & referencing
- APA structure & sections
- Citation & referencing
- Structure and sections
- APA examples overview
- Commonly used citations
- Other examples
- British English vs. American English
- Chicago style overview
- Chicago citation & referencing
- Chicago structure & sections
- Chicago style examples
- Citing sources overview
- Citation format
- Citation examples
- College essay overview
- How to write a college essay
- Types of college essays
- Commonly confused words
- Dissertation overview
- Dissertation structure & sections
- Dissertation writing process
- Graduate school overview
- Application & admission
- Study abroad
- Master degree
- Harvard referencing overview
- Language rules overview
- Grammatical rules & structures
- Parts of speech
- Methodology overview
- Analyzing data
- Inductive vs. Deductive
- Qualitative vs. Quantitative
- Types of validity
- Types of reliability
- Sampling methods
- Theories & Concepts
- Types of research studies
- Types of variables
- MLA style overview
- MLA examples
- MLA citation & referencing
- MLA structure & sections
- Plagiarism overview
- Plagiarism checker
- Types of plagiarism
- Printing production overview
- Research bias overview
- Types of research bias
- Example sections
- Types of research papers
- Research process overview
- Problem statement
- Research proposal
- Research topic
- Statistics overview
- Levels of measurment
- Frequency distribution
- Measures of central tendency
- Measures of variability
- Hypothesis testing
- Parameters & test statistics
- Types of distributions
- Effect size
- Hypothesis testing assumptions
- Types of ANOVAs
- Types of chi-square
- Statistical data
- Statistical models
- Spelling mistakes
- Tips overview
- Academic writing tips
- Dissertation tips
- Sources tips
- Working with sources overview
- Evaluating sources
- Finding sources
- Including sources
- Types of sources
Your Step to Success
Plagiarism Check within 10min
Printing & Binding with 3D Live Preview
Dissertation Appendix – Components, Format & Examples
How do you like this article cancel reply.
Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
An appendix is an integral part of every dissertation paper, serving as supplementary material that enhances and supports the research study. However, only a few people understand what the section is, where it must be placed, and why it must be included in a dissertation . Therefore, while not typically central to the dissertation’s argument, the appendix adds valuable context and transparency to the academic work. This post will cover everything there is to know about a dissertation appendix, from its definition and purpose to the components and format.
- 1 Dissertation Appendix – In a Nutshell
- 2 Definition: Dissertation appendix
- 3 Purpose of a dissertation appendix
- 4 Dissertation appendix: Components
- 5 Dissertation appendix: Format
- 6 Referring to a dissertation appendix
- 7 Dissertation Appendix: Checklist
Dissertation Appendix – In a Nutshell
- An appendix is not part of the main body of the dissertation, but is still relevant to it.
- A dissertation appendix encapsulates all explanations that cannot be included in the main body of the dissertation.
- Appendices must be well-structured, and their components systemically organized to serve their purpose correctly.
Definition: Dissertation appendix
A dissertation appendix (plural –appendices) is an index at the end of a dissertation that provides additional information related to the dissertation paper. The section helps academic writers present background information related to the dissertation, but doesn’t directly answer the research question. These can include tables, illustrations and other graphics.
Purpose of a dissertation appendix
The primary purpose of a dissertation appendix is to help keep your dissertation paper organized and within the required word limit. It contains any additional information that isn’t directly relevant to the research topic.
Typically, texts that strengthen your arguments appear in your dissertation paper’s main body. However, there is additional information that isn’t directly beneficial to your research but might be helpful to your readers. That is where a dissertation appendix comes in.
Although they provide additional information, your audience should be able to understand the contents of your dissertation paper even without looking at the dissertation appendix. So, ensure you include all important texts in the main body.
Dissertation appendix: Components
A dissertation appendix can include different types of information, such as:
Research results can be presented in various ways, including tables and figures. However, not all of these findings need to appear in the main body of your dissertation. Only results that are essential in answering the research topic should be included in the paper. Additional results (less significant findings), such as raw data and supplemental analyses, should go into the dissertation appendix.
Besides supplementary results, additional information related to surveys and interviews can be included in a dissertation appendix. These can include types of interviews, interview transcripts, survey questions, and details of questionnaires. Although these details are not critical to answering your research question, including them in the dissertation appendix gives credibility to your research.
Copies of relevant forms
It is essential to include a list of abbreviations and acronyms and a glossary in the appendix if your dissertation paper contains many words that your audience might not recognize. This helps enhance readability and minimize confusion for readers. Your list of abbreviations and acronyms, and glossary should appear after the table of contents section.
Figures, tables, graphics
You can also include tables, figures, illustrations, and other graphics in the dissertation appendix if your research contains a lot of them. The appendix is the appropriate platform to include less important ones. Use tables and figures that support your research question but cannot be included in the main body.
Dissertation appendix: Format
There is no restriction to how you can format your dissertation appendix. You can opt to have one long appendix if you don’t feel the need to break it into smaller sections with different components. However, it might be a good idea to separate the components (such as interview transcripts and supplementary results) into various appendices to enhance readability.
If you choose to have multiple appendices in your dissertation, always start each appendix on a new page. Additionally, ensure you assign each page a number or letter. For instance, you can use ‘Appendix 2 – Interview Transcripts.’ Giving a unique identifier (number and title of each element) to each appendix makes it easier for the reader to navigate through the information and for you to refer to it in the main dissertation body.
When numbering tables and figures in multiple appendices, you should reset the numbering as you move to the next appendix (next page). For instance, if your ‘Appendix 1 –Raw Data’ has two tables and ‘Appendix 2 – Interview Transcripts’ has one table, the table in ‘Appendix 2’ should be ‘Table 1’ and not ‘Table 3’ .
Referring to a dissertation appendix
It is crucial to refer to each dissertation appendix at least once when crafting the dissertation’s main body. That helps justify the inclusion of appendices in your study.
There are two primary ways you can refer to a dissertation appendix in the main body:
- Refer to an entire appendix
“The interview transcripts can be found in Appendix 1 –Interview Transcripts”.
- Refer to an appendix component
There are two ways you can refer to an appendix component:
- Refer to specific figures or tables in brackets (parenthetical reference). For example, “The results (refer to Table 1 Appendix 3) indicate a slight decline in the number of new infections”.
- Include the reference in a sentence within the main body (descriptive reference). For example, “As shown in Table 1 of Appendix 3, there is a slight decline in the number of new infections” .
If your paper has one long dissertation appendix, it is good practice to refer to its components in uppercase, but it is not mandatory. However, it is important to maintain consistency throughout your entire paper, the same way you capitalize your headings and titles in academic work.
Although you are free to choose what case to use, you should always use lower-case when referring to appendices in general.
“The appendices at the end of this paper contain additional information about the area of research.”
Dissertation Appendix: Checklist
- Each dissertation appendix starts on a fresh page
- My appendices contain relevant information, but they are not essential in answering my research question
- I have referred to each of my appendices at least once in the main body
- The content of my appendices (tables and figures) are clearly labelled
- My appendices are easy to understand and refer to
What is a dissertation appendix?
A dissertation appendix is a section of your dissertation that you use to provide additional data related to your main study but is not essential to answering the primary research question.
What should I include in my appendix?
Your appendix should contain additional information relevant to the dissertation but not directly important to answering your main questions. These can include supplementary results, tables, interview questions and transcripts.
Do I need an appendix in my dissertation?
If you have a lot of additional information, it is important to have an appendix in your dissertation. Appendices help provide readers with details that support your research without breaking the flow of the main body.
Can my dissertation paper have multiple appendices?
Yes. Your dissertation paper can have more than one appendix. Ensure you properly label each appendix (Appendix A or Appendix 1) if your paper has multiple appendices.
Is it appendices or appendixes?
Appendices and appendixes are both correct plurals for the term appendix. However, many scholars prefer using ‘appendices’ over ‘appendixes.’
- External Media
Individual Privacy Preferences
Here you will find an overview of all cookies used. You can give your consent to whole categories or display further information and select certain cookies.
Accept all Save
Essential cookies enable basic functions and are necessary for the proper function of the website.
Show Cookie Information Hide Cookie Information
Statistics cookies collect information anonymously. This information helps us to understand how our visitors use our website.
Content from video platforms and social media platforms is blocked by default. If External Media cookies are accepted, access to those contents no longer requires manual consent.
- Mardigian Library
- Subject Guides
Formatting Your Thesis with Microsoft Word
- Copyright Page
- Dedication, Acknowledgements, & Preface
- Headings and Subheadings
- Citations and Bibliography
- Page Numbers
- Tables and Figures
- Rotated (Landscape) Pages
- Table of Contents
- Lists of Tables and Figures
- List of Abbreviations
- Some Things to Watch For
- PDF with Embedded Fonts
Appendix, Appendices, List of Appendices
If you only have one appendix in your thesis, adding that is pretty straightforward. It is mostly treated like another chapter, except "Chapter" is changed to "Appendix". When you have more than one appendix, it gets more complicated and you have to add a List of Appendices in the front matter part of the thesis. The video tutorial demonstrates how to add a single appendix, how to format multiple appendices, and how to add the List of Appendices to the front of the thesis.
- << Previous: Equations
- Next: Front Matter Lists >>
- Last Updated: Oct 10, 2023 3:57 PM
- URL: https://guides.umd.umich.edu/Word_for_Theses
Call us at 313-593-5559
Chat with us
Text us: 313-486-5399
Email us your question
- 4901 Evergreen Road Dearborn, MI 48128, USA
- Phone: 313-593-5000
- Maps & Directions
- M+Google Mail
- Emergency Information
- UM-Dearborn Connect
- Wolverine Access
An appendix** comes at the end (after the reference list) of a report, research project, or dissertation and contains any additional information such as raw data or interview transcripts. The information in the appendices is relevant but is too long or too detailed to include in the main body of your work.
**Note: Appendix is singular and appendices is plural. When you want to refer to one of your appendices, use appendix - for example, ‘See Appendix 1’.
Scroll down for our recommended strategies and resources.
Ensure everything in your appendices has a purpose. This guide gives a useful overview of the structure, format, and effective use of appendices:
Appendices (University of Southern California)
Your appendices should have a clear labelling system (Appendix 1, Appendix 2, Appendix 3) and each item in an appendix should have a descriptive title saying what it is (‘Appendix 1: Flowchart of purchasing decision-making process).
You need to refer to your appendices in the body of your assignment or the reader will not know they are there. Use a short phrase such as ‘See Appendix 1’.
If you have taken data, diagrams, or information from other sources to put in your appendices, you need to reference them as normal; include an in-text citation next to the item in your appendices and a full reference in your reference list. If you have created your own graphs or tables using data from another source you can explain this in your in-text citation: (Table author’s own, data from Jones, 2017).
Back to top
- How it works
What is Appendix in the Dissertation?
Published by Alvin Nicolas at August 12th, 2021 , Revised On June 13, 2023
“Appendix or appendices (plural) is/are used to provide additional data related to your dissertation research project.”
An appendix section in dissertation helps you to provide background data related to your topic; present tables, illustrations, and figures that are not directly relevant to your research questions in order to avoid disrupting the flow of the text; to make sure that your dissertation paper’s word count does not go beyond the limit. This article explains what is an appendix in the dissertation.
The Purpose of an Appendix
The main body of the dissertation paper generally contains text that adds weight to your arguments. However, some information that is not directly relevant to the topic of research but might be useful to your audience could be provided under the appendices section.
Any additional information that does not directly support your in-text arguments goes into appendices. This helps to keep your paper organised and within the word limit. It is important to make sure that your readers can understand the contents of your dissertation paper without having to look at the appendices. Any information that is important should be mentioned in the main body.
Items Included in Appendices in Dissertation
An appendix, which is also known as a postscript, includes the following:
Research findings can be presented in several ways. Findings including tables, illustrations and figures that are directly relevant to your research questions or research problem are included in the main body.
However, there are certain text, tables and figures —such as supplemental analyses—that really need to be shown and cannot be ignored, but (due to less significance) can’t be included in the main body as it can disturb the flow of the text.
Such tables and figures are then included in the appendix section. The appendix includes more of the illustrations and findings as a result of data analysis that doesn’t directly address the research question but are essential to be shown.
Also Read: How to Write Dissertation Acknowledgements
Appendices are helpful in mentioning extra information related to surveys , interviews or focus groups. You can clearly mention how respondents responded to underpin your findings.
Include Abbreviations Section
If you have utilised a lot of abbreviations or jargon, it might be difficult for lay-person to understand those terms. You can include the abbreviations section or a glossary section in the appendix, which are sometimes positioned at the start of the dissertation.
Tables, Figures and/or Graphs
Your dissertation may include a lot of tables, figures and/or graphs due to the nature of research . The appendix is the appropriate platform to include all this information, including illustrations.
Looking for dissertation help?
Research prospect to the rescue, then.
We have expert writers on our team who are skilled at helping students with quantitative dissertations across a variety of disciplines. Guaranteeing 100% satisfaction!
You can carry on with just one long appendix (if you don’t want to break it into different components and want it to be the only appendix in your dissertation).
On the other hand, you might want to have separate sections in appendices such as questionnaire responses, findings, key phrases and key terms; it would be easier to figure out the information provided in appendices.
If you decide to include multiple sections within your appendices, each appendix should start on a new page with a clearly assigned title and number, for instance, ‘Appendix 7. Survey questions’ . It allows for each section of the appendix to be clearly visible to the reader and researcher.
It is also recommended to mention the number and title against each element that is directly linked to the appendix so that the reader will be able to know what you are referring to in the main body.
While numbering tables and figures, make sure that you re-start the numbering for each appendix. This means that each table and figure in a new appendix would be titled Table 1 or Figure 1.
Referring to the Appendix in the Main Body of the Dissertation
It is recommended to indicate all appendices at least once in the main body of your dissertation. Make sure that you mention the appendix number (enclosed in brackets, called parenthetical reference ) or within text in the main body (called descriptive reference ) as highlights for the readers.
It is not mandatory to capitalise it as that typically depends on the researcher’s will. You can also refer to certain elements within the appendix (which can be a specific illustration or table).
Example #1. When you are referring to an entire appendix
The focus-group interview (see Appendix 1) shows that… Appendix 2 describes how we gathered data from the sample population….
Example #2. While you are referring to an appendix component
These findings (see Appendix 1, Table 2) show that… Table 2 in Appendix 1 describes the factors which result in the increase in sales.
It would be a good practice to mention Appendix in upper-case, especially when referring to a specific component. However, this is not compulsory and you can choose to use lower-case, i.e., ‘The appendices provided at the end of the documents contain relevant content about the questionnaire responses.’
Here are some more appendix examples for you .
Which is More Appropriate: Appendices or Appendixes?
Both of these words (spellings) are true in their sense and can be used, but appendices is more appropriate according to APA style. However, it is important to ensure consistency throughout the thesis document. Don’t use alternative words in different sections of the dissertation .
Where to Include Appendices?
The general idea in this regard is to include appendices after the main body, i.e., the reference section. If you opt for this option, you need to continue with the same page number format. You can also submit appendices as a separate document with your dissertation project.
You should write down appendices (including titles and page numbers) in the table of contents.
Even if you are still unsure about what an appendix in a dissertation is, our writers can help with this chapter of your paper. All you have to do is complete our online order form , select the dissertation part/chapter as the required service type, attach your dissertation draft, and let us know your deadline. We guarantee that the writer we will assign to your order will have the expertise and qualification to create the appendices to your exact requirements.
FAQs About Appendices in Dissertation
What should i not include in a dissertation appendix.
Don’t include any irrelevant and/or vague information. It will only distract your readers from understanding your study’s overall purpose, significance, etc.
What can I include in an appendix?
You can include in it things like figures and/tables that are too lengthy to be included within the dissertation ; maps, photographs, raw data like participant score lists, computer programs like SPSS, musical examples like audios etc., interview questions and/or sample questionnaires, etc.
Can I include web URLs in an appendix?
Not really, although you can include PDF documents or weblinks to such documents within your dissertation appendix.
You May Also Like
Table of contents is an essential part of dissertation paper. Here is all you need to know about how to create the best table of contents for dissertation.
How to Structure a Dissertation or Thesis Need interesting and manageable Finance and Accounting dissertation topics? Here are the trending Media dissertation titles so you can choose one most suitable to your needs.
Your dissertation introduction chapter provides detailed information on the research problem, significance of research, and research aim & objectives.
Ready to place an order?
Useful links, learning resources.
- How It Works
- Dissertation & Thesis Guides
- Basics of Dissertation & Thesis Writing
- Appendix Dissertation: What to Write & How to Use
Appendix Dissertation: What to Write & How to Use
Table of contents
A dissertation appendix is an optional section that offers additional details. This can include survey results, raw data, statistics, calculations, photographs and other visual sources.
Appendix of a dissertation is one of the essential research components. It is an application that shows work you have conducted. Like other elements of scientific work, appendices should be drawn up accordingly. This article includes detailed information on how to do an appendicx for a dissertation.
What if you need someone more qualified to ' do my dissertation ?' Don't hesitate and check our solutions straight away!
What Is a Dissertation Appendix?
Appendix in dissertation is a section where non-standard format data is included. It is designed to improve quality of work, make it more evident and trustworthy. This section shows your readers the level of your competence and topic's depth. This part contains elements related to your research like tables, images, maps, documents, etc. Here should be any additional material which will not be added into general text. Just make sure you put data, which is not meant to be placed into the body of work. It includes vast material, for example, statistical data for calculation. Usually, the last pages are where you put this part of a dissertation. Appendixes' volume is not taken into account in total work size. If your research requires 70 pages, then your main text without attachments should be 70 pages. There are no volume requirements for the appendix itself. It can consist of 1 or 100 pages.
What Is the Purpose of Appendix in Dissertation?
Appendix in a dissertation includes all large materials that are not placed into worktext. This place is for informational or reference purposes only. Imagine there is disagreement about research conclusions. Then, detailed useful data from appendices will help you clarify the situation. For example, members of the defense commission had questions about certain conclusions. In turn, you can demonstrate application form and methodology for analyzing answers. It makes no sense to include these documents in work text due to their large volume. But this part is a super helpful place to prove the process's correctness.
Appendices or Appendixes
Wondering how to write correctly: appendices or appendixes ? You may think that both are correct. But which is more widespread? We'll explain it quickly! These are views of American English over past few decades: "Appendixes" was previously a completely incorrect plural form of "Appendix." This word was considered as a supplementary body part. Instead, the plural form was "Appendices." But it seems, many people made a mistake and preferred the wrong variant. So, with English being constantly evolving, it began to spread out quickly. This variant started to appear in academic and public materials. Both words are now considered correct according to modern dictionaries. "Appendixes" are becoming increasingly popular. We recommend you to look at other similar publications of your field. Check which word they are using.
What to Include in Dissertation Appendix?
Most often, your appendix for dissertation should include:
- Research Results Research results can be presented in tables and figures at the end or in the main text. So let's discover what information to submit in what form. Display main results that are relevant to your research question into the main text. Less significant results that do not help answer your main question can be placed in the appendix. This includes a detailed description of your sample or additional tests you have performed. For example, if you used software for statistics, including the results of your analysis.
- Questionnaires and Interviews In this section, you can add written materials relevant to survey and interview. Include these points in your dissertation so that readers can see what you have drawn your conclusions from. But they are usually not in the main body of text.
- Tables and Figures Any material that is less important to the main text can be included in the appendix. This includes tables, figures, and other graphic elements (such as charts and illustrations).
- Personal/Used Correspondence This should include correspondence between you and other researchers. Maybe you have applied for permission to reuse copyrighted material. This will help protect your dissertation from suspicion of plagiarism.
- Abbreviations It would be wise if you added a list of abbreviations to the appendix. Not all of your readers can understand the abbreviated technical terms you use. Note: Some researchers call this a "glossary."
Dissertation Appendix: Format
Now it's time to discuss how to do a dissertation appendix ! Here are some format and style rules you should keep in mind while writing your work:
- Heading "Appendix" should be centered on the first page of the section.
- Each reference should have its own number. It is located at the top of the page (for example, Appendix 1).
- Type and font size should be the same as in main work.
- Each attachment should be placed on a separate sheet even if it does not occupy the entire page.
- A "page break" should be inserted at the end of the page. So that materials do not move when a file is opened in another version of Microsoft Word.
At different universities, format requirements may differ. So we recommend you consult with your starting supervisor.
How to Refer to Appendix in Dissertation In-Text
Now let's discuss how to use an appendix in a dissertation in-text. All attachments should be arranged in the same order in which they are mentioned in text. In text, mark results with links. For example: "See Appendix №." We also recommend you make a list of attachments as you write your work. For example, you mentioned in a text a survey conducted. Immediately add a questionnaire and essential processing method in the appendix. When work is finished, you can easily collect all materials for application. Consider dissertation help services if you lack time to start the work.
Dissertation Appendix: Example
Here you can see some dissertation appendix samples. Don't hesitate and double-check this part. It is important for you to make your experience of writing a dissertation understandable for every reader.
Appendix in Dissertation: Bottom Line
Appendix of a dissertation is not less important than any other part of writing a thesis paper . This section consists of materials that do not fit into the main body. These can be images, tables, questionnaires, diagrams, calculations, drawings. It shows your severe approach and ability for working with information and increases the value of all work. Check our recommendations provided above if you wanna cope quickly with this section. We provided all the necessary background for you to succeed. Also, we recommended reading about how to write a dissertation abstract , dissertation acknowledgments , or dissertation proposals .
If difficulties arise, you can always turn to our writing services online for expert help. They will deliver your dissertation quickly and efficiently!