What Is The Relationship Between Student Mobility And Academic Achievement?
A book report of: why race and culture matter in schools: closing the achievement gap in america’s classrooms.
The data is compared to those students come from affluent socioeconomic status and backgrounds. The data is sourced from several diverse locations in order to give the broadest view of the disparities that exist. Howard (2010) compares data in reading, mathematics, SAT results and disciplinary rates. This data is a formidable beginning to the content of the book because it provides context for the reader to better understand the achievement gap.
The Pros And Cons Of School Integration
Today, we know integration has a positive effect on almost every aspect of schooling that matters. We also know integration matters for all students. Both minorities and whites are disadvantaged by attending racially isolated schools, although in somewhat different ways. Predominantly minority schools as a whole had inadequate and unfair educational opportunities. First, these schools tend to serve predominantly poor students. Due to poor situations at home and by the student's friends and sometimes relatives these schools routinely had lower rates of achievement than students in mostly average income schools. This holds true regardless of a student's race or socioeconomic status. More importantly, predominantly poor and minority schools find it extremely difficult to attract and retain high-quality
Analysis Of Closing The Opportunity Gap By Gloria Ladson Billings 20
“When we can predict how well students will do in school by looking at their zip code, we know we have a serious systemic problem” (Gloria Ladson-Billings 20). When we are able to forecast how a child will perform by where the child resides, then how can we say that every child is receiving quality education. The unsuccessful educational system infused into the United States is affecting the majority of minorities. In the United States students due to their race and social class, suffer from underfunded public schools, inexperienced teachers, and housing segregation, which in turn inhibit their opportunity to succeed through education. These difficulties plaque students from the very beginning of their public school experience and follow them throughout their academic life. There are a few solutions to these issues but they have to be implemented and enforced with a slow integration.
Louisiana Public Schools Essay
Student mobility is also a problem facing our school system. Once again, from research we have looked at in class, and from a study I looked at done primarily at the University of Washington on “Longitudinal Effects of Student Mobility on Three Dimensions of Elementary School Engagement,” it is suggested that students mobility and other factors that arise from it such as stress leaded to a decrease in a student’s ability to learn. In class we also
Quality of Secondary Education for Immigrants in the United States
Migrant children face a number of obstacles when they move to a foreign country and these challenges can greatly affect students’ school performance. The result of whether or not an immigrant student goes to college is greatly concerned with the “social-class split within the immigrant population” (Jaffe-Walter & Lee, 2011, pg.281). Immigrant families who have an upper class background tend to have the resources they need to succeed in America. These families are less likely to struggle financially and are able to give their children a proper education. Upper class immigrants are more likely to be involved and aware of the problems within a school system and are willing to fight against them. Highly educated settlers have a greater opportunity to send
However, when a student wants to attend college after high school, the chances of going to any school of his or her choice can seem unfair and have unequal opportunity to other peers. Unfortunately the idea of being limited to attending certain schools has a big influence in chances of becoming successful. Even though higher educations seems to have a direct path for high wages, the access to college can have reverse effects on intergenerational mobility. By limiting access from someone in a bottom percentile to have the possibility to attend a good college harms their upward mobility. In efforts to help breakdown an understanding of how education affects intergenerational mobility, a study called Mobility reports cards show significant findings. Mobility reports cards were conducted by collecting administrative data from more then thirty million college students in the years of 1999-2013. “We obtain rosters of attendance at all Title-IV accredited institutions of higher education in the U.S using de-identified data from federal income tax returns combined with data from the National Student Loan Data System. We obtain information on students’ earnings in early adulthood and their parents’ incomes from tax records.”
High School Graduation Rates Essay
In urban priority school districts, educators emphasize the importance of graduation. The expectation of all educators should be that every child can learn and will graduate. It is through graduation that society begins to combat poverty. In New Haven Public Schools, where graduation rates are higher than comparable districts in the state of Connecticut, they are not inclusive of all public school students. It is through collaboration with the University of Chicago and the Consortium on School Research that freshman on-track indicators have been defined and implemented in one high school in the city. It is the purpose of this study to determine the effectiveness of the use of early warning indicators to increase the high school graduation
Dear University Of Wisconsin Madison Admissions
A conversation ingrained in my memory involved two adolescent boys from San Antonio Independent School District (SAISD). When asked about their future ambitions, one student casually responded that he would “go to prison like his father.” The other expressed a desire to rise above his inner city milieu, but had little sense his abilities or of his options. In stark contrast, students from Alamo Heights, an affluent neighboring district, held ambitions to become doctors, lawyers, and politicians, and demonstrated an understanding of the prerequisites for their desired career path. The graduation rate of Alamo Heights stood at 98% while SAISD’s graduation rate lingered around 60%. The contrast between these two districts grows more disturbing when considered through the lens of racial equality. While SAISD’s population is 98% minority, the Anglo population in Alamo Heights totals slightly over 55%. Yet, 74% of Alamo Heights graduates achieve a four-year college diploma, while only 4% percent of SAISD alumni attain a bachelor’s degree. An opportunity gap results from this discrepancy, ultimately proving detrimental to social mobility.
Lauren Touchet. Cjus301. 17 February 2017. Research Paper/Lit
The study design included a sample of 80 high schools and 52 middle schools with an unequal probability of selection, ensuring representativeness with regard to region of country, urban city, school size, school type, and ethnicity. The sample has been followed through adolescence and early adulthood (with ongoing data collection). More than 20,000 students participated in the first wave of data between years 1994 and 1995.1 Approximately 15,700
Numbers Really Tell Us About America's Public Schools
How far a student can go in life is already pre-determined by the generation before him. Success is no longer made up of solely intellectual ability, but rather if the streets the student walks through is gang-ridden or not, if their parents are absentees, and other conditions in which the child grows up in. Valerie Strauss expresses these concerns in her article, “What the Numbers Really Tell Us About America’s Public Schools” in which she discusses how income levels correlate with students’ success rate which is further accentuated through Kamiak and Mariner High School’s Standardized Test Results. “Motivation, a Major Factor in U.S. Student Test Performance” by Dian Schaffhauser continues this idea of external problems affecting low scores
Unequal Democracy By Larry Bartle
Education is essential to attain social mobility, however students face difficult obstacles. Even though we have laws like No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), however many students that come from low social class families do not have equal opportunities as students that come from higher income households. NCLB is encouraging on its face, but it does not address the unequal distribution of funds for districts. NCLB set standards in which students must achieve scores on standardized test rather than having access to equal opportunities, in
Poverty and Post-Secondary Education Essay examples
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The results from this study show that students from low income households have a significantly lower chance of receiving a bachelor degree than those coming from higher income households, which one could probably assume. Even the students that preformed at the top of their class in eighth grade, but lived in low income households had less than thirty-three percent chance of completing college (Roy). This astonishing fact proves that even the highest achieving students still do not have a guarantee of receiving a college education, if their parents have no way to afford it. Another study, conducted by the National Student Clearninghouse Research Center, tracked two million, three hundred thousand people from high school into college to track their performance while in college based on where they attended college. They found that low income students from lower income high schools tended to wait a couple years before enrolling in college while high income students attending higher income high schools enrolled in college the fall semester after graduating high school. Out of these participants, twenty-two thousand, one hundred eight students continued their education into college, and eighty-one percent of these college students successfully completed at least their second year of schooling (Sparks ).
Socioeconomic Status And Race : The Role Of Teachers And Staff Members Of Urban High Schools
Since urban areas, and subsequently urban high schools, have a high population of low-income residents, it is important to explore how this aspect of their social status has affected these individuals historically. According to Mantsios (2006) a majority of the United States (60 percent) hold less than 6 percent of the wealth. What is more, one in eight people live below the federal poverty level Mantsios (2006). This is important, because class level is strongly correlated with educational outcomes and success, which can be explained by class domination Mantsios (2006). Essentially, people who are born into wealthy families versus poor families have more opportunities provided to them on the basis of their class status or familial connections Mantsios (2006). Take for instance the example Schmidt (2007) given of white students with mediocre grades getting into Ivy League
The Racial Wealth Gap : An Analysis On A Potential Solution
Kathleen Blanco, the 54th governor of the U.S. state of Louisiana, once pointed out that “ Every educated person is not rich, but almost every education person has a job and a way out of poverty. So education is a fundamental solution to poverty.” It is almost gratuitous to say that everyone desires a higher education. And why not? It is perhaps the best way to avoid a life of poverty; a life in which one must struggle to meet the basic necessities of life. Unfortunately, not everyone has the opportunity to receive a higher education, especially students living in poverty, who are often forced to live on a day-to-day basis, let alone even think about school. Poverty deprives these students the quality education they are entitled to, thus inhibiting their potential for future success. This predicament has contributed to a widening racial wealth gap that is not only a threat to the individual’s themselves and the economy, but also a significant threat to upward mobility, which is defined as the ability of an individual to climb up the socioeconomic ladder. One particular factor that has and continues to contribute to this widening racial wealth gap is the lack of a college education among these low-income students. More importantly, this lack of college education is the direct result of a poor-quality K-12 education, especially in poverty-stricken neighborhoods. To mitigate the prevalent racial wealth gap, each
Annotated Bibliography On Social Mobility
Collins, Collins, and Butt (2015) researched on the social mobility. This study focused on how mobile students can academically achieve according to their social background and ethnicity. The authors precise that the study focused on the UK due to the lack of social mobility, the UK achieved poorly in an international league table that displayed how many disadvantageous students achieved successfully (Collins et al. 2015). Learners with a strong social background, for an instance mobile students and students who experienced movement are likely to achieve academically. This study concerns target the UK about a lack of social mobility and the remaining of a strong link between social background and educational achievement (Collins
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Student Mobility: How It Affects Learning
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It’s always tough to be the new kid in the middle of the school year: to find new friends, adapt to new teachers and rules. But for more than 6.5 million students nationwide, being the new kid can be a frequent occurrence—and one that exacts a cost to their social and academic development and that of their classmates.
As more states begin to use longitudinal data to improve schools under the Every Student Succeeds Act, a growing body of research suggests student mobility may be a key indicator to identify vulnerable students and keep them on a path to academic achievement.
“To be sure, multiple moves are a dangerous signal, but even one move increases the [student’s] risk of not graduating or getting delayed in graduating,” said Russell Rumberger, a research professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara, who studies dropout risks and student mobility.
What follows is an overview of the big trends, opportunities, and concerns associated with student mobility. Links to additional resources are included in each section for those who would like to dig deeper.
What Is Student Mobility?
In K-12 education, “student mobility,” also called “churn” or “transience,” can include any time a student changes schools for reasons other than grade promotion, but in general it refers to students changing schools during a school year. It may be voluntary—such as a student changing schools to participate in a new program—or involuntary, such as being expelled or escaping from bullying. Student mobility is often related to residential mobility, such as when a family becomes homeless or moves due to changes in a parent’s job.
School mobility refers to the frequency of such moves among students in a particular classroom, school, or district. High churn in schools not only can hurt the students who leave, but also those who remain enrolled. A 2014 report by the Governor’s Office of Student Achievement in Georgia found schools with higher concentrations of mobile students had higher percentages of students with disabilities and fewer students in gifted education programs.
In a report on student mobility by the National Academy of Sciences, Chester Hartman, the research director for the Poverty and Race Research Action Council in Washington, noted that high-poverty urban schools can have more than half of their students turn over within a single school year.
“It’s chaos,” he said in the 2010 report. “It makes all the reforms—smaller classes, better-trained teachers, better facilities—irrelevant.”
In fact, in a study of 13,000 Chicago students, University of Chicago researcher David Kerbow found those who had changed schools four or more times by 6th grade were about a year behind their classmates—but students in schools with high churn were a year behind those in more stable schools by 5th grade.
“It is unclear how school-based educational programs, no matter how innovative, could successfully develop and show long-term impact” in a high-churn school, Kerbow concluded.
Who Is Likely to Be Highly Mobile?
The most common causes of student mobility are residential moves related to parents’ jobs or other financial instability. A 2010 Government Accountability Office study followed students who entered kindergarten in 1998 through 2007. It found 13 percent of students changed schools four or more times by the end of 8th grade, and highly mobile students were disproportionately more likely to be poor or black than students who changed schools twice or fewer times. The same study found families who did not own their own homes made up 39 percent of the most highly mobile students.
Similarly, a 2015 state policy report in Colorado , which tracks student mobility in its districts, found mobility rates in 2014-15 ranged from more than 17 percent for students in poverty to more than a third of migrant and homeless students, and more than half of all students in the foster care system.
That reflects national trends. Homeless students are likelier than other students to change schools not just several times in their school career, but multiple times in a single year. Also, they remain more mobile than other students even after their families find stable homes. A June report from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development found that 20 months after regaining permanent housing, formerly homeless adolescents were more than four times as likely to change schools at least once than peers who had not been homeless.
“Outside the military, where families don’t know people, they don’t have those support systems,” Rumberger said.
How Does Mobility Affect Student Learning?
Even normal transitions—at the start of school, 6th and 9th grades, for example —can cause some students to stumble. Prior research has found students who attended K-8 schools have slightly higher academic achievement than those who attended 6-8 middle schools, and students are at higher risk of dropping out or having behavior issues during transition years like 9th grade.
Various studies have found student mobility —and particularly multiple moves—associated with a lower school engagement, poorer grades in reading (particularly in math), and a higher risk of dropping out of high school.
While research has found students generally lose about three months of reading and math learning each time they switch schools, voluntary transfers, which are more likely to happen during the summer, cause less academic disruption and may be associated with academic improvement if they lead to better services for the student.
Mobility can be particularly hard on children in the early grades, as they learn foundational skills. A 2015 New York University study found that out of 381 low-income, predominantly ethnic-minority students in Chicago, 327 changed schools at least once from kindergarten through 4th grade, and 40 students transferred three or more times. The more often students moved, the lower they scored on both the state standardized math test and on teacher observations of the students’ critical thinking.
What Does the Every Student Succeeds Act Say About Student Mobility?
Not much. Charter school authorizers must include rates of student attrition as part of the accountability metric for schools, but school mobility is not required for accountability for other public schools under ESSA.
For homeless students, the law requires districts to try to reduce student mobility by keeping a homeless student in the original school unless the student or a parent or guardian requests a transfer. ESSA requires districts to track academic achievement of homeless and foster students.
For students of military families, ESSA also requires schools to use a military-student identifier for students whose parents are in the active or reserve military, or in the National Guard. The identifier is intended to allow educators, parents, and military leaders to track how military-connected students achieve across multiple schools.
What Can Be Done to Support Highly Mobile Students?
States and districts are experimenting with a number of policies and programs intended to stabilize school populations and buffer the effects of student mobility. A 2016 study of Nevada schools found that regardless of students’ risk of attrition , more-equitable school policies can help reduce churn; higher levels of racial segregation, particularly in academic programs, predicted churn.
Some that have shown promise include:
- Better student data transfer : There are some national systems designed to follow students in traditionally transient communities, such as the Migrant Student Data Exchange for the children of agricultural workers. As more states develop longitudinal databases with personal student identifiers, other systems are being developed for military, homeless, and foster care system youths.
- Quick turnaround for student records : Every state and the District of Columbia have signed onto the Interstate Compact on Educational Opportunity for Military Children , which lays out guidelines for school districts to send unofficial copies of all student records to parents within 10 days to help them enroll their students at the new school, and provide official records to the school receiving the student. The compact also calls for the student’s new school to accept prior school placements for honors classes, prerequisites, and programs.
- Flexible enrollment : Attendance boundaries often force students to change schools when they change addresses, even if the student is still close enough to travel to his or her current school. A 2013 report by the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston found these enrollment requirements exacerbate the disruptions that students face from home foreclosures and other forced family moves. By contrast, family moves that did not require students to change schools had “negligible effects.” This and other studies suggest that more-flexible enrollment policies that allow students to finish out the school year after a move—or nonresidential enrollment in general—could reduce mid-year school transfers. Similarly, Kansas City, Mo., schools are developing a central database of student records to allow faster enrollment, and a smartphone app to allow parents to see a list of available schools and resources for smoothing a student’s transition to a new school.
- Interagency supports : Because student mobility often results from family instability, school leaders who want to make their campuses more stable are experimenting with broader, multipronged supports. Kansas City, Mo., for example, held a citywide summit on student mobility in 2015. As a result, schools identified at-risk students and paired them with both peer and adult mentors to meet several times a week to discuss the students’ sense of belonging at their schools, everyday challenges and supports, and to reflect on the students’ behavior, attendance, and academic performance each week. The plan also would enable parents of students in poverty to go to “one-stop shops” throughout the district that could provide resources for job placement, adult education, and aid for housing or utilities.
Additional Resources Student Mobility: Exploring the Impacts of Frequent Moves on Achievement: Summary of a Workshop Many Challenges Arise in Educating Students Who Change Schools Frequently Adolescent Well-Being After Experiencing Family Homelessness Data Are Critical for High-Mobility Students ( Education Week Commentary)
How to Cite This Article Sparks, S. (2016, August 11). Student Mobility: How It Affects Learning. Education Week . Retrieved Month Day, Year from https://www.edweek.org/leadership/student-mobility-how-it-affects-learning/2016/08
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Motivational letter for an exchange students program
Camilla 1 / 1 Mar 20, 2013 #1 Hi,guys! Could you help me with my motivational essay? Dear Sir/Madam, I am writing with regard to participation in an academic mobility program for students. At the moment I am a second-year student of Physics and Technical Science Department at the ___________ University. My specialty is Automation and Control. Since the school I excel at study, especially at Math and Physics and always try to do my best in learning major subjects. Also I am studying on a distance learning at Technical University of Berlin. I study the European pilot project which calls the Basics of Modern "TRIZ". I shall have been studying there for a one semester. As every person I have targets for the bright future and eager to achieve them, to reach new highs. The main aim of my student life is studying abroad. And it is obviously that the program of an academic mobility gives me a golden opportunity to achieve my purpose. "He that would eat the fruit must climb the tree" - popular wisdom. Today, being a student, I realize an importance of participating in an academic mobility. Every day our life gives us a chance to reach new highs. And it is our choice to use this golden opportunity or not. I have made a choice, I shall use this chance to get a good education abroad. As a result, It motivates me to strive for my brilliant future and I have come to the idea that I want to be an exchange student of an academic mobility. First of all, it gives a perfect possibility to expand the borders of my knowledge. On the one hand, education abroad will help me to be well-qualified and high-educated professional in the future. On the other hand, I think, it is magnificent to study at one of the most popular university in the world. Moreover, studying abroad will help me to merge with foreign educational environment, to plunge in it. It is a brilliant possibility to get new pleasant impressions and emotions. Also it will give me a perfect opportunity to share piece of my culture and traditions with students from other countries. Secondly, Studying abroad will give me the best experience in my life. It will help me to become more independent and self-supportive. It will give a chance to solve my problems without any support and to do it by myself. It will make me stronger. The program of an academic mobility will help me to get acquainted with foreign educational system, culture, traditions, history, local customs, to know what they are interested in, to expand my knowledge in geographical and historical sphere. What can be more interesting and useful than these? Thirdly, nowadays my personal goal is self-improvement. And to achieve it I should learn more and experience. Experience is the best teacher which will help me in my professional targets. Learning about other country from inside out will give me a chance to be a participant of their social life. It will create not only material values, it will also create my personality. It will influence my self-education and self-improvement which is one of the most essential part of personal and professional targets. On the whole, I understand that it will be difficult to study abroad, but I will try to adapt, to do my best in studying. Such as other people I have a perspective view of my future and because of that fact I want to be a participant of an academic mobility. Thank you for your time and consideration. Sincerely, __________.
annyali93 4 / 7 Mar 22, 2013 #2 I shall have been do you mean you will be studying there or you have been studying there? As every person Like everyone else/everybody else/other enthusiastic students gives me a golden opportunity the golden opportunity to reach new highs height hope this helps good luck :)
OP Camilla 1 / 1 Mar 22, 2013 #3 "do you mean you will be studying there or you have been studying there?" - I will be studying Thanx a lot!
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