To read this content please select one of the options below:

Please note you do not have access to teaching notes, a literature review on total quality management (models, frameworks, and tools and techniques) in higher education.

The TQM Journal

ISSN : 1754-2731

Article publication date: 7 September 2021

Issue publication date: 24 November 2022

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of total quality management (TQM) models, frameworks, and tools and techniques in higher education (HE) over the last thirty years from 1991 till 2020, based on a literature review


30 articles from 52 journals were used to perform this detailed literature review. For the detailed analysis, the focus was only on articles related to TQM in higher education and specifically related to models, frameworks and tools and techniques. The study has investigated the growth of research articles, research streams, research methodologies, models and frameworks in the higher education sector and tools and techniques related to those.

This review addresses the progress and gaps in the application of TQM in HE, including the shift in global research in this area from the USA and Europe to Asia in recent years. The articles have been classified into four research methodologies and two research streams which have been reviewed in detail. The findings include reasons for multiple models/frameworks in HE proposed by researchers over the years and the importance of tools and techniques used in TQM implementation.


This study, which tries to bring a perspective to the main trends in TQM application to higher education wrt models, frameworks, tools and techniques over the last thirty years, is expected to add to the body of knowledge in this area and help future researchers to focus on the relevant areas identified in this paper.

  • Higher education
  • Tools and techniques

Jasti, N.V.K. , Venkateswaran, V. , Kota, S. and Sangwan, K.S. (2022), "A literature review on total quality management (models, frameworks, and tools and techniques) in higher education", The TQM Journal , Vol. 34 No. 5, pp. 1298-1319.

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles

We’re listening — tell us what you think, something didn’t work….

Report bugs here

All feedback is valuable

Please share your general feedback

Join us on our journey

Platform update page.

Visit to discover the latest news and updates

Questions & More Information

Answers to the most commonly asked questions here

  • Bibliography
  • More Referencing guides Blog Automated transliteration Relevant bibliographies by topics
  • Automated transliteration
  • Relevant bibliographies by topics
  • Referencing guides

Dissertations / Theses on the topic 'Total quality management'

Create a spot-on reference in apa, mla, chicago, harvard, and other styles.

Select a source type:

  • Journal article
  • Video (online)
  • All types...
  • Archival document
  • Book chapter
  • Complete reference
  • Conference paper
  • Copyright certificate
  • Dictionary entry
  • Dissertation / Thesis
  • Encyclopedia
  • Encyclopedia article
  • Extended abstract of dissertation
  • Newspaper article
  • Press release
  • Religious text
  • Social media post

Consult the top 50 dissertations / theses for your research on the topic 'Total quality management.'

Next to every source in the list of references, there is an 'Add to bibliography' button. Press on it, and we will generate automatically the bibliographic reference to the chosen work in the citation style you need: APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, Vancouver, etc.

You can also download the full text of the academic publication as pdf and read online its abstract whenever available in the metadata.

The tag cloud allows you accessing even more related research topics and consulting the appropriate bibliographies.

Browse dissertations / theses on a wide variety of disciplines and organise your bibliography correctly.

Related research topics

Muskat, Birgit. "Total Quality Management im Tourismus." Wiesbaden : Dt. Univ.-Verl, 2007.

吳偉倫 and Wai-lun James Ng. "Total Quality Management in China." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 1997.

Lundahl, Carl Gustav. "Total quality management in sawmills /." Luleå : Division of Wood Science and Technology, LTU Skellefteå, Luleå University of Technology, 2009.

Ng, Wai-lun James. "Total Quality Management in China /." Hong Kong : University of Hong Kong, 1997.

Waddington, Michael E. "Total Quality Management : the development, application and analysis of a Total Quality Management paradigm in healthcare." Thesis, University of Huddersfield, 1995.

Beckwith, Paul D. "Total Quality Management a management philosophy for providing high quality construction /." Thesis, Baltimore, Maryland : University of Maryland, 1992.

Cheong, Shu-keung Frankie, and 張樹強. "Implementing total quality management in estate management company." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 1999.

Cheong, Shu-keung Frankie. "Implementing total quality management in estate management company." Hong Kong : University of Hong Kong, 1999.

Wang, Xu. "An integrated total quality management framework." Thesis, University of Sussex, 2008.

Wong, Shiu Ho. "Total quality of supply chain management." Thesis, Sheffield Hallam University, 2000.

Choisne, Franck R. (Franck Remi Didier) Carleton University Dissertation Management Studies. ""Performance measurement for total quality management."." Ottawa, 1994.

Alazemi, Waleed. "Total quality management within the construction industry of Kuwait : the role of Total Quality Management and its usage." Thesis, Loughborough University, 2013.

Ridgeway, Graeme Mansel. "Introducing total quality management : a change in management ideology." Thesis, Sheffield Hallam University, 1997.

Sherif, Khaled F. "Total quality management and construction project management in Libya." Thesis, University of Plymouth, 2010.

Chow, Chi-yang David, and 周志揚. "Total quality management in Hong Kong bank." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 1998.

Yip, Man-shan Tammy, and 葉文珊. "Total quality management for the accounting profession." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 1998.

Poon, Kai-jee Edward, and 潘啓智. "Total quality management in the constructed project." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 1989.

Leonard, Denis Thomas Patrick. "The strategic dynamics of Total Quality Management." Thesis, University of Ulster, 2000.

McAdam, Rodney. "Tracing the loci of total quality management." Thesis, University of Ulster, 2002.

McPherson, Aaron F. (Aaron Francis). "Total quality management at AT&T." Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1995.

Kramer, Miriam. "The human factor in Total Quality Management." Thesis, Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2004.

Flores-Molina, Jose C. "A Total Quality Management Methodology for Universities." FIU Digital Commons, 2011.

Poon, Kai-jee Edward. "Total quality management in the constructed project." Click to view the E-thesis via HKUTO, 1989.

Etienne, Michele. "Total-Quality-Management im Spital erfolgreich gestalten /." Bern : Haupt, 2000.

Yip, Man-shan Tammy. "Total quality management for the accounting profession /." Hong Kong : University of Hong Kong, 1998.

Chow, Chi-yang David. "Total quality management in Hong Kong bank /." Hong Kong : University of Hong Kong, 1998.

DeFazio, Mary Beth. "Total Quality Management and the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award /." Online version of thesis, 1993.

Zhang, Zigang. "Quality management for Chinese construction." Thesis, University of Salford, 2000.

Tung, Chi-kin Steve. "Total quality management a key to success on providing quality property management in Hong Kong /." Click to view the E-thesis via HKUTO, 2001.

Chan, Chi-chung. "Quality management issues facing a testing laboratory /." Hong Kong : University of Hong Kong, 1998.

董志堅 and Chi-kin Steve Tung. "Total quality management: a key to success onproviding quality property management in Hong Kong." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2001.

Radtke, Philipp. "Ganzheitliches Modell zur Umsetzung von Total-quality-Management /." Berlin : IPK, 1997.

Wilson, Marya L. "Total quality management (TQM) at the University Centers." Menomonie, WI : University of Wisconsin--Stout, 2006.

Sou, On Peng. "How ISO 9000 approach to total quality management." Thesis, University of Macau, 2000.

Weißmann, Sven. "Total Quality Management für Industriebetriebe : Praktiken zur Leistungssteigerung /." Wiesbaden : Dt. Univ.-Verl, 2002.

Black, S. A. "Measuring the critical factors of Total Quality Management." Thesis, University of Bradford, 1993.

Rampa, SH. "A customised total quality management framework for schools." University of South Africa Press, 2010.

Shi, Ji. "The implementation of total quality management in China." Thesis, This resource online, 1993.

Lewis, Cynthia J. "Implementing total quality management in the public sector." CSUSB ScholarWorks, 1995.

Parish, David Houston Jr. "Total quality management: A handbook for business leaders." CSUSB ScholarWorks, 1997.

Negrón, Naldos Luis Alfredo. "Relationship between quality management practices, performance and maturity quality management, a contingency approach." Doctoral thesis, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 2020.

Tsang, Lai-shuen, and 曾麗旋. "Quality in residential property management: an evaluation of total quality management in private propertymanagement sector." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 2009.

Adebanjo, A. Oludotun. "A framework for total quality culture development." Thesis, University of Liverpool, 1997.

Baškarada, Saša Koronios Andy. "Information quality management capability maturity model." Wiesbaden : Vieweg + Teubner Research, 2009.

Baškarada, Saša. "Information quality management capability maturity model." Wiesbaden [Germany] : Vieweg+Teubner Research, 2009.

De, Bruyn Phillipus Petrus. "A management strategy for the improvement of the effectiveness of secondary schools through total quality management / Phillipus Petrus de Bruyn." Thesis, Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, 2003.

Zwet, Aisha. "Total quality management : a framework for quality improvement in Arab manufacturing companies." Thesis, University of East London, 2017.

Cheuk, Wing-chong Karen, and 卓穎莊. "An analysis of the quality culture of Hong Kong companies." Thesis, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), 1994.

Magwaza, Lungile Thokozile. "Educators' views on total quality management in secondary schools in Eshowe circuit." Thesis, University of Zululand, 2007.

Yip, Wai-leung. "The influence of Chinese cultural values on successful housing management in China and Hong Kong." Click to view the E-thesis via HKUTO, 2002. no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail

dissertation of total quality management

Profile image of মুশফিক আলম

Related Papers

iaeme iaeme

In present scenario of globalization and economic slowdown, survival of organizations has become a challenging task for the management. Customers expect high product quality along with low cost, timely deliver and best service. In such a situation, total quality management in the organization is very relevant. This paper has tried to explore different issues affecting implementation of TQM, effect of TQM on performance and circumstances under which TQM fails. One hundred twenty research papers, mainly from referred international journals are reviewed to identify thrust areas of research. On the basis of review, gaps are identified and research agenda is proposed. This paper has identified certain gaps from literature on issues related with TQM such as development of framework for evaluating effectiveness of TQM, prioritization of critical success factors, comparative study of TQM and effect of TQM on performance of organizations from supply chain perspective etc on which further study can be conducted

thesis related to total quality management


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between Total Quality Management (TQM) practices and organizational performance in Indian automobile manufacturing companies. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research was conducted in five Indian automobile manufacturing companies located in Chennai cluster taking a sample size of 375 employees across the five Indian automobile manufacturing companies using the questionnaire method. The relationship between Total Quality Management (TQM) practices and organizational performance was examined through Correlation analysis. Findings: The study revealed that the extent to which Total Quality Management (TQM) practices and Organizational performance are correlated and how Total Quality Management (TQM) practices impacts on organizational performance. Research Limitations/Implications: The research paper was limited by including only five Indian automobile manufacturing companies located in Chennai cluster, making this a possibly biased selection and it may not be adequate to generalize the results for the entire Indian automobile manufacturing companies.


management research field. It is one of the most applied and well accepted approaches for business excellence besides Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI), Six Sigma, Just-in-Time (JIT), and Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches. There is a great enthusiasm among manufacturing and service industries in adopting and implementing this strategy in order to maintain their sustainable competitive advantage. The aim of this study is to develop and propose the conceptual framework and research model of TQM implementation in relation to company performance particularly in context with the Indian service companies. It examines the relationships between TQM and company’s performance by measuring the quality performance as performance indicator. A comprehensive review of literature on TQM and quality performance was carried out to accomplish the objectives of this study and a research model and hypotheses were generated. Two research questions and 34 hypotheses were proposed to re-validate the TQM practices. The adoption of such a theoretical model on TQM and company’s quality performance would help managers, decision makers, and practitioners of TQM in better understanding of the TQM practices and to focus on the identified practices while implementing TQM in their companies. Further, the scope for future study is to test and validate the theoretical model by collecting the primary data from the Indian service companies and using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach for hypotheses testing.

Total Quality Management & Business Excellence

Angappa Gunasekaran

Oznur Gulen Ertosun

International Journal of Quality & …

Dr. Faisal Talib , suby Khanam

Quality is the most sought after variable in the business environments and IT for TQM has been reported to improve quality. The continued use of IT increases productivity, improves the quality of services, raises OP (Organization’s Performance) and lowers total costs to company. Companies are making concerted efforts to embed IT for TQM as they also ensure customer satisfaction. In this paper attempt has been made to assess the level of awareness in Indian ICT (Information and Communication Technology) companies regarding IT (Information Technology) for TQM (Total Quality Management). One of this paper’s major objectives is to investigate upon how IT and TQM integrates with the ICT sector. The statistical analyses conducted, post a literature review reveal that when adopted and integrated in the ICT industry, together TQM and IT generate better performance. Another practical implication suggests that ICT personnel possess a high level of awareness for TQM concepts and this way higher quality of products and services can be assured. The study may be found useful by industry practitioners, academics and investigators as they try to understand the dynamics of the subject. However, the contours of the study may be expanded to sectors beyond ICT and in other geographical locations outside India.

MD SYDUZZAMAN , Dilruba Yeasmin

Textiles or clothing is one of the fundamental needs of human being. Today human being does not only meet this basic need, but also inclined to more fashion garments. They are introducing new and more fashion items on a regular basis to cope with the present era. That's why the RMG (Ready Made Garment) sector is running to its full swing with a huge variety of fashions. Bangladesh is one of the most promising garments manufacturing country in the present world now. It is now 2 nd largest textile and garments exporter in the world market. Textile and RMG sector is the core portion of this country's national economy as it earns nearly 81% foreign currencies from RMG sector [1]. It's now a crying need and todays demand to prepare a best RMG sector so that it can meet the growing demand more effectively. Besides, today's market is much more competitive and the only driving factor to sustain in this market is nothing but quality. So ensuring quality in RMG sector is the burning question now. To ensure this crucial factor (quality) there are so many tools and techniques have been emerged and implemented now-a-days. Among them the smartest and latest technique is Total Quality Management (TQM) Principles. By implementing TQM effectively, a production environment can be ensured which delivers quality products. In this research it will be pulled out, why TQM principles are vital and what the effects of implementing TQM in the apparel industry.

Asian Journal on Quality

Dr. Faisal Talib


Texila International Journal , Solomon Omede

Dr. Vaishali Pagaria

  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2023

Principles & Concept of Total Quality Management Essay

The concept of total quality management, basic principles of total quality management, evolution of tqm, how total quality management approach shapes the workplace, works cited.

We will write a custom Essay on Principles & Concept of Total Quality Management Essay specifically for you for only 9.35/page

808 certified writers online

Total Quality Management, often abbreviated as TQM is the strategy used by organizations in improving internal operations and enhancing the satisfaction of customers. With proper implementation, TQM reduces the costs that are associated with corrective maintenance, creates satisfactory general performance and a high number of satisfied customers.

However, the concept of TQM is not implemented within a short period of time. Although there are many software solutions capable of assisting companies in the implementation of TQM systems, the companies must pay attention to philosophies that should be integrated in key departments and all managerial levels. Any other resources are usually adopted alongside the key principles of TQM (Robbins 8).

The first principle of TQM argues that since it is possible to manage quality in companies, this must be done. Many companies suffer from unending chaos and complaints from customers. They wrongly believe that it is not possible to manage their operations effectively because of their largeness.

The starting point in TQM is to be aware of the problems and that solutions can be found. The second principle of TQM is that the problem in most companies is the processes but not the people. If there are problems with the process, hiring new employees or conducting numerous training programs does not solve the problem. The first step should be taking corrective measures on the process then embarking on training sessions for the employees.

The third principle of TQM is that what companies should embark on is a cure as opposed to treating the symptoms. Finding short term solutions for an existing problem makes it difficult for the full potential to be reached. For instance, a falling shipping department may be an indication of manufacturing holdups.

The best way of solving the problem is to find the root cause and address it. The fourth principle of TQM is that all the employees should take part in enhancing quality. All the workers in a company from the junior ones to the most senior managers should realize that they play an important role towards improving the quality of their services and products. Each employee should leave the customers satisfied and happy (Kurtus 4).

Moreover, there should be mechanisms of measuring quality in companies. TQM systems can only function well if the results are quantifiable. This helps in monitoring the implementation process of the program to see if the anticipated effect is being achieved. In addition, it is easy to set future goals and push all the departments to work towards achieving the desired goals.

Apart from the results of TQM being quantifiable, improvements in quality should be a continuous process. TQM is not a process that can be done once then stopped. Unlike management steps that end with a solution to the problem, TQM processes are conducted regularly in order to increase the loyalty and satisfaction of customers.

Finally, it is important for companies to realize that TQM is an investment that goes for a long period of time. Companies can buy TQM software to improve the quality of products and services but it is important to note that the results are achieved gradually. The process is designed for realizing long-term success.

TQM has been in existence for a long period of time but the meaning of the term has continued to change over time. In early 20 th century, TQM referred to the inspection of goods to ensure that they conformed to the set specifications.

As time went by, TQM started becoming statistical in nature where statistical techniques were employed to determine the quality of goods. The concept embraced a broader meaning in the 1980s with the assistance of the quality Gurus. Quality was viewed as something that touched on the whole organization rather than being confined to the production process only.

This was based on the fact that the quality of the products was determined by all the functions of the organization and that the cost of poor quality affected all sections of the organization. The meaning of quality changed largely in the 1970s because before then, quality was viewed as an aspect that called for inspection and corrections. This period was marked by loss of market share of some companies as a result of foreign competition (Demming 509).

As a result of these changes in major companies such as Honda, Toyota and Toshiba, there was need to effect changes in the quality programs. Most of these companies solicited the services of training consultants and initiated programs for training their employees on quality management and this started changing the concept of total quality management.

Quality began attracting a strategic meaning and today, it is associated with competitive advantage in companies. The customer needs are given the first priority hence TQM is defined in terms of exceeding the expectations of the customers.

Since the 1970s, quality competition has been on the increase eliciting a lot of concern. Companies in various businesses are currently working towards improving the quality of their goods and services in order to win customer loyalty and attain competitive advantage. In many companies, excellence in quality has turned to be a standard for conducting business with companies that ignore quality being faced out of the market.

TQM is important in companies since it shapes the work place in different ways. Since it focuses on satisfying the customers and improving the quality of products and services, it definitely shapes the workplace and enhances the profits. The first way through which TQM shapes the workplace is that it leads to the production of high quality goods.

TQM emphasizes the importance of producing products of high quality hence companies focus on producing the best quality possible. Successful TQM emphasizes improvement of every process by searching all the problems in the company. Moreover, TQM requires that the products be tested for assurance of the quality hence it becomes easy to determine if the products meet the requirements of the customers.

The testing procedure is done by taking a sample from the production process. If it is discovered that there are some failures in the products, the specific issues are noted and acted upon to make the necessary changes.

In addition, a discussion is held to identify the reasons that led to the failure with the help of statistical approaches and/or distributions to understand the circumstances better. By evaluating certain failures and the statistics, it is possible for companies to device ways of redesigning the products and using cheaper corrective methods in the future.

This shapes the workplace in that the quality of the product is constantly improved. The company also has a chance of monitoring the quality of the products on a regular basis. In addition, it is possible to change the design and materials used in production in order to economize materials and produce quality products for the customers (Demming 510).

The second way through which TQM shapes the workplace is through positive product reviews from the customers. TQM contributes towards the satisfaction of customers with the work done by the company. Companies are interested in customers or clients who are the ultimate beneficiaries of the products in the customer chain.

Since quality assurance testing is part of TQM, the products always meet the requirements of the customers. The satisfaction of customers and good performance enables the company to get reviews in business publications and newspapers. This is a factor that increases the reputation of companies and increases their profitability.

The third way through which TQM shapes the workplace is increasing employee production. TQM pays more attention to ensure that the needs of employees in a company are met. This enables employees to put more effort in achieving TQM goals hence boosting workplace morale. To increase the level of production, sometimes employees are given incentives such as salary increments.

This might be done after training them on the operations of TQM and the roles they are supposed to play in implementing the programs. Giving employees incentives and training them on the operations of TQM ensures that the programs work effectively because the employees are knowledgeable and feel motivated. This leads to satisfaction in customers, the employees and a general feeling of fulfillment in the workplace (Demming 514).

The fourth way in which TQM shapes the workplace is that it has a philosophy that focuses on empowering employees to identify quality problems and come up with remedies. Creating a new philosophy is an important strategy of TQM. The old concepts of quality did not allow employees to identify quality problems since they feared being reprimanded for doing that. Poor quality was blamed on individuals working with the organizations.

The new concept of TQM provides a platform where employees are rewarded for identifying problems in quality. TQM gives employees at the workplace a chance to make decisions touching on the quality of products in the production process. The employees are considered to be important people in implementing the quality hence the suggestions and decisions they come up with are highly valued and respected.

In stressing the role of employees in improving quality, TQM differentiates between external and internal customers. External customers are the ones who purchase products and services from the company while internal customers are employees who handle goods from other employees of the same company.

For instance, the department concerned with packaging of goods is regarded as internal customer because it receives goods from assembling department. TQM ensures that defective goods are not passed to the internal customers thus the external customers do not receive defective goods. In this way, TQM shapes the workplace by ensuring that the value of employees in maintaining quality is recognized

The fifth way through TQM shapes the work place is by encouraging team approach in dealing with issues. Team work relies on the management principle of breaking barriers in the workplace (Walton 36). TQM emphasizes that quality is achieved as a result of efforts of all members of the organization.

Quality problems are better solved through team work where discussion and quality controls are employed in solving problems. The contribution given by teams in companies is considered an important way of achieving success. As result, companies find it important to set some time for regular team meetings. The formality and structure of teams vary with different companies.

In addition, the types of problems solved by different teams also vary. For example, a quality circle is a team of production employees together with their supervisors who volunteer time to address quality problems. The circle is made up of between eight and ten members where consensus is the basis of the decisions made. Most of the meetings for such a team are held every week in a designated location.

A certain procedure is followed in addressing the quality issues and criticism is not allowed in the discussions. By encouraging team work, TQM shapes the workplace since issues that disrupt the smooth running of operations at the workplace are addressed comprehensively. A group is able to share views and make the necessary considerations before coming up with the right decisions (Walton 36).

Quality is one of the most important aspects that most companies strive to achieve and maintain. Total Quality management is an improved version of quality management which focuses on improving the internal operations of companies and ensuring maximum customer satisfaction.

Customer satisfaction is crucial for companies since it portrays a good image and builds the reputation of the company. In addition, customers who gain satisfaction from a company continue being loyal to the company. All the aspects of internal operations of a company and customer satisfaction are addressed by TQM which has been adopted by many companies. It is a trusted way of shaping the workplace by addressing all quality problems.

Demming, Edward. Out of the Crisis. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000. Print

Kurtus, Ron. Basic Principles of Total Quality Management . 2001. Web.

Robbins, Stephen. Management. New Jersey: FT Press, 2008. Print

Walton, Mary. The Deming management method. New York: Perigee, 1986. Print

Need a custom essay sample written from scratch by professional specifically for you?

807 certified writers online

  • Chicago (N-B)
  • Chicago (A-D)

IvyPanda. (2023, August 27). Principles & Concept of Total Quality Management Essay.

IvyPanda. (2023, August 27). Principles & Concept of Total Quality Management Essay. Retrieved from

"Principles & Concept of Total Quality Management Essay." IvyPanda , 27 Aug. 2023,

1. IvyPanda . "Principles & Concept of Total Quality Management Essay." August 27, 2023.


IvyPanda . "Principles & Concept of Total Quality Management Essay." August 27, 2023.

IvyPanda . 2023. "Principles & Concept of Total Quality Management Essay." August 27, 2023.

IvyPanda . (2023) 'Principles & Concept of Total Quality Management Essay'. 27 August.

  • Commitment of Top Management in TQM
  • Total Quality Management (TQM) Implementation: The Case of ADNOC
  • TQM in Dubai Metro System
  • Comparing TQM with ISO Standards
  • Understanding the Obstacles to TQM Success
  • Total Quality Management (TQM) as a Significant Issue in the Contemporary Strategic Management
  • Implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM): Toyota Case Study
  • Employing Quality Management Concepts of TQM/CQI
  • Comparing a TQM Implementation in Toyota Motor Company and Emirates Airlines
  • Improving Service Quality Delivery by the Cabin Crew in Air Mauritius Ltd Using TQM
  • Best Food Superstores: Improving Profit Margins
  • Parking Facility Benefits for a Hospital
  • The Many Facets of HR Management in the Organization
  • Managing a business: A senior managers role in material management and management of the external environment
  • ‘Designing and Implementation of HR Scorecard’

Research paper on Total Quality Management (TQM)

Executive Summary

During the recent years the world of business has changed vastly. We the people of different walks of life cannot be able to imagine that what is going to be the future picture if this change continues rapidly like this speed. Today there are very much competition in-between them and for that reason each and every business organization are trying to offer competitively better facilities for their customers better than the competitors.

We have learn much about the Introduction to Cost and Managerial Accounting. But don’t know how they are applied in the real lives. To find this out i.e. how they are applied in the real lives we were given this project. We tried our best to fetch all the possible information and include them in a relevant manner.


01.01 Introduction

Management systems are usually implemented in response to current conditions. Such systems and the terms to describe them change with time and use in new contexts. Much of the current management literature, in education and other industries, focuses on systems that can be described under the umbrella term, Total Quality Management, or TQM. TQM contains a mix of original ideas and those with historical antecedents. The following is a brief overview of TQM and how it is being applied in community colleges.

TQM is a management system- a philosophy, set of tools, and organizational models. It is known by names other than Total Quality Management, including: the Deming Management Method; in the United States Total Quality Improvement and Total Quality Commitment; in Japan- Total Quality Control, Company- Wide Quality Control, and kaizen, which in Japanese means gradual, unending improvement, doing little things better, setting and achieving ever higher standards.

The components of TQM are a blend of ideas developed by three major theorists. W. Edwards Deming applied statistical thinking to the control of variation of work processes. He is best known for his fourteen points. J. M. Juran added insight into managing for quality and describing the quality trilogy: quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement. Philip B. Crosby developed ways to motivate and organize for quality. His less technical approach is based on the ideas of “zero defects” and “conformance to requirements”. Most quality improvement programs follow the ideas of one or more of these theorists .

01.02 Historical Review

The history of quality control is undoubtedly as old as industry itself. During the Mid­dle Ages, quality was to a large extent controlled by the long periods of training required by the guilds. This training instilled pride in workers for quality of a product.

The concept of specialization of labor was introduced during the Industrial Revolu­tion. As a result, a worker no longer made the entire product, only a portion. This change brought about a decline in workmanship. Because most products manufactured during that early period were not complicated, quality was not greatly affected. In fact, because productivity improved there was a decrease in cost, which resulted in lower customer expectations. As products became more complicated and jobs more specialized, it be­came necessary to inspect products after manufacture.

In 1924, W. A. Shewhart of Bell Telephone Laboratories developed a statistical chart for the control of product variables. This chart is considered to be the beginning of sta­tistical quality control.

In 1950, W. Edwards Deming, who learned statistical quality control from Shewhart, gave a series of lectures on statistical methods to Japanese engineers and on quality responsibility to the CEOs of the largest organizations in Japan. Joseph M. Juran made his first trip to Japan in 1954 and further emphasized management’s responsibility to achieve quality. Using these concepts the Japanese set the quality standards for the rest of the world to follow.

In 1960, the first quality control circles were formed for the purpose of quality improvement. Simple statistical techniques were learned and applied by Japanese workers.

Emphasis on quality continued in the auto industry in the 1990s when the Saturn automobile ranked first in customer satisfaction (1996). In addition, ISO 9000 became the worldwide model for a quality management system. ISO 14000 was approved as the worldwide model for environmental management systems.

Total Quality Management

02.01 Total Quality Management (TQM) defined

Total Quality Management ( TQM ) is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing business. It is a proven technique to guarantee survival in world‑class competition. Only by changing the actions of management will the culture and actions of an entire organization be transformed. TQM is for the most part common sense. Analyzing the three words, we have

Total    ‑           Made up of the whole

Quality ‑           Degree of excellence a product or service provides.

Management‑  Act, art, or manner of handling, controlling, directing, etc

Therefore, TQM is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence. The Golden Rule is a simple but effective way to explain it: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.

TQM is defined as both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization. It is the application of quantita­tive methods and human resources to improve all the processes within an organization and exceed customer needs now and in the future. TQM integrates fundamental man­agement techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under a disci­plined approach.

02.02 TQM; Basic Concepts

While there are significant differences among the theorists and their approaches to implementation, they share basic concepts that are the foundation of TQM.

02.02.01 Continuous Improvement of Quality. Fundamental to all TQM systems is improving the quality of the products and services provided by an organization. Such quality improvement results in greater productivity and enhances the ability of an organization to remain vital, employ people, and serve customers. A focus on continuous quality improvement helps an organization do things right.

02.02.02 Central Focus on the Customer. Also central to all TQM is a focus on the customer, the internal and external recipients of an organization’s products. Their needs and desires define quality for the producer whose job it is to meet or exceed the customer’s needs and expectations. A focus on customers helps an organization to do the right things.

02.02.03 Systematic Improvement of Operations. All work occurs in processes that begin and end somewhere. These work processes account for 80- 85 percent of the quality of work and productivity of employees. Management is responsible for systems within an organization; therefore, managers, not employees, must shoulder blame when something goes wrong with the system.

TQM calls for studying work processes quantitatively, using individuals or teams, to find places that breakdowns or unnecessary complexities occur in processes, and then to identify solutions that prevent them in the future. Study of work processes helps to reduce costs while ensuring that quality is built into a service or product since quality cannot be inspected into it at the end of the processes.

02.02.04 Open Work Environments. Continuous quality improvement requires an atmosphere for innovation where suggestions for improvement are solicited and respected and where supervisors and managers are open to disagreement, conflict, and challenge. Activities for the improvement of work processes, especially when teams are involved, help to break down barriers that occur between departments or between supervisors and those supervised.

02.02.05 Long- Term Thinking. TQM is also characterized by long- term thinking which helps mold the future by understanding the consequences of current actions. Such thinking requires decision making that is based on data, both hard and soft, and related to real problems, not symptoms. It requires time. It shies away from quick fixes arrived at by discussion and intuition. Long- term thinking works best in organizations where managers plan to stay, and thus have a stake in the consequences of their decisions.

02.02.06 Development of Human Resources. Organizations that follow TQM principles are organized to help people do their jobs; they are seriously committed to employee learning and development. Such development begins with a thorough orientation to the organization, including its mission, values, and information about where the job fits into the organization. It involves educating people to perform to the quality standards of a specific job before requiring them to work independently.

TQM expects managers to respect the ability of well trained employees to know the work they do better than anyone, and therefore, to be the best at improving it. Human resource development includes providing the training to learn the communication, quantitative, and team- participation skills required in an open, quality improvement work environment. Development programs provide extensive education to help individuals keep up- to- date on their jobs and to prepare themselves for new responsibilities.

02.02.07 Management Responsibility for TQM Leadership. Managers need to lead the transformation of the organization to the new culture of continuous quality improvement. They must accept personal responsibility for continuous quality improvement and be dedicated to empowering others in the organization to accept personal responsibility for it, too. This approach taps the collective genius of the organization to identify and solve problems. The leader’s focus is on policy, structure, and systems to sustain continuous quality improvement. Within this context, quality is the first among equals of the organization’s functions. Quality is at the top of the agenda for every meeting, every communication. The leader’s goal is to help people, things, and machines do a better job; the leader’s role is that of facilitator, catalyst, and coach.

As previously stated, TQM requires a cultural change. Table I ‑I compares the previ­ous state with the TQM state for typical quality elements. This change is substantial and will not be accomplished in a short period of time. Small organizations will be able to make the transformation much faster than large organizations.

02.03 New and Old Cultures

02.04 Awareness

An organization will not begin the transformation to TQM until it is aware that the qual­ity of the product or service must be improved. Awareness comes about when an orga­nization loses market share or realizes that quality and productivity go hand‑in‑hand. It also occurs if TQM is mandated by the customer or if management realizes that TQM is a better way to run a business and compete in domestic and world markets.

Automation and other productivity enhancements might not help a corporation if it is unable to market its product or service because the quality is poor. The Japanese learned this fact from practical experience. Prior to World War 11, they could sell their products only at ridiculously low prices, and even then it was difficult to secure repeat sales. Un­til recently, corporations have not recognized the importance of quality. However, a new attitude has emerged‑‑quality first among the equals of cost and service. To sum it up, the customer wants value.

02.05 Implementing Total Quality Management Concepts

Since World War 11, the Japanese have been very successful using the American ideas for total quality improvement they learned from Deming and Juran. In the late 1970s Americans became interested in the success of Japanese firms and discovered that their management processes were the cornerstone of that success. Some American companies adopted TQM and applied it successfully, notably Ford Motor Company, Hewlett Packard, Campbell Soup Company, and the Paul Revere Insurance Company. Others were less successful, largely it seems, because they were unable to accomplish the cultural and organizational changes required to implement TQM principles.

The TQM implementation process begins with senior management and, most important, the CEO’s commitment. The importance of the senior management role cannot be overstated. Leadership is essential during every phase of the implementation process and particularly at the start. In fact, indifference and lack of involvement by senior management are frequently cited as the principal reasons for the failure of quality improvement efforts. Delegation and rhetoric are insufficient involvement is required.

Senior management needs to be educated in the TQM concepts. In addition to formal education, managers should visit successful TQM organizations, read selected articles and books, and attend seminars and conferences. The next step is for senior management to develop an implementation plan.

Timing of the implementation process can be very important. Is the organization ready to embark on the total quality journey? There may be some foreseeable problems, such as a reorganization, change in senior management personnel, interpersonal conflicts, a current crisis, or a time consuming activity. These problems may postpone implementation to a more favorable time.

The next step is the formation of the quality council initiation of these duties is a substantial part of the implementation of TOM. The development of core values, a vision statement, a mission statement, and a quality policy statement, with input from all personnel, should be completed first.

The active involvement of middle managers and first line supervisors is essential to the success of the TQM effort. They are accountable for achieving many of the organization’s performance goals and objectives, and they form enduring links in the communication chain from senior management to the front line workers. Without middle management’s early and active support, the TQM effort could fail. Senior management needs to ensure that managers at all levels have an opportunity, as soon as possible, to develop ownership in the TQM effort and a chance to acquire the insight and skills necessary to become leaders. One way to accomplish this concept is to have a retreat. The retreat will focus on TQM training, leadership skills, and active involvement in the development of the organization’s statements.

If there is a union, there should be early discussions with the representatives on TQM. Managers should involve union leaders by sheling with them implementation plans for TQM. As the quality effort progresses, managers and union leaders should work together on quality improvement activities.

At this stage of the implementation process, it is important to communicate TQM to the entire organization. Communication is important throughout the implementation stage. Communication is necessary to create TQM awareness interest, desire, and action. Everyone needs to be trained in quality awareness and problem solving. This training is conducted when the employee is placed on a project team or the work group is ready for the training.

Customer, employee, and supplier surveys must be conducted to benchmark the attitudes of these three stakeholders. Information from these surveys provides ideas for quality improvement projects. The quality council determines the quality improvement projects. In addition the council establishes the project teams and work groups and monitors their progress. The organization has to be patient and not rush the teams for solutions that don’t eliminate the root causes. There is often a tendency to rush the implementation process. TECSTAR, a small business, was able to achieve savings of more than $3 million the first year of its TQM program. On the other hand, Karlee, a Malcolm Baldrige

02.06 Obstacles

Implementation of TQM is described in the next chapter, on leadership. This section gives information concerning the obstacles associated with implementation.

Many organizations, especially small ones with a niche, are comfortable with their current state. They are satisfied with the amount of work being performed, the profits re­alized, and the perception that the customers are satisfied. Organizations with this cul­ture will see little need for TQM until they begin to lose market share.

Once an organization embarks on TQM, there will be obstacles to its successful im­plementation. The first eight most common were determined by Robert J. Masters after an extensive literature search and the last obstacle added by the authors They are given below.

  • Lack of Management Commitment
  • Inability to Change Organizational Culture
  • improper Planning
  • Lack of Continuous Training and Education
  • Incompatible Organizational Structure and Isolated Individuals And Departments
  • Ineffective Measurement Techniques and Lack Of Access
  • Paying Inadequate Attention To Internal and External Customers
  • Inadequate Use of Empowerment Arid Teamwork
  • Failure to Continually Improve

02.07 Benefits of TQM

According to a survey of manufacturing firms in Georgia, the benefits of TQM are improved quality, employee participation, teamwork, working relationships, customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, productivity, communication, profitability, and market share.

TQM is a good investment as shown by a ten‑year study by Hendricks and Singhai. They showed that there is a strong link between TQM and financial performance. The re­searchers selected a group of 600 publicly traded organizations that had won awards for effectively implementing TQM. They then selected a control group similar in size and industry to the award winners. Performance of both groups was compared during the five years prior to the award and five years after winning the award. No difference was shown between the two groups prior to the award. However, as shown below the award group far outstripped the control group during the five‑year period after the award.

The study also showed that stock price performance for the award winners was 114% while the S&P was 80%. In addition, the study showed that small organizations out performed larger organizations. Recent studies have shown that only about 30% of manufacturing organizations have successfully implemented TQM.

Some Related Topics and Explanations

  03.01 Leadership

There is no universal definition of leadership and indeed many books have been devoted to the tonic of leadership). In his book Leadership, James MacGregor Bums describes a leader as one who instills purposes, not one who controls by brute force. A leader strengthens and inspires the followers to accomplish shared goals. Leaders shape the organization’s values, promote the organization’s values, protect the organization’s values and exemplify the organization’s values. Ultimately, Bums says, “Leaders and follow­ers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality … leadership becomes moral in that it raises the level of human conduct and ethical aspiration of both the leader and the led, and thus has a transforming effect on both.”‘ Similarly, Daimler Chrysler’s CEO Bob Eaton defines a leader as “. . . someone who can take a group of people to a place they don’t think they can go.” “Leadership is we, not me; mission, not my show; vision, not division; and community, not domicile.” As the above illustrates, leadership is difficult to define in anything other than lofty words.

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award has a more grounded definition of lead­ership in its core values. As stated in its core values and concepts, visionary leadership is-

“An organization’s senior leaders should set directions and create a customer focus, clear and visible values, and high expectations. The directions, values, and expectations should balance the needs of all your stakeholders. Your leaders should ensure the creation of strate­gies, systems, and methods for achieving excellence, stimulating innovation, and building knowledge and capabilities. The values and strategies should help guide all activities and decisions of your organization. Senior leaders should inspire and motivate your entire workforce and should encourage all employees to contribute, to develop and learn, to be in­novative, and to be creative,

Senior leaders should serve as role models through their ethical behavior and their personal involvement in planning, communications, coaching, development of future leaders, review of organizational performance, and employee recognition. As role models, they can reinforce values and expectations while building leadership, commitment, and initiative throughout your organization.”

Leadership can be difficult to define. However, successful quality leaders tend to have certain characteristics.

03.01.01 Leadership Concepts

In order to become successful, leadership requires an intuitive understanding of human nature the basic needs, wants, and abilities of people. To be effective, a leader under‑

  • People, paradoxically, need security and independence at the same time.
  • People are sensitive to external rewards and punishments and yet are also strongly self‑motivated.
  • People like to hear a kind word of praise. Catch people doing something right, so you can pat them on the back.
  • People can process only a few facts at a time; thus, a leader needs to keep, things simple.
  • People trust their gut reaction more than statistical data.
  • People distrust a leader’s rhetoric if the words are inconsistent with the leader’s actions.

03.01.02 Role of TQM Leaders

Everyone is responsible for quality, especially senior management and the CEO; however, only the latter can provide the leadership system to achieve results., For instance, in the 1980’s, General Electric’s CEO, Jack Welch, instituted leadership training courses at all levels of the organization. The General Electric training courses taught leadership approaches and models and provided the opportunity for teams to develop solutions to real business problems. Many of the solutions the teams developed were implemented. Jack Welch supported the development of a leadership system whereby quality control leaders were developed at all levels in all functions of the organization, including research, marketing, manufacturing, sales, finance, and human resources. Senior managers need to be provided with the skills to implement quality control techniques and actively participate in the quality council.

Senior management has numerous responsibilities. Senior management must practice the philosophy of Management by Wandering Around (MBWA). Management should get out of the office and visit customers, suppliers, departments within the organization, and plants within the organization. That way, managers learn what is happening with a particular customer, supplier, or project. MBWA can substantially reduce paperwork. Encourage subordinates to write only important messages that need to be part of the permanent record. For example, Kinko’s executives perform normal operating duties for two or three days at one location. This approach is an excellent technique for gaining firsthand information.

The idea is to let employees think for themselves. Senior management’s role is no longer to make the final decision, but to make sure the team’s decision is aligned with the quality statements of the organization. Push problem solving and decision making to the lowest appropriate level by delegating authority and responsibility.

Senior managers must stay informed on the topic of quality improvement by reading books and articles, attending seminars, and talking to other TQM leaders. The leader sends a strong message to subordinates when that leader asks if they have read a part ocular book or article.

Se Managers must find time to celebrate the success of their organization’s quality efforts by personally participating in award and recognition ceremonies. This activity is an excellent opportunity to reinforce the importance of the effort and to promote TQM. A phone call or handshake combined with a sincere “thank you for a job well done” is a powerful form of recognition and reward. One of the duties of the quality council is to establish or revise the recognition and reward system. In particular, senior management’s incentive compensation must include quality improvement performance. Also, provisions must be made to reward teams as well as creative individuals.

Senior managers must be visibly and actively engaged in the quality effort by sending on teams, coaching teams, and teaching seminars. They should lead by demonstrating, communicating, and reinforcing the quality statements. As a rule of thumb, they should spend about one third of their time on quality.

A very important role of senior managers is listening to internal and external customers and suppliers through visits, focus groups, and surveys. This information is translated into core values and process improvement projects.

Another very important role is communication. The objective is to create awareness of the importance of TQM and provide TQM results in an ongoing manner. The TQM message must be “sold” to personnel, for if they don’t buy it, TQM will never happen. In addition to internal efforts, there must be external activities with customers and suppliers, the media, advertising in trade magazines, and interaction with the quality community.

By following the preceding suggestions, senior managers should be able to drive fear out of the organization, break down barriers, remove system roadblocks, anticipate and minimize resistance to change, and, in general, change the culture. Only with the involvement of senior management can TQM be a success.

03.02 Customer Satisfaction

The most important asset of any organization is its customers. An organization’s success depends on how many customers it has, how much they buy, and how often they buy. Customers that are satisfied will increase in number, buy more, and buy more frequently. Satisfied customers also pay their bills promptly, which greatly improves cash flow the lifeblood of any organization.

Increasingly, manufacturing and service organizations are using customer satisfaction as the measure of quality. The importance of customer satisfaction is not only due to national competition but also due to worldwide competition.

Since customer satisfaction is hard to measure, the measurement often is not precise. As with most attitudes, there is variability among people, and often within the same person at different times. Often, due to the difficulty of measuring feelings, customer satisfaction strategies are developed around clearly stated, logical customer opinions, and the emotional issues of a purchase are disregarded. This can be a costly mistake.

Customer satisfaction should not be viewed in a vacuum. For example, a customer may be satisfied with a product or service and therefore rate the product or service highly in a survey, and yet that same customer may buy another product or service. It is of little benefit to understand a customer’s views about a product or service if the customer’s views about competitors’ product or service are not understood. The value customers place on one product compared to another may be a better indicator of customer loyalty. Customer loyalty can be sustained only by maintaining a favorable comparison when compared with competitors. As mentioned before customer satisfaction is not a simple concept to understand or to measure.

03.03 Benefits of Employee Involvement

Involving employees, empowering them and bringing them into the decision making process provides the opportunity for continuous process improvement. The untapped ideas, innovations, and creative thoughts of employees can make the difference between success and failure. Competition is so fierce that it would be unwise not to use every available tool.

Employee involvement improves quality and increases productivity, because

  • Employees make better decisions using their expert knowledge of the process.
  • Employees are more likely to implement and support decisions they had a part in making.
  • Employees are better able to spot and pinpoint areas for improvement.
  • Employees are better able to take immediate corrective action.
  • Employee involvement reduces labor/management friction by encouraging more effective communication and cooperation.
  • Employee involvement increases morale by creating a feeling of belonging to the organization.
  • Employees are better able to accept change because they control the work environment.
  • Employees have an increased commitment to unit goals because they are involved.

03.04 Continuous Process Improvement

Quality based organizations should strive to achieve perfection by continuously improving the business and production processes. Of course, perfection is impossible because the race is never over; however, we must continually strive for its attainment.

Improvement is made by-

  • Viewing all work as a process, whether it is associated with production or business activities.
  • Making all processes effective, efficient, and adaptable.
  • Anticipating changing customer needs.
  • Controlling in process performance using measures such as scrap reduction, cycle time, control charts, and so forth.
  • Maintaining constructive dissatisfaction with the present level of performance.
  • Eliminating waste and rework wherever it occurs.
  • Investigating activities that do not add value to the product or service, with the aim of eliminating those activities.
  • Eliminating nonconformities in all phases of everyone’s work, even if the increment of improvement is small.
  • Using benchmarking to improve competitive advantage.
  • Innovating to achieve breakthroughs.
  • Incorporating lessons learned into future activities.
  • Using technical tools such as statistical process control (SPC), experimental design, benchmarking, quality function deployment (QFD), and so forth.

03.05 PDCA Cycle

The basic Plan Do Check Act (PDCA) cycle was first developed by Shewhart and then modified by Deming. It is an effective improvement technique.

The four steps in the cycle are exactly as stated. First, plan carefully what is to be done. Next, carry out the plan (does it). Third, study the results did the plan work as intended, or was the results different? Finally, act on the results by identifying what worked as planned and what didn’t. Using the knowledge learned, develop an improved plan and repeat the cycle. The PDSA cycle is a simple adaptation of the more elaborate problem solving method discussed in the next section.

  03.06 Problem Solving Method

Process improvement achieves the greatest results when it operates within the framework of the problem  solving method, In he initial stages of a program, quick results are frequently obtained because the solutions are obvious or an individual has a brilliant idea, However, in the Ion, term, a systematic approach will yield the greatest benefits ,

The problem solving method (also called the scientific method) has many variations depending, to some extent, on the use; however, they are all similar. shown is the relationship to the PDCA cycle.

The phases are integrated because each phase is dependent upon the previous phase. Continuous process improvement is the objective, and these phases are the framework to achieve that objective.

03.07 Identify the Opportunity

The objective of this phase is to identify and prioritize opportunities for improvement. It consists of three parts: identify the problem, form the team (if one is not in existence) and define the scope.

Problem identification answers the question, “What are the problems?” The answer leads to those problems that have the greatest potential for improvement and have the greatest need for solution. Problems can be identified from a variety of inputs.

03.08 Performance Measures

The final concept of Total Quality Measurement (TQM) is performance measures. One of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award core values is managing by fact rather than by gut feeling. Managing an organization without performance measures is like a captain of a ship navigating without instrumentation. The ship would most likely end up traveling in circles, as would an organization. Measures play a vital part in the success or failure of an organization.

03.08.01 Objectives

Performance measures are used to achieve one or more of the following seven objectives:

  • Establish baseline measures and reveal trends.
  • Determine which processes need to be improved.
  • Indicate process gains and losses.
  • Compare goals with actual performance.
  • Provide information for individual and team evaluation.
  • Provide information to make informed decisions.
  • Determine the overall performance of the organization.

03.08.02 Criteria

  • Few in number
  • Relevance to customer:
  • Improvement

03.08.03 Strategy

The quality council has the overall responsibility for the performance measures. It ensures that all the measures are integrated into a total system of measures. To develop the system, the quality council will obtain appropriate information from all of the stall holders. They will utilize the core values, goals, mission, and vision statements as well as the objectives and criteria given above. With this information, the strategic measurement system is created.

An example of a system that emphasizes percent improvement might contain the functions and metrics as given below:

  • Percent reduction in cost of poor quality
  • Percent reduction in nonconformities
  • Percent of certified suppliers
  • Percent reduction in supplier base
  • Percent reduction in corrective action cycle time
  • Percent increase in inventory turnover
  • Percent reduction in data transactions
  • Percent increase in materials shipped direct to work in process by the supplier
  • Percent increase in output dollars per employee
  • Percent reduction in floor space utilization
  • Percent reduction in cycle time
  • Percent reduction in setup time
  • Percent reduction in lot/batch size
  • Percent increase in number of jobs mastered per employee
  • Percent of processes capable of C p = 2.0
  • Percent reduction in down time
  • Percent reduction in warranty costs
  • Percent reduction in design changes
  • Percent increase in on time delivery
  • Percent reduction in new product introduction time
  • Percent increase in new product sales revenue as a percent of total sales revenue
  • Percent increase in new patents granted
  • Customer perception as a leader in innovation
  • Percent of management time spent on or leading innovation

03.09 Quality Control Circles (QCCs)

To involve employees in productivity and efficiency improvement activities, a team-based environment must be developed in which they can participate actively in improving their process, product, or service performance. One such employee participation program is quality control circles (QCCs).

QC-circle activities are usually directed towards improvements in the workplace. They focus on such areas as-

  • Productivity

03.09.01 Case Studies: Survey by NPC, Malaysia

A 2002 survey on quality control circles (QCCs) by the National Productivity Corporation (NPC) of Malaysia revealed that the majority of the respondents were from the manufacturing (42.0%) and service (31.0%) sectors. Most of the projects undertaken were related to members’ own workplaces, work processes, service delivery, and product development. The vast majority (95.1%) of the respondents said that QCC activities had helped reduce operational costs, with savings reported ranging from US$125.00 to US$2 million, with the median of US$50,000.

03.10 Benchmarking

Benchmarking is a systematic method by which organizations can measure themselves against the best industry practices. It promotes superior performance by providing an organized framework through which organizations learn how the “best in class” do things, understand how these best practices differ from their own, and implement change to close the gap. The essence of benchmarking is the process of borrowing ideas and adapting them to gain competitive advantage. It is a tool for continuous improvement.

Benchmarking is an increasingly popular tool. It is used extensively by both manufacturing and service organizations, including Xerox, AT&T, Motorola, Ford, and Toyota. Benchmarking is a common element of quality standards, such as the Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors Quality System Requirements. These standards, sfiptdate that quality goals and objectives be based on competitive products and benchmarking, both inside and outside the automotive industry. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award similarly requires that applicants benchmark external organizations.

Benchmarking is the systematic search for best practices, innovative ideas, and highly effective operating procedures. Benchmarking considers the experience of others and uses it. Indeed, it is the common sense proposition to learn from others what they do right and then imitate it to avoid reinventing the wheel. Benchmarking is not new and indeed has been around for a long time. In fact, in the 1800s, Francis Lowell, a New England

03.10.01 Reasons to Benchmark

Benchmarking is a tool to achieve business and competitive objectives. It is power and extremely effective when used for the right reasons and aligned with organization strategy. It is not a panacea that can replace all other quality efforts or management processes. Organizations must still decide which markets to serve and determine the strengths that will enable them to gain competitive advantage. Benchmarking is one tool to help organizations develop those strengths and reduce weaknesses.

By definition, benchmarking requires an external orientation, which is critical in a world where the competition can easily be on the other side of the globe. An external outlook greatly reduces the chance of being caught unaware by competition. Benchmarking can notify the organization if it has fallen behind the competition or failed to take advantage of important operating improvements developed elsewhere. In short, benchmarking can inspire managers (and organizations) to compete.

In contrast to the traditional method of extrapolating next year’s goal from last year’s performance, benchmarking allows goals to be set objectively, based on external information. When personnel are aware of the external information, they are usually much more motivated to attain the goals and objectives. Also, it is hard to argue that an objective is impossible when it can be shown that another organization has already achieved it.

Benchmarking is time and cost efficient because the process involves imitation and adaptation rather than pure invention. Benchmarking partners provide a working model of an improved process, which reduces some of the planning, testing, and prototyping effort. As the old saying goes, Why reinvent the wheel?

The primary weakness of benchmarking, however, is the fact that best in class performance is a moving target. For example, new technology can create quantum leap performance improvements, such as the use of electronic data interchange (EDI). Automobile makers no longer use paper to purchase parts from suppliers. A computer tracks inventory and transmits orders directly to a supplier’s computers. The supplier delivers the goods, and payment is electronically transmitted to the supplier’s bank. Wall Mart uses bar code scanners and satellite data transmission to restock its stores, often in a matter of hours. These applications of EDI save tens of thousands of worker hours and whole forests of trees, as well as helping to meet customer requirements.

For functions that are critical to the business mission, organizations must continue to innovate as well as imitate. Benchmarking enhances innovation by requiring organizations to constantly scan the external environment and to use the information obtained to improve the process. Potentially useful technological breakthroughs can be located and adopted early.

03.10.02 Process

Organizations that benchmark, adapt the process to best fit their own needs and culture. Although the number of steps in the process may vary from organization to organization, the following six steps contain the core techniques.

  • Decide what to benchmark.
  • Uaderstand current performance

03.11 Quality Management Systems

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was founded in 1946 in Geneva, Switzerland, where it is still based. Its mandate is to promote the development of international standards to facilitate the exchange of goods and services worldwide. ISO is composed of more than 90 member countries. The United States representative is the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

The ISO Technical Committee (TC) 176 developed a series of international standards for quality systems, which were first published in 1987 new standards (ISO 9000, 9001, and 9004) were intended to be advisory and were developed for use in two party contractual situations and internal auditing. However, with their adoption by the European Community (EC) and a worldwide emphasis on quality and economic competitiveness, the standards have become universally accepted.

03.12 TQM Concept in Japan

TQM, also known as Total Quality Control (TQC), is a management tool for improving total performance. TQC means organized Kaizen activities involving everyone in a company – managers and workers – in a totally systemic and integrated effort toward improving performance at every level. It is to lead to increased customer satisfaction through satisfying such corporate cross-functional goals as quality, cost, scheduling, manpower development, and new product development.  In Japan, TQC activities are not limited to quality control only. Elaborate system of Kaizen strategies has been developed as management tools within the TQC approach. TQC in Kaizen is a movement aimed at improvement of managerial performance at all levels.

According to the Japan Industrial Standards, “implementing quality control effectively necessitates the cooperation of all people in the company, including top management, managers, supervisors, and workers in all areas of corporate activities such as market research and development, product planning, design, preparation for production, purchasing, vendor management, manufacturing, inspection, sales and after-sale services, as well as financial control, personnel administration, and training & education. Quality control carried out in this manner is called company-wide quality control or total quality control (TQC).” Quality control in Japan deals with quality of people. It is the fundamental concept of the Kaizen-style TQC. Building quality into its people brings a company a half-way towards producing quality products.

03.12.01 Education and Training

As a natural follow-up to the concept of building quality into people, TQC starts with education and training of managers and workers. The major aim of these awareness and training programs is to implant TQC thinking in all employees.

TQC education and training is a continuous process. Separate courses for different organizational levels are organized to reach everyone in the company.

03.12.02 Seven main feature of the TQM movement in japan

  • Company-wide TQC, involving all employees, organization, hardware, and software
  • Emphasis on education and training for top management, middle management and workers
  • Quality control (QC) circle activities by small groups of volunteers
  • Application of statistical methods
  • Constant revision and upgrading of standards
  • Nation-wide TQC promotion

03.12.03 Areas Targeted by TQM in Japan

  • Quality assurance
  • New product development
  • Cost reduction
  • Productivity improvement
  • Education and training
  • Organizational / systems development
  • Cross-functional management
  • Policy deployment
  • Quality deployment
  • Supply management
  • Meeting production quotas
  • Meeting delivery schedules

03.13 TQM Concept in Community College Administration

Community colleges, too, have adopted TQM, primarily to improve their management processes. While the number of colleges that has implemented TQM systems is not large, an increasing number are experimenting with various elements of it. They have approached implementation in a variety of ways.

Perhaps the most common model is for senior leadership to become interested in TQM, to study various applications, and then, to initiate TQM practices from the top- down. At most of these colleges, TQM is first applied to leadership team processes or related administrative functions. Incorporation of TQM principles into the curriculum and academic administration may follow administrative application.

TQM has also been introduced to community colleges by mid- level managers who have come in contact with its principles through a curriculum designed and provided by the college for local business and industry. These managers begin to introduce TQM practices within their own areas. This grassroots approach often spreads laterally before upward. Other colleges have actually become involved in TQM along with a consortium of businesses in their service area. Business and college participants learn both TQM and about the challenges they have in common. The consortium then becomes a critical link with the community, as well as a source of problem solving, support, and encouragement for TQM.

It is legitimate to question why any leader would be attracted to TQM since the model demands basic changes in established management practices. However, a rationale for experimenting with TQM is not difficult to articulate. At its best, TQM can provide a focus and structure for institutional effectiveness that includes the dimensions of quality and accountability and operationalizes them throughout the college. TQM can provide a structure for involving faculty and staff in college problem solving and decision making in ways that are meaningful to them and to the college. TQM can also provide a model for transforming a stagnant college organization to a new level of fitness.

Even more fundamental is the fact that the values espoused by TQM are the values of community colleges: commitment to quality, respect for people, focus on process, and the expectation of continuous learning.

L imitations o f t he S tudy

The subject Introduction to Cost and Managerial Accounting is a vast one and due to the in short supply of time we could not complete many of the major portions. If we have had as much as necessary time and given apposite information, it was for sure that we could have industrial a much better report on this topic.

Actually the business organizations of Bangladesh are not stressing too much on the practice in total quality management rather they are practicing traditional management approach in their organization.

Another problem that we have to face in one of the well known organization we had to go for almost two times to fix an appointment with the manager. Finally when we met him, he was not willing to give us information not even the company profile which has nothing to maintain secrecy. At last we decided to drop the study on their organization.

C onclusion

This was not at all an easy project to complete. Gathering information was also a difficult task. What ever the limitations were, we made our best effort to overcome them and anchor safe.No matter how good we do in designing the project but it’s the knowledge that we gather that remains us till the end and satisfies us. At last, we hope that our attempt behind this project is a successful one and will surely bear the expected fruit.

R eferences

  • Course materials provided by course instructor Mr. Quamrul Islam
  • Besterfield, Dale H. ; Besterfield, Glen H. ; Total Quality Management
  • Edgeman, Rick L.; On Leaders and Leadership
  • Fredendall, Lawrence D.; Robbins, Tina L. Journal of Managerial
  • Juliette, Jandel-Leavitt; TQM Case Study
  • Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005
  • Needham, Robbie Lee; Total Quality Management

NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation

Satisfaction level of 3g services among bangladeshi youth generation, japanese management style, satisfied employees will lead to satisfied customer, air pollution involves rapid osteoporosis-related bone loss, preferred stock, annual report 2009-2010 of bajaj finserv limited, what is statistics, desalination, spiders hunt and eat snakes on nearly every continent, scientists surprised to discover, latest post, how we view the developing and aging brain will change thanks to a special omega-3 fatty acid lipid, study reveals serotonin’s effects in a simple animal from molecular to whole-brain scale, team develops a straightforward superconducting gadget that could significantly reduce computer energy consumption, no general topological signatures in high harmonic generation have been found through study, researchers make strides in monte carlo computer simulations, samsung expands the capacity of its high-speed 990 pro ssds to 4tb.


  1. (PDF) Total Quality Management (TQM) for Electronic Thesis & Dissertions

    thesis related to total quality management

  2. Total quality management in education thesis proposal

    thesis related to total quality management

  3. PPT

    thesis related to total quality management

  4. en phd thesis in total quality management

    thesis related to total quality management

  5. ️ Total quality management topics. Total Quality Management Essay. 2019

    thesis related to total quality management

  6. 😎 Total quality management topics. Total Quality Management. 2019-01-19

    thesis related to total quality management


  1. 🌏Quality Thesis Path🌏

  2. How to define quality management ??

  3. Overview of the Quality Matters Template in Blackboard

  4. Literature, Relevant, Quality, Identification/Evaluation/Documentation, 22nd December 2020 Lecture

  5. Process Approach, EP.4

  6. Quality Criteria in Qualitative Research (HRM)


  1. A literature review on total quality management (models, frameworks

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of total quality management (TQM) models, frameworks, and tools and techniques in higher education (HE) over the last thirty years from 1991 till 2020, based on a literature review Design/methodology/approach

  2. A systematic literature review of Total Quality Management (TQM

    An organization can succeed in perfection in daily operations and gain strategic and competitive advantage through the application of total quality management practices (Khalil & Muneenam,...

  3. Total Quality Management: a Literature Review and An Agenda for Future

    Total quality management (TQM) is a revolutionary approach to effective management. The research in TQM has emerged from practical needs of organizations embracing this philosophy, and the literature is mostly conceptual and practitioner-oriented. There is a lack of sound theoretical framework classifying past efforts and guiding future research.

  4. Full article: Emerging research trends of total quality management in

    In addition, 'The relationship between total quality management practices and their effects on firm performance' (Kaynak, Citation 2003) and 'Total quality management: empirical, conceptual and practical issues' (Hackman & Wageman, Citation 1995) follow closely behind, giving an account of the direct and indirect effects of TQM ...

  5. PDF Implementation of Total Quality Management

    1.5 Structure of the Thesis 6 Chapter 2 Concept of Total Quality Management 2.1 Introduction 9 2.2 Concept from Quality Gurus 9 2.2.1 Deming's Approach to TQM 9 2.2.2 Juran's Approach to TQM 11 2.2.3 Crosby's Approach to TQM 12 2.2.4 Feigenbaum's Approach to TQM 13

  6. Full article: Total quality management in the health-care context

    The keywords used in the search are TQM, total quality management, implementation, critical success factors, health care and nursing. As presented in Figure 1, a search of Science Direct, MEDLINE, EBSCO, CINAHL and PubMed yielded 2133, 6341, 1867, 7 and 474 articles, respectively. Then, repeated citations, dissertations and case studies were ...

  7. PDF Total quality management: aspects of implementation and performance

    Implementation of Total Quality Management in small organisations: A case study in Sweden. Total Quality Management, 12 (7 & 8), pp. 988-994. Paper 3 Hansson, J. & Klefsjö, B. (2003). A core value model for implementing Total Quality Management in small organisations. Accepted for publication in The TQM Magazine, 15 (2).

  8. Total Quality Management Practices' Effects on Quality Performance and

    Total quality management, market competition and organizational performance The British Accounting Review, 36 (2004), pp. 155-172. View PDF View article View in Scopus [28] Fuentes M., Albacete-Saez Carlos A., Mar Llorens-Montes F. J., "The impact of environmental characteristics on TQM principles and organizational performance", Faculty of ...


    This paper is to provide a general understanding of Total Quality Management, a concept that is aimed at ensuring quality with continuous improvement. It takes Oakland's " Total Quality...

  10. Dissertations / Theses: 'Total quality management'

    Published: 4 June 2021 Last updated: 11 March 2023 Create a spot-on reference in APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard, and other styles Select a source type: Book Website Journal article Video (online) All types... Consult the top 50 dissertations / theses for your research on the topic 'Total quality management.'

  11. (PDF) Reviewing the Literature on Total Quality Management and

    Existing studies in this area have applied the concept of total quality management on other dependent variables like patient satisfaction (Abadi et al., 2018;Abdallah and Mohamed, 2018;Zaid...

  12. PDF Total Quality Management Practices and Organisational Performance in


  13. Total quality management: A literature review and an agenda for future

    Total quality management (TQM) consists of organizationwide efforts and an integrated system of principles, tools, and best practices to create an environment that supports the organization and ...

  14. PDF The Relationship Between Total Quality Management and School Improvement

    4.4.8 Total Quality Management principles 139 4.4.9 Deming Fourteen points for culture change 141 4.4.10 Opinions regarding TQM principles for continuous improvements 143 4.4.11 Quality of work life 144 4.4.12 Resistance to change 145 4.4.13 Opinions regarding indicators for the implementation of TQM

  15. The relationship between TQM and project performance: Empirical

    Many studies have suggested the adaptation and implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) is likely to improve an organization's performance. A considerable amount of literature has examined ...

  16. (PDF) Reviewing the Literature on Total Quality Management and

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management is an administrative approach for firms focused on quality, in light of the cooperation and every individuals and aims at long haul accomplishment through consumer's loyalty and advantages to all individuals from the associations and society. ... References were made to journals, related books ...

  17. The impact of Total Quality Management on organizational performance

    This study came to investigate the impact of Total Quality management (TQM) practices and strategies on organisational performance. TQM is defined as a strategy that essentially aimed to establish ...

  18. Leadership and Total Quality Management Thesis

    Leadership and Total Quality Management Thesis Exclusively available on IvyPanda Updated: Apr 14th, 2021 Aims/Objectives The main objective is to critically evaluate the impact of leadership behaviour and management style on the success of Total Quality Management (TQM) in the retail sector. The specific objectives for the study will include:

  19. (DOC) dissertation of total quality management

    This paper has identified certain gaps from literature on issues related with TQM such as development of framework for evaluating effectiveness of TQM, prioritization of critical success factors, comparative study of TQM and effect of TQM on performance of organizations from supply chain perspective etc on which further study can be conducted

  20. PDF Total Quality Management Thesis

    Total Quality Management Thesis Yeah, reviewing a ebook Total Quality Management Thesis could be credited with your close contacts listings. ... the literature does not clearly demonstrate which set of elements is more significantly related to business and organizational performance, all TQM elements can be viewed as human, organizational, and ...

  21. Principles & Concept of Total Quality Management Essay

    Total Quality Management, often abbreviated as TQM is the strategy used by organizations in improving internal operations and enhancing the satisfaction of customers. With proper implementation, TQM reduces the costs that are associated with corrective maintenance, creates satisfactory general performance and a high number of satisfied customers.

  22. Research paper on Total Quality Management (TQM)

    The components of TQM are a blend of ideas developed by three major theorists. W. Edwards Deming applied statistical thinking to the control of variation of work processes. He is best known for his fourteen points. J. M.