Research Paper Examples
Research paper examples are of great value for students who want to complete their assignments timely and efficiently. If you are a student in the university, your first stop in the quest for research paper examples will be the campus library where you can get to view the research sample papers of lecturers and other professionals in diverse fields plus those of fellow students who preceded you in the campus. Many college departments maintain libraries of previous student work, including large research papers, which current students can examine. Our collection of research paper examples includes:
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To Read Examples or Not to Read
When you get an assignment to write a research paper, the first question you ask yourself is ‘Should I look for research paper examples?’ Maybe, I can deal with this task on my own without any help. Is it that difficult?
Thousands of students turn to our service every day for help. It does not mean that they cannot do their assignments on their own. They can, but the reason is different. Writing a research paper demands so much time and energy that asking for assistance seems to be a perfect solution. As the matter of fact, it is a perfect solution, especially, when you need to work to pay for your studying as well.
Firstly, if you search for research paper examples before you start writing, you can save your time significantly. You look at the example and you understand the gist of your assignment within several minutes. Secondly, when you examine some sample paper, you get to know all the requirements. You analyze the structure, the language, and the formatting details. Finally, reading examples helps students to overcome writer’s block, as other people’s ideas can motivate you to discover your own ideas.
A Sample Research Paper on Child Abuse
A research paper is an academic piece of writing, so you need to follow all the requirements and standards. Otherwise, it will be impossible to get the high results. To make it easier for you, we have analyzed the structure and peculiarities of a sample research paper on the topic ‘Child Abuse’.
The paper includes 7300+ words, a detailed outline, citations are in APA formatting style, and bibliography with 28 sources.
To write any paper you need to write a great outline. This is the key to a perfect paper. When you organize your paper, it is easier for you to present the ideas logically, without jumping from one thought to another.
In the outline, you need to name all the parts of your paper. That is to say, an introduction, main body, conclusion, bibliography, some papers require abstract and proposal as well.
A good outline will serve as a guide through your paper making it easier for the reader to follow your ideas.
Ii. estimates of child abuse: methodological limitations, iii. child abuse and neglect: the legalities, iv. corporal punishment versus child abuse, v. child abuse victims: the patterns, vi. child abuse perpetrators: the patterns, vii. explanations for child abuse, viii. consequences of child abuse and neglect, ix. determining abuse: how to tell whether a child is abused or neglected, x. determining abuse: interviewing children, xi. how can society help abused children and abusive families, introduction.
An introduction should include a thesis statement and the main points that you will discuss in the paper.
A thesis statement is one sentence in which you need to show your point of view. You will then develop this point of view through the whole piece of work:
‘The impact of child abuse affects more than one’s childhood, as the psychological and physical injuries often extend well into adulthood.’
Child abuse is a very real and prominent social problem today. The impact of child abuse affects more than one’s childhood, as the psychological and physical injuries often extend well into adulthood. Most children are defenseless against abuse, are dependent on their caretakers, and are unable to protect themselves from these acts.
Childhood serves as the basis for growth, development, and socialization. Throughout adolescence, children are taught how to become productive and positive, functioning members of society. Much of the socializing of children, particularly in their very earliest years, comes at the hands of family members. Unfortunately, the messages conveyed to and the actions against children by their families are not always the positive building blocks for which one would hope.
In 2008, the Children’s Defense Fund reported that each day in America, 2,421 children are confirmed as abused or neglected, 4 children are killed by abuse or neglect, and 78 babies die before their first birthday. These daily estimates translate into tremendous national figures. In 2006, caseworkers substantiated an estimated 905,000 reports of child abuse or neglect. Of these, 64% suffered neglect, 16% were physically abused, 9% were sexually abused, 7% were emotionally or psychologically maltreated, and 2% were medically neglected. In addition, 15% of the victims experienced “other” types of maltreatment such as abandonment, threats of harm to the child, and congenital drug addiction (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 2006). Obviously, this problem is a substantial one.
In the main body, you dwell upon the topic of your paper. You provide your ideas and support them with evidence. The evidence include all the data and material you have found, analyzed and systematized. You can support your point of view with different statistical data, with surveys, and the results of different experiments. Your task is to show that your idea is right, and make the reader interested in the topic.
In this example, a writer analyzes the issue of child abuse: different statistical data, controversies regarding the topic, examples of the problem and the consequences.
Several issues arise when considering the amount of child abuse that occurs annually in the United States. Child abuse is very hard to estimate because much (or most) of it is not reported. Children who are abused are unlikely to report their victimization because they may not know any better, they still love their abusers and do not want to see them taken away (or do not themselves want to be taken away from their abusers), they have been threatened into not reporting, or they do not know to whom they should report their victimizations. Still further, children may report their abuse only to find the person to whom they report does not believe them or take any action on their behalf. Continuing to muddy the waters, child abuse can be disguised as legitimate injury, particularly because young children are often somewhat uncoordinated and are still learning to accomplish physical tasks, may not know their physical limitations, and are often legitimately injured during regular play. In the end, children rarely report child abuse; most often it is an adult who makes a report based on suspicion (e.g., teacher, counselor, doctor, etc.).
Even when child abuse is reported, social service agents and investigators may not follow up or substantiate reports for a variety of reasons. Parents can pretend, lie, or cover up injuries or stories of how injuries occurred when social service agents come to investigate. Further, there is not always agreement about what should be counted as abuse by service providers and researchers. In addition, social service agencies/agents have huge caseloads and may only be able to deal with the most serious forms of child abuse, leaving the more “minor” forms of abuse unsupervised and unmanaged (and uncounted in the statistical totals).
While most laws about child abuse and neglect fall at the state levels, federal legislation provides a foundation for states by identifying a minimum set of acts and behaviors that define child abuse and neglect. The Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), which stems from the Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003, defines child abuse and neglect as, at minimum, “(1) any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation; or (2) an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk or serious harm.”
Using these minimum standards, each state is responsible for providing its own definition of maltreatment within civil and criminal statutes. When defining types of child abuse, many states incorporate similar elements and definitions into their legal statutes. For example, neglect is often defined as failure to provide for a child’s basic needs. Neglect can encompass physical elements (e.g., failure to provide necessary food or shelter, or lack of appropriate supervision), medical elements (e.g., failure to provide necessary medical or mental health treatment), educational elements (e.g., failure to educate a child or attend to special educational needs), and emotional elements (e.g., inattention to a child’s emotional needs, failure to provide psychological care, or permitting the child to use alcohol or other drugs). Failure to meet needs does not always mean a child is neglected, as situations such as poverty, cultural values, and community standards can influence the application of legal statutes. In addition, several states distinguish between failure to provide based on financial inability and failure to provide for no apparent financial reason.
Statutes on physical abuse typically include elements of physical injury (ranging from minor bruises to severe fractures or death) as a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, shaking, throwing, stabbing, choking, hitting (with a hand, stick, strap, or other object), burning, or otherwise harming a child. Such injury is considered abuse regardless of the intention of the caretaker. In addition, many state statutes include allowing or encouraging another person to physically harm a child (such as noted above) as another form of physical abuse in and of itself. Sexual abuse usually includes activities by a parent or caretaker such as fondling a child’s genitals, penetration, incest, rape, sodomy, indecent exposure, and exploitation through prostitution or the production of pornographic materials.
Finally, emotional or psychological abuse typically is defined as a pattern of behavior that impairs a child’s emotional development or sense of self-worth. This may include constant criticism, threats, or rejection, as well as withholding love, support, or guidance. Emotional abuse is often the most difficult to prove and, therefore, child protective services may not be able to intervene without evidence of harm to the child. Some states suggest that harm may be evidenced by an observable or substantial change in behavior, emotional response, or cognition, or by anxiety, depression, withdrawal, or aggressive behavior. At a practical level, emotional abuse is almost always present when other types of abuse are identified.
Some states include an element of substance abuse in their statutes on child abuse. Circumstances that can be considered substance abuse include (a) the manufacture of a controlled substance in the presence of a child or on the premises occupied by a child (Colorado, Indiana, Iowa, Montana, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Virginia); (b) allowing a child to be present where the chemicals or equipment for the manufacture of controlled substances are used (Arizona, New Mexico); (c) selling, distributing, or giving drugs or alcohol to a child (Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas); (d) use of a controlled substance by a caregiver that impairs the caregiver’s ability to adequately care for the child (Kentucky, New York, Rhode Island, and Texas); and (e) exposure of the child to drug paraphernalia (North Dakota), the criminal sale or distribution of drugs (Montana, Virginia), or drug-related activity (District of Columbia).
One of the most difficult issues with which the U.S. legal system must contend is that of allowing parents the right to use corporal punishment when disciplining a child, while not letting them cross over the line into the realm of child abuse. Some parents may abuse their children under the guise of discipline, and many instances of child abuse arise from angry parents who go too far when disciplining their children with physical punishment. Generally, state statutes use terms such as “reasonable discipline of a minor,” “causes only temporary, short-term pain,” and may cause “the potential for bruising” but not “permanent damage, disability, disfigurement or injury” to the child as ways of indicating the types of discipline behaviors that are legal. However, corporal punishment that is “excessive,” “malicious,” “endangers the bodily safety of,” or is “an intentional infliction of injury” is not allowed under most state statutes (e.g., state of Florida child abuse statute).
Most research finds that the use of physical punishment (most often spanking) is not an effective method of discipline. The literature on this issue tends to find that spanking stops misbehavior, but no more effectively than other firm measures. Further, it seems to hinder rather than improve general compliance/obedience (particularly when the child is not in the presence of the punisher). Researchers have also explained why physical punishment is not any more effective at gaining child compliance than nonviolent forms of discipline. Some of the problems that arise when parents use spanking or other forms of physical punishment include the fact that spanking does not teach what children should do, nor does it provide them with alternative behavior options should the circumstance arise again. Spanking also undermines reasoning, explanation, or other forms of parental instruction because children cannot learn, reason, or problem solve well while experiencing threat, pain, fear, or anger. Further, the use of physical punishment is inconsistent with nonviolent principles, or parental modeling. In addition, the use of spanking chips away at the bonds of affection between parents and children, and tends to induce resentment and fear. Finally, it hinders the development of empathy and compassion in children, and they do not learn to take responsibility for their own behavior (Pitzer, 1997).
One of the biggest problems with the use of corporal punishment is that it can escalate into much more severe forms of violence. Usually, parents spank because they are angry (and somewhat out of control) and they can’t think of other ways to discipline. When parents are acting as a result of emotional triggers, the notion of discipline is lost while punishment and pain become the foci.
In 2006, of the children who were found to be victims of child abuse, nearly 75% of them were first-time victims (or had not come to the attention of authorities prior). A slight majority of child abuse victims were girls—51.5%, compared to 48% of abuse victims being boys. The younger the child, the more at risk he or she is for child abuse and neglect victimization. Specifically, the rate for infants (birth to 1 year old) was approximately 24 per 1,000 children of the same age group. The victimization rate for children 1–3 years old was 14 per 1,000 children of the same age group. The abuse rate for children aged 4– 7 years old declined further to 13 per 1,000 children of the same age group. African American, American Indian, and Alaska Native children, as well as children of multiple races, had the highest rates of victimization. White and Latino children had lower rates, and Asian children had the lowest rates of child abuse and neglect victimization. Regarding living arrangements, nearly 27% of victims were living with a single mother, 20% were living with married parents, while 22% were living with both parents but the marital status was unknown. (This reporting element had nearly 40% missing data, however.) Regarding disability, nearly 8% of child abuse victims had some degree of mental retardation, emotional disturbance, visual or hearing impairment, learning disability, physical disability, behavioral problems, or other medical problems. Unfortunately, data indicate that for many victims, the efforts of the child protection services system were not successful in preventing subsequent victimization. Children who had been prior victims of maltreatment were 96% more likely to experience another occurrence than those who were not prior victims. Further, child victims who were reported to have a disability were 52% more likely to experience recurrence than children without a disability. Finally, the oldest victims (16–21 years of age) were the least likely to experience a recurrence, and were 51% less likely to be victimized again than were infants (younger than age 1) (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 2006).
Child fatalities are the most tragic consequence of maltreatment. Yet, each year, children die from abuse and neglect. In 2006, an estimated 1,530 children in the United States died due to abuse or neglect. The overall rate of child fatalities was 2 deaths per 100,000 children. More than 40% of child fatalities were attributed to neglect, but physical abuse also was a major contributor. Approximately 78% of the children who died due to child abuse and neglect were younger than 4 years old, and infant boys (younger than 1) had the highest rate of fatalities at 18.5 deaths per 100,000 boys of the same age in the national population. Infant girls had a rate of 14.7 deaths per 100,000 girls of the same age (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 2006).
One question to be addressed regarding child fatalities is why infants have such a high rate of death when compared to toddlers and adolescents. Children under 1 year old pose an immense amount of responsibility for their caretakers: they are completely dependent and need constant attention. Children this age are needy, impulsive, and not amenable to verbal control or effective communication. This can easily overwhelm vulnerable parents. Another difficulty associated with infants is that they are physically weak and small. Injuries to infants can be fatal, while similar injuries to older children might not be. The most common cause of death in children less than 1 year is cerebral trauma (often the result of shaken-baby syndrome). Exasperated parents can deliver shakes or blows without realizing how little it takes to cause irreparable or fatal damage to an infant. Research informs us that two of the most common triggers for fatal child abuse are crying that will not cease and toileting accidents. Both of these circumstances are common in infants and toddlers whose only means of communication often is crying, and who are limited in mobility and cannot use the toilet. Finally, very young children cannot assist in injury diagnoses. Children who have been injured due to abuse or neglect often cannot communicate to medical professionals about where it hurts, how it hurts, and so forth. Also, nonfatal injuries can turn fatal in the absence of care by neglectful parents or parents who do not want medical professionals to possibly identify an injury as being the result of abuse.
Estimates reveal that nearly 80% of perpetrators of child abuse were parents of the victim. Other relatives accounted for nearly 7%, and unmarried partners of parents made up 4% of perpetrators. Of those perpetrators that were parents, over 90% were biological parents, 4% were stepparents, and 0.7% were adoptive parents. Of this group, approximately 58% of perpetrators were women and 42% were men. Women perpetrators are typically younger than men. The average age for women abusers was 31 years old, while for men the average was 34 years old. Forty percent of women who abused were younger than 30 years of age, compared with 33% of men being under 30. The racial distribution of perpetrators is similar to that of victims. Fifty-four percent were white, 21% were African American, and 20% were Hispanic/Latino (National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 2006).
There are many factors that are associated with child abuse. Some of the more common/well-accepted explanations are individual pathology, parent–child interaction, past abuse in the family (or social learning), situational factors, and cultural support for physical punishment along with a lack of cultural support for helping parents here in the United States.
The first explanation centers on the individual pathology of a parent or caretaker who is abusive. This theory focuses on the idea that people who abuse their children have something wrong with their individual personality or biological makeup. Such psychological pathologies may include having anger control problems; being depressed or having post-partum depression; having a low tolerance for frustration (e.g., children can be extremely frustrating: they don’t always listen; they constantly push the line of how far they can go; and once the line has been established, they are constantly treading on it to make sure it hasn’t moved. They are dependent and self-centered, so caretakers have very little privacy or time to themselves); being rigid (e.g., having no tolerance for differences—for example, what if your son wanted to play with dolls? A rigid father would not let him, laugh at him for wanting to, punish him when he does, etc.); having deficits in empathy (parents who cannot put themselves in the shoes of their children cannot fully understand what their children need emotionally); or being disorganized, inefficient, and ineffectual. (Parents who are unable to manage their own lives are unlikely to be successful at managing the lives of their children, and since many children want and need limits, these parents are unable to set them or adhere to them.)
Biological pathologies that may increase the likelihood of someone becoming a child abuser include having substance abuse or dependence problems, or having persistent or reoccurring physical health problems (especially health problems that can be extremely painful and can cause a person to become more self-absorbed, both qualities that can give rise to a lack of patience, lower frustration tolerance, and increased stress).
The second explanation for child abuse centers on the interaction between the parent and the child, noting that certain types of parents are more likely to abuse, and certain types of children are more likely to be abused, and when these less-skilled parents are coupled with these more difficult children, child abuse is the most likely to occur. Discussion here focuses on what makes a parent less skilled, and what makes a child more difficult. Characteristics of unskilled parents are likely to include such traits as only pointing out what children do wrong and never giving any encouragement for good behavior, and failing to be sensitive to the emotional needs of children. Less skilled parents tend to have unrealistic expectations of children. They may engage in role reversal— where the parents make the child take care of them—and view the parent’s happiness and well-being as the responsibility of the child. Some parents view the parental role as extremely stressful and experience little enjoyment from being a parent. Finally, less-skilled parents tend to have more negative perceptions regarding their child(ren). For example, perhaps the child has a different shade of skin than they expected and this may disappoint or anger them, they may feel the child is being manipulative (long before children have this capability), or they may view the child as the scapegoat for all the parents’ or family’s problems. Theoretically, parents with these characteristics would be more likely to abuse their children, but if they are coupled with having a difficult child, they would be especially likely to be abusive. So, what makes a child more difficult? Certainly, through no fault of their own, children may have characteristics that are associated with child care that is more demanding and difficult than in the “normal” or “average” situation. Such characteristics can include having physical and mental disabilities (autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], hyperactivity, etc.); the child may be colicky, frequently sick, be particularly needy, or cry more often. In addition, some babies are simply unhappier than other babies for reasons that cannot be known. Further, infants are difficult even in the best of circumstances. They are unable to communicate effectively, and they are completely dependent on their caretakers for everything, including eating, diaper changing, moving around, entertainment, and emotional bonding. Again, these types of children, being more difficult, are more likely to be victims of child abuse.
Nonetheless, each of these types of parents and children alone cannot explain the abuse of children, but it is the interaction between them that becomes the key. Unskilled parents may produce children that are happy and not as needy, and even though they are unskilled, they do not abuse because the child takes less effort. At the same time, children who are more difficult may have parents who are skilled and are able to handle and manage the extra effort these children take with aplomb. However, risks for child abuse increase when unskilled parents must contend with difficult children.
Social learning or past abuse in the family is a third common explanation for child abuse. Here, the theory concentrates not only on what children learn when they see or experience violence in their homes, but additionally on what they do not learn as a result of these experiences. Social learning theory in the context of family violence stresses that if children are abused or see abuse (toward siblings or a parent), those interactions and violent family members become the representations and role models for their future familial interactions. In this way, what children learn is just as important as what they do not learn. Children who witness or experience violence may learn that this is the way parents deal with children, or that violence is an acceptable method of child rearing and discipline. They may think when they become parents that “violence worked on me when I was a child, and I turned out fine.” They may learn unhealthy relationship interaction patterns; children may witness the negative interactions of parents and they may learn the maladaptive or violent methods of expressing anger, reacting to stress, or coping with conflict.
What is equally as important, though, is that they are unlikely to learn more acceptable and nonviolent ways of rearing children, interacting with family members, and working out conflict. Here it may happen that an adult who was abused as a child would like to be nonviolent toward his or her own children, but when the chips are down and the child is misbehaving, this abused-child-turned-adult does not have a repertoire of nonviolent strategies to try. This parent is more likely to fall back on what he or she knows as methods of discipline.
Something important to note here is that not all abused children grow up to become abusive adults. Children who break the cycle were often able to establish and maintain one healthy emotional relationship with someone during their childhoods (or period of young adulthood). For instance, they may have received emotional support from a nonabusing parent, or they received social support and had a positive relationship with another adult during their childhood (e.g., teacher, coach, minister, neighbor, etc.). Abused children who participate in therapy during some period of their lives can often break the cycle of violence. In addition, adults who were abused but are able to form an emotionally supportive and satisfying relationship with a mate can make the transition to being nonviolent in their family interactions.
Moving on to a fourth familiar explanation for child abuse, there are some common situational factors that influence families and parents and increase the risks for child abuse. Typically, these are factors that increase family stress or social isolation. Specifically, such factors may include receiving public assistance or having low socioeconomic status (a combination of low income and low education). Other factors include having family members who are unemployed, underemployed (working in a job that requires lower qualifications than an individual possesses), or employed only part time. These financial difficulties cause great stress for families in meeting the needs of the individual members. Other stress-inducing familial characteristics are single-parent households and larger family size. Finally, social isolation can be devastating for families and family members. Having friends to talk to, who can be relied upon, and with whom kids can be dropped off occasionally is tremendously important for personal growth and satisfaction in life. In addition, social isolation and stress can cause individuals to be quick to lose their tempers, as well as cause people to be less rational in their decision making and to make mountains out of mole hills. These situations can lead families to be at greater risk for child abuse.
Finally, cultural views and supports (or lack thereof) can lead to greater amounts of child abuse in a society such as the United States. One such cultural view is that of societal support for physical punishment. This is problematic because there are similarities between the way criminals are dealt with and the way errant children are handled. The use of capital punishment is advocated for seriously violent criminals, and people are quick to use such idioms as “spare the rod and spoil the child” when it comes to the discipline or punishment of children. In fact, it was not until quite recently that parenting books began to encourage parents to use other strategies than spanking or other forms of corporal punishment in the discipline of their children. Only recently, the American Academy of Pediatrics has come out and recommended that parents do not spank or use other forms of violence on their children because of the deleterious effects such methods have on youngsters and their bonds with their parents. Nevertheless, regardless of recommendations, the culture of corporal punishment persists.
Another cultural view in the United States that can give rise to greater incidents of child abuse is the belief that after getting married, couples of course should want and have children. Culturally, Americans consider that children are a blessing, raising kids is the most wonderful thing a person can do, and everyone should have children. Along with this notion is the idea that motherhood is always wonderful; it is the most fulfilling thing a woman can do; and the bond between a mother and her child is strong, glorious, and automatic—all women love being mothers. Thus, culturally (and theoretically), society nearly insists that married couples have children and that they will love having children. But, after children are born, there is not much support for couples who have trouble adjusting to parenthood, or who do not absolutely love their new roles as parents. People look askance at parents who need help, and cannot believe parents who say anything negative about parenthood. As such, theoretically, society has set up a situation where couples are strongly encouraged to have kids, are told they will love kids, but then society turns a blind or disdainful eye when these same parents need emotional, financial, or other forms of help or support. It is these types of cultural viewpoints that increase the risks for child abuse in society.
The consequences of child abuse are tremendous and long lasting. Research has shown that the traumatic experience of childhood abuse is life changing. These costs may surface during adolescence, or they may not become evident until abused children have grown up and become abusing parents or abused spouses. Early identification and treatment is important to minimize these potential long-term effects. Whenever children say they have been abused, it is imperative that they be taken seriously and their abuse be reported. Suspicions of child abuse must be reported as well. If there is a possibility that a child is or has been abused, an investigation must be conducted.
Children who have been abused may exhibit traits such as the inability to love or have faith in others. This often translates into adults who are unable to establish lasting and stable personal relationships. These individuals have trouble with physical closeness and touching as well as emotional intimacy and trust. Further, these qualities tend to cause a fear of entering into new relationships, as well as the sabotaging of any current ones.
Psychologically, children who have been abused tend to have poor self-images or are passive, withdrawn, or clingy. They may be angry individuals who are filled with rage, anxiety, and a variety of fears. They are often aggressive, disruptive, and depressed. Many abused children have flashbacks and nightmares about the abuse they have experienced, and this may cause sleep problems as well as drug and alcohol problems. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and antisocial personality disorder are both typical among maltreated children. Research has also shown that most abused children fail to reach “successful psychosocial functioning,” and are thus not resilient and do not resume a “normal life” after the abuse has ended.
Socially (and likely because of these psychological injuries), abused children have trouble in school, will have difficulty getting and remaining employed, and may commit a variety of illegal or socially inappropriate behaviors. Many studies have shown that victims of child abuse are likely to participate in high-risk behaviors such as alcohol or drug abuse, the use of tobacco, and high-risk sexual behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, large numbers of sexual partners). Later in life, abused children are more likely to have been arrested and homeless. They are also less able to defend themselves in conflict situations and guard themselves against repeated victimizations.
Medically, abused children likely will experience health problems due to the high frequency of physical injuries they receive. In addition, abused children experience a great deal of emotional turmoil and stress, which can also have a significant impact on their physical condition. These health problems are likely to continue occurring into adulthood. Some of these longer-lasting health problems include headaches; eating problems; problems with toileting; and chronic pain in the back, stomach, chest, and genital areas. Some researchers have noted that abused children may experience neurological impairment and problems with intellectual functioning, while others have found a correlation between abuse and heart, lung, and liver disease, as well as cancer (Thomas, 2004).
Victims of sexual abuse show an alarming number of disturbances as adults. Some dislike and avoid sex, or experience sexual problems or disorders, while other victims appear to enjoy sexual activities that are self-defeating or maladaptive—normally called “dysfunctional sexual behavior”—and have many sexual partners.
Abused children also experience a wide variety of developmental delays. Many do not reach physical, cognitive, or emotional developmental milestones at the typical time, and some never accomplish what they are supposed to during childhood socialization. In the next section, these developmental delays are discussed as a means of identifying children who may be abused.
There are two primary ways of identifying children who are abused: spotting and evaluating physical injuries, and detecting and appraising developmental delays. Distinguishing physical injuries due to abuse can be difficult, particularly among younger children who are likely to get hurt or receive injuries while they are playing and learning to become ambulatory. Nonetheless, there are several types of wounds that children are unlikely to give themselves during their normal course of play and exploration. These less likely injuries may signal instances of child abuse.
While it is true that children are likely to get bruises, particularly when they are learning to walk or crawl, bruises on infants are not normal. Also, the back of the legs, upper arms, or on the chest, neck, head, or genitals are also locations where bruises are unlikely to occur during normal childhood activity. Further, bruises with clean patterns, like hand prints, buckle prints, or hangers (to name a few), are good examples of the types of bruises children do not give themselves.
Another area of physical injury where the source of the injury can be difficult to detect is fractures. Again, children fall out of trees, or crash their bikes, and can break limbs. These can be normal parts of growing up. However, fractures in infants less than 12 months old are particularly suspect, as infants are unlikely to be able to accomplish the types of movement necessary to actually break a leg or an arm. Further, multiple fractures, particularly more than one on a bone, should be examined more closely. Spiral or torsion fractures (when the bone is broken by twisting) are suspect because when children break their bones due to play injuries, the fractures are usually some other type (e.g., linear, oblique, compacted). In addition, when parents don’t know about the fracture(s) or how it occurred, abuse should be considered, because when children get these types of injuries, they need comfort and attention.
Head and internal injuries are also those that may signal abuse. Serious blows to the head cause internal head injuries, and this is very different from the injuries that result from bumping into things. Abused children are also likely to experience internal injuries like those to the abdomen, liver, kidney, and bladder. They may suffer a ruptured spleen, or intestinal perforation. These types of damages rarely happen by accident.
Burns are another type of physical injury that can happen by accident or by abuse. Nevertheless, there are ways to tell these types of burn injuries apart. The types of burns that should be examined and investigated are those where the burns are in particular locations. Burns to the bottom of the feet, genitals, abdomen, or other inaccessible spots should be closely considered. Burns of the whole hand or those to the buttocks are also unlikely to happen as a result of an accident.
Turning to the detection and appraisal of developmental delays, one can more readily assess possible abuse by considering what children of various ages should be able to accomplish, than by noting when children are delayed and how many milestones on which they are behind schedule. Importantly, a few delays in reaching milestones can be expected, since children develop individually and not always according to the norm. Nonetheless, when children are abused, their development is likely to be delayed in numerous areas and across many milestones.
As children develop and grow, they should be able to crawl, walk, run, talk, control going to the bathroom, write, set priorities, plan ahead, trust others, make friends, develop a good self-image, differentiate between feeling and behavior, and get their needs met in appropriate ways. As such, when children do not accomplish these feats, their circumstances should be examined.
Infants who are abused or neglected typically develop what is termed failure to thrive syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by slow, inadequate growth, or not “filling out” physically. They have a pale, colorless complexion and dull eyes. They are not likely to spend much time looking around, and nothing catches their eyes. They may show other signs of lack of nutrition such as cuts, bruises that do not heal in a timely way, and discolored fingernails. They are also not trusting and may not cry much, as they are not expecting to have their needs met. Older infants may not have developed any language skills, or these developments are quite slow. This includes both verbal and nonverbal means of communication.
Toddlers who are abused often become hypervigilant about their environments and others’ moods. They are more outwardly focused than a typical toddler (who is quite self-centered) and may be unable to separate themselves as individuals, or consider themselves as distinct beings. In this way, abused toddlers cannot focus on tasks at hand because they are too concerned about others’ reactions. They don’t play with toys, have no interest in exploration, and seem unable to enjoy life. They are likely to accept losses with little reaction, and may have age-inappropriate knowledge of sex and sexual relations. Finally, toddlers, whether they are abused or not, begin to mirror their parents’ behaviors. Thus, toddlers who are abused may mimic the abuse when they are playing with dolls or “playing house.”
Developmental delays can also be detected among abused young adolescents. Some signs include the failure to learn cause and effect, since their parents are so inconsistent. They have no energy for learning and have not developed beyond one- or two-word commands. They probably cannot follow complicated directions (such as two to three tasks per instruction), and they are unlikely to be able to think for themselves. Typically, they have learned that failure is totally unacceptable, but they are more concerned with the teacher’s mood than with learning and listening to instruction. Finally, they are apt to have been inadequately toilet trained and thus may be unable to control their bladders.
Older adolescents, because they are likely to have been abused for a longer period of time, continue to get further and further behind in their developmental achievements. Abused children this age become family nurturers. They take care of their parents and cater to their parents’ needs, rather than the other way around. In addition, they probably take care of any younger siblings and do the household chores. Because of these default responsibilities, they usually do not participate in school activities; they frequently miss days at school; and they have few, if any, friends. Because they have become so hypervigilant and have increasingly delayed development, they lose interest in and become disillusioned with education. They develop low self-esteem and little confidence, but seem old for their years. Children this age who are abused are still likely to be unable to control their bladders and may have frequent toileting accidents.
Other developmental delays can occur and be observed in abused and neglected children of any age. For example, malnutrition and withdrawal can be noticed in infants through teenagers. Maltreated children frequently have persistent or untreated illnesses, and these can become permanent disabilities if medical conditions go untreated for a long enough time. Another example can be the consequences of neurological damage. Beyond being a medical issue, this type of damage can cause problems with social behavior and impulse control, which, again, can be discerned in various ages of children.
Once child abuse is suspected, law enforcement officers, child protection workers, or various other practitioners may need to interview the child about the abuse or neglect he or she may have suffered. Interviewing children can be extremely difficult because children at various stages of development can remember only certain parts or aspects of the events in their lives. Also, interviewers must be careful that they do not put ideas or answers into the heads of the children they are interviewing. There are several general recommendations when interviewing children about the abuse they may have experienced. First, interviewers must acknowledge that even when children are abused, they likely still love their parents. They do not want to be taken away from their parents, nor do they want to see their parents get into trouble. Interviewers must not blame the parents or be judgmental about them or the child’s family. Beyond that, interviews should take place in a safe, neutral location. Interviewers can use dolls and role-play to help children express the types of abuse of which they may be victims.
Finally, interviewers must ask age-appropriate questions. For example, 3-year-olds can probably only answer questions about what happened and who was involved. Four- to five-year-olds can also discuss where the incidents occurred. Along with what, who, and where, 6- to 8-year-olds can talk about the element of time, or when the abuse occurred. Nine- to 10-year-olds are able to add commentary about the number of times the abuse occurred. Finally, 11-year-olds and older children can additionally inform interviewers about the circumstances of abusive instances.
A conclusion is not a summary of what a writer has already mentioned. On the contrary, it is the last point made. Taking every detail of the investigation, the researcher makes the concluding point. In this part of a paper, you need to put a full stop in your research. You need to persuade the reader in your opinion.
Never add any new information in the conclusion. You can present solutions to the problem and you dwell upon the results, but only if this information has been already mentioned in the main body.
Child advocates recommend a variety of strategies to aid families and children experiencing abuse. These recommendations tend to focus on societal efforts as well as more individual efforts. One common strategy advocated is the use of public service announcements that encourage individuals to report any suspected child abuse. Currently, many mandatory reporters (those required by law to report abuse such as teachers, doctors, and social service agency employees) and members of communities feel that child abuse should not be reported unless there is substantial evidence that abuse is indeed occurring. Child advocates stress that this notion should be changed, and that people should report child abuse even if it is only suspected. Public service announcements should stress that if people report suspected child abuse, the worst that can happen is that they might be wrong, but in the grander scheme of things that is really not so bad.
Child advocates also stress that greater interagency cooperation is needed. This cooperation should be evident between women’s shelters, child protection agencies, programs for at-risk children, medical agencies, and law enforcement officers. These agencies typically do not share information, and if they did, more instances of child abuse would come to the attention of various authorities and could be investigated and managed. Along these lines, child protection agencies and programs should receive more funding. When budgets are cut, social services are often the first things to go or to get less financial support. Child advocates insist that with more resources, child protection agencies could hire more workers, handle more cases, conduct more investigations, and follow up with more children and families.
Continuing, more educational efforts must be initiated about issues such as punishment and discipline styles and strategies; having greater respect for children; as well as informing the community about what child abuse is, and how to recognize it. In addition, Americans must alter the cultural orientation about child bearing and child rearing. Couples who wish to remain child-free must be allowed to do so without disdain. And, it must be acknowledged that raising children is very difficult, is not always gloriously wonderful, and that parents who seek help should be lauded and not criticized. These kinds of efforts can help more children to be raised in nonviolent, emotionally satisfying families, and thus become better adults.
When you write a paper, make sure you are aware of all the formatting requirements. Incorrect formatting can lower your mark, so do not underestimate the importance of this part.
Organizing your bibliography is quite a tedious and time-consuming task. Still, you need to do it flawlessly. For this reason, analyze all the standards you need to meet or ask professionals to help you with it. All the comas, colons, brackets etc. matter. They truly do.
- American Academy of Pediatrics: https://www.aap.org/
- Bancroft, L., & Silverman, J. G. (2002). The batterer as parent. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 42 U.S.C.A. § 5106g (1998).
- Childhelp: Child Abuse Statistics: https://www.childhelp.org/child-abuse-statistics/
- Children’s Defense Fund: https://www.childrensdefense.org/
- Child Stats.gov: https://www.childstats.gov/
- Child Welfare League of America: https://www.cwla.org/
- Crosson-Tower, C. (2008). Understanding child abuse and neglect (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
- DeBecker, G. (1999). Protecting the gift: Keeping children and teenagers safe (and parents sane). New York: Bantam Dell.
- Family Research Laboratory at the University of New Hampshire: https://cola.unh.edu/family-research-laboratory
- Guterman, N. B. (2001). Stopping child maltreatment before it starts: Emerging horizons in early home visitation services. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Herman, J. L. (2000). Father-daughter incest. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Medline Plus, Child Abuse: https://medlineplus.gov/childabuse.html
- Myers, J. E. B. (Ed.). (1994). The backlash: Child protection under fire. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
- National Center for Missing and Exploited Children: https://www.missingkids.org/home
- National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. (2006). Child maltreatment 2006: Reports from the states to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.
- New York University Silver School of Social Work: https://socialwork.nyu.edu/
- Pitzer, R. L. (1997). Corporal punishment in the discipline of children in the home: Research update for practitioners. Paper presented at the National Council on Family Relations Annual Conference, Washington, DC.
- RAND, Child Abuse and Neglect: https://www.rand.org/topics/child-abuse-and-neglect.html
- Richards, C. E. (2001). The loss of innocents: Child killers and their victims. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.
- Straus, M. A. (2001). Beating the devil out of them: Corporal punishment in American families and its effects on children. Edison, NJ: Transaction.
- Thomas, P. M. (2004). Protection, dissociation, and internal roles: Modeling and treating the effects of child abuse. Review of General Psychology, 7(15).
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/
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Research Paper Guide
Research Paper Example
Research Paper Example - APA and MLA Format
12 min read
Published on: Nov 27, 2017
Last updated on: May 26, 2023
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Do you spend time staring at the screen and thinking about how to approach a monstrous research paper ?
If yes, you are not alone.
Research papers are no less than a curse for high school and college students.
It takes time, effort, and expertise to craft a striking research paper.
Every other person craves to master the magic of producing impressive research papers.
Continue with the guide to investigate the mysterious nature of different types of research through examples.
Research Paper Example for Different Formats
An academic paper doesn't have to be boring. You can use an anecdote, a provocative question, or a quote to begin the introduction.
Learning from introductions written in professional college papers is the best strategy.
Have a look at the expertise of the writer in the following example.
Social Media and Social Media Marketing: A Literature Review
APA Research Paper Example
While writing research papers, you must pay attention to the required format.
Follow the example when the instructor mentions the APA format .
Effects of Food Deprivation of Concentration and Preserverance
Research Paper Example APA 7th Edition
Research Paper Example MLA
Once you are done with APA format, let’s practice the art of writing quality MLA papers.
Found Voices: Carl Sagan
We have provided you with a top-notch research paper example in MLA format here.
Research Paper Example Chicago
Chicago style is not very common, but it is important to learn. Few institutions require this style for research papers, but it is essential to learn. The content and citations in the research paper are formatted like this example.
Chicago Research Paper Sample
Research Paper Example Harvard
To learn how a research paper is written using the Harvard citation style , carefully examine this example. Note the structure of the cover page and other pages.
Harvard Research Paper Sample
Examples for Different Research Paper Parts
A research paper has different parts. Each part is important for the overall success of the paper. Chapters in a research paper must be written correctly, using a certain format and structure.
The following are examples of how different sections of the research paper can be written.
Example of Research Proposal
What is the first step to starting a research paper?
Submitting the research proposal!
It involves several sections that take a toll on beginners.
Here is a detailed guide to help you write a research proposal .
Are you a beginner or do you lack experience? Don’t worry.
The following example of a research paper is the perfect place to get started.
View Research Proposal Example Here
Research Paper Example Abstract
After submitting the research proposal, prepare to write a seasoned abstract section.
The abstract delivers the bigger picture by revealing the purpose of the research.
A common mistake students make is writing it the same way a summary is written.
It is not merely a summary but an analysis of the whole research project. Still confused?
Read the abstract mentioned in the following research to get a better idea.
Affirmative Action: What Do We Know? - Abstract Example
Literature Review Research Paper Example
What if a novice person reads your research paper?
He will never understand the critical elements involved in the research paper.
To enlighten him, focus on the literature review section. This section offers an extensive analysis of the past research conducted on the paper topics.
It is relatively easier than other sections of the paper.
Take a closer look at the paper below to find out.
Methods Section of Research Paper Example
While writing research papers, excellent papers focus a great deal on the methodology.
Yes, the research sample and methodology define the fate of the papers.
Are you facing trouble going through the methodology section?
Relax and let comprehensive sample research papers clear your doubts.
View Methods Section of Research Paper Here
Research Paper Conclusion Example
The conclusion leaves the last impression on the reader.
“Who cares for the last impression? It’s always the first.”
Don’t be fooled!
The conclusion sets the tone of the whole research paper properly.
A key list of elements must be present in conclusion to make it crisp and remarkable.
The Conclusion: Your Paper's Final Impression
View the sample paper and identify the points you thought were never a part of the conclusion.
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Research Paper Examples for Different Fields
Research papers can be about any subject that needs a detailed study. The following examples show how research papers are written for different subjects.
History Research Paper Sample
Many Faces of Generalisimo Fransisco Franco
Sociology Research Paper Sample
A Descriptive Statistical Analysis within the State of Virginia
Science Fair Research Paper Sample
What Do I Need To Do For The Science Fair?
Psychology Research Paper Sample
The Effects of Food Deprivation on Concentration and Preserverance
Art History Research Paper Sample
European Art History: A Primer
Scientific Research Paper Example
We have discussed several elements of research papers through examples.
Introduction in Research Paper!
Read on to move towards advanced versions of information.
Scientific research paper
Let's have a look at the template and an example to elaborate on concepts.
- Related Work
- Research Methodology
- Results and Discussion
- Conclusion & Future Work
The name itself sounds terrifying to many students. Make no mistake; it sure is dangerous when touched without practice.
Students become afraid and hence aspire to locate an outstanding essay paper writer to get their papers done.
Detailed, high-quality, and credible sources and samples are a must to be shared here.
Science Fair Paper Format
Example of Methodology in Research Paper
The words methodology, procedure, and approach are the same. They indicate the approach pursued by the researcher while conducting research to accomplish the goal through research.
The methodology is the bloodline of the research paper.
A practical or assumed procedure is used to conduct the methodology.
The Effects of Immediate Feedback Devices in High School Chemistry Classes
See the way the researcher has shared participants and limits in the methodology section of the example.
Research Paper Example for Different Levels
The process of writing a research paper is based on a set of steps. The process will seem daunting if you are unaware of the basic steps. Start writing your research paper by taking the following steps:
- Choose a Topic
- Create a thesis statement
- Do in-depth research for the research study
- Create an outline
You will find writing a research paper much easier once you have a plan.
No matter which level you are writing at, your research paper needs to be well structured.
Research Paper Example Outline
Before you plan on writing a well-researched paper, make a rough draft.
Brainstorm again and again!
Pour all of your ideas into the basket of the outline.
What will it include?
A standard is not set but follow the research paper outline example below:
View Research Paper Outline Example Here
This example outlines the following elements:
- Thesis Statement
Utilize this standard of outline in your research papers to polish your paper. Here is a step-by-step guide that will help you write a research paper according to this format.
Good Research Paper Examples for Students
Theoretically, good research paper examples will meet the objectives of the research.
Always remember! The first goal of the research paper is to explain ideas, goals, and theory as clearly as water.
Yes, leave no room for confusion of any sort.
Fiscal Research Center - Action Plan
Qualitative Research Paper Example
Research Paper Example Introduction
How to Write a Research Paper Example?
Research Paper Example for High School
When the professor reads such a professional research paper, he will be delighted.
Grant of funds for the project!
Appreciation in Class!
You'll surely be highly rewarded.
Research Paper Conclusion
“Who cares for the last impression? It's always the first.”
Don't be fooled!
A key list of elements must be present in the conclusion to make it crisp and remarkable.
Critical Research Paper
To write a research paper remarkably, include the following ingredients in it:
- Justification of the Experimental Design
- Analysis of Results
- Validation of the Study
How to Write the Methods Section of a Research Paper
Theoretical Framework Examples
The theoretical framework is the key to establish credibility in research papers.
Read the purpose of the theoretical framework before following it in the research paper.
The researcher offers a guide through a theoretical framework.
- Philosophical view
- Conceptual Analysis
- Benefits of the Research
An in-depth analysis of theoretical framework examples research paper is underlined in the sample below.
View Theoretical Framework Example Here
Now that you have explored the research paper examples, you can start working on your research project.
Hopefully, these examples will help you understand the writing process for a research paper. You can hire an essay writer online. If you still require help writing your paper, you can buy well-written yet cheap research papers by contacting our expert and professional writers.
So, contact our essay writing service now.
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Nova Allison is a Digital Content Strategist with over eight years of experience. Nova has also worked as a technical and scientific writer. She is majorly involved in developing and reviewing online content plans that engage and resonate with audiences. Nova has a passion for writing that engages and informs her readers.
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Example of a Research Paper
What follows is a hypothetical example of a research paper based on an experiment.
This article is a part of the guide:
- Outline Examples
- Write a Hypothesis
- Example of a Paper 2
Browse Full Outline
- 1 Write a Research Paper
- 2 Writing a Paper
- 3.1 Write an Outline
- 3.2 Outline Examples
- 4.1 Thesis Statement
- 4.2 Write a Hypothesis
- 5.2 Abstract
- 5.3 Introduction
- 5.4 Methods
- 5.5 Results
- 5.6 Discussion
- 5.7 Conclusion
- 5.8 Bibliography
- 6.1 Table of Contents
- 6.2 Acknowledgements
- 6.3 Appendix
- 7.1 In Text Citations
- 7.2 Footnotes
- 7.3.1 Floating Blocks
- 7.4 Example of a Paper
- 7.5 Example of a Paper 2
- 7.6.1 Citations
- 7.7.1 Writing Style
- 7.7.2 Citations
- 8.1.1 Sham Peer Review
- 8.1.2 Advantages
- 8.1.3 Disadvantages
- 8.2 Publication Bias
- 8.3.1 Journal Rejection
- 9.1 Article Writing
- 9.2 Ideas for Topics
The experiment: Say you have just conducted the Milgram Study . Now you want to write the research paper for it. (Milgram actually waited two years before writing about his study.)
Here's a shortened example of a research article that MIGHT have been written.
DISCLAIMER: This article is not written by Stanley Milgram, but is intended as an example of a psychology research paper that someone might have written after conducting the first Milgram-study. It's presented here for educational purposes.
Normally you would use double spacing in the paper.
EXAMPLE OF A RESEARCH PAPER
--- START OF EXAMPLE ---
[Page 1 - text aligned in the center and middle of the page]
"Behavioral Study of Obedience"
by [author], [University]
[Page 2 - text starts at the top, left]
There are few facts about the role of obedience when committing acts against one’s personal conscience (1961). Most theories suggest that only very disturbed people are capable of administering pain to an ordinary citizen if they are ordered to do so. Our experiment tested people's obedience to authority. The results showed that most obey all orders given by the authority-figure, despite their unwillingness. The conclusion is that, contrary to common belief, personal ethics mean little when pitted against authority.
[Page 3-X - text starts in the top, left corner, no extra spacing to align text]
Current theories focus on personal characteristics to explain wrong-doing and how someone can intentionally harm others. In a survey, professionals such as doctors, psychologist and laymen predicted that a small proportion of a population (1-3%) would harm others if ordered to do so. In the recent war trial with Adolph Eichmann, he claims to only have been “following orders". The author wanted to test this claim. Can people harm others because they are merely obeying orders? Can people be ordered to act against their moral convictions? The experiment will test whether a person can keep administering painful electric shocks to another person just because they are ordered to do so. The expectation is that very few will keep giving shocks, and that most participants will disobey the order.
Participants There were 30 male participants. They were recruited by advertisement in a newspaper and were paid $4.50. Instruments A "shock generator" was used to trick the participants into thinking that they were giving an electric shock to another person in another room. The shock generator had switches labeled with different voltages, starting at 30 volts and increasing in 15-volt increments all the way up to 450 volts. The switches were also labeled with terms which reminded the participant of how dangerous the shocks were. Procedures The participant met another "participant" in the waiting room before the experiment. The other "participant" was an actor. Each participant got the role as a "teacher" who would then deliver a shock to the actor ("learner") every time an incorrect answer to a question was produced. The participant believed that he was delivering real shocks to the learner. The learner would pretend to be shocked. As the experiment progressed, the teacher would hear the learner plead to be released and complain about a heart condition. Once the 300-volt level had been reached, the learner banged on the wall and demanded to be released. Beyond this point, the learner became completely silent and refused to answer any more questions. The experimenter then instructed the participant to treat this silence as an incorrect response and deliver a further shock. When asking the experimenter if they should stop, they were instructed to continue.
Of the 40 participants in the study, 26 delivered the maximum shocks. 14 persons did not obey the experimenter and stopped before reaching the highest levels. All 40 participants continued to give shocks up to 300 volts.
Most of the participants became very agitated, stressed and angry at the experimenter. Many continued to follow orders throughout even though they were clearly uncomfortable. The study shows that people are able to harm others intentionally if ordered to do so. It provides evidence that this dynamic is far more important than previously believed, and that personal ethics are less predictive of such behavior.
[Read more about references here]
--- END OF EXAMPLE ---
The scientific format: a research paper outline:.
Title , Author, Work/School
Abstract : A short summary of the article.
Current theories about the topic. What are the hypothesis for the paper?
What method used.
What were the results obtained?
Discussion and Conclusion
What are our thought about the results compared to other relevant theories.
Through the text there are references, sources of knowledge, which you've used. Citing those will give you more credibility because good research is thought to be based on other knowledge and empirical (observed) evidence .
Tables , Figures , Appendix
- Psychology 101
- Flags and Countries
- Capitals and Countries
Martyn Shuttleworth (May 21, 2008). Example of a Research Paper. Retrieved Sep 29, 2023 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/example-of-a-research-paper
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How To Write A Research Paper
Research Paper Example
Research Paper Example - Examples for Different Formats
Published on: Jun 12, 2021
Last updated on: Jul 21, 2023
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Writing a research paper is the most challenging task in a studentâs academic life. Students face similar writing process hardships, whether the research paper is to be written for high school or college.
A research paper is a writing type in which a detailed analysis, interpretation, and evaluation are made on the topic. It only requires not only time but also effort and skills to be drafted correctly.
If you are working on your research paper for the first time, here is a collection of examples that you will need to understand the paperâs format and how its different parts are drafted. Continue reading the article to get free research paper examples.
Research Paper Example for Different Formats
When writing a research paper, it is essential to know which format to use to structure your content. Depending on the requirements of the institution, there are mainly four format styles in which a writer drafts a research paper:
Letâs look into each format in detail to understand the fundamental differences and similarities.
Research Paper Example APA
If your instructor asks you to provide a research paper in an APA format, go through the example given below and understand the basic structure. Make sure to follow the format throughout the paper.
APA Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Example MLA
Another widespread research paper format is MLA. A few institutes require this format style as well for your research paper. Look at the example provided of this format style to learn the basics.
MLA Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Example Chicago
Unlike MLA and APA styles, Chicago is not very common. Very few institutions require this formatting style research paper, but it is essential to learn it. Look at the example given below to understand the formatting of the content and citations in the research paper.
Chicago Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Example Harvard
Learn how a research paper through Harvard formatting style is written through this example. Carefully examine how the cover page and other pages are structured.
Harvard Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Examples for Different Research Paper Parts
A research paper is based on different parts. Each part plays a significant role in the overall success of the paper. So each chapter of the paper must be drafted correctly according to a format and structure.
Below are examples of how different sections of the research paper are drafted.
Research Proposal Example
A research proposal is a plan that describes what you will investigate, its significance, and how you will conduct the study.
Research Proposal Sample (PDF)
Abstract Research Paper Example
An abstract is an executive summary of the research paper that includes the purpose of the research, the design of the study, and significant research findings.
It is a small section that is based on a few paragraphs. Following is an example of the abstract to help you draft yours professionally.
Abstract Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Literature Review Research Paper Example
A literature review in a research paper is a comprehensive summary of the previous research on your topic. It studies sources like books, articles, journals, and papers on the relevant research problem to form the basis of the new research.
Writing this section of the research paper perfectly is as important as any part of it.
Literature Review in Research Sample (PDF)
Methods Section of Research Paper Example
The method section comes after the introduction of the research paper that presents the process of collecting data. Basically, in this section, a researcher presents the details of how your research was conducted.
Methods Section in Research Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Conclusion Example
The conclusion is the last part of your research paper that sums up the writerâs discussion for the audience and leaves an impression. This is how it should be drafted:
Research Paper Conclusion Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Examples for Different Fields
The research papers are not limited to a particular field. They can be written for any discipline or subject that needs a detailed study.
In the following section, various research paper examples are given to show how they are drafted for different subjects.
Science Research Paper Example
Are you a science student that has to conduct research? Here is an example for you to draft a compelling research paper for the field of science.
Science Research Paper Sample (PDF)
History Research Paper Example
Conducting research and drafting a paper is not only bound to science subjects. Other subjects like history and arts require a research paper to be written as well. Observe how research papers related to history are drafted.
History Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Psychology Research Paper Example
If you are a psychology student, look into the example provided in the research paper to help you draft yours professionally.
Psychology Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Example for Different Levels
Writing a research paper is based on a list of elements. If the writer is not aware of the basic elements, the process of writing the paper will become daunting. Start writing your research paper taking the following steps:
- Choose a topic
- Form a strong thesis statement
- Conduct research
- Develop a research paper outline
Once you have a plan in your hand, the actual writing procedure will become a piece of cake for you.
No matter which level you are writing a research paper for, it has to be well structured and written to guarantee you better grades.
If you are a college or a high school student, the examples in the following section will be of great help.
Research Paper Outline (PDF)
Research Paper Example for College
Pay attention to the research paper example provided below. If you are a college student, this sample will help you understand how a winning paper is written.
College Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Research Paper Example for High School
Expert writers of CollegeEssay.org have provided an excellent example of a research paper for high school students. If you are struggling to draft an exceptional paper, go through the example provided.
High School Research Paper Sample (PDF)
Examples are essential when it comes to academic assignments. If you are a student and aim to achieve good grades in your assignments, it is suggested to get help from CollegeEssay.org .
We are the best writing company that helps students by providing free samples and writing assistance. Professional writers have your back, whether you are looking for guidance in writing a lab report, college essay, or research paper.
Simply hire a writer by placing your order at the most reasonable price. You can also take advantage from our essay writer to enhance your writing skills.
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Research Paper Guide
Research Paper Example
Last updated on: May 26, 2023
Research Paper Example: Samples to Write a Research Paper
By: Nathan D.
Reviewed By: Jacklyn H.
Published on: Jun 11, 2019
Working on your research paper?
Want to learn the dos and don’ts of writing a research paper? Learn from examples!
We have compiled some examples to help you get started. If you are in need of a research paper example, take a look at these samples and choose one that is best suited for your research paper writing needs.
You can also use these as templates to create your own research papers. There are many different samples available here so please feel free to browse around and find the perfect one for yourself.
Stay with us to learn more.
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What is a Research Paper?
A research paper is different from a usual kind of essay and assignment. It requires more research and explanation than any other assignment and has a set structure for it. It is a complex type of academic paper. Usually, students studying science write them for their coursework and as a degree requirement.
It is generally simpler than high school term papers and a dissertation that students write in humanities and other academic groups. Research papers are common in the academic world, and students, regardless of the field of study, get them as part of their degree requirements.
The research writing skills are invaluable for everyone and not just for the students only. Young professionals and entrepreneurs benefit a lot from these skills. Writing a research paper properly means that you have to study, observe, and choose a topic. The step-by-step guide for writing a research paper will help you find answers to your research questions.
Get Quick AI Research Help!
College Research Paper Example
Examples work great when you are looking to learn something in less time and with more efficiency. Below, we have added some good research paper examples. With them, you could learn about a research paper format and structure.
Moreover, we will also be able to add relevant and credible sources in each section.
APA Style Research Paper
Below is an APA-style sample research paper guide. Each section is explained separately. By going through it, you will know how to format and write each section of your APA research paper successfully.
APA STYLE RESEARCH PAPER
MLA Style Research Paper
This MLA-style research paper explains all the sections and formatting of the paper in detail. This will help you in writing an MLA-style paper successfully.
MLA STYLE RESEARCH PAPER
Subject-Related Research Paper Example
Research papers are not limited to a specific field area. Instead, students need to write research papers for almost every subject. Check out the following research paper examples for several subjects.
Computer Science Research Paper
The research paper is about computer science and how science is a part of it. Scientific research papers are different from what the students do in other disciplines. They are more statistical in nature and often have graphs and visual representations of the data.
COMPUTER SCIENCE RESEARCH PAPER
Chemical Engineering Research Paper
Chemical engineering studies the engineering of different chemicals and how they work together. The following chemical engineering research paper is about the calcium looping cycle for carbon dioxide obtained from different manufacturing processes.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH PAPER
Nursing Research Paper
The research paper explores the benefits of participating in research. Medical sciences heavily rely on real-life research and results, and therefore, it uses medical professionals as subjects. The paper discusses how the experience contributes to their professional life and helps them work better.
NURSING RESEARCH PAPER
Psychology Research Paper
Psychology is the study of the mind. The paper examines the positive effects of psychology at school. It discusses how it will help in controlling the mental illnesses in adolescents and help in enhancing their health.
PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH PAPER
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Research Paper Outline Example
A research paper’s outline may consist of different formats and sections based on the research topic. Therefore, you must ask your instructor to go through the research content and guide you.
Before starting to write a research paper, you will need to write and submit a research proposal. A research proposal includes the details of your proposed research, the significance of the research, the impact your research will have on the area of research, and the methodology that you will use. For writing a research proposal , you need to discuss all of these factors.
A research paper follows a set pattern and structure. Just like an essay or any other assignment, it also has some sections that you have to include in it. However, before formatting, make sure that you follow the referencing style that your teacher has provided.
The main research paper outline is given below. Pay attention to the document to get a detailed idea of the writing process.
RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE EXAMPLE
This outline includes the following sections:
An abstract is usually written after the entire paper. It explains the research question and the expected outcome of the research.
Here, we have added an abstract example to help you see how to write an engaging abstract in no time.
RESEARCH PAPER ABSTRACT EXAMPLE
It is the first section of the research. It gives a background of the research, explains the main research topic briefly, and presents the hypothesis.
A strong introduction is essential for a strong research paper because no one will read the paper if the introduction is lousy and weak. Go through the attached example to learn how to write a good research paper example.
RESEARCH PAPER INTRODUCTION EXAMPLE
A thesis statement presents the main topic and aim of the research. It is brief and based on a few lines only.
The following downloadable PDF has some great thesis statement examples that are engaging and help to convey the message powerfully.
RESEARCH PAPER THESIS EXAMPLE
This is the meatiest part of the research paper. It includes all the chapters and sections of the research.
The main body of the paper discusses the entire paper in detail. All the main points and arguments of the paper are added in this section. Learn how to add and discuss everything by going through the following downloadable PDF.
EXAMPLE OF DISCUSSION IN RESEARCH PAPER
It is added in the main body section. It includes the study of previous relevant studies and research and discusses their outcome. You will discuss your main topic and draw parallels and contrasts with these existing studies.
EXAMPLE OF A LITERATURE REVIEW IN A RESEARCH PAPER
Discuss the type of research that you are going to use for the research. Usually, scientific research is based on quantitative research and includes statistical analysis. Theoretical research uses qualitative method and includes studying of theory and other research.
EXAMPLE OF METHODOLOGY IN RESEARCH PAPER
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This is the closing part of your research paper as you will conclude your research here. Mention your thesis statement and main research findings here and close it.
The conclusion does not mean that you have a chance to add some new ideas or points here; it would be a disaster. To know better, go through the following PDF.
RESEARCH PAPER CONCLUSION EXAMPLE
An appendix is an optional section in the research paper. It contains terms and topics that are too detailed to be added to the main text. It also states the topics and page number, which makes it easier to find relevant topics.
APPENDICES EXAMPLE IN RESEARCH PAPER
Now you must have explored different examples of a research paper. If you are still wondering how to write it perfectly, consult the best write essay for me? service now.
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- Good Research Paper Topics & Ideas for Students
- Good History Research Paper Topics For Your Help
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7 Real Research Paper Examples to Get You Started
Writing a research paper can seem like an intimidating task for most college students, especially if this is your very first time. But don’t worry – there are plenty of good examples out there that can provide some much-needed guidance!
To give you a headstart on writing your own research paper, we’ve provided seven examples here for you to look at. This is probably the quickest way to get a good idea of what a research paper looks like.
With insightful topic ideas and well-written outlines as your source materials, you will be able to create an informative essay of the highest quality in no time.
What is a research paper?
A research paper is an academic essay in which you present your own interpretation and argument based on analysis and in-depth research.
The research paper is generally more detailed and longer than a normal assignment or an essay and requires you to have a good knowledge of the topic you are writing about. As you need to provide a piece of detailed information about the topic you are writing so you have to do in-depth research and try to get all the information possible about the topic.
Different format of a research paper
There are three different formats to use when it comes to writing a research paper:
As every university has its own guidelines and format for writing research papers, you need to check your department or the faculty for the formatting and structure of your paper.
What is the structure of a research paper?
In general, there are ten main parts to a research paper :
- Acknowledgments (optional)
- Table of contents
- Thesis statement
- Literature review
- Research methodology
- Data analysis
- Reference page
How to write a research paper with 5 simple steps :
Before you start, let’s make it super simple and break down the writing process into five simple steps you can follow:
- Choosing a research topic.
- Gathering research.
- Form a hypothesis or research question.
- Write and edit.
Here are some samples of research papers that are written on different topics:
Research Paper Example 1: Master’s Degree in Engineering
Research Paper Overview
This research paper helps to check the behavior of expanded metal plates compared to the conventional perforated plates in a pulse column extractor on the benzene water system. This research concludes that whether the strips are single or dual, they will never act as a bundle of stripes, especially when pulsed. Therefore, one should test the conventional plates in actual pulse column conditions.
Research Title: COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF EXPANDED-METAL PLATES IN A PULSE COLUMN EXTRACTOR Paper Type: Research Paper Major: Engineering Research Writer/Author: J.C. Park Year: 1956 University: North Carolina State University Degree: Masters Research Paper Link: https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc872383/m2/1/high_res_d/4170500.pdf
Research Paper Example 2: Master’s Degree in Atomic Energy
This research paper makes a theory that helps predict the radioactivity of cooling fluids in nuclear reactors. With the help of this research paper, one can measure the radioactivity of atomic reactors. This research involves an equation that helps to evaluate nuclear reactors’ radioactivity with minimum error.
Research Title: RADIOACTIVITY OF NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLING FLUIDS Paper Type: Research Paper Major: Atomic Energy Writer/Author: J. C. Ward Year: 1961 University: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Degree: Masters Research Paper Link: https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1059443/m2/1/high_res_d/4839433.pdf
Research Paper Example 3: Master’s Degree in Engineering
Students performed the investigation for this research paper in Australia. Students initiated the research based on questions like what kind of nutrients the CS and brine water possess. The role of microbes in the nutrients of this water. This research paper is about the growth of microorganisms in CS water. This research states that water temperature under 25 degrees celsius is best to reduce the growth of microorganisms. Its investigations help remove initial microorganisms from CS and brine water in specific conditions.
Research Title: Assessment of microorganisms found in coal seam water holding ponds and in brine Paper Type: Research Paper Major: Engineering Writer/Author: Gretchen Bos Year: 2021 University: Queensland University of Technology Degree: Masters R esearch Paper Link: https://eprints.qut.edu.au/210585/1/Gretchen_Bos_Thesis.pdf
Research Paper Example 4: Master’s Degree in Health Science
Research Title: The effects of outdoor learning environments on engagement levels of primary school children Paper Type: Research Paper Major: Health Science Writer/Author: Jon Gemmell Year: 2021 University: Queensland University of Technology Degree: Masters Research Paper Link: https://eprints.qut.edu.au/226152/1/Jon_Gemmell_Thesis.pdf
Research Paper Example 5: Master’s Degree in Physics and Mathematics
Students did this research to find out the measurement of flux distribution. That’s why they experimented with the flux distribution for different lattices. The lattices include the metal of uranium in a single tube. In contrast, other lattices contain the form of a double line. The flux distribution slowed down in the plastic tube for a uniform distribution. Students detected this distribution from the resonant detector with minimum error possibility.
Research Title : Neutron Flux Distributions in Natural Uranium Tubes Paper Type: Research Paper Major: Physics and Mathematics Writer/Author: Thomas B. Ponder Year: 1960 University : Savannah River Laboratory Degree: Masters Research Paper Link: https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc867780/m2/1/high_res_d/4143804.pdf
Research Paper Example 6: Master’s Degree in Atomic Power
Students made this research paper to evaluate the method of energy released in the nuclear reactor. The melted core of the reactor also increases the reactivity at a constant rate. The structure of this research paper is different from others. You will find the addition of a preface at the start of this research paper.
Research Title: Methods for Determining the Energy Release in Hypothetical Reactor Meltdown Accidents Paper Type: Research Paper Major: Atomic Power Writer/Author: Richard B. Nicholson Year: 1962 University: University of Michigan Degree: Masters Research Paper Link: https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc38363/m2/1/high_res_d/metadc38363.pdf
These are some examples of research papers that are written for Masters and Ph.D. degrees by students at different universities. You can check all the research papers and get some ideas about the format and structure of the research paper.
Research Paper Example 7: Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering
The experiment works for this research were performed at The Argonne National Laboratory. This research paper discusses the densities of boiling mixtures that depend on many variables. Here, intel temperature is a part of it. The researchers conducted boiling density experiments in channels of different heights like two and four feet. Students did this research to check the evaporation mechanism in tracks of various sizes.
Research Title: Boiling Density in Vertical Rectangular Multichannel Sections With Natural Circulation Paper Type : Research Paper Major: Mechanical Engineering Writer/Author: William Howard Cook Year: 1956 University: University of Chicago Degree: Ph.D Research Paper Link: https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1023056/m2/1/high_res_d/4360035.pdf
The examples mentioned above will help you understand how to structure your research paper. These examples will help you know the research paper’s citing and formatting style in a better way. Morely, evaluating these research paper examples will encompass your mind about different ways of writing research papers.
What are the different types of research paper formats?
In general, there are three main formatting for a research paper, namely APA format, MLA format, and Chicago format. These formatting guidelines govern elements in your paper like font choices, page layout, headings, and the format of the reference page.
What is a literature review section in a paper?
The literature review section takes scholarly articles or books out of the background section for a more focused investigation.
This research includes how outdoor education increases the engagement level of primary school students. The results of this research show that in outdoor learning, the methodology of teaching academics also plays an essential role in the students’ better and more engaging understanding. Outdoor education increases students’ exposure, and it’s good for their health and well-being.
More on thesis statements
- Can a Thesis Statement Be Two Sentences?
- Can a Thesis Statement Be an Opinion?
- Can a Thesis Statement Be a Question?
- Can a Thesis Statement Be a Quote?
Jump into these quick guides to write a strong thesis statement in no time. We have included tons of good (and bad) examples to show you how to do it right. A simple formula is included in each article to help you create your strong thesis statement with suggested wordings.
- How to Write a Strong Expository Thesis Statement?
- How to Write a Strong Argumentative Thesis Statement?
- How to Write a Strong Analytical Thesis Statement?
- 40 Strong Thesis Statement Examples
How-to Guides on Academic Writing and Others
Most popular How to Write an Acknowledgement: The Complete Guide for Students How to Write an Acknowledgement for College Project? How to Write a Dedication Page for a Thesis or Dissertation? More on acknowledgements How to Write Acknowledgment for a Dissertation or a Thesis? Is Acknowledgement and Dedication the Same? Thesis or Dissertation How to Write a Master’s Thesis: The Ultimate Guide How to Write a Thesis Proposal? How to Write an Abstract for a Thesis? How to Write a Preface for a Thesis? Others How to Write an Introduction for a Research Paper? 7 Real Research Paper Examples to Get You Started How to Write Cover Letter for an Internship Program? How to Write an Internship Acceptance Letter? How to Write a Leave Application? For Schools and the Workplace How to Write a Resignation Letter?
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Quite elaborate pieces ok research
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Home — Essay Types — Research Essays
Research Essays Examples
In the realm of academic discourse, the research essay stands as a quintessential vehicle for the exploration of complex topics, the dissemination of knowledge, and the pursuit of objective truth. It serves as a platform where ideas are presented, dissected, and evaluated. To navigate this intellectual terrain successfully, it is imperative to adhere to a well-defined structure , one that guides both the writer and the reader through a logical and coherent journey of discovery.
Let’s proceed with the structure guidelines for a research essay, which should encompass the following sections:
This research essay structure is designed to guide your writing process and ensure that your arguments are presented logically and persuasively while maintaining objectivity and integrity in your research.
By following this checklist , you can better prepare yourself to critically evaluate research essay examples in a way that is aligned with your research goals and standards.
Be sure to review your grading rubric carefully, and consider studying at least one freely available research essay example. This will aid you in comparing the given guidelines with your specific task as you embark on the writing process.
An Issue of Concussions in Sports
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Analysis of The Perspectives in Support for Animal Testing and Against It
The use of animals in research has become a hot topic these days having people debating whether it is ethical or not. However, the use of animals for research is nothing new. Physicians in ancient Greece dissected animals for anatomical studies, as using humans was…
Application Of Growth Mindset To Increase Academic Attainment In Primary Schools
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Birth Control: the Benefits of Anti-conception Medication
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Research Of Educational Anthropology In The Indian Context
Anthropology is the study of humans, their cultures and societies. It is the study of the others or the unfamiliar which is made familiar and brought to the forefront by anthropologist. Anthropology is subdivided into four main categories: a) archaeological, b) biological, c) linguistics and…
Research On How A Mandatory Opt-In And Opt-Out System Would Be Beneficial When It Comes To Human Organ Donation
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The Connection Between Parenting Style and Mental Health
It is well known that the way a child is treated affects their growth and how they may turn out to be in the future. This, of course, goes along with other factors, but the main one being parenting and which kind of style is…
The Effect Of Climate On The Crops And Farmers In India
I will be writing on how adversely unfavourable climatic conditions can affect the crops and farmers. Climate and agriculture work hand in hand with each other or precisely saying they are closely associated and interdependent. So, climate leaves an impound impact on agriculture, it could…
The Impact of Media Violence on Adolescent Behavior
Introduction In today’s digitally immersed world, where media content is more accessible than ever before, the question of whether media violence causes violent behavior continues to be a topic of intense debate and scrutiny. This essay aims to dissect this complex issue and provide a…
The Importance Of Concussion Awareness In Contact Sports
Contact sports are one of the many things that define America. Many students throughout America start playing contact sports at very young ages. With the playing of these contact sports, there is a high risk for concussion. Concussions are mild traumatic brain injuries that can…
The most popular topics for Research Essays
- Climate Change
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43+ Research Paper Examples
Students studying at higher levels, especially in high school and college are likely to write research papers. These types of documents are mostly required and demanded by their teachers and professors in various courses and programs. Everyone who gets to engage themselves in writing effective research templates shall follow a correct and appropriate format.
Research Proposal White Paper Template
- Google Docs
Clinical Research White Paper Template
Sample Market Research White Paper Template
Research Design White Paper Template with Introduction
Basic Research Paper Table of Contents Template
- Apple Pages
Research Paper APA Format Essay Structure Template
Research Paper For College Essay with Front Page Template
Career Research Paper Essay Template with Tiltle Page
Printable Covid 19 Research Paper Essay Template
Editable Essay Outline For Research Paper Template
Student Research Paper Templates
Free literature review student research paper template.
Research Paper for Graduate High School Student Project
Free Apa Style Research Paper Format Example
Professional Student Conference Research Paper
Free MLA Format Research Paper Writing Example
Parts of a Research Paper
Statement of the problem –, background of the study –, significance of the study –, scope and limitations –, methodology –, summary of findings –, recommendations –, medical research paper templates, research paper for medical assistant template.
Medical Functions Research Paper Template
Free Medical Review Research Paper Template
Academic Research Paper Samples
Basic rough academic english research paper.
Academic Performance Research Paper Template
Research Paper Outline Templates
Argumentative research paper outline template.
Quantitative Research Paper with Conclusion in PDF
Steps in Research Paper Writing
Pick a topic., make time for consultations., test the feasibility of your research., come up with a preliminary outline., finalize your paper., start gathering more data., then, data analysis will come in., make your conclusion and recommendations., literary citation in research paper template.
Career Research Paper Outline Template
History Research Paper Templates
Basic draft history topic research paper template.
History Research Paper Outline Template
Music History Research Paper Template
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Career Research Paper Templates
Research paper for student career template.
Career Development Research Paper Template
Planning a Research Paper
Research topic, possible sources, outline matters, 4th grade research paper reference template.
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Business Research Paper Templates
Business ethics research paper with abstract.
Free Business Law Research Paper Template
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Academic Paper Examples
📜 what is an academic paper, 📝 types of academic papers, 👣 how to write an academic paper: 9 easy steps, ❓ academic paper faqs.
There are many forms of academic writing , but an academic paper should always meet three basic criteria . It should be written by scholars for other scholars, focus on issues that concern the academic community, and contain an informed argument. Other characteristics of academic writing include a formal writing style, specific vocabulary terms, and the use of the third-person perspective.
There are four general types of academic texts . A descriptive text describes a phenomenon, person, or fact. A reflective text conveys the author’s response to experiences, opinions, or new information. An analytical paper shows the relationships between different phenomena. And, finally, a critical text evaluates someone else’s work.
Examples of academic paper genres include:
- Book reviews
- Critique papers
- Movie analysis
- Research papers
📚 Book Review
To put it simply, a review is a critical evaluation of a text, object, event, etc. A review is not merely a summary, but rather a commentary with persuasive arguments . When writing a good book review , you need to clearly state your opinion of the work in question, and support your statements logically and/or empirically.
Reviews are usually short and rarely exceed 1000 words in academic journals and newspapers. The structure of a book review often resembles that of other academic papers, featuring typical elements like an introduction, a thesis statement, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.
Book Review Example
🤨 Critique Paper
A critique paper aims to critically read and analyze a text, research, or performance. It can also be called a response paper. A critique resembles a book review, but there are important differences. A review should contain the key points of the work in question, while a critique focuses on the evaluation and analysis of the text or research.
If you need more information on how to write a critique paper, take a look at our killer writing tips !
Critique Paper Example
✍️ Academic Essay
An essay is a common form of academic writing. Many different kinds of academic essays exist, but most of them share the same goal of informing readers about the author’s position with the help of arguments and evidence.
There is no ready-made formula for the perfect essay structure .
Instead, it may be useful to think of the different sections of the text as answers to different questions that your reader might have when encountering your research essay. For example, “ What ” is probably the first question a reader might have. Thus, the “what” or “demonstration” section of your paper, which aims to explain the phenomenon about which you are writing, should come early, just after the introduction.
Next, your reader might want to know if the claims you make are valid in all cases. “ How ” is the corresponding question here. How will another perspective, a new set of materials, or different sources affect the claim you make? A typical academic essay usually contains at least one “how” section.
And finally, before coming to a conclusion, your reader might want to ask “ Why ” or “ So what ”. Why does this matter to anyone besides you? Answering this question helps your readers understand the text within a broader context. By providing a clear response to the "why" question, your essay demonstrates its significance.
Academic Essay Example
🎥 Movie Analysis
Unlike literature, a movie includes audiovisual elements. However, literature and film do have many similarities. Both use characters, dialogues, plots, settings, symbolism, etc. These features can be analyzed for their intent and effect in both cinema and literature.
Coherent arguments and convincing evidence are as crucial for movie analysis as for other scholarly papers. Therefore, well-developed academic writing skills are required to write a successful film analysis paper .
📊 Academic Report
A report is a type of academic paper that is created for a very clear purpose and contains specific information and evidence. Students are usually asked to write reports for one of two reasons: 1) to demonstrate what they have learned, or 2) to develop an important skill. Moreover, a good report needs to be clear , concise , and well structured . Still confused about writing a report? Don’t hesitate to check out our report writing tips !
Academic Report Example
🔬 Research Paper
Like most other scholarly papers, an academic research paper is not just a collection of information or a review of the literature on a particular topic. A research paper needs to present your own argument on a topic, supported by others’ works.
What does a research paper look like? Usually, it is an expanded version of an essay. When working on an essay, a student often focuses on personal thoughts and experiences. However, to write on a research paper, you need to find out what the experts know. Thus, a literature review section is usually an essential part of a research paper outline. Other important parts include the abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, and references.
How long should a research paper be? There’s no single answer to this question because the length of a research paper depends on its topic and purpose. However, an average paper usually fills between four and five pages.
If you need more advice on how to do a research paper, please read this article !
Research Paper Example
The whole writing process may seem overly complex and intimidating at first. But when you break it down into smaller tasks, it becomes more organized and manageable.
Below is a step-by-step guide on how to write an academic paper most efficiently. Before jumping into it, you can add a preparation stage. Spend a little bit of time by checking out some free essay samples to gain some inspiration and generate ideas. It will boost the whole process and help you reach your goal with ease.
🔥 Step 1. Choose a Hot Topic
Selecting a topic is probably the most difficult challenge for students who are starting their research papers. Sometimes you are assigned a topic, but often you need to choose one by yourself. Choosing and defining a good topic is a crucial part of a successful research project. However, don’t fret about coming up with the final version for the header of your academic paper at this stage. That decision comes much later.
❓ Step 2. Formulate Your Topic as a Research Question
A research question is the base of every scholarly paper. You can think of your research project as a house. The data collection forms the walls, and the hypothesis is the foundation. Your research question, however, is even more fundamental; it is the ground beneath the house. It needs to be solid , specific , and answerable .
At this stage, it is important to develop a preliminary research question, keeping in mind that you’ll probably refine or even change it later.
🤓 Step 3. Read & Make Notes
Most likely, you’ll have reviewed some sources by this stage of topic selection, but now is the time to dig deeper.
To get started, make a list of the sources that you plan to use. Ideally, they should be relevant to the topic and as current as possible. Make sure that you understand who the top voices in your field are and what they have to say about your topic. If you have any questions, you can always use our guide on how to find credible sources .
It is a good idea to take notes while reading. Later, you’ll be able to convert them into a full literature review section.
❗ Step 4. Formulate a Thesis Statement
Once you’ve decided on a research question, and you have a grasp on what other scholars have written on the topic, it is time to make your own ideas more concrete. At this stage, you need to formulate a thesis statement that aims to convey the central argument of your academic paper. Your task is to persuade your audience that you have something valuable to say. A good thesis statement should be specific , debatable , and concise .
🔍 Step 5. Get Your Empirical Results
This step is not always necessary. Still, if you need empirical evidence to prove your thesis, you’ll have to spend time collecting it. Scholars conduct their research in different ways, so this stage is flexible according to your specific topic. If you have any questions about gathering empirical evidence, you can always consult your professor.
📅 Step 6. Plan Your Paper
The work that you’ve already done has probably given you tons of exciting ideas. Your task at this stage is to organize these ideas logically in an outline format. Think of the key points that support your thesis and use them as subheadings for the body paragraphs of your paper.
A typical academic paper structure includes:
- an abstract
- an introduction
- a literature review
- a methods section
- a results section
- a discussion
- a conclusion
🖊️ Step 7. Write Your Draft
At this stage, you already have an outline that gives you a direction. All you need to do is create the first draft of your paper by filling in the details of each section.
The header of your academic paper is very important. If you want to make a good impression on your audience, take note that the title is the first thing that they’ll see. Make a list of the keywords that pertain to the topic you chose, the methods you used, and the results you obtained. Create a sentence that includes as many of the keywords as possible. Make it logical and concise, and add a subtitle if needed.
After creating your headers, you’ll find that drafting the individual sections of your paper is much easier. If you still have doubts, you can find more information on how to write an academic paper here .
🗒️ Step 8. Revise & Edit the Draft
Now that you’ve managed to finish your first draft, take a moment to congratulate yourself! And then, get back to work because you still have a lot to do.
Remember, the first draft is never perfect. If you want to make a good impression on your audience, revise and edit the content and grammar of your paper. Use our checklists to make your academic paper as perfect as it can be.
🔤 Step 9. Format Your Paper
At this stage, you need to make sure that that the format of your academic paper meets the correct style requirements. Pay special attention to citations.
The idea behind citations is simple. If you use the ideas of other people in your work, you must give them credit .
How do you cite your sources ? There are many citation styles, but the most popular are APA and MLA .
What is APA Format?
APA (American Psychological Association) style is often used in Social Sciences (Sociology, Anthropology, Economics, etc.), but many other disciplines use it too.
Take a look at our guidelines if you need to write a paper that requires APA format. You can also find sample APA papers below.
What is MLA Format?
MLA style was developed by the Modern Language Association. MLA is the leading style of documentation in the Humanities, and enables students and researchers in the fields of Language and Literature to format their papers in a universal way.
Want to learn more? You can always read our guidebook , or find sample MLA papers below.
❓ How to write an academic paper?
To write a paper, you need to choose a hot topic and formulate a research question. Then read your sources and get some empirical evidence if necessary. Then make a plan of your paper and write the first draft of it. Take your time to revise and edit the draft. And, finally, don’t forget about the formatting!
❓ How do you start an academic paper?
Selecting a research topic is the starting point for every paper. It is also probably the most difficult challenge, especially when you need to choose one by yourself. However, don’t worry too much about coming up with the final version of the topic at this stage. Formulate a preliminary one. Once you’ve formulated a topic and a research question, the base of your scientific paper is ready.
❓ How do I write a good academic paper?
A good academic paper features several characteristics. First of all, it has a clear purpose. It contains a research question and an answer to it. Moreover, a good paper presents an original point of view. A good academic text is a well-structured one: all parts of it should support the thesis statement. The explanations should be clear, logical, and straightforward. Last but not least, a good paper bases on a number of scholarly sources.
❓ What are the parts of an academic paper?
A basic academic paper structure includes three main parts: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. The body is usually the most voluminous part of any paper. It typically consists of a literature review, a methods section, results, and discussion. An abstract (a short and concise summation of the entire story) is not always required. Still, most academic papers aimed for publication have one.
❓ What is an example of academic writing?
Numerous forms of academic writing exist. Still, an excellent example of academic writing should be written by scholars for other scholars, explore the issues that concern the academic community, and contain an informed argument. Examples of academic writing include book reviews, critique papers, essays, movie analysis, reports, research papers, etc.
- What is an Academic Paper? University of Washington
- Film Analysis: UNC Writing Center
- How to Write an Academic Report: Middlesex University
- How to Select a Research Topic: UMFlint
- How to Write a Research Question: GMU Writing Center
- A guide to writing an academic paper: The Washington Post
- Writing a Literature Review: Ashford University Writing Center
- Literature Reviews: UNC Writing Center
How to Write a Research Paper: Your Top Guide
Did you know that the concept of a research paper can be traced back to the time of Aristotle in ancient Greece? In his renowned work, 'Prior Analytics,' Aristotle laid the foundation for logical reasoning and systematic investigation, setting the stage for the research papers we know today. From those ancient beginnings to the modern era, the art of writing a research paper has evolved into a captivating blend of critical thinking, meticulous analysis, and effective communication.
How to Write a Research Paper: Short Description
Whether you're a seasoned academic or a student venturing into the world of scholarly exploration, this comprehensive guide will take you on a journey through how to write a research paper. You will learn how to choose a compelling topic, conduct research, develop a solid thesis statement, structure your paper effectively, and present your findings with clarity and impact. Additionally, our essay writer will explore proven techniques for organizing your thoughts, synthesizing information and crafting a compelling argument. By the end of this article, you will be equipped with the tools and knowledge to tackle the challenges of writing a research paper and producing a remarkable piece of scholarly work.
What Is a Research Paper: Understanding the Essence and Purpose
A research paper is like a well-crafted map that guides us through the labyrinth of knowledge. It is a scholarly document that explores a particular topic, delving into its depths and emerges with insights that enlighten and expand our understanding. Picture it as a detective story, with the researcher donning the hat of a relentless investigator, tirelessly gathering evidence and constructing a compelling argument. These papers find their natural habitat in academia, where students, scholars, and scientists alike employ them as vehicles for sharing their discoveries with the world. The purpose behind writing a research paper is the following:
- It is a means of contributing to the existing body of knowledge. By conducting their own research and presenting new insights or discoveries, researchers add valuable information to the field they are studying.
- Showcases the writer's ability to navigate the intricate world of research. It demonstrates their critical thinking skills, their ability to analyze data, and their capacity to draw logical conclusions based on evidence.
- Serves as a platform for scholarly communication, allowing researchers to engage in conversations with their peers, exchange ideas, and build upon previous studies.
How Long Should a Research Paper Be: Decoding the Ideal Size
The question of how long a research paper should be is a bit like asking, 'How long is a piece of string?' The ideal size of a research paper can vary depending on various factors, such as the academic discipline, the nature of the research, and the specific guidelines provided by the institution or the journal.
In general, cheap research papers are expected to be long enough to effectively communicate the research findings and support the arguments made. However, they should also be concise and avoid unnecessary repetition or fluff. Quality and substance should always take precedence over quantity.
For most undergraduate assignments, research papers typically range from 5 to 15 pages, but this can vary depending on the course and professor's requirements. In contrast, graduate-level research papers and those intended for publication in academic journals can be significantly longer, often extending to 20, 30, or even 50 pages.
It's worth noting that some journals or conferences may have specific guidelines regarding the maximum or minimum word count for submissions. In such cases, it's crucial to adhere to the provided instructions to increase the chances of publication or acceptance.
And if you find yourself wondering how to write a good research paper, remember that you have the option to buy an essay from our reliable services!
Sample Research Paper
Before we dive into the specifics of writing a research paper, let’s explore some of its main components and how the information is structured.
How to Write a Research Paper with 10 Effortless Steps
Embarking on the quest of writing a research paper? Fear not, for we have the perfect roadmap with 10 effortless steps to guide you through this academic adventure. From selecting a captivating topic that will captivate readers to meticulously analyzing and organizing your research, we will equip you with the tools and strategies needed to craft a stellar paper.
Grasp the Task
It's astonishing how many students dive into writing a research paper without even glancing at the assignment guidelines. While this may seem obvious to some, it's important to emphasize the significance of thoroughly reviewing the guidelines before starting.
To begin, carefully read the assignment and delve into the writing prompt. Take note of any technical requirements such as length, formatting specifications (single- vs. double-spacing, indentations, etc.), and citation style. Additionally, pay attention to specific details, including whether an abstract is required or if a cover page needs to be included.
Once you have a clear understanding of the assignment, you can proceed with the standard writing process, albeit with a few additional steps, due to the unique rules of research papers. However, the fundamental essence of the writing process remains unchanged.
For instance, let's consider a hypothetical scenario where a student named Alex is assigned a research paper on climate change. Before embarking on the writing journey, Alex carefully examines the assignment guidelines. The prompt specifies that the paper should be 10-12 pages long, utilize APA formatting, and include at least 10 scholarly sources. In addition, an abstract and a cover page are required.
With these guidelines in mind, Alex now has a solid foundation to begin their research paper. They can proceed by conducting thorough research, gathering relevant information from credible sources, and organizing their findings. Following the traditional writing process of drafting, revising, and editing, Alex can refine their ideas and arguments, ensuring a coherent and well-structured paper.
By taking the time to understand how to start a research paper and follow the appropriate writing process, Alex increases their chances of producing a high-quality research paper that meets all the necessary requirements.
Select Your Topic
When contemplating how to choose research paper topics , your primary consideration should be whether they possess enough depth and substance to sustain an entire paper. It is essential to opt for a topic that offers an abundance of data and complexity, allowing for a comprehensive and insightful discussion.
While ensuring your topic meets these criteria, it is equally important to infuse a personal touch. Avoid approaching the topic selection process mechanically; instead, seek something that genuinely captivates your interest. Ideally, aim for a research paper topic that satisfies both requirements - one that provides ample content for exploration while keeping you engaged and motivated throughout the research and writing process.
Gather Preliminary Studies
The importance of initiating your research promptly cannot be overstated. A research paper, as the name suggests, relies heavily on thorough investigation and inquiry.
To refine your chosen topic and shape a strong thesis statement, it is crucial to explore existing research on your subject matter as early as possible. Conducting preliminary research serves multiple purposes: it dispels any misconceptions or preconceived notions you may have and illuminates the most effective paths and methodologies for uncovering additional valuable material.
In the process of your search, it is crucial to differentiate between primary and secondary sources. Primary sources encompass original accounts, firsthand information, or direct observations, such as published articles, survey data, or personal interviews. On the other hand, secondary sources analyze and interpret primary sources, providing critical reviews, scholarly articles, or meta-analyses.
In certain academic contexts regarding how to write an academic research paper, a literature review may be required, wherein you present a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of the existing research to validate your research objectives. However, even if a literature review is not mandatory, it is highly beneficial to compile an early list of potential sources. This proactive step enables you to establish a strong foundation of relevant literature, ensuring a comprehensive and well-supported research paper.
Craft a Thesis Statement
When learning how to write a research paper, understanding the importance of a well-crafted thesis statement is crucial. The thesis statement serves as the backbone of any successful term paper , providing a clear and concise summary of the main focus of your study. It not only acts as a guide for the reader, indicating what to expect from the rest of the paper, but it also sets the tone and direction for your entire document. Follow these three steps to create an engaging and academically sound thesis:
- Clearly define your research topic and its purpose. Determine the main subject and specific aspect or question you'll explore. Example: Research topic - Impact of social media on adolescent mental health.
- Analyze the subject matter and narrow down your focus by identifying key aspects or variables to explore. Example: Focus on the impact of cyberbullying.
- Craft a clear, strong, and concise statement that presents your main argument or position. Example: 'The prevalence of cyberbullying on social media platforms significantly contributes to adverse mental health outcomes in adolescents, highlighting the urgent need for preventive measures and support systems.'
Unveil Supporting Evidence
When it comes to knowing how to write an academic research paper, it's time to roll up our sleeves and delve into the wealth of sources we have collected. Within these sources lie the gems of information that will enrich and support our paper.
As a diligent researcher, your approach involves carefully reading each source and capturing essential notes. You must stay focused on extracting only the information that directly relates to the topic. It's important to resist the temptation of including tangents or irrelevant context, no matter how captivating they may be. Remember to diligently record the page numbers, not only for future reference but also for the necessary task of citation.
In addition to highlighting significant text and jotting down notes, another effective tactic that some students find helpful is the use of bibliography cards. These practical index cards serve as repositories for key facts or direct quotations on one side while capturing crucial bibliographical details such as source citations, page numbers, and subtopic categories on the other side. Although not mandatory, bibliography cards can greatly contribute to staying organized, particularly when it's time to outline your research findings.
Frame Your Paper
An outline plays a vital role in the construction of a research paper. It serves as a concise roadmap, outlining the essential topics, arguments, and supporting evidence that will be incorporated into the paper. By organizing these elements into distinct sections with appropriate headings, an outline provides a clear overview of how the paper will be structured before you even begin writing.
Creating a well-structured outline offers numerous benefits. Notably, it enhances the efficiency of the writing process by providing a framework that guides your thoughts and ensures a logical flow of ideas. By dedicating sufficient time to develop a comprehensive outline, you can streamline the overall writing experience and produce a cohesive and well-organized research paper.
If you're interested in exploring how to write a research paper outline in more detail, our article provides a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the subject. Feel free to peruse our research paper outline to gain valuable insights and practical tips on optimizing your outlining process for academic writing.
Begin the First Draft
Once you have your research paper outline ready, it's time to dive into the writing process. This step requires considerable effort and attention, but with proper planning and organization, you can make it a smoother experience.
When it comes to writing a research paper introduction, it's natural to feel overwhelmed. To tackle this challenge, consider starting with a compelling opening sentence or anecdote that grabs the reader's attention. Then, present a concise and engaging thesis statement that encapsulates the main argument of your paper. Build upon this thesis by providing relevant background information and contextualizing the significance of your research topic. Save the intricate details and supporting evidence for the subsequent sections of your paper.
Moving on to the body of your research paper, this is where you present your research findings and analysis. To ensure clarity and coherence, consider organizing your content into logical sections or subheadings. Each section should cover a specific aspect or point related to your thesis statement. As you write each paragraph, make sure to provide sufficient evidence, examples, and explanations to support your arguments. Remember, this is the initial draft, so focus on conveying your ideas rather than striving for perfection.
Connecting your paragraphs seamlessly is crucial for maintaining a cohesive flow throughout your research paper. Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence that acts as a bridge between the previous and upcoming ideas. Use transition words and phrases to guide your reader from one point to another smoothly. Additionally, consider using clear and concise language to enhance readability and comprehension.
Once you have completed the body of your paper, it's time to craft a strong research paper conclusion example . Summarize your main arguments and findings, emphasizing their significance and relevance. Instead of simply restating your thesis, strive to offer a fresh perspective or insight that leaves a lasting impression on your reader. Avoid introducing new information in the conclusion; instead, focus on reinforcing the main points and leaving the reader with a sense of closure.
In the sections that follow, we will delve into how to cite a research paper . Let's explore the necessary steps and guidelines for proper citation.
Use Proper Source Citations
When starting a research paper, have you checked the assignment guidelines to determine the required formatting style? Two popular styles you might encounter are MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA (American Psychological Association). MLA is often used in humanities and liberal arts disciplines, while APA is preferred in social sciences and psychology. To make your life easier, you can find detailed formatting guidelines and even handy automatic citation generators not to get distracted by the differences between MLA and APA referencing. Trust us; they can save you time and effort!
But wait, there's more! In addition to those two, you may come across other formatting styles like CMOS (The Chicago Manual of Style), AMA (American Medical Association), or IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). It may seem overwhelming, but each style has its own guidelines for citing different sources – from photos to websites, speeches, and even YouTube videos.
Now, we understand that citations can initially seem like a maze of rules and specific information. However, once you get the hang of them, citing sources will become second nature to you. The key is to practice and familiarize yourself with the guidelines. Before you know it, you'll be properly citing your sources without even thinking about it!
Revise and Polish
The key factor to mastering how to write a good research paper, it is crucial to dedicate time to proofreading and correcting any mistakes. To ensure a thorough review, we recommend conducting two editing sessions: one focused on addressing structural issues and another dedicated to refining word choice, grammar, and spelling.
During the structural edit, consider the following checklist to guide your revisions:
- Is your thesis statement clear and concise, effectively conveying the main idea of your paper?
- Does your paper exhibit a well-organized structure, with smooth transitions guiding the reader from beginning to end?
- Do your ideas flow logically within each paragraph, presenting a coherent sequence of thoughts?
- Have you supported your arguments with concrete details and facts, avoiding vague generalizations?
- Do your arguments effectively support and prove your thesis statement?
- Have you eliminated unnecessary repetition to enhance clarity and conciseness?
- Are your sources appropriately cited, ensuring proper credit and avoiding plagiarism?
You can also explore the guidelines for how to write an essay MLA format to ensure that your citations are accurate and properly formatted.
After addressing structural concerns, shift your focus to the word choice, grammar, and spelling edit. Consider the following aspects:
- Is your language clear, precise, and free of ambiguity?
- Do your sentences flow smoothly and convey your ideas effectively?
- Have you eliminated filler words and phrases that weaken the impact of your writing?
- Have you meticulously checked for proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation?
Consider reading your paper aloud or having someone else review it to catch any overlooked issues.
Enhance with Resources
There are various sources that can be utilized for references, including scholarly articles, books, websites, online videos, newspapers, and internet articles, among others. Each type of resource has its own format for citation. Below, you will find formats for commonly used resources.
- Journal article: Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), page range. DOI.
- Book: Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title of book. Publisher Name.
- Website: Author. (Year). Title of page. Retrieved Date, from (insert website URL).
- Journal article: Author(s). 'Title of Article.' Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.
- Book: Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.
- Website: Author. Name of Site. Version number, Name of organization, date of resource creation, URL. Date of access.
If you are seeking more information on how to write a research paper or need assistance with each step of the process, consider exploring the following tools:
- JSTOR : JSTOR is a digital library containing a vast collection of academic journals, books, and primary sources. It offers comprehensive research material in various disciplines.
- Mendeley : Mendeley is a reference management tool that helps you organize your research sources, collaborate with peers, and generate citations automatically. It also provides access to a large database of scholarly articles.
- Grammarly : Grammarly is an online writing assistant that helps improve grammar, spelling, and punctuation. It offers suggestions for enhancing clarity and style in your research papers.
- Tableau : Tableau is a powerful data visualization tool that enables you to create interactive charts, graphs, and dashboards. It allows you to present your research findings in a visually engaging and informative manner.
- Overleaf : Overleaf is an online LaTeX editor that simplifies the process of writing scientific documents, including research papers, theses, and dissertations. It provides collaborative features and pre-built templates for different document types.
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When Will I Need to Write a Research Paper in College?
You'll likely come across several instances where you'll need to write research papers. Research papers are a common requirement in many courses, especially those in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. They serve a purpose beyond mere formality, as they provide professors with a means to gauge your comprehension of a specific subject, your prowess in critical analysis, and your aptitude for conducting meticulous research. Consequently, it becomes crucial to equip yourself with the knowledge of how to write an academic research paper.
Where Can I Find Ideas for Research Paper Topics?
Here are a few places where you can find inspiration for research paper topics:
- Course Materials : Review your textbooks, lecture notes, and assigned readings. Look for interesting concepts, debates, or unanswered questions that pique your curiosity. You can delve deeper into these areas to develop a research topic.
- Current Events : Stay updated with the latest news and developments in your field of interest. News articles, journals, and online platforms can provide you with real-world issues or emerging trends that can serve as excellent research topics.
- Academic Journals and Publications : Explore reputable academic journals and publications related to your field. Reading scholarly articles can expose you to ongoing research, gaps in knowledge, or new perspectives, which can inspire research ideas.
- Brainstorming : Set aside dedicated time for brainstorming. Write down any topic that comes to mind, even if it seems unrelated or unrefined initially. Freely explore different angles and themes, and gradually refine your ideas into more focused research topics.
- Consult with Professors or Experts : Reach out to your professors or experts in the field and discuss potential research topics with them. They can provide guidance, suggest relevant areas of study, or offer insights based on their expertise.
- Online Research Databases : Utilize online research databases, such as JSTOR, Google Scholar, or PubMed, to search for keywords related to your subject. These databases contain a vast array of academic articles and studies that can stimulate ideas for research topics.
- Social Media and Online Communities : Engage with online communities, forums, or social media groups related to your field. Participating in discussions or observing conversations can help you identify popular or controversial topics worth exploring.
In conclusion, with these effective steps and techniques, you can confidently write a research paper. Dive into research, organize your thoughts, support your arguments, revise diligently, and embrace improvement. Let your ideas flow and create papers that make a meaningful impact in your field.
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Research paper examples
In this post, we are going to cover some different types of research papers. If you’re looking for specific examples of research papers. You can register at Avidnote for free ( click here ) and begin searching for research papers inside the app.
Examples of different types of academic papers
A term paper is a formal piece of writing which a student is mandated to write during an academic term [or semester], as part of his or her grading. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines it as “a major written assignment in a school or college course representative of a student’s achievement during a term”. A term paper should be an original work that discusses a topic in detail.
Most term papers usually consist of several typed pages and are often required to be submitted at the end of the semester. There is often some misunderstanding about the terms research paper and term paper. A term paper was originally a written assignment, usually a research-based paper, which the student was required to submit at the end of the “term” [either a semester or quarter, depending on the unit of measure used by the school]. However, all term papers are not based on academic research, and all research papers are not term papers.
In a tertiary institution, a seminar paper is a work of original research which a post-graduate student has to present as part of his or her degree coursework. It is usually a distinct course on its own that is evaluated and graded albeit it usually serves as a dress rehearsal for a thesis.
On completing the paper, students are required to present a summary of it in the form of a seminar [often in PowePoint format on a projector] to a select audience of lecturers in the department after which they are scored. The scores are determined by the strength of the paper as well as the oral presentation. In terms of size, a seminar paper is usually larger than a term paper and smaller than a thesis.
A journal is a scholarly publication made up of a compilation of articles written by researchers, including professors and other subject matter experts. Journals publish the most recent research studies and usually concentrate on a specific discipline or field of study. Unlike newspapers and magazines, journals are meant for an academic or technical audience.
Most journal articles are :
- written by experts
- peer-reviewed by colleagues familiar with the field
- present original research
- display current results
- cite works from other studies and
- include bibliographies
Journals often have both a print version and an online version (although print is becoming less popular).
Most journals are published at specific time intervals (monthly, quarterly, etc.). They are also sequentially numbered. Each copy is an issue and a collection of issues constitutes a volume (usually, all the issues for one year make up a volume). Like newspapers and magazines, journals are also referred to as periodicals or serials .
An undergraduate research project is part of the coursework required to award a bachelor’s degree in any discipline. It is written during the student’s final year in the institution. The Council on Undergraduate Research defines undergraduate research as “an inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate student that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline.”
Undergraduate research is a somewhat recent development in academia, originating around the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It was particularly popularized by the establishment of MIT’s Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) in 1969. Expectedly, research approaches and methods vary according to the field of study. But whatever approach adopted, the major goal is that the project produces original work that helps develop the student’s organizational, analytical, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills.
In tertiary education, a thesis is a research paper that a postgraduate student [mostly master’s degree level] is required to write before he or she successfully completes the program. It often takes months [sometimes years] to finish a thesis. The major objective of thesis writing is for the student to demonstrate their ability to conduct research and hence:
- the capacity to identify pertinent educational/societal problems
- critically analyze the literature
- communicate the procedures for and results of the research
- present a detailed methodology and accurate results
- verify knowledge claims and sources meticulously
- contribute to the existing stock of knowledge in the field
A dissertation [or doctoral thesis], is a research study that a student is mandated to conduct before being awarded a doctorate degree. It usually commences after the student must have completed his or her coursework. Hence, it is the last step for the completion of a Ph.D. or other doctoral program. Typically, a dissertation is an opportunity for students to research and present their findings in response to a pertinent question, problem, or proposition that they choose themselves.
The aim is to scrutinize the independent research skills which the doctoral candidates must have internalized during their time at the university. They are then graded based on the strength of their performance. Although the doctoral student is guided by his or her supervisor, they are expected to write the dissertation independently. In social science and science programs, the dissertation usually involves empirical research.
In some countries, a dissertation can mean the same thing as a thesis. In others, a dissertation strictly refers to a Ph.D. project while the term thesis denotes a master’s project. For most students, a dissertation will be the longest, most tedious, and most important academic task they’ll face while at their university, often requiring months of preparation and hard work including voracious reading and frequent consultations. However, it can also be very rewarding because it helps to hone the student’s intellect and professional expertise as well as help turn him or her into an authority in the field.
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