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How to Create an Effective Thesis Statement in 5 Easy Steps
Creating a thesis statement can be a daunting task. It’s one of the most important sentences in your paper, and it needs to be done right. But don’t worry — with these five easy steps, you’ll be able to create an effective thesis statement in no time.
Step 1: Brainstorm Ideas
The first step is to brainstorm ideas for your paper. Think about what you want to say and write down any ideas that come to mind. This will help you narrow down your focus and make it easier to create your thesis statement.
Step 2: Research Your Topic
Once you have some ideas, it’s time to do some research on your topic. Look for sources that support your ideas and provide evidence for the points you want to make. This will help you refine your argument and make it more convincing.
Step 3: Formulate Your Argument
Now that you have done some research, it’s time to formulate your argument. Take the points you want to make and put them into one or two sentences that clearly state what your paper is about. This will be the basis of your thesis statement.
Step 4: Refine Your Thesis Statement
Once you have formulated your argument, it’s time to refine your thesis statement. Make sure that it is clear, concise, and specific. It should also be arguable so that readers can disagree with it if they choose.
Step 5: Test Your Thesis Statement
The last step is to test your thesis statement. Does it accurately reflect the points you want to make? Is it clear and concise? Does it make an arguable point? If not, go back and refine it until it meets all of these criteria.
Creating an effective thesis statement doesn’t have to be a daunting task. With these five easy steps, you can create a strong thesis statement in no time at all.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
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How to prepare an excellent thesis defense
- What is a thesis defense?
If you're about to complete, or have ever completed a graduate degree, you have most likely come across the term "thesis defense." In many countries, to finish a graduate degree, you have to write a thesis .
A thesis is a large paper, or multi-chapter work, based on a topic relating to your field of study.
Once you hand in your thesis, you will be assigned a date to defend your work. Your thesis defense meeting usually consists of you and a committee of two or more professors working in your program. It may also include other people, like professionals from other colleges or those who are working in your field.
During your thesis defense, you will be asked questions about your work. The main purpose of your thesis defense is for the committee to make sure that you actually understand your field and focus area.
The questions are usually open-ended and require the student to think critically about their work. By the time of your thesis defense, your paper has already been evaluated. The questions asked are not designed so that you actually have to aggressively "defend" your work; often, your thesis defense is more of a formality required so that you can get your degree.
- Check with your department about requirements and timing.
- Re-read your thesis.
- Anticipate questions and prepare for them.
- Create a back-up plan to deal with technology hiccups.
- Plan de-stressing activities both before, and after, your defense.
- How long is a thesis defense?
How long your oral thesis defense is depends largely on the institution and requirements of your degree. It is best to consult your department or institution about this. In general, a thesis defense may take only 20 minutes, but it may also take two hours or more. The length also depends on how much time is allocated to the presentation and questioning part.
Tip: Check with your department or institution as soon as possible to determine the approved length for a thesis defense.
- What happens at a thesis defense?
First of all, be aware that a thesis defense varies from country to country. This is just a general overview, but a thesis defense can take many different formats. Some are closed, others are public defenses. Some take place with two committee members, some with more examiners.
The same goes for the length of your thesis defense, as mentioned above. The most important first step for you is to clarify with your department what the structure of your thesis defense will look like. In general, your thesis defense will include:
- your presentation of around 20-30 minutes
- questions from the committee
- questions from the audience (if the defense is public and the department allows it)
You might have to give a presentation, often with Powerpoint, Google slides, or Keynote slides. Make sure to prepare an appropriate amount of slides. A general rule is to use about 10 slides for a 20-minute presentation.
But that also depends on your specific topic and the way you present. The good news is that there will be plenty of time ahead of your thesis defense to prepare your slides and practice your presentation alone and in front of friends or family.
Tip: Practice delivering your thesis presentation in front of family, friends, or colleagues.
You can prepare your slides by using information from your thesis' first chapter (the overview of your thesis) as a framework or outline. Substantive information in your thesis should correspond with your slides.
Make sure your slides are of good quality— both in terms of the integrity of the information and the appearance. If you need more help with how to prepare your presentation slides, both the ASQ Higher Education Brief and James Hayton have good guidelines on the topic.
Questions from the committee
The committee will ask questions about your work after you finish your presentation. The questions will most likely be about the core content of your thesis, such as what you learned from the study you conducted. They may also ask you to summarize certain findings and to discuss how your work will contribute to the existing body of knowledge.
Tip: Read your entire thesis in preparation of the questions, so you have a refreshed perspective on your work.
While you are preparing, you can create a list of possible questions and try to answer them. You can foresee many of the questions you will get by simply spending some time rereading your thesis.
- 6 tips to help you prepare for your thesis defense
Here are a few tips on how to prepare for your thesis defense:
1. Anticipate questions and prepare for them
You can absolutely prepare for most of the questions you will be asked. Read through your thesis and while you're reading it, create a list of possible questions. In addition, since you will know who will be on the committee, look at the academic expertise of the committee members. In what areas would they most likely be focused?
If possible, sit at other thesis defenses with these committee members to get a feel for how they ask and what they ask. As a graduate student, you should generally be adept at anticipating test questions, so use this advantage to gather as much information as possible before your thesis defense meeting.
2. Dress for success
Your thesis defense is a formal event, often the entire department or university is invited to participate. It signals a critical rite of passage for graduate students and faculty who have supported them throughout a long and challenging process.
While most universities don't have specific rules on how to dress for that event, do regard it with dignity and respect. This one might be a no-brainer, but know that you should dress as if you were on a job interview or delivering a paper at a conference.
3. Ask for help, as needed
It might help you deal with your stress before your thesis defense to entrust someone with the smaller but important responsibilities of your defense well ahead of schedule. This trusted person could be responsible for:
- preparing the room of the day of defense
- setting up equipment for the presentation
- preparing and distributing handouts
4. Have a backup plan
Technology is unpredictable. Life is too. There are no guarantees that your Powerpoint presentation will work at all or look the way it is supposed to on the big screen. We've all been there. Make sure to have a plan B for these situations. Handouts can help when technology fails, and an additional clean shirt can save the day if you have a spill.
5. Prepare for the possibility that you might not know an answer
One of the scariest aspects of the defense is the possibility of being asked a question you can't answer. While you can prepare for some questions, you can never know exactly what the committee will ask.
There will always be gaps in your knowledge. But your thesis defense is not about being perfect and knowing everything, it's about how you deal with challenging situations. You are not expected to know everything.
James Hayton writes on his blog that examiners will sometimes even ask questions they don't know the answer to, out of curiosity, or because they want to see how you think. While it is ok sometimes to just say "I don't know", he advises to try something like "I don't know, but I would think [...] because of x and y, but you would need to do [...] in order to find out.” This shows that you have the ability to think as an academic.
6. De-stress before, during, and after
You will be nervous. But your examiners will expect you to be nervous. Being well prepared can help minimize your stress, but do know that your examiners have seen this many times before and are willing to help, by repeating questions, for example. Dora Farkas at finishyourthesis.com notes that it’s a myth that thesis committees are out to get you.
Two common symptoms of being nervous are talking really fast and nervous laughs. Try to slow yourself down and take a deep breath. Remember what feels like hours to you are just a few seconds in real life.
- Try meditational breathing right before your defense.
- Get plenty of exercise and sleep in the weeks prior to your defense.
- Have your clothes or other items you need ready to go the night before.
- During your defense, allow yourself to process each question before answering.
- Go to dinner with friends and family, or to a fun activity like mini-golf, after your defense.
Allow yourself to process each question, respond to it, and stop talking once you have responded. While a smile can often help dissolve a difficult situation, remember that nervous laughs can be irritating for your audience.
We all make mistakes and your thesis defense will not be perfect. However, careful preparation, mindfulness, and confidence can help you feel less stressful both before, and during, your defense.
Finally, consider planning something fun that you can look forward to after your defense.
- Frequently Asked Questions about preparing an excellent thesis defense
It is completely normal to be nervous. Being well prepared can help minimize your stress, but do know that your examiners have seen this many times before and are willing to help, by repeating questions for example if needed. Slow yourself down, and take a deep breath.
Your thesis defense is not about being perfect and knowing everything, it's about how you deal with challenging situations. James Hayton writes on his blog that it is ok sometimes to just say "I don't know", but he advises to try something like "I don't know, but I would think [...] because of x and y, you would need to do [...] in order to find out".
Your Powerpoint presentation can get stuck or not look the way it is supposed to do on the big screen. It can happen and your supervisors know it. In general, handouts can always save the day when technology fails.
- Dress for success.
- Ask for help setting up.
- Have a backup plan (in case technology fails you).
- Deal with your nerves.
- Related Articles
What is a Thesis Defense?
If you're researching a master's degree, you'll likely come across the phrase "thesis defense" among the list of requirements for earning an advanced degree. This formal-sounding requirement usually comes at the end of a graduate program. As a student seeking a master's degree, your thesis defines your educational experience at the university. Once you've completed all the necessary coursework and finished any internship or practicum experiences, you will be required to meet with a committee to defend your work. Details of a defense vary by college, but there are some general things to keep in mind as you embark on the graduate process.
Explore these promoted online degree programs.
These top, accredited schools offer a variety of online graduate degree programs. Figuring out where to apply? Consider one of these online Master’s or PhD programs.
What is a Thesis?
In most schools, the thesis represents a student's collective understanding of his or her program and major. Students who major in English, for example, typically explore language, literary themes, a specific author's work or a similar topic when writing a thesis paper. Universities often require theses to consist of a prospectus, which outlines the intent of the paper, and a full-length paper treatment of a particular topic. In the natural sciences, theses might cover experiments or hypothetical situations in which a student researches certain elements of his or her field.
Theses projects demand full attention, and many schools require that students devote an entire semester to completing the research and resulting paper. Students work with a faculty committee or adviser on a close basis to make sure that the research stays on schedule. Depending on the level of degree, a thesis paper can be extremely complex.
Defending the Work
Once students submit their theses papers to the thesis committee, they will be assigned a date to defend their work. In this case, "defend" does not imply that a student will have to argue aggressively about his or her work. Rather, the thesis defense is designed so that faculty members can ask questions and make sure that students actually understand their field and focus area. Defending a thesis largely serves as a formality because the paper will already have been evaluated. During a defense, a student will be asked questions by members of the thesis committee. Questions are usually open-ended and require that the student think critically about his or her work. A defense might take only 20 minutes, or it might take an hour or more depending on the goal of the committee and the requirements of the program.
Preparation for Your Thesis Defense
Students have months to prepare for a defense . Schools want graduate candidates to be as prepared as possible when attending a defense, which means that neither the date nor faculty committee will be a surprise to the student. It's important to keep in mind that if you go into a defense with the right attitude and preparation, failing is nearly impossible. The committee wants to see how well you know your subject and your research. Nerves may get the better of you as you face unknown questions, but as with a job interview, practicing ahead of time will lead to a successful defense.
Facing a defense can be stressful, but think of it as an opportunity to share what you've learned. Remember that you aren't arguing points when you defend your work. Instead, a proper thesis defense gives you and your faculty advisers the chance to discuss your topic and research in greater detail.
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MBA defense Presentation
Capacity decisions affect the ability of management in construction industries to meet future demand for clients requirements and competitiveness in effective project delivery. However, managing multiple construction projects with constraints in equipment and machine capacities requires a systematic and proactive approach towards scheduling and machines loading. This study explores and applies the principles of priority sequencing using Johnson's algorithm in the development of a model for the management of multiple projects under capacity constraints. Hypothetical data was generated for the machines and projects, which were subjected to iterative processes. Priority sequencing rules and scheduling in the order control Gantt chart easily display each equipment formation/loading on each project. The result of the analysis indicates an improvement of 178.74% in the schedule performance due to efficient and systematic utilization of equipment and machine capacities, taking research assumptions into consideration. Training and motivation of managers are recommended to be employed for appropriate capacity planning skills and expertise s required for the management of multiple projects with capacity constraints
The purpose of this study was to conduct the first assessment of burnout among Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health clinicians providing evidence-based posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) care. This study consisted of 138 participants and the sample was mostly female (67%), Caucasian (non-Hispanic; 81%), and married (70%) with a mean age of 44.3 years (SD 11.2). Recruitment was directed through VHA PTSD Clinical Teams (PCT) throughout the United States based on a nationwide mailing list of PCT Clinic Directors. Participants completed an electronic survey that assessed demographics, organizational work factors, absenteeism, and burnout (assessed through the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, MBI-GS). Twelve percent of the sample reported low Professional Efficacy, 50% reported high levels of Exhaustion, and 47% reported high levels of Cynicism as determined by the MBI-GS cut-off scores. Only workplace characteristics were significantly associated with provider scores on all 3 scales. Exhaustion and Cynicism were most impacted by perceptions of organizational politics/bureaucracy, increased clinical workload, and control over how work is done. Organizational factors were also significantly associated with provider absenteeism and intent to leave his or her job. Findings suggest that providers in VHA specialty PTSD-care settings may benefit from programs or supports aimed at preventing and/or ameliorating burnout.
Makarand Upadhyaya , Kartinah Ayupp
Journal of Management & Development Economics, Vol 9(1): 100-113
Dr. Nazrul Islam
The creation of small entrepreneurship in a developing country like Bangladesh has paramount importance in socioeconomic development of the country. The reasons can be attributed by the balanced growth and the inclusion of general masses in the development process of the country. However, this development process is hindered by a number of unfavorable factors which are primarily concerned with personal, economic, social, environmental, political, and legal in nature. Access to the resources of the small entrepreneurs of the country should be ensured to initiate and run the small business in Bangladesh. Hence, this paper aims at exploring the factors that hinder the development of small business entrepreneurs in Bangladesh. This study follows both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Two hundred ten small entrepreneurs in different business sectors of Bangladesh such as, food processing, rice farming, freight forwarding, tea production, barbing salon, water refill station, grocery business, fish selling, cattle farming, etc. were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted to identify the factors impede the small entrepreneurial businesses in Bangladesh. Regression analysis was carried out to examine the relationships between the hindering factors and the overall development of small business entrepreneurship in Bangladesh. The results show that the lack of local support for starting and running business, lack of knowledge on information technology, lack of business experience, and lack of entrepreneurship training are important factors or barriers for the development of small entrepreneurial businesses in Bangladesh. This study suggests that the policy makers should focus more on stimulatory, supporting and sustaining activities to develop small business entrepreneurship in Bangladesh.
International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 5(1), 139-150
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Islam El Bayoumi , osman Ahmed
Due to the significance of friendliness in any workplace, and the imperative need of hospitality educators to communicate effectively with all employees in the work environment, this study examined the relationship among workplace friendliness (WF), work commitment (WC), and turnover intentions (TI). The population of the study included all staff members working in different departments in governmental faculties of Tourism and Hotels in Egypt. The overall pattern in the relationships between the variables measured, suggested that friendliness at work do have a significant influence on the determined organizational outcomes. The outcomes of this study, when correlated to the review of literature, raised major recommendations that have to be directed to staff members in all faculties of Tourism and Hotels.
Withdrawal Intentions of the employees are the most crucial issue that is faced by majority of organizations. Employees' commitment and their continued service to any organization may be highly influenced by their perceived organizational support. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of POS on the withdrawal intentions of the employees. POS is assumed to enhance the bonding between the organization and the employees that lead to increased work effort by employees to meet the organizational goals. This study indicated a relationship between POS and the intention to withdraw, which shows that employees are tempted towards better treatment and if not, they intend to leave. The data of the present study were collected from the teaching fraternity of B-schools in Gwalior region. The detai2led result is elaborated and discussed in the paper.
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How to Start a Thesis Defense Presentation
After months and years of hard work, the moment to wrap things all up is finally here—your thesis defense presentation.
Whether you’re pursuing a master’s degree or doctorate, it’s the final step to that much-deserved achievement.
A thesis defense requires a lot of prior research and preparation. And as important as its content is, so is how you present it because a stunning design with clear data and text hierarchy plays an immense role in comprehension.
In this article, we’ll explore how you make your thesis defense .
The organization is the key to success. Establishing some previous steps before any project or work is essential for the result to be very positive. And the defense of a thesis could not be less.
Below, we will develop all the necessary steps to make a thesis defense presentation and we will give you some tips on how to carry them out.
How to Make an Amazing Presentation
Defining the concept of your thesis presentation, structuring your thesis defense presentation, how do you welcome the audience, tell them why you did this thesis, go into the content by explaining your thesis part by part, how to end the defense of the thesis.
After a long time of research and study, the content of your thesis is ready. Now, you have to find the best way to reflect all that effort behind your work. The information comes across more clearly if you use a visual format, as it attracts the attention of the audience. To present your thesis information in a clear, concise, and ultimately amazing way, you can use one of our unique thesis defense templates , available at Slidesgo.
As an example, in this article, we are going to use the Ecology Thesis template . With it, we will show you what to include in your presentation and how to make an attractive design.
After choosing the Google Slides and PowerPoint template that best suits the needs and subject matter of your thesis, it is time to define an overarching concept.
This is the main theme on which your designs are based. It must be relevant to your thesis as its purpose is to guide your selection of colors, typography, images, style, etc.
These must be portrayed in a way that supports the main message of your slides and should be aligned with your concept both visually and sociologically.
Once you have defined the concept, you will have to move on to the next step: structuring the content of your thesis. A good structure will show that there is a good organization behind the work, but most importantly: it will highlight your content.
In this article, we are going to show you a structure that could be a good example of how to structure a thesis, but you can adapt it to what your specific content requires.
Before you begin your thesis defense, you should welcome your audience. A good presentation will make you connect with your audience, which will result in more general interest in your work.
Use an appropriate language register (avoid informal language), but be approachable and natural.
"Welcome to the thesis defense on [the title of your thesis]". Next, introduce yourself with your name and give a short description of your background and occupation.
Don't forget to say “thank you for attending!”
To continue establishing that connection with your audience, explain the reasons that led you to do this thesis. Tell the professional reasons, and you can even say some personal ones, which will denote closeness, and your audience will appreciate it.
Now it's time to go into the content of the thesis ! After these preliminary steps, which are just as important as the thesis itself, it is time to explain part by part the structure (which you had previously established). We are going to propose a structure for your project, but the final decision is always yours!
First impressions are very important. Because your title page is the very first thing viewers see, it must be striking and impactful. It also sets the stage for the rest of your slides.
In one glance, the following should be established:
- Thesis defense topic
- Design style
For instance, the ecology thesis’s title page uses illustrations of a natural landscape to represent the topic of nature and a striking shade of blue to set the tone.
The sans serif font used depicts clean-cut typography and style and the thesis topic is written in large and bold typography, which draws attention to it immediately.
Right after your title page, include an introduction slide to provide more details about your topic.
This means explaining what you hope to answer with your research, its importance to your field, and why you chose it.
Continue to incorporate design elements relevant to your concept. This example has done just that by using a different natural landscape and including animals. For coherence, stick to the same typography and style throughout your presentation.
The aim of the literature review slide is to illustrate your knowledge of your thesis topic and any relevant theories.
Walls of text kill a design. For clarity, we recommend presenting this with bullet points. Each one should be short and sweet and only touch on the basics; you can elaborate on them in your speech.
Don’t forget to be consistent with your design. In our example, we’ve maintained the tone of blue chosen and added illustrations of leaves in the far corners of the slide.
Also, address similar research that has been done. This is to showcase your topic’s originality and, if relevant, how it’s different and/or an improvement from previously done research.
This is one of the most important parts of a thesis defense presentation.
It allows your viewers to assess the rationality and validity of your approach and consequently, the accuracy of your results.
A great methodology slide explains the what , how, and why :
- What method did you use for your research
- Why did you choose it
- How did you conduct it
Because this part of your thesis will be rather technical, the most effective way to aid understanding is by using graphics like charts and tables.
Keep text to a minimum to avoid drawing attention away from the graphics. If there is a text that must absolutely be included, consider using bullet points and keep them short.
Don’t forget to maintain color, style, and typography coherence.
The results slides are easily the most quantitative part of a thesis defense.
Here, your aim is to simply introduce your findings. Select the most impactful data and highlight them here.
Just as with methodology, use graphics like charts, tables, and graphs to portray the data in a clear way. And, once again, try not to write too much text. Let the visual content do the talking .
After you’ve introduced your data, the next step would be to help your audience make sense of it. That means understanding what it means in the context of your thesis research topic and your discipline.
Simply put, you should answer the question: What do the numbers mean?
The best way to approach this would be to do it as if you were creating an infographic .
Illustrations like icons are a quick and simple way to represent your message. It also reduces the amount of text on your slide, which makes the information much more digestible.
For a balanced thesis presentation, you should also address any outliers and anomalies.
To quote bestselling author Robin Sharma, “Starting strong is good. Finishing strong is epic.”
That’s exactly what to aim for in your conclusion.
Provide an overview of your thesis topic and remind your audience what you set out to answer with your research. In our example, we’ve used three icons accompanied by a short title and text.
Following that, reiterate the important points of your research results you want your audience to take away from your thesis defense presentation.
You can do so by expanding the next slide to have more icons and points, for example.
Don’t forget to address any shortcomings and limitations in your approach and extra points for suggesting possible improvements for future research.
We are going to give you a little tip to make your thesis defense a success. You can combine your defense with good public speaking techniques. Take a look at our article "How to become a great speaker" .
We hope this article has been of great help, have you already seen our templates to make the presentation of your thesis ? Choose the one that best suits your needs, we are sure that one of them will go perfectly with your thesis presentation!
Good luck from Slidesgo.
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Presentation of Mba Thesis
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Text of Presentation of Mba Thesis
HELLENIC OPEN UNIVERSITYSCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS AS A MEANS FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS AS A MEANS FOR ASSESSING CORPORATE FOR ASSESSING CORPORATE
CREDITWORTHINESS AND VIABILITYCREDITWORTHINESS AND VIABILITY
Christos ZachariasChristos Zacharias
Supervisor: Dr Dimitris PetmezasSupervisor: Dr Dimitris Petmezas
Financial Statement Analysis is the examination of the relations among
various economic elements that are included in the published financial
statements of companies. It facilitates users (i.e. creditors, investors
etc) of them to make sound economic decisions.
Commercial Banks use financial statements to assess the current and
past financial position and performance of companies that apply for
credit and loans, in order to evaluate their capacity to repay debt and
to determine the amount of credit risk involved in a lending situation.
MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Recent examples of accounting scandals and bankruptcies (i.e.Enron) have
raised questions about the usefulness and adequacy of financial statements
in helping creditors and investors make sound economic decisions.
In addition, the recent international financial crisis has proved that the
underestimation of credit risk can have devastating consequences for
Financial Institutions (i.e. Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy).
This study attempts to evaluate the adequacy, effectiveness and predictive
ability of financial statement analysis as a means for assessing corporate
creditworthiness and financial viability from the viewpoint of Commercial
Banks as creditors.
METHODOLOGY AND DATA
Examination of the theoretical framework for credit standing and viability
assessment of enterprises through financial statement analysis, including
presentation of business failure predictions models, by reviewing the
Empirical investigation: We assess the credit standing and viability of a
sample of 10 publicly traded Greek companies, which have been manually
collected from A.S.E. More specifically, we make comparative analysis
between 5 financially healthy and 5 financially unhealthy companies of the
same industries, by using a failure prediction model and some financial
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK (1)
Presentation of objectives (according to various points of view) and most
common methods of financial statement analysis:
• Comparative Financial Statement Analysis
• Common - Size Financial Statement Analysis
• Ratio Analysis
• Cash Flow Analysis
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK (2)
Presentation of the assessment of corporate creditworthiness and financial
viability, from the viewpoint of Commercial Banks, in the general context of
business credit approval process and credit risk evaluation:
I.Business and industry risk assessment
II.Analysis of financial performance and financial ratios
i. Analysis of Liquidity
ii. Analysis of Solvency & Capital Structure
iii.Analysis of Profitability
iv.Analysis of Efficiency
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK (3)
III. Analysis and forecasting of cash flows
IV. Analysis of non-financial indicators (evaluation of quality criteria like
collateral and business character)
V. Credit decision making
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK (4)
Examination of the use of financial ratios for predictive purposes and review of
the most popular classical statistical business failure prediction models which
are based on financial statements and especially on financial ratios:
Univariate Analysis (W.Beaver)
Multivariate Discriminant Analysis Models (Z-Score and ZETA models)
Conditional Probability Models (Logit and Probit Analysis)
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK (5)
Presentation of the most important limitations in financial statement analysis
and their consequences on corporate credit analysis:
Historical Cost Principle
Proportionality of Financial Ratios
EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION (1)
Comparative analysis between 5 financially healthy publicly traded companies
and 5 financially unhealthy/ failed ones of the same industries, by using a
failure prediction model (Altman’s Z-score) and 5 financial ratios which are
considered important in corporate credit analysis.
(Companies whose shares were recently suspended were selected as examples of
unhealthy companies. Companies whose shares were not suspended nor were under
observation were selected as examples of non-failed (healthy) companies.)
The selected financial ratios and Z-score are comparatively examined in pairs
of companies that belong to the same sector for testing whether these ratios
and Z-score of failed companies are significantly different to those of non-failed
ones in the years before failure and whether they are good indicators of
corporate creditworthiness and viability.
EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION (2)
Altman’s Z-score model was selected as it is one of the most popular M.D.A. models for
predicting business failure. The discriminant function of this model (applicable to
publicly traded companies) is the following:
X1 = Net Working capital /Total assets
X2 = Retained Earnings /Total assets
X3 = Earnings before interest and taxes /Total assets
X4 = Market value of equity /Book value of total debt
X5 = Sales /Total assets
In this model, a Z score of above 2.99 indicates non-failure, and a Z score below 1.81
indicates potential failure.
Z-score = 1.2(X1) + 1.4(X2) + 3.3(X3) + 0.6(X4) + 1.0(X5)
EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION (3)
The financial ratios which have been selected for the comparative analysis are the
following (The financial data which ratios are derived from cover the period of 2004 –
a) Debt Payback ratio or Cash Debt Coverage ratio (Operating Cash Flow / Total
b) Return on Total Assets ratio - R.O.A. (Earnings Before Interest and Taxes / Total
c) Equity Capital to Total Debt ratio (Owner’s Equity / Total Debt)
d) Debt Service Coverage ratio (Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and
Amortization / Interest expense + Principal payments / (1-tax rate) )
e) Times Interest Earned ratio (Net Profit Before Taxes + Interest Expense / Interest
EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION (4)
The pairs of healthy and unhealthy companies that were selected are the following:
A.SPACE HELLAS S.A. & MARAC ELECTRONICS S.A. (Subsector:
B.F.G. EUROPE S.A. & EMPORIKOS DESMOS S.A. (Subsector: Durable
C.DAIOS PLASTICS S.A. & PETZETAKIS S.A. (Subsector: Specialty Chemicals)
D.“ALFA-BETA" VASSILOPOULOS S.A. & ATLANTIK SUPER MARKET S.A.
(Subsector: Food Retailers & Wholesalers)
E.KARAMOLENGOS BAKERY INDUSTRY S.A. & C.CARDASSILARIS & SONS –
CARDICO S.A. (Subsector: Food Products)
EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION (5)
Comparative analysis between the 2 groups of companies: The averages of the
5 selected ratios & Z-score of the two categories of companies (healthy and
unhealthy) are compared between them.
Diagram 1 : Development of average Z-score values for healthy and unhealthy companies
EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION (6)
Diagram 2 : Development of average Debt Payback ratio values for healthy and unhealthy companies
EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION (7)
Diagram 3 : Development of average ROA ratio values for healthy and unhealthy companies
EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION (8)
Diagram 4 : Development of average Equity to Debt ratio values for healthy and unhealthy companies
EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION (9)
Diagram 5 : Development of average Debt Service Coverage ratio values for healthy and unhealthy companies
EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION (10)
Diagram 6 : Development of average Times Interest Earned ratio values for healthy and unhealthy companies
EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION (11)
Most Important Findings and Conclusions :
The two groups of companies have significantly different Z-score values, during
all years of the period under consideration.
3 out of 5 ratios of failed companies present significant differences to those of
non-failed ones in four years before failure.
The distinct examination of individual ratios does not lead to clear conclusions
regarding the corporate credit standing and viability.
The joint analysis of some financial ratios which contain common informative
characteristics (i.e. Solvency ratios) can lead to a correct prediction of
companies’ creditworthiness and future financial position.
The overall predictive ability of Z – score model is moderate.
EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION (12)
Most Important Findings and Conclusions (continuity):
During the last 3 years (2008, 2009 and 2010), of the period under review,
Z-score values, both in company level and on average, are generally very
low, compared with the corresponding values of the previous 4 years.
Therefore, we can conclude that the emergence of unforeseen troubles in
the international and domestic macroeconomic business environment
affects negatively the reliability of Z-score model in terms of correct
classification of companies.
Generally, the analysis of reliable financial statements is fairly effective on the
proper assessment of companies’ creditworthiness and the prediction of their
viability made by Commercial Banks. On the other hand, this analysis is subject
to certain limitations, due to the inherent weaknesses of financial statements,
and cannot provide a complete understanding of the borrowing companies.
Therefore, financial statement analysis is not sufficient, so that to lead by itself
Loan Officers to make final credit decisions. However, it constitutes a very
useful and indispensable tool within the business credit approval process that is
followed by Commercial Banks.
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Home Blog Presentation Ideas How To Do a Proper Thesis Defense Using the Right PowerPoint Presentation
How To Do a Proper Thesis Defense Using the Right PowerPoint Presentation
Writing a thesis is stressful, but preparing an oral defense can be even more painful. But it doesn’t have to be; with proper preparation and a good presentation, you will be able to better equip yourself comes time to present your thesis defense.
But what makes a good thesis defense?
A proper presentation helps you with your thesis defense because it helps you to capture the panels’ attention and gives you cues and reminders on what to say as well.
It also helps keep your data organized while visually looking good and provides a flow structure for the rest of your presentation.
In today’s article, we will be giving you The Right PowerPoint Templates for Your Thesis Defense and a powerful outline composed of best practices and layouts specifically designed to help you defend your thesis in both written and oral presentations.
In the next segments of this article, we’ll walk you through the most feasible process on how to ace this kind of presentation.
Let’s dive into the outline of what makes a great thesis defense.
Thesis Defense Overview
- Type of Degree
Thesis and Dissertation Distinction Varies on Location
Three most common thesis defense myths, how to use chatgpt to structure your thesis.
- Literature Review
- Tips During Your Oral Defense
More Quick Tips on How to Present!
A thesis defense is composed of two parts – a thesis and a defense.
The thesis, according to Grad School Hub , represents a student’s collective understanding of his or her program and major.
Universities often include a thesis in every course as one of the final requirements to earn a particular graduate or postgraduate degree.
The thesis, however, isn’t just a mere requirement.
It helps the students to grow out of their shell from their respective discipline and give them the opportunity to present all the findings of their study.
Moreover, some people think a thesis is just a long essay, but it’s not. Unlike an essay, a thesis needs to assert something.
This can be considered one of the most crucial research documents which a student makes during their academic schooling .
On the other hand, defense is the presentation of the pieces of evidence to support and prove your research.
It’s the most essential part of the thesis process.
Your presentation has to be prepared to answer questions from members of the committee and any other panel present, and it’s your job to convince them and defend your thesis with ample proof.
Prior to presenting, you have to carefully determine what appropriate evidence should be presented before the panel, depending on what thesis you have to defend.
Thesis and Dissertation Distinguished
A thesis or dissertation is usually required to complete a particular graduate degree. And these two words are often used interchangeably by most students when referring to research studies.
But while being almost similar in format or structure, it’s worth noting that they have significant differences that set them apart from each other.
The very reason why thesis and dissertation are treated the same is that these two are both extensive papers. Not just merely long essays like what others are claiming.
Both of these papers are extensive. This is why students are given ample time, usually the entire last semester of the last year of study, to complete all the requirements and finally acquire their degree.
With regards to structure, both papers are very similar with few differences.
Differences Between Thesis and Dissertation
One of the significant differences between the two is to whom the paper is assigned. A thesis is usually required for those students earning a bachelor’s or master’s degree. While a dissertation is for those, who want to obtain a doctorate degree.
However, not all students taking a master’s degree are required to make a thesis. Prior to their enrollment, they have been given a choice of whether they’ll go for a non-thesis program or with a thesis.
Those who have a plan to escalate their degree to a doctorate eventually should take the path of a thesis. This is to prepare themselves for a more extensive dissertation requirement as doctorate students. Otherwise, they will be only limited to earning a master’s degree.
But above all, the most significant difference between the two papers is the purpose for which it is written.
A thesis, like what has been mentioned above, is being done by students obtaining a bachelor’s or master’s degree and has the purpose of testing their understanding of the discipline they’re engaged with.
A thesis is focused on obtaining technical expertise.
On the other hand, a dissertation is made for students to come up with an original study that other researchers haven’t already studied.
USA: In the United States of America, they consider a thesis shorter than a dissertation. In fact, aside from being a requirement to graduate in college, a thesis is now also inculcated in master’s degree programs. And since the dissertation is more extensive, the thesis is treated as preliminary in gaining a doctorate degree.
Europe: The distinction between the two papers is almost opposite to that of the USA. In Europe, a dissertation is only a broader research study from a post-graduate program and not the making of original research. Instead, educational systems in the said continent treat the doctoral thesis as a more elaborate paper writing.
The difference between a thesis and a dissertation might not seem that big, but it’s important that we know what makes them different.
If your upcoming defense gives you pressure and uneasiness, it could be cause you are not sure what to expect. Today we will dispel three common thesis defense myths that will help you be more confident in your presentation.
“Answer all the questions correctly. Otherwise, your thesis won’t get approved.”
You are expected to have a focus on your research.
That being said, you have to study each part of your thesis, every detail, and even your sources.
You have to study and practice how to effectively deliver your presentation.
But don’t overthink to the extent that you’re stressing yourself to know everything perfectly.
Don’t overstress if you can’t answer one of the questions, this doesn’t necessarily mean the committee won’t approve your thesis.
You should know that research is a continuous study.
So you should expect that your committee will always be able to find a gap in your study to fill in future related research .
So in times you don’t exactly know the answer, admit it, and you’ll learn as they give their sides or suggestions.
Making up an answer will only displease your committee, so it’s to be upfront, honest, and transparent.
“The committee is just there to find holes in your study. They don’t care about you.”
One of the typical descriptions students have of the committee is that they are just there to poke holes in your thesis.
Going in with this perspective makes standing before them a nerve-wracking experience.
They’re not your enemy.
In fact, they are there to help you polish your study.
They might challenge you with difficult suggestions and tricky questions.
In the end, they will walk you through the process to come up with better results that won’t only benefit you but also your research.
They care about you and your study, and they’re ultimately there to make your thesis and the research better. Separate yourself from your work and look at it objectively, and don’t take their comments personally .
“If your thesis defense isn’t successful, you have to start your thesis all over again”
An unsuccessful defense is one of the worst-case fears most students have.
One thing that you should be aware of is when you aren’t able to please your committee, you don’t need to start a new thesis again or go back to square one with your existing paper.
It’s unusual that your committee will ask you to change your topic and start from scratch again.
The fact that you’ve been permitted to defend your study means your research is almost complete.
They might suggest further details or ask you for minor revisions, and that’s normal.
But overall, you need to go into this defense thinking that your presentation will be successful. Otherwise, you are already setting yourself up for failure with the wrong mindset.
Remember that positive thoughts attract positive results.
Thesis Defense Presentation Structure and Slides Content
We can use language learning models like ChatGPT to help us curate the structure of our thesis presentation. Let’s see a step-by-step solution on how to apply this.
Step 1: Define the thesis topic and research questions
You can set the environment for ChatGPT to work by explaining what your thesis is going to cover and which specific questions you aim to address through the course of that document. This gives ChatGPT the context from which it shall formulate the structure. A prompt can be written like this:
“Take the role of an academic professional who shall help me to write my thesis. This thesis is going to cover the topic of (insert topic), and through its course, I want to answer these questions: Question 1 – Question 2 – Question 3 – Consider this information as the starting point for this chat.”
Step 2: Ask for an outline
With the previously provided information, ask ChatGPT to generate an outline for your presentation. If some of the points listed in the output don’t convince you, then chat with the interface until you reach a final outline. Then, ask to elaborate on each specific point for information or cues you may have overlooked.
Step 3: Ask ChatGPT which content should you place per slide
Instead of debating how are you going to trim your thesis into a presentation format, ask ChatGPT to do the decision process for you. You can be as specific as asking how many words per slide, how many slides should the presentation have, if you need any visual element, etc.
N.B.: We don’t recommend using ChatGPT to retrieve academic references as, in some cases, it can provide faulty results. You can ask if any facts on this presentation need to be checked or similar questions. ChatGPT is a powerful tool, but it shouldn’t be considered a bible, so be extra cautious about grabbing content directly from its outputs.
1 – Title Page
This slide should contain the information that is provided on the title page of your hard copy
- The title of your research paper
- Where you are studying
- Name and details of your course
- Name of Adviser
2 – Introduction
Your introduction slide should provide the committee with an idea of the following:
- What is the topic area that you are investigating ?
- What are the specific research questions that you set out to answer?
- Why is this question important to answer?
- What were the objectives of your research?
3 – Literature review
It’s not necessary to cover everything that’s currently understood in the available literature. You may want to present the following:
- Relevant current research that is close to your topic
- Different theories that may apply to your specific area of research
- Areas of weakness that are currently highlighted
4 – Methodology
Make sure to touch the factors below within your process:
- The type of study you have conducted: qualitative, quantitative, or mixed
- The methods that you chose and why
- Details of the population, sampling methods, and other information
- Provide information regarding how you have analyzed the data that you have collected
5 – Results
This part should give the committee/audience a good understanding of what you’ve discovered during your research. It should cover the following:
- An overall description of the data that you collected during your research
- The results of the analysis that you have done on that data
- What were the most significant findings from your data
6 – Discussion
Highlight here the meaning of the findings in relation to your discipline program and the research that you have done:
- What are the major findings, and what do they mean with regard to your research
- How do these findings relate to what others have found in the past
- How can you explain any unusual or surprising result
7 – Conclusions
You have to end your presentation with a conclusion summarizing all that you have found within your research. You need to:
- Restate your research questions
- Show how your results answer these questions
- Show what contribution you have made
- State any limitations to the work you have done
- Suggest future research
- Make any recommendations
See Also: How to Create a Great Investors Pitch Deck and Close the Deal
Tips During Your Oral Defense!
Review your materials.
Even if you already feel confident with your upcoming presentation, you still need to review your materials.
You can bring the hard copy of your thesis with you during the defense, but you don’t want to get lost in your presentation when you forget some specific details and have to scan your papers.
You should know your paper in and out.
Rehearse Your Presentation
It’s not wrong if it sounds like a script when you speak in your oral defense. It’s expected and understandable.
You need to practice your presentation, especially when there’s a time restriction given to every presenter.
You only need to prepare enough slides that would fit your time limit. A hundred slides aren’t suitable for a 15 to 20-minute presentation, nor 10 slides for an hour of defense.
Your rehearsal will be more effective if you practice it in front of an audience.
Note: You will experience complete silence in the defense room. You might feel awkward because, most of the time, you’re the only one speaking out loud. This is completely fine, and it’s something you should practice in rehearsal should you be afraid.
Narrow the Presentation of Ideas
Regarding your slides, you don’t have to include everything that’s in your paper. You should narrow down your ideas to the main points and the most important details, such as the statistics and findings.
If the members of your committee think you lack details or they want to hear a further explanation, they won’t hesitate to ask you.
Prepare for the Unexpected Questions
The panel tends to challenge the presenters, usually through some hard questions.
Its aim is how well do you you have done your research and how prepared you are.
But as long as you know the ins and outs of your paper, you shouldn’t lose your confidence regardless of which questions they ask.
Just keep in mind that what you’re saying in your oral defense is not in conflict with what is written on the hard copy you provided them.
What To Do When You Don’t Know the Answer
If the committee asks you a question and you don’t know the answer, don’t make up a baseless answer.
Baseless means out-of-context answers or something without proof or backup.
How To Deal With The Nervousness
The committee expects you to be nervous. Of course, it’s normal.
However, one effect of being nervous is the changes in your behavior.
There’s a tendency you’ll talk fast, which will make it hard for the committee to understand you.
It might also cause you to have a mental block.
So try to slow down. Take a deep breath.
Inhale, exhale. Remember to breathe!
It’s OK to pause, and it’s ok to take your time; it’s more important that the committee clearly understand what you are trying to articulate.
- Introduce yourself at the beginning
- Introduce the title of the presentation
- Don’t read your notes if possible
- Don’t speak too fast
- Put an emphasis on what you’re saying so you don’t sound monotonous
- Look at your adviser once in a while for possible signs
- Stand on the right of the white screen if you are right-handed so you can easily refer to the slide without giving your back to the committee
- Face the audience when you talk
- Keep an eye contact
- Make sure to keep attention to the reactions of the committee and don’t forget to react in turn
We hope you enjoyed this article on how to do a proper thesis defense and how to best prepare for one using proven tips and techniques to help you get through this. Hopefully, after your defense, you will be set as the one in your class to deliver an inspiring graduation speech for your peers. If you got value, please remember to share this article. We also recommend you read these Thesis Statement Examples for inspiration to create your own professionally.
1. MasterDoc PowerPoint Template
Creating a Thesis presentation should be a straight forward task; based on your thesis document and following the tips described above you have a high level structure already outlined. The MasterDoc PowerPoint template provides professional layouts with texts and image placeholders; so you can create document like slides using your thesis defense as your content. This template is ideal for a highly detailed documents, where visuals and words unite to illustrate one concept per page. The result is an asset that can be read and digested more quickly than either your thesis document or a presentation created for assisting a speech. A document created with the MasterDoc PowerPoint templates is meant to be printed or distributed, read on screen without the accompaniment of a presenter or used in an e-learning platform as pure learning content.
Use This Template
2. Thesis Presentation PowerPoint Template
You had invested a considerable time researching, testing hypothesis and confirming your thesis. Craft your thesis presentation with the same level of detail you applied in your work. Using the Thesis Presentation PowerPoint Template you will focus only in your content and your message. The layouts, images,design and structure will be taken care by the template.
3. Master Thesis PowerPoint Template
The Master Thesis PowerPoint Template is a professional document designed for postgraduate degrees presentations. It provides simple sections that follow the structure and best practices of traditional research thesis presentations. Starting with the introduction to the theory and state of the art scenario; following with hypothesis research and its findings and concluding with the confirmation or negation of the initial thesis statement.
4. Essay Outline PowerPoint Template
Your thesis defense can be accompanied by an essay, that states your thesis and argues about it using several supporting paragraphs. This kind of document is ideal to be an intermediate step between reading assisting to the thesis presentation and reading the complete thesis documentation. It has more information that your thesis defense abstract, but does summarizes the supporting evidence and examples that allows the argument of each idea behind the thesis. You can use the Essay Outline Template to present your Essay outline and create an essay linked to your thesis defense documentation.
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36 Responses to “How To Do a Proper Thesis Defense Using the Right PowerPoint Presentation”
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