Hypothesis Testing - Chi Squared Test

Lisa Sullivan, PhD

Professor of Biostatistics

Boston University School of Public Health  ## Introduction

This module will continue the discussion of hypothesis testing, where a specific statement or hypothesis is generated about a population parameter, and sample statistics are used to assess the likelihood that the hypothesis is true. The hypothesis is based on available information and the investigator's belief about the population parameters. The specific tests considered here are called chi-square tests and are appropriate when the outcome is discrete (dichotomous, ordinal or categorical). For example, in some clinical trials the outcome is a classification such as hypertensive, pre-hypertensive or normotensive. We could use the same classification in an observational study such as the Framingham Heart Study to compare men and women in terms of their blood pressure status - again using the classification of hypertensive, pre-hypertensive or normotensive status.

The technique to analyze a discrete outcome uses what is called a chi-square test. Specifically, the test statistic follows a chi-square probability distribution. We will consider chi-square tests here with one, two and more than two independent comparison groups.

## Learning Objectives

After completing this module, the student will be able to:

• Perform chi-square tests by hand
• Appropriately interpret results of chi-square tests
• Identify the appropriate hypothesis testing procedure based on type of outcome variable and number of samples

## Tests with One Sample, Discrete Outcome

Here we consider hypothesis testing with a discrete outcome variable in a single population. Discrete variables are variables that take on more than two distinct responses or categories and the responses can be ordered or unordered (i.e., the outcome can be ordinal or categorical). The procedure we describe here can be used for dichotomous (exactly 2 response options), ordinal or categorical discrete outcomes and the objective is to compare the distribution of responses, or the proportions of participants in each response category, to a known distribution. The known distribution is derived from another study or report and it is again important in setting up the hypotheses that the comparator distribution specified in the null hypothesis is a fair comparison. The comparator is sometimes called an external or a historical control.

In one sample tests for a discrete outcome, we set up our hypotheses against an appropriate comparator. We select a sample and compute descriptive statistics on the sample data. Specifically, we compute the sample size (n) and the proportions of participants in each response

Test Statistic for Testing H 0 : p 1 = p 10 , p 2 = p 20 , ..., p k = p k0

We find the critical value in a table of probabilities for the chi-square distribution with degrees of freedom (df) = k-1. In the test statistic, O = observed frequency and E=expected frequency in each of the response categories. The observed frequencies are those observed in the sample and the expected frequencies are computed as described below. χ 2 (chi-square) is another probability distribution and ranges from 0 to ∞. The test above statistic formula above is appropriate for large samples, defined as expected frequencies of at least 5 in each of the response categories.

When we conduct a χ 2 test, we compare the observed frequencies in each response category to the frequencies we would expect if the null hypothesis were true. These expected frequencies are determined by allocating the sample to the response categories according to the distribution specified in H 0 . This is done by multiplying the observed sample size (n) by the proportions specified in the null hypothesis (p 10 , p 20 , ..., p k0 ). To ensure that the sample size is appropriate for the use of the test statistic above, we need to ensure that the following: min(np 10 , n p 20 , ..., n p k0 ) > 5.

The test of hypothesis with a discrete outcome measured in a single sample, where the goal is to assess whether the distribution of responses follows a known distribution, is called the χ 2 goodness-of-fit test. As the name indicates, the idea is to assess whether the pattern or distribution of responses in the sample "fits" a specified population (external or historical) distribution. In the next example we illustrate the test. As we work through the example, we provide additional details related to the use of this new test statistic.

A University conducted a survey of its recent graduates to collect demographic and health information for future planning purposes as well as to assess students' satisfaction with their undergraduate experiences. The survey revealed that a substantial proportion of students were not engaging in regular exercise, many felt their nutrition was poor and a substantial number were smoking. In response to a question on regular exercise, 60% of all graduates reported getting no regular exercise, 25% reported exercising sporadically and 15% reported exercising regularly as undergraduates. The next year the University launched a health promotion campaign on campus in an attempt to increase health behaviors among undergraduates. The program included modules on exercise, nutrition and smoking cessation. To evaluate the impact of the program, the University again surveyed graduates and asked the same questions. The survey was completed by 470 graduates and the following data were collected on the exercise question:

Based on the data, is there evidence of a shift in the distribution of responses to the exercise question following the implementation of the health promotion campaign on campus? Run the test at a 5% level of significance.

In this example, we have one sample and a discrete (ordinal) outcome variable (with three response options). We specifically want to compare the distribution of responses in the sample to the distribution reported the previous year (i.e., 60%, 25%, 15% reporting no, sporadic and regular exercise, respectively). We now run the test using the five-step approach.

• Step 1. Set up hypotheses and determine level of significance.

The null hypothesis again represents the "no change" or "no difference" situation. If the health promotion campaign has no impact then we expect the distribution of responses to the exercise question to be the same as that measured prior to the implementation of the program.

H 0 : p 1 =0.60, p 2 =0.25, p 3 =0.15,  or equivalently H 0 : Distribution of responses is 0.60, 0.25, 0.15

H 1 :   H 0 is false.          α =0.05

Notice that the research hypothesis is written in words rather than in symbols. The research hypothesis as stated captures any difference in the distribution of responses from that specified in the null hypothesis. We do not specify a specific alternative distribution, instead we are testing whether the sample data "fit" the distribution in H 0 or not. With the χ 2 goodness-of-fit test there is no upper or lower tailed version of the test.

• Step 2. Select the appropriate test statistic.

The test statistic is:

We must first assess whether the sample size is adequate. Specifically, we need to check min(np 0 , np 1, ..., n p k ) > 5. The sample size here is n=470 and the proportions specified in the null hypothesis are 0.60, 0.25 and 0.15. Thus, min( 470(0.65), 470(0.25), 470(0.15))=min(282, 117.5, 70.5)=70.5. The sample size is more than adequate so the formula can be used.

• Step 3. Set up decision rule.

The decision rule for the χ 2 test depends on the level of significance and the degrees of freedom, defined as degrees of freedom (df) = k-1 (where k is the number of response categories). If the null hypothesis is true, the observed and expected frequencies will be close in value and the χ 2 statistic will be close to zero. If the null hypothesis is false, then the χ 2 statistic will be large. Critical values can be found in a table of probabilities for the χ 2 distribution. Here we have df=k-1=3-1=2 and a 5% level of significance. The appropriate critical value is 5.99, and the decision rule is as follows: Reject H 0 if χ 2 > 5.99.

• Step 4. Compute the test statistic.

We now compute the expected frequencies using the sample size and the proportions specified in the null hypothesis. We then substitute the sample data (observed frequencies) and the expected frequencies into the formula for the test statistic identified in Step 2. The computations can be organized as follows.

Notice that the expected frequencies are taken to one decimal place and that the sum of the observed frequencies is equal to the sum of the expected frequencies. The test statistic is computed as follows:

• Step 5. Conclusion.

We reject H 0 because 8.46 > 5.99. We have statistically significant evidence at α=0.05 to show that H 0 is false, or that the distribution of responses is not 0.60, 0.25, 0.15.  The p-value is p < 0.005.

In the χ 2 goodness-of-fit test, we conclude that either the distribution specified in H 0 is false (when we reject H 0 ) or that we do not have sufficient evidence to show that the distribution specified in H 0 is false (when we fail to reject H 0 ). Here, we reject H 0 and concluded that the distribution of responses to the exercise question following the implementation of the health promotion campaign was not the same as the distribution prior. The test itself does not provide details of how the distribution has shifted. A comparison of the observed and expected frequencies will provide some insight into the shift (when the null hypothesis is rejected). Does it appear that the health promotion campaign was effective?

Consider the following:

If the null hypothesis were true (i.e., no change from the prior year) we would have expected more students to fall in the "No Regular Exercise" category and fewer in the "Regular Exercise" categories. In the sample, 255/470 = 54% reported no regular exercise and 90/470=19% reported regular exercise. Thus, there is a shift toward more regular exercise following the implementation of the health promotion campaign. There is evidence of a statistical difference, is this a meaningful difference? Is there room for improvement?

The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) provided data on the distribution of weight (in categories) among Americans in 2002. The distribution was based on specific values of body mass index (BMI) computed as weight in kilograms over height in meters squared. Underweight was defined as BMI< 18.5, Normal weight as BMI between 18.5 and 24.9, overweight as BMI between 25 and 29.9 and obese as BMI of 30 or greater. Americans in 2002 were distributed as follows: 2% Underweight, 39% Normal Weight, 36% Overweight, and 23% Obese. Suppose we want to assess whether the distribution of BMI is different in the Framingham Offspring sample. Using data from the n=3,326 participants who attended the seventh examination of the Offspring in the Framingham Heart Study we created the BMI categories as defined and observed the following:

• Step 1.  Set up hypotheses and determine level of significance.

H 0 : p 1 =0.02, p 2 =0.39, p 3 =0.36, p 4 =0.23     or equivalently

H 0 : Distribution of responses is 0.02, 0.39, 0.36, 0.23

H 1 :   H 0 is false.        α=0.05

The formula for the test statistic is:

We must assess whether the sample size is adequate. Specifically, we need to check min(np 0 , np 1, ..., n p k ) > 5. The sample size here is n=3,326 and the proportions specified in the null hypothesis are 0.02, 0.39, 0.36 and 0.23. Thus, min( 3326(0.02), 3326(0.39), 3326(0.36), 3326(0.23))=min(66.5, 1297.1, 1197.4, 765.0)=66.5. The sample size is more than adequate, so the formula can be used.

Here we have df=k-1=4-1=3 and a 5% level of significance. The appropriate critical value is 7.81 and the decision rule is as follows: Reject H 0 if χ 2 > 7.81.

We now compute the expected frequencies using the sample size and the proportions specified in the null hypothesis. We then substitute the sample data (observed frequencies) into the formula for the test statistic identified in Step 2. We organize the computations in the following table.

The test statistic is computed as follows:

We reject H 0 because 233.53 > 7.81. We have statistically significant evidence at α=0.05 to show that H 0 is false or that the distribution of BMI in Framingham is different from the national data reported in 2002, p < 0.005.

Again, the χ 2   goodness-of-fit test allows us to assess whether the distribution of responses "fits" a specified distribution. Here we show that the distribution of BMI in the Framingham Offspring Study is different from the national distribution. To understand the nature of the difference we can compare observed and expected frequencies or observed and expected proportions (or percentages). The frequencies are large because of the large sample size, the observed percentages of patients in the Framingham sample are as follows: 0.6% underweight, 28% normal weight, 41% overweight and 30% obese. In the Framingham Offspring sample there are higher percentages of overweight and obese persons (41% and 30% in Framingham as compared to 36% and 23% in the national data), and lower proportions of underweight and normal weight persons (0.6% and 28% in Framingham as compared to 2% and 39% in the national data). Are these meaningful differences?

In the module on hypothesis testing for means and proportions, we discussed hypothesis testing applications with a dichotomous outcome variable in a single population. We presented a test using a test statistic Z to test whether an observed (sample) proportion differed significantly from a historical or external comparator. The chi-square goodness-of-fit test can also be used with a dichotomous outcome and the results are mathematically equivalent.

In the prior module, we considered the following example. Here we show the equivalence to the chi-square goodness-of-fit test.

The NCHS report indicated that in 2002, 75% of children aged 2 to 17 saw a dentist in the past year. An investigator wants to assess whether use of dental services is similar in children living in the city of Boston. A sample of 125 children aged 2 to 17 living in Boston are surveyed and 64 reported seeing a dentist over the past 12 months. Is there a significant difference in use of dental services between children living in Boston and the national data?

We presented the following approach to the test using a Z statistic.

• Step 1. Set up hypotheses and determine level of significance

H 0 : p = 0.75

H 1 : p ≠ 0.75                               α=0.05

We must first check that the sample size is adequate. Specifically, we need to check min(np 0 , n(1-p 0 )) = min( 125(0.75), 125(1-0.75))=min(94, 31)=31. The sample size is more than adequate so the following formula can be used

This is a two-tailed test, using a Z statistic and a 5% level of significance. Reject H 0 if Z < -1.960 or if Z > 1.960.

We now substitute the sample data into the formula for the test statistic identified in Step 2. The sample proportion is: We reject H 0 because -6.15 < -1.960. We have statistically significant evidence at a =0.05 to show that there is a statistically significant difference in the use of dental service by children living in Boston as compared to the national data. (p < 0.0001).

We now conduct the same test using the chi-square goodness-of-fit test. First, we summarize our sample data as follows:

H 0 : p 1 =0.75, p 2 =0.25     or equivalently H 0 : Distribution of responses is 0.75, 0.25

We must assess whether the sample size is adequate. Specifically, we need to check min(np 0 , np 1, ...,np k >) > 5. The sample size here is n=125 and the proportions specified in the null hypothesis are 0.75, 0.25. Thus, min( 125(0.75), 125(0.25))=min(93.75, 31.25)=31.25. The sample size is more than adequate so the formula can be used.

Here we have df=k-1=2-1=1 and a 5% level of significance. The appropriate critical value is 3.84, and the decision rule is as follows: Reject H 0 if χ 2 > 3.84. (Note that 1.96 2 = 3.84, where 1.96 was the critical value used in the Z test for proportions shown above.)

(Note that (-6.15) 2 = 37.8, where -6.15 was the value of the Z statistic in the test for proportions shown above.)

We reject H 0 because 37.8 > 3.84. We have statistically significant evidence at α=0.05 to show that there is a statistically significant difference in the use of dental service by children living in Boston as compared to the national data.  (p < 0.0001). This is the same conclusion we reached when we conducted the test using the Z test above. With a dichotomous outcome, Z 2 = χ 2 !   In statistics, there are often several approaches that can be used to test hypotheses.

## Tests for Two or More Independent Samples, Discrete Outcome

Here we extend that application of the chi-square test to the case with two or more independent comparison groups. Specifically, the outcome of interest is discrete with two or more responses and the responses can be ordered or unordered (i.e., the outcome can be dichotomous, ordinal or categorical). We now consider the situation where there are two or more independent comparison groups and the goal of the analysis is to compare the distribution of responses to the discrete outcome variable among several independent comparison groups.

The test is called the χ 2 test of independence and the null hypothesis is that there is no difference in the distribution of responses to the outcome across comparison groups. This is often stated as follows: The outcome variable and the grouping variable (e.g., the comparison treatments or comparison groups) are independent (hence the name of the test). Independence here implies homogeneity in the distribution of the outcome among comparison groups.

The null hypothesis in the χ 2 test of independence is often stated in words as: H 0 : The distribution of the outcome is independent of the groups. The alternative or research hypothesis is that there is a difference in the distribution of responses to the outcome variable among the comparison groups (i.e., that the distribution of responses "depends" on the group). In order to test the hypothesis, we measure the discrete outcome variable in each participant in each comparison group. The data of interest are the observed frequencies (or number of participants in each response category in each group). The formula for the test statistic for the χ 2 test of independence is given below.

Test Statistic for Testing H 0 : Distribution of outcome is independent of groups

and we find the critical value in a table of probabilities for the chi-square distribution with df=(r-1)*(c-1).

Here O = observed frequency, E=expected frequency in each of the response categories in each group, r = the number of rows in the two-way table and c = the number of columns in the two-way table.   r and c correspond to the number of comparison groups and the number of response options in the outcome (see below for more details). The observed frequencies are the sample data and the expected frequencies are computed as described below. The test statistic is appropriate for large samples, defined as expected frequencies of at least 5 in each of the response categories in each group.

The data for the χ 2 test of independence are organized in a two-way table. The outcome and grouping variable are shown in the rows and columns of the table. The sample table below illustrates the data layout. The table entries (blank below) are the numbers of participants in each group responding to each response category of the outcome variable.

Table - Possible outcomes are are listed in the columns; The groups being compared are listed in rows.

In the table above, the grouping variable is shown in the rows of the table; r denotes the number of independent groups. The outcome variable is shown in the columns of the table; c denotes the number of response options in the outcome variable. Each combination of a row (group) and column (response) is called a cell of the table. The table has r*c cells and is sometimes called an r x c ("r by c") table. For example, if there are 4 groups and 5 categories in the outcome variable, the data are organized in a 4 X 5 table. The row and column totals are shown along the right-hand margin and the bottom of the table, respectively. The total sample size, N, can be computed by summing the row totals or the column totals. Similar to ANOVA, N does not refer to a population size here but rather to the total sample size in the analysis. The sample data can be organized into a table like the above. The numbers of participants within each group who select each response option are shown in the cells of the table and these are the observed frequencies used in the test statistic.

The test statistic for the χ 2 test of independence involves comparing observed (sample data) and expected frequencies in each cell of the table. The expected frequencies are computed assuming that the null hypothesis is true. The null hypothesis states that the two variables (the grouping variable and the outcome) are independent. The definition of independence is as follows:

Two events, A and B, are independent if P(A|B) = P(A), or equivalently, if P(A and B) = P(A) P(B).

The second statement indicates that if two events, A and B, are independent then the probability of their intersection can be computed by multiplying the probability of each individual event. To conduct the χ 2 test of independence, we need to compute expected frequencies in each cell of the table. Expected frequencies are computed by assuming that the grouping variable and outcome are independent (i.e., under the null hypothesis). Thus, if the null hypothesis is true, using the definition of independence:

P(Group 1 and Response Option 1) = P(Group 1) P(Response Option 1).

The above states that the probability that an individual is in Group 1 and their outcome is Response Option 1 is computed by multiplying the probability that person is in Group 1 by the probability that a person is in Response Option 1. To conduct the χ 2 test of independence, we need expected frequencies and not expected probabilities . To convert the above probability to a frequency, we multiply by N. Consider the following small example.

The data shown above are measured in a sample of size N=150. The frequencies in the cells of the table are the observed frequencies. If Group and Response are independent, then we can compute the probability that a person in the sample is in Group 1 and Response category 1 using:

P(Group 1 and Response 1) = P(Group 1) P(Response 1),

P(Group 1 and Response 1) = (25/150) (62/150) = 0.069.

Thus if Group and Response are independent we would expect 6.9% of the sample to be in the top left cell of the table (Group 1 and Response 1). The expected frequency is 150(0.069) = 10.4.   We could do the same for Group 2 and Response 1:

P(Group 2 and Response 1) = P(Group 2) P(Response 1),

P(Group 2 and Response 1) = (50/150) (62/150) = 0.138.

The expected frequency in Group 2 and Response 1 is 150(0.138) = 20.7.

Thus, the formula for determining the expected cell frequencies in the χ 2 test of independence is as follows:

Expected Cell Frequency = (Row Total * Column Total)/N.

The above computes the expected frequency in one step rather than computing the expected probability first and then converting to a frequency.

In a prior example we evaluated data from a survey of university graduates which assessed, among other things, how frequently they exercised. The survey was completed by 470 graduates. In the prior example we used the χ 2 goodness-of-fit test to assess whether there was a shift in the distribution of responses to the exercise question following the implementation of a health promotion campaign on campus. We specifically considered one sample (all students) and compared the observed distribution to the distribution of responses the prior year (a historical control). Suppose we now wish to assess whether there is a relationship between exercise on campus and students' living arrangements. As part of the same survey, graduates were asked where they lived their senior year. The response options were dormitory, on-campus apartment, off-campus apartment, and at home (i.e., commuted to and from the university). The data are shown below.

Based on the data, is there a relationship between exercise and student's living arrangement? Do you think where a person lives affect their exercise status? Here we have four independent comparison groups (living arrangement) and a discrete (ordinal) outcome variable with three response options. We specifically want to test whether living arrangement and exercise are independent. We will run the test using the five-step approach.

H 0 : Living arrangement and exercise are independent

H 1 : H 0 is false.                α=0.05

The null and research hypotheses are written in words rather than in symbols. The research hypothesis is that the grouping variable (living arrangement) and the outcome variable (exercise) are dependent or related.

• Step 2.  Select the appropriate test statistic.

The condition for appropriate use of the above test statistic is that each expected frequency is at least 5. In Step 4 we will compute the expected frequencies and we will ensure that the condition is met.

The decision rule depends on the level of significance and the degrees of freedom, defined as df = (r-1)(c-1), where r and c are the numbers of rows and columns in the two-way data table.   The row variable is the living arrangement and there are 4 arrangements considered, thus r=4. The column variable is exercise and 3 responses are considered, thus c=3. For this test, df=(4-1)(3-1)=3(2)=6. Again, with χ 2 tests there are no upper, lower or two-tailed tests. If the null hypothesis is true, the observed and expected frequencies will be close in value and the χ 2 statistic will be close to zero. If the null hypothesis is false, then the χ 2 statistic will be large. The rejection region for the χ 2 test of independence is always in the upper (right-hand) tail of the distribution. For df=6 and a 5% level of significance, the appropriate critical value is 12.59 and the decision rule is as follows: Reject H 0 if c 2 > 12.59.

We now compute the expected frequencies using the formula,

Expected Frequency = (Row Total * Column Total)/N.

The computations can be organized in a two-way table. The top number in each cell of the table is the observed frequency and the bottom number is the expected frequency.   The expected frequencies are shown in parentheses.

Notice that the expected frequencies are taken to one decimal place and that the sums of the observed frequencies are equal to the sums of the expected frequencies in each row and column of the table.

Recall in Step 2 a condition for the appropriate use of the test statistic was that each expected frequency is at least 5. This is true for this sample (the smallest expected frequency is 9.6) and therefore it is appropriate to use the test statistic.

We reject H 0 because 60.5 > 12.59. We have statistically significant evidence at a =0.05 to show that H 0 is false or that living arrangement and exercise are not independent (i.e., they are dependent or related), p < 0.005.

Again, the χ 2 test of independence is used to test whether the distribution of the outcome variable is similar across the comparison groups. Here we rejected H 0 and concluded that the distribution of exercise is not independent of living arrangement, or that there is a relationship between living arrangement and exercise. The test provides an overall assessment of statistical significance. When the null hypothesis is rejected, it is important to review the sample data to understand the nature of the relationship. Consider again the sample data.

Because there are different numbers of students in each living situation, it makes the comparisons of exercise patterns difficult on the basis of the frequencies alone. The following table displays the percentages of students in each exercise category by living arrangement. The percentages sum to 100% in each row of the table. For comparison purposes, percentages are also shown for the total sample along the bottom row of the table.

From the above, it is clear that higher percentages of students living in dormitories and in on-campus apartments reported regular exercise (31% and 23%) as compared to students living in off-campus apartments and at home (10% each).

Test Yourself

Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is a procedure that is associated with considerable morbidity. A study was recently conducted on 553 patients who had a successful PD between January 2000 and December 2010 to determine whether their Surgical Apgar Score (SAS) is related to 30-day perioperative morbidity and mortality. The table below gives the number of patients experiencing no, minor, or major morbidity by SAS category.

Question: What would be an appropriate statistical test to examine whether there is an association between Surgical Apgar Score and patient outcome? Using 14.13 as the value of the test statistic for these data, carry out the appropriate test at a 5% level of significance. Show all parts of your test.

In the module on hypothesis testing for means and proportions, we discussed hypothesis testing applications with a dichotomous outcome variable and two independent comparison groups. We presented a test using a test statistic Z to test for equality of independent proportions. The chi-square test of independence can also be used with a dichotomous outcome and the results are mathematically equivalent.

In the prior module, we considered the following example. Here we show the equivalence to the chi-square test of independence.

A randomized trial is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly developed pain reliever designed to reduce pain in patients following joint replacement surgery. The trial compares the new pain reliever to the pain reliever currently in use (called the standard of care). A total of 100 patients undergoing joint replacement surgery agreed to participate in the trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either the new pain reliever or the standard pain reliever following surgery and were blind to the treatment assignment. Before receiving the assigned treatment, patients were asked to rate their pain on a scale of 0-10 with higher scores indicative of more pain. Each patient was then given the assigned treatment and after 30 minutes was again asked to rate their pain on the same scale. The primary outcome was a reduction in pain of 3 or more scale points (defined by clinicians as a clinically meaningful reduction). The following data were observed in the trial.

We tested whether there was a significant difference in the proportions of patients reporting a meaningful reduction (i.e., a reduction of 3 or more scale points) using a Z statistic, as follows.

H 0 : p 1 = p 2

H 1 : p 1 ≠ p 2                             α=0.05

Here the new or experimental pain reliever is group 1 and the standard pain reliever is group 2.

We must first check that the sample size is adequate. Specifically, we need to ensure that we have at least 5 successes and 5 failures in each comparison group or that:

In this example, we have

Therefore, the sample size is adequate, so the following formula can be used:

Reject H 0 if Z < -1.960 or if Z > 1.960.

We now substitute the sample data into the formula for the test statistic identified in Step 2. We first compute the overall proportion of successes:

We now substitute to compute the test statistic.

• Step 5.  Conclusion.

We now conduct the same test using the chi-square test of independence.

H 0 : Treatment and outcome (meaningful reduction in pain) are independent

H 1 :   H 0 is false.         α=0.05

The formula for the test statistic is:

For this test, df=(2-1)(2-1)=1. At a 5% level of significance, the appropriate critical value is 3.84 and the decision rule is as follows: Reject H0 if χ 2 > 3.84. (Note that 1.96 2 = 3.84, where 1.96 was the critical value used in the Z test for proportions shown above.)

We now compute the expected frequencies using:

The computations can be organized in a two-way table. The top number in each cell of the table is the observed frequency and the bottom number is the expected frequency. The expected frequencies are shown in parentheses.

A condition for the appropriate use of the test statistic was that each expected frequency is at least 5. This is true for this sample (the smallest expected frequency is 22.0) and therefore it is appropriate to use the test statistic.

(Note that (2.53) 2 = 6.4, where 2.53 was the value of the Z statistic in the test for proportions shown above.)

## Chi-Squared Tests in R

The video below by Mike Marin demonstrates how to perform chi-squared tests in the R programming language.

## Answer to Problem on Pancreaticoduodenectomy and Surgical Apgar Scores

We have 3 independent comparison groups (Surgical Apgar Score) and a categorical outcome variable (morbidity/mortality). We can run a Chi-Squared test of independence.

H 0 : Apgar scores and patient outcome are independent of one another.

H A : Apgar scores and patient outcome are not independent.

Chi-squared = 14.3

Since 14.3 is greater than 9.49, we reject H 0.

There is an association between Apgar scores and patient outcome. The lowest Apgar score group (0 to 4) experienced the highest percentage of major morbidity or mortality (16 out of 57=28%) compared to the other Apgar score groups.

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Lesson 9 of 24 By Avijeet Biswal The world is constantly curious about the Chi-Square test's application in machine learning and how it makes a difference. Feature selection is a critical topic in machine learning , as you will have multiple features in line and must choose the best ones to build the model. By examining the relationship between the elements, the chi-square test aids in the solution of feature selection problems. In this tutorial, you will learn about the chi-square test and its application.

## What Is a Chi-Square Test?

The Chi-Square test is a statistical procedure for determining the difference between observed and expected data. This test can also be used to determine whether it correlates to the categorical variables in our data. It helps to find out whether a difference between two categorical variables is due to chance or a relationship between them.

## Chi-Square Test Definition

A chi-square test is a statistical test that is used to compare observed and expected results. The goal of this test is to identify whether a disparity between actual and predicted data is due to chance or to a link between the variables under consideration. As a result, the chi-square test is an ideal choice for aiding in our understanding and interpretation of the connection between our two categorical variables.

A chi-square test or comparable nonparametric test is required to test a hypothesis regarding the distribution of a categorical variable. Categorical variables, which indicate categories such as animals or countries, can be nominal or ordinal. They cannot have a normal distribution since they can only have a few particular values.

For example, a meal delivery firm in India wants to investigate the link between gender, geography, and people's food preferences.

It is used to calculate the difference between two categorical variables, which are:

• As a result of chance or
• Because of the relationship

## Become a Data Scientist With Real-World Experience ## Formula For Chi-Square Test c = Degrees of freedom

O = Observed Value

E = Expected Value

The degrees of freedom in a statistical calculation represent the number of variables that can vary in a calculation. The degrees of freedom can be calculated to ensure that chi-square tests are statistically valid. These tests are frequently used to compare observed data with data that would be expected to be obtained if a particular hypothesis were true.

The Observed values are those you gather yourselves.

The expected values are the frequencies expected, based on the null hypothesis.

## Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is a technique for interpreting and drawing inferences about a population based on sample data. It aids in determining which sample data best support mutually exclusive population claims.

Null Hypothesis (H0) - The Null Hypothesis is the assumption that the event will not occur. A null hypothesis has no bearing on the study's outcome unless it is rejected.

H0 is the symbol for it, and it is pronounced H-naught.

Alternate Hypothesis(H1 or Ha) - The Alternate Hypothesis is the logical opposite of the null hypothesis. The acceptance of the alternative hypothesis follows the rejection of the null hypothesis. H1 is the symbol for it.

## Become a Data Science Expert & Get Your Dream Job ## What Are Categorical Variables?

Categorical variables belong to a subset of variables that can be divided into discrete categories. Names or labels are the most common categories. These variables are also known as qualitative variables because they depict the variable's quality or characteristics.

Categorical variables can be divided into two categories:

• Nominal Variable: A nominal variable's categories have no natural ordering. Example: Gender, Blood groups
• Ordinal Variable: A variable that allows the categories to be sorted is ordinal variables. Customer satisfaction (Excellent, Very Good, Good, Average, Bad, and so on) is an example.

## Why Do You Use the Chi-Square Test?

Chi-square is a statistical test that examines the differences between categorical variables from a random sample in order to determine whether the expected and observed results are well-fitting.

Here are some of the uses of the Chi-Squared test:

• The Chi-squared test can be used to see if your data follows a well-known theoretical probability distribution like the Normal or Poisson distribution.
• The Chi-squared test allows you to assess your trained regression model's goodness of fit on the training, validation, and test data sets.

## What Does A Chi-Square Statistic Test Tell You?

A Chi-Square test ( symbolically represented as  2 ) is fundamentally a data analysis based on the observations of a random set of variables. It computes how a model equates to actual observed data. A Chi-Square statistic test is calculated based on the data, which must be raw, random, drawn from independent variables, drawn from a wide-ranging sample and mutually exclusive. In simple terms, two sets of statistical data are compared -for instance, the results of tossing a fair coin. Karl Pearson introduced this test in 1900 for categorical data analysis and distribution. This test is also known as ‘Pearson’s Chi-Squared Test’.

Chi-Squared Tests are most commonly used in hypothesis testing. A hypothesis is an assumption that any given condition might be true, which can be tested afterwards. The Chi-Square test estimates the size of inconsistency between the expected results and the actual results when the size of the sample and the number of variables in the relationship is mentioned.

These tests use degrees of freedom to determine if a particular null hypothesis can be rejected based on the total number of observations made in the experiments. Larger the sample size, more reliable is the result.

There are two main types of Chi-Square tests namely -

## Independence

• Goodness-of-Fit

The Chi-Square Test of Independence is a derivable ( also known as inferential ) statistical test which examines whether the two sets of variables are likely to be related with each other or not. This test is used when we have counts of values for two nominal or categorical variables and is considered as non-parametric test. A relatively large sample size and independence of obseravations are the required criteria for conducting this test.

For Example-

In a movie theatre, suppose we made a list of movie genres. Let us consider this as the first variable. The second variable is whether or not the people who came to watch those genres of movies have bought snacks at the theatre. Here the null hypothesis is that th genre of the film and whether people bought snacks or not are unrelatable. If this is true, the movie genres don’t impact snack sales.

## Learn How to Conquer Data Science in 2023 ## Goodness-Of-Fit

In statistical hypothesis testing, the Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit test determines whether a variable is likely to come from a given distribution or not. We must have a set of data values and the idea of the distribution of this data. We can use this test when we have value counts for categorical variables. This test demonstrates a way of deciding if the data values have a “ good enough” fit for our idea or if it is a representative sample data of the entire population.

Suppose we have bags of balls with five different colours in each bag. The given condition is that the bag should contain an equal number of balls of each colour. The idea we would like to test here is that the proportions of the five colours of balls in each bag must be exact.

## Who Uses Chi-Square Analysis?

Chi-square is most commonly used by researchers who are studying survey response data because it applies to categorical variables. Demography, consumer and marketing research, political science, and economics are all examples of this type of research.

Let's say you want to know if gender has anything to do with political party preference. You poll 440 voters in a simple random sample to find out which political party they prefer. The results of the survey are shown in the table below: To see if gender is linked to political party preference, perform a Chi-Square test of independence using the steps below.

## Step 1: Define the Hypothesis

H0: There is no link between gender and political party preference.

H1: There is a link between gender and political party preference.

## Step 2: Calculate the Expected Values

Now you will calculate the expected frequency. For example, the expected value for Male Republicans is: Similarly, you can calculate the expected value for each of the cells. ## Step 3: Calculate (O-E)2 / E for Each Cell in the Table

Now you will calculate the (O - E)2 / E for each cell in the table. ## Step 4: Calculate the Test Statistic X2

X2  is the sum of all the values in the last table

=  0.743 + 2.05 + 2.33 + 3.33 + 0.384 + 1

Before you can conclude, you must first determine the critical statistic, which requires determining our degrees of freedom. The degrees of freedom in this case are equal to the table's number of columns minus one multiplied by the table's number of rows minus one, or (r-1) (c-1). We have (3-1)(2-1) = 2.

Finally, you compare our obtained statistic to the critical statistic found in the chi-square table. As you can see, for an alpha level of 0.05 and two degrees of freedom, the critical statistic is 5.991, which is less than our obtained statistic of 9.83. You can reject our null hypothesis because the critical statistic is higher than your obtained statistic.

This means you have sufficient evidence to say that there is an association between gender and political party preference. ## When to Use a Chi-Square Test?

A Chi-Square Test is used to examine whether the observed results are in order with the expected values. When the data to be analysed is from a random sample, and when the variable is the question is a categorical variable, then Chi-Square proves the most appropriate test for the same. A categorical variable consists of selections such as breeds of dogs, types of cars, genres of movies, educational attainment, male v/s female etc. Survey responses and questionnaires are the primary sources of these types of data. The Chi-square test is most commonly used for analysing this kind of data. This type of analysis is helpful for researchers who are studying survey response data. The research can range from customer and marketing research to political sciences and economics.

## Your Data Science Career Starts Today! ## Chi-Square Distribution

Chi-square distributions (X2) are a type of continuous probability distribution. They're commonly utilized in hypothesis testing, such as the chi-square goodness of fit and independence tests. The parameter k, which represents the degrees of freedom, determines the shape of a chi-square distribution.

A chi-square distribution is followed by very few real-world observations. The objective of chi-square distributions is to test hypotheses, not to describe real-world distributions. In contrast, most other commonly used distributions, such as normal and Poisson distributions, may explain important things like baby birth weights or illness cases per year.

Because of its close resemblance to the conventional normal distribution, chi-square distributions are excellent for hypothesis testing. Many essential statistical tests rely on the conventional normal distribution.

In statistical analysis , the Chi-Square distribution is used in many hypothesis tests and is determined by the parameter k degree of freedoms. It belongs to the family of continuous probability distributions . The Sum of the squares of the k independent standard random variables is called the Chi-Squared distribution. Pearson’s Chi-Square Test formula is - Where X^2 is the Chi-Square test symbol

Σ is the summation of observations

O is the observed results

E is the expected results

The shape of the distribution graph changes with the increase in the value of k, i.e. degree of freedoms.

When k is 1 or 2, the Chi-square distribution curve is shaped like a backwards ‘J’. It means there is a high chance that X^2 becomes close to zero.

Courtesy: Scribbr

When k is greater than 2, the shape of the distribution curve looks like a hump and has a low probability that X^2 is very near to 0 or very far from 0. The distribution occurs much longer on the right-hand side and shorter on the left-hand side. The probable value of X^2 is (X^2 - 2).

When k is greater than ninety, a normal distribution is seen, approximating the Chi-square distribution.

## Chi-Square P-Values

Here P denotes the probability; hence for the calculation of p-values, the Chi-Square test comes into the picture. The different p-values indicate different types of hypothesis interpretations.

• P <= 0.05 (Hypothesis interpretations are rejected)
• P>= 0.05 (Hypothesis interpretations are accepted)

The concepts of probability and statistics are entangled with Chi-Square Test. Probability is the estimation of something that is most likely to happen. Simply put, it is the possibility of an event or outcome of the sample. Probability can understandably represent bulky or complicated data. And statistics involves collecting and organising, analysing, interpreting and presenting the data.

## Finding P-Value

When you run all of the Chi-square tests, you'll get a test statistic called X2. You have two options for determining whether this test statistic is statistically significant at some alpha level:

• Compare the test statistic X2 to a critical value from the Chi-square distribution table.
• Compare the p-value of the test statistic X2 to a chosen alpha level.

Test statistics are calculated by taking into account the sampling distribution of the test statistic under the null hypothesis, the sample data, and the approach which is chosen for performing the test.

The p-value will be as mentioned in the following cases.

• A lower-tailed test is specified by: P(TS ts | H0 is true) p-value = cdf (ts)
• Lower-tailed tests have the following definition: P(TS ts | H0 is true) p-value = cdf (ts)
• A two-sided test is defined as follows, if we assume that the test static distribution  of H0 is symmetric about 0. 2 * P(TS |ts| | H0 is true) = 2 * (1 - cdf(|ts|))

P: probability Event

TS: Test statistic is computed observed value of the test statistic from your sample cdf(): Cumulative distribution function of the test statistic's distribution (TS)

## Types of Chi-square Tests

Pearson's chi-square tests are classified into two types:

• Chi-square goodness-of-fit analysis
• Chi-square independence test

These are, mathematically, the same exam. However, because they are utilized for distinct goals, we generally conceive of them as separate tests.

The chi-square test has the following significant properties:

• If you multiply the number of degrees of freedom by two, you will receive an answer that is equal to the variance.
• The chi-square distribution curve approaches the data is normally distributed as the degree of freedom increases.
• The mean distribution is equal to the number of degrees of freedom.

## Properties of Chi-Square Test

• Variance is double the times the number of degrees of freedom.
• Mean distribution is equal to the number of degrees of freedom.
• When the degree of freedom increases, the Chi-Square distribution curve becomes normal.

## Limitations of Chi-Square Test

There are two limitations to using the chi-square test that you should be aware of.

• The chi-square test, for starters, is extremely sensitive to sample size. Even insignificant relationships can appear statistically significant when a large enough sample is used. Keep in mind that "statistically significant" does not always imply "meaningful" when using the chi-square test.
• Be mindful that the chi-square can only determine whether two variables are related. It does not necessarily follow that one variable has a causal relationship with the other. It would require a more detailed analysis to establish causality.

## Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test

When there is only one categorical variable, the chi-square goodness of fit test can be used. The frequency distribution of the categorical variable is evaluated for determining whether it differs significantly from what you expected. The idea is that the categories will have equal proportions, however, this is not always the case.

When you want to see if there is a link between two categorical variables, you perform the chi-square test. To acquire the test statistic and its related p-value in SPSS, use the chisq option on the statistics subcommand of the crosstabs command. Remember that the chi-square test implies that each cell's anticipated value is five or greater.

In this tutorial titled ‘The Complete Guide to Chi-square test’, you explored the concept of Chi-square distribution and how to find the related values. You also take a look at how the critical value and chi-square value is related to each other.

If you want to gain more insight and get a work-ready understanding in statistical concepts and learn how to use them to get into a career in Data Analytics , our Post Graduate Program in Data Analytics in partnership with Purdue University should be your next stop. A comprehensive program with training from top practitioners and in collaboration with IBM, this will be all that you need to kickstart your career in the field.

Was this tutorial on the Chi-square test useful to you? Do you have any doubts or questions for us? Mention them in this article's comments section, and we'll have our experts answer them for you at the earliest!

## 1) What is the chi-square test used for?

The chi-square test is a statistical method used to determine if there is a significant association between two categorical variables. It helps researchers understand whether the observed distribution of data differs from the expected distribution, allowing them to assess whether any relationship exists between the variables being studied. ## 2) What is the chi-square test and its types?

The chi-square test is a statistical test used to analyze categorical data and assess the independence or association between variables. There are two main types of chi-square tests: a) Chi-square test of independence: This test determines whether there is a significant association between two categorical variables. b) Chi-square goodness-of-fit test: This test compares the observed data to the expected data to assess how well the observed data fit the expected distribution.

## 3) What is the chi-square test easily explained?

The chi-square test is a statistical tool used to check if two categorical variables are related or independent. It helps us understand if the observed data differs significantly from the expected data. By comparing the two datasets, we can draw conclusions about whether the variables have a meaningful association.

## 4) What is the difference between t-test and chi-square?

The t-test and the chi-square test are two different statistical tests used for different types of data. The t-test is used to compare the means of two groups and is suitable for continuous numerical data. On the other hand, the chi-square test is used to examine the association between two categorical variables. It is applicable to discrete, categorical data. So, the choice between the t-test and chi-square test depends on the nature of the data being analyzed.

## 5) What are the characteristics of chi-square?

The chi-square test has several key characteristics:

1) It is non-parametric, meaning it does not assume a specific probability distribution for the data.

2) It is sensitive to sample size; larger samples can result in more significant outcomes.

3) It works with categorical data and is used for hypothesis testing and analyzing associations.

4) The test output provides a p-value, which indicates the level of significance for the observed relationship between variables.

5)It can be used with different levels of significance (e.g., 0.05 or 0.01) to determine statistical significance.

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## 8. The Chi squared tests

The χ²tests. • Χ 2 is the chi-square test statistic
• Σ is the summation operator (it means “take the sum of”)
• O is the observed frequency
• E is the expected frequency

The larger the difference between the observations and the expectations ( O − E in the equation), the bigger the chi-square will be. To decide whether the difference is big enough to be statistically significant , you compare the chi-square value to a critical value.

A Pearson’s chi-square test may be an appropriate option for your data if all of the following are true:

• You want to test a hypothesis about one or more categorical variables . If one or more of your variables is quantitative, you should use a different statistical test . Alternatively, you could convert the quantitative variable into a categorical variable by separating the observations into intervals.
• The sample was randomly selected from the population .
• There are a minimum of five observations expected in each group or combination of groups.

The two types of Pearson’s chi-square tests are:

## Chi-square goodness of fit test

Chi-square test of independence.

Mathematically, these are actually the same test. However, we often think of them as different tests because they’re used for different purposes.

You can use a chi-square goodness of fit test when you have one categorical variable. It allows you to test whether the frequency distribution of the categorical variable is significantly different from your expectations. Often, but not always, the expectation is that the categories will have equal proportions.

• Null hypothesis ( H 0 ): The bird species visit the bird feeder in equal proportions.
• Alternative hypothesis ( H A ): The bird species visit the bird feeder in different proportions.

Expectation of different proportions

• Null hypothesis ( H 0 ): The bird species visit the bird feeder in the same proportions as the average over the past five years.
• Alternative hypothesis ( H A ): The bird species visit the bird feeder in different proportions from the average over the past five years.

You can use a chi-square test of independence when you have two categorical variables. It allows you to test whether the two variables are related to each other. If two variables are independent (unrelated), the probability of belonging to a certain group of one variable isn’t affected by the other variable .

• Null hypothesis ( H 0 ): The proportion of people who are left-handed is the same for Americans and Canadians.
• Alternative hypothesis ( H A ): The proportion of people who are left-handed differs between nationalities.

## Other types of chi-square tests

Some consider the chi-square test of homogeneity to be another variety of Pearson’s chi-square test. It tests whether two populations come from the same distribution by determining whether the two populations have the same proportions as each other. You can consider it simply a different way of thinking about the chi-square test of independence.

McNemar’s test is a test that uses the chi-square test statistic. It isn’t a variety of Pearson’s chi-square test, but it’s closely related. You can conduct this test when you have a related pair of categorical variables that each have two groups. It allows you to determine whether the proportions of the variables are equal.

• Null hypothesis ( H 0 ): The proportion of people who like chocolate is the same as the proportion of people who like vanilla.
• Alternative hypothesis ( H A ): The proportion of people who like chocolate is different from the proportion of people who like vanilla.

There are several other types of chi-square tests that are not Pearson’s chi-square tests, including the test of a single variance and the likelihood ratio chi-square test .

## Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

• Vague sentences
• Style consistency

See an example The exact procedure for performing a Pearson’s chi-square test depends on which test you’re using, but it generally follows these steps:

• Create a table of the observed and expected frequencies. This can sometimes be the most difficult step because you will need to carefully consider which expected values are most appropriate for your null hypothesis.
• Calculate the chi-square value from your observed and expected frequencies using the chi-square formula.
• Find the critical chi-square value in a chi-square critical value table or using statistical software.
• Compare the chi-square value to the critical value to determine which is larger.
• Decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. You should reject the null hypothesis if the chi-square value is greater than the critical value. If you reject the null hypothesis, you can conclude that your data are significantly different from what you expected.

If you decide to include a Pearson’s chi-square test in your research paper , dissertation or thesis , you should report it in your results section . You can follow these rules if you want to report statistics in APA Style :

• You don’t need to provide a reference or formula since the chi-square test is a commonly used statistic.
• Refer to chi-square using its Greek symbol, Χ 2 . Although the symbol looks very similar to an “X” from the Latin alphabet, it’s actually a different symbol. Greek symbols should not be italicized.
• Include a space on either side of the equal sign.
• If your chi-square is less than zero, you should include a leading zero (a zero before the decimal point) since the chi-square can be greater than zero.
• Provide two significant digits after the decimal point.
• Report the chi-square alongside its degrees of freedom , sample size, and p value , following this format: Χ 2 (degrees of freedom, N = sample size) = chi-square value, p = p value).

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

• Chi square test of independence
• Statistical power
• Descriptive statistics
• Degrees of freedom
• Pearson correlation
• Null hypothesis

Methodology

• Double-blind study
• Case-control study
• Research ethics
• Data collection
• Hypothesis testing
• Structured interviews

Research bias

• Hawthorne effect
• Unconscious bias
• Recall bias
• Halo effect
• Self-serving bias
• Information bias

The two main chi-square tests are the chi-square goodness of fit test and the chi-square test of independence .

Both chi-square tests and t tests can test for differences between two groups. However, a t test is used when you have a dependent quantitative variable and an independent categorical variable (with two groups). A chi-square test of independence is used when you have two categorical variables.

Both correlations and chi-square tests can test for relationships between two variables. However, a correlation is used when you have two quantitative variables and a chi-square test of independence is used when you have two categorical variables.

Quantitative variables are any variables where the data represent amounts (e.g. height, weight, or age).

Categorical variables are any variables where the data represent groups. This includes rankings (e.g. finishing places in a race), classifications (e.g. brands of cereal), and binary outcomes (e.g. coin flips).

You need to know what type of variables you are working with to choose the right statistical test for your data and interpret your results .

## Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Turney, S. (2023, June 22). Chi-Square (Χ²) Tests | Types, Formula & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved August 30, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/chi-square-tests/ ## Shaun Turney

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## Statistics Knowledge Portal

A free online introduction to statistics

## The Chi-Square Test

What is a chi-square test.

A Chi-square test is a hypothesis testing method. Two common Chi-square tests involve checking if observed frequencies in one or more categories match expected frequencies.

## Is a Chi-square test the same as a χ² test?

Yes, χ is the Greek symbol Chi.

## What are my choices?

If you have a single measurement variable, you use a Chi-square goodness of fit test . If you have two measurement variables, you use a Chi-square test of independence . There are other Chi-square tests, but these two are the most common.

## Types of Chi-square tests

You use a Chi-square test for hypothesis tests about whether your data is as expected. The basic idea behind the test is to compare the observed values in your data to the expected values that you would see if the null hypothesis is true.

There are two commonly used Chi-square tests: the Chi-square goodness of fit test and the Chi-square test of independence . Both tests involve variables that divide your data into categories. As a result, people can be confused about which test to use. The table below compares the two tests.

Visit the individual pages for each type of Chi-square test to see examples along with details on assumptions and calculations.

## Table 1: Choosing a Chi-square test

How to perform a chi-square test.

For both the Chi-square goodness of fit test and the Chi-square test of independence , you perform the same analysis steps, listed below. Visit the pages for each type of test to see these steps in action.

• Decide on the alpha value. This involves deciding the risk you are willing to take of drawing the wrong conclusion. For example, suppose you set α=0.05 when testing for independence. Here, you have decided on a 5% risk of concluding the two variables are independent when in reality they are not.
• Check the data for errors.
• Check the assumptions for the test. (Visit the pages for each test type for more detail on assumptions.)
• Perform the test and draw your conclusion.

Both Chi-square tests in the table above involve calculating a test statistic. The basic idea behind the tests is that you compare the actual data values with what would be expected if the null hypothesis is true. The test statistic involves finding the squared difference between actual and expected data values, and dividing that difference by the expected data values. You do this for each data point and add up the values.

Then, you compare the test statistic to a theoretical value from the Chi-square distribution . The theoretical value depends on both the alpha value and the degrees of freedom for your data. Visit the pages for each test type for detailed examples.

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## AP®︎/College Statistics

Course: ap®︎/college statistics   >   unit 12, chi-square statistic for hypothesis testing.

• Chi-square goodness-of-fit example

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1. What Is the Difference Between a T-Test and a Chi-Squared Test?

A t-test is designed to test a null hypothesis by determining if two sets of data are significantly different from one another, while a chi-squared test tests the null hypothesis by finding out if there is a relationship between the two set...

2. How Do You Calculate Degrees of Freedom for Chi Square Tests?

To calculate the degrees of freedom for a chi-square test, first create a contingency table and then determine the number of rows and columns that are in the chi-square test. Take the number of rows minus one and multiply that number by the...

3. What Is the Five Step Hypothesis Testing Procedure?

The five-step hypothesis testing procedure is a method for testing a hypothesis, a proposed answer of solution for the reason an occurrence is happening. Statistics are helpful in analyzing most collections of data and have many real-world ...

4. Hypothesis Testing

These expected frequencies are determined by allocating the sample to the response categories according to the distribution specified in H0. This is done by

5. What is a Chi-Square Test? Formula, Examples & Uses

In statistical hypothesis testing, the Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit test determines whether a variable is likely to come from a given distribution

6. 8. The Chi squared tests

She therefore erects the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the two distributions. This is what is tested by the chi squared (χ²) test

7. Chi-Square (Χ²) Tests

How to perform a chi-square test · Create a table of the observed and expected frequencies. · Calculate the · Find the critical chi-square value

8. The Chi-Square Test

You use a Chi-square test for hypothesis tests about whether your data is as expected. The basic idea behind the test is to compare the observed values in your

9. Chi-Square Test of Independence

The Chi-Square test of independence is used to determine if there is a significant relationship between two nominal (categorical) variables. The frequency of

10. The Chi Square Test

Step 3: To see if the data give convincing evidence against the null hypothesis, compare the observed counts from the sample with the expected counts, assuming.

11. Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square

of chi-square, which is used in the next section for hypothesis testing (that is,.

12. Using Chi-Square Statistic in Research

The null hypothesis of the Chi-Square test is that no relationship exists on the categorical variables in the population; they are independent. An example

13. Chi-square statistic for hypothesis testing (video)

And you could figure it out using a calculator, or, if you're taking some type of a test, like an AP Statistics exam, for example, you could use

14. Chi-Square Test of Independence and an Example

In the Chi-square context, the word “expected” is equivalent to what you'd expect if the null hypothesis is true. If your observed distribution is sufficiently