research paper writing benefits

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Benefits of Writing a Quality Research Paper

  • April 2, 2021

Benefits of Writing a Quality Research Paper

Contributed by ACHS alumni Melissa Abbott, MS, CPT, NC

Why It’s Important?

You have just been informed that you’re going to write a research paper and you have no idea how you are going to start the writing process. You may even doubt that you can take on such a challenge. I’m here today to say YES you absolutely can do this! The following writing tips and support strategies offered below are important incentives and motivations involved in the writing process, for your career, and future goals. The writing process involves your body, mind, and spirit. It is all included because you put all your energy and immerse your whole being into it.

Here’s the exciting part, can you imagine having your paper being read by several hundred maybe even thousands of other academic professionals, researchers, and scientists from around the world? It is one of the most incredible feelings to achieve a status of recognition from your hard work in research and the passion(s) you have in holistic health from your peers. Scientists, doctors, holistic professionals in every domain, researchers, collaborators looking for you, your knowledge, and expertise. Sound too good to be true, nope, it happened to me and I hope that it can happen for you too!

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The significant impact and support that I received in my first class at ACHS, RES501 : Assessment and Integration of Research Online, with Professor Dr. Nicole Betschman , was empowering. Dr. Betschman armed and mentored us with the best skills and writing techniques, coping strategies for our anxiety and doubts, and outlines to produce quality research and writing. However, she said one thing that stuck out in my mind throughout my studies at ACHS, register with an online platform where you can post your papers for others to read and get yourself noticed in your chosen field of interest. I did just that and since posting my very first paper to ResearchGate (, it has garnered over 1,000+ reads from others in my area of concentration who have emailed me to ask me questions, inquire about my future projects, and offers of potential future collaborations.

Listed below are just a few of the many benefits to writing a quality research paper:

  • Recognition from peers in your field of work for all your hard work and showing pride for your academic institution.
  • Collaboration with others in your field of expertise from around the world and the potential for research jobs or job recruitment offers.
  • Opportunities for growing your business and career while contributing and supporting your field of interest.
  • A showcase of your accomplishments and research papers on your resume or curriculum vitae that highlights your chosen area of expertise to potential employers, clinical trials, and research collaborations.

Woman typing on computer with notebook next to her

How to start the writing process?

You may be asking yourself … where do I begin, how do I pick a topic, what do I research? Let me help by offering a few strategies or “tools” for your writing “toolbox” to get you in the headspace to explore these brainstorming questions.

1. Sit comfortably with a notebook, make a cup of tea, turn on a diffuser with a blend that promotes increased focus and cognitive awareness, put on some background music, create a space for exploration with little to no distraction, and remember to take several deep breaths during your research sessions. We tend to hold our breath when we’re deep in the research and writing process. This always helps refocus the brainstorming process as well as reduce your stress and anxiety accumulating in your body, mind, and spirit. I do understand these feelings and they can distract you from your best intentions.

research paper writing benefits

2. I highly recommend that you pick a topic and formulate your hypothesis on something you already know well, or an area of interest that supports your future career goals, or on a health condition a friend, family, or that you are challenged with; this is a great place to start. My first paper that received all the recognition came from years of personal experience which made the writing process so much easier. This takes so much of the anxiety away from picking a topic at random. If you are invested in the subject you will want to produce a quality paper with integrity that resulted from years of your experiences and knowledge. You are worth it!

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3. Time management is key to staying on task and your module assignments in class. I recommend blocking out two-hour intervals on your research then take a break, walk away, go outside, stretch, go for a walk, get a snack. This also permits you to do other things without getting anxious that you haven’t finished other tasks or responsibilities. These intermissions create more space to return with fresh eyes, mindset, and less tension in your body from sitting. Or even better yet, use a standing desk!

4. Creating a few folders; one on your desktop and one in your bookmarks, where you will collect and manage the content for each component of your research paper helps with the organization of each of the sections involved in a scholarly research paper. Then you can add multiple subfolders for each part of the paper. For example, I had a folder entitled, RES501 Thesis, then subfolders entitled Introduction, Methods, Discussion, Results, and Conclusions. I had one folder titled Notes so that I could cut and paste notes from the highlights taken from research articles and journals that help me to formulate my findings, data interpretations, and key points. One last thing that helped was keeping a file titled Books/Citations so they are all in one place and you don’t have to go looking for them afterward. Another way to decrease your anxiety and stress!

5. I also recommend creating two bookmarks to collect all the supportive websites, journals, and resource materials so you don’t have to look for them each time you need them. For example, I had one bookmark entitled, Research Platforms, where I had links to PubMed, Elsevier, Google Scholar, LIRN, Oxford, and BMC. Then I had a second one entitled, Writing Tools, where I had American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual, Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL), and citation checkers such as Citation Machine and Cite This For Me.

Shelf of library books

Keep all your supportive tools at your fingertips. Use highlights of different colors to capture the key points within the articles and journals you collect so you are less likely to forget where you read specific data to support your hypothesis. More importantly, it is my hope these tools and tips from personal experiences help support you on your writing adventure and the journey your academic career takes you. It is a very exciting time and it brings great opportunities for success, increased confidence, and empowers you to continue working hard at what you love.

When you find yourself in a writing slump, feel your anxiety increasing or you’re just having a bad day, it is okay to ask for help and support from your fellow peers, your professors, your home support team, they all want you to succeed. I want you to succeed and if you would like to discuss some strategies or need help from a fellow researcher please don’t hesitate to reach out and email me. I would be thrilled to help you produce the best paper you can while being true to yourself and your vision. Be well and happy writing!

Melissa Abbott

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References: [1] American Psychological Association (APA), (2021). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Retrieved from https:// [2] Citation Machine® – write smarter. (n.d.). Retrieved April 02, 2021, from [3] Save time and improve your marks With CITETHISFORME, the No. 1 citation tool. (n.d.). Retrieved April 02, 2021, from [4] Purdue Writing Lab. (n.d.). Purdue owl // Purdue Writing lab. Retrieved April 02, 2021, from

research paper writing benefits

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Writing a Research Paper Introduction | Step-by-Step Guide

Published on September 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on March 27, 2023.

Writing a Research Paper Introduction

The introduction to a research paper is where you set up your topic and approach for the reader. It has several key goals:

  • Present your topic and get the reader interested
  • Provide background or summarize existing research
  • Position your own approach
  • Detail your specific research problem and problem statement
  • Give an overview of the paper’s structure

The introduction looks slightly different depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument by engaging with a variety of sources.

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Table of contents

Step 1: introduce your topic, step 2: describe the background, step 3: establish your research problem, step 4: specify your objective(s), step 5: map out your paper, research paper introduction examples, frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.

The first job of the introduction is to tell the reader what your topic is and why it’s interesting or important. This is generally accomplished with a strong opening hook.

The hook is a striking opening sentence that clearly conveys the relevance of your topic. Think of an interesting fact or statistic, a strong statement, a question, or a brief anecdote that will get the reader wondering about your topic.

For example, the following could be an effective hook for an argumentative paper about the environmental impact of cattle farming:

A more empirical paper investigating the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues in adolescent girls might use the following hook:

Don’t feel that your hook necessarily has to be deeply impressive or creative. Clarity and relevance are still more important than catchiness. The key thing is to guide the reader into your topic and situate your ideas.

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This part of the introduction differs depending on what approach your paper is taking.

In a more argumentative paper, you’ll explore some general background here. In a more empirical paper, this is the place to review previous research and establish how yours fits in.

Argumentative paper: Background information

After you’ve caught your reader’s attention, specify a bit more, providing context and narrowing down your topic.

Provide only the most relevant background information. The introduction isn’t the place to get too in-depth; if more background is essential to your paper, it can appear in the body .

Empirical paper: Describing previous research

For a paper describing original research, you’ll instead provide an overview of the most relevant research that has already been conducted. This is a sort of miniature literature review —a sketch of the current state of research into your topic, boiled down to a few sentences.

This should be informed by genuine engagement with the literature. Your search can be less extensive than in a full literature review, but a clear sense of the relevant research is crucial to inform your own work.

Begin by establishing the kinds of research that have been done, and end with limitations or gaps in the research that you intend to respond to.

The next step is to clarify how your own research fits in and what problem it addresses.

Argumentative paper: Emphasize importance

In an argumentative research paper, you can simply state the problem you intend to discuss, and what is original or important about your argument.

Empirical paper: Relate to the literature

In an empirical research paper, try to lead into the problem on the basis of your discussion of the literature. Think in terms of these questions:

  • What research gap is your work intended to fill?
  • What limitations in previous work does it address?
  • What contribution to knowledge does it make?

You can make the connection between your problem and the existing research using phrases like the following.

Now you’ll get into the specifics of what you intend to find out or express in your research paper.

The way you frame your research objectives varies. An argumentative paper presents a thesis statement, while an empirical paper generally poses a research question (sometimes with a hypothesis as to the answer).

Argumentative paper: Thesis statement

The thesis statement expresses the position that the rest of the paper will present evidence and arguments for. It can be presented in one or two sentences, and should state your position clearly and directly, without providing specific arguments for it at this point.

Empirical paper: Research question and hypothesis

The research question is the question you want to answer in an empirical research paper.

Present your research question clearly and directly, with a minimum of discussion at this point. The rest of the paper will be taken up with discussing and investigating this question; here you just need to express it.

A research question can be framed either directly or indirectly.

  • This study set out to answer the following question: What effects does daily use of Instagram have on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls?
  • We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls.

If your research involved testing hypotheses , these should be stated along with your research question. They are usually presented in the past tense, since the hypothesis will already have been tested by the time you are writing up your paper.

For example, the following hypothesis might respond to the research question above:

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research paper writing benefits

The final part of the introduction is often dedicated to a brief overview of the rest of the paper.

In a paper structured using the standard scientific “introduction, methods, results, discussion” format, this isn’t always necessary. But if your paper is structured in a less predictable way, it’s important to describe the shape of it for the reader.

If included, the overview should be concise, direct, and written in the present tense.

  • This paper will first discuss several examples of survey-based research into adolescent social media use, then will go on to …
  • This paper first discusses several examples of survey-based research into adolescent social media use, then goes on to …

Full examples of research paper introductions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.

  • Argumentative paper
  • Empirical paper

Are cows responsible for climate change? A recent study (RIVM, 2019) shows that cattle farmers account for two thirds of agricultural nitrogen emissions in the Netherlands. These emissions result from nitrogen in manure, which can degrade into ammonia and enter the atmosphere. The study’s calculations show that agriculture is the main source of nitrogen pollution, accounting for 46% of the country’s total emissions. By comparison, road traffic and households are responsible for 6.1% each, the industrial sector for 1%. While efforts are being made to mitigate these emissions, policymakers are reluctant to reckon with the scale of the problem. The approach presented here is a radical one, but commensurate with the issue. This paper argues that the Dutch government must stimulate and subsidize livestock farmers, especially cattle farmers, to transition to sustainable vegetable farming. It first establishes the inadequacy of current mitigation measures, then discusses the various advantages of the results proposed, and finally addresses potential objections to the plan on economic grounds.

The rise of social media has been accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of body image issues among women and girls. This correlation has received significant academic attention: Various empirical studies have been conducted into Facebook usage among adolescent girls (Tiggermann & Slater, 2013; Meier & Gray, 2014). These studies have consistently found that the visual and interactive aspects of the platform have the greatest influence on body image issues. Despite this, highly visual social media (HVSM) such as Instagram have yet to be robustly researched. This paper sets out to address this research gap. We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls. It was hypothesized that daily Instagram use would be associated with an increase in body image concerns and a decrease in self-esteem ratings.

The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:

  • A hook to catch the reader’s interest
  • Relevant background on the topic
  • Details of your research problem

and your problem statement

  • A thesis statement or research question
  • Sometimes an overview of the paper

Don’t feel that you have to write the introduction first. The introduction is often one of the last parts of the research paper you’ll write, along with the conclusion.

This is because it can be easier to introduce your paper once you’ve already written the body ; you may not have the clearest idea of your arguments until you’ve written them, and things can change during the writing process .

The way you present your research problem in your introduction varies depending on the nature of your research paper . A research paper that presents a sustained argument will usually encapsulate this argument in a thesis statement .

A research paper designed to present the results of empirical research tends to present a research question that it seeks to answer. It may also include a hypothesis —a prediction that will be confirmed or disproved by your research.

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What Is a Research Paper?

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research paper writing benefits

  • B.A., American Studies, Yale University

A research paper is a common form of academic writing . Research papers require students and academics to locate information about a topic (that is, to conduct research ), take a stand on that topic, and provide support (or evidence) for that position in an organized report.

The term research paper may also refer to a scholarly article that contains the results of original research or an evaluation of research conducted by others. Most scholarly articles must undergo a process of peer review before they can be accepted for publication in an academic journal.

Define Your Research Question

The first step in writing a research paper is defining your research question . Has your instructor assigned a specific topic? If so, great—you've got this step covered. If not, review the guidelines of the assignment. Your instructor has likely provided several general subjects for your consideration. Your research paper should focus on a specific angle on one of these subjects. Spend some time mulling over your options before deciding which one you'd like to explore more deeply.

Try to choose a research question that interests you. The research process is time-consuming, and you'll be significantly more motivated if you have a genuine desire to learn more about the topic. You should also consider whether you have access to all of the resources necessary to conduct thorough research on your topic, such as primary and secondary sources .

Create a Research Strategy 

Approach the research process systematically by creating a research strategy. First, review your library's website. What resources are available? Where will you find them? Do any resources require a special process to gain access? Start gathering those resources—especially those that may be difficult to access—as soon as possible.

Second, make an appointment with a reference librarian . A reference librarian is nothing short of a research superhero. He or she will listen to your research question, offer suggestions for how to focus your research, and direct you toward valuable sources that directly relate to your topic.

Evaluate Sources

Now that you've gathered a wide array of sources, it's time to evaluate them. First, consider the reliability of the information. Where is the information coming from? What is the origin of the source? Second, assess the  relevance  of the information. How does this information relate to your research question? Does it support, refute, or add context to your position? How does it relate to the other sources you'll be using in your paper? Once you have determined that your sources are both reliable and relevant, you can proceed confidently to the writing phase. 

Why Write Research Papers? 

The research process is one of the most taxing academic tasks you'll be asked to complete. Luckily, the value of writing a research paper goes beyond that A+ you hope to receive. Here are just some of the benefits of research papers. 

  • Learning Scholarly Conventions:  Writing a research paper is a crash course in the stylistic conventions of scholarly writing. During the research and writing process, you'll learn how to document your research, cite sources appropriately, format an academic paper, maintain an academic tone, and more.
  • Organizing Information: In a way, research is nothing more than a massive organizational project. The information available to you is near-infinite, and it's your job to review that information, narrow it down, categorize it, and present it in a clear, relevant format. This process requires attention to detail and major brainpower.
  • Managing Time: Research papers put your time management  skills to the test. Every step of the research and writing process takes time, and it's up to you to set aside the time you'll need to complete each step of the task. Maximize your efficiency by creating a research schedule and inserting blocks of "research time" into your calendar as soon as you receive the assignment. 
  • Exploring Your Chosen Subject:  We couldn't forget the best part of research papers—learning about something that truly excites you. No matter what topic you choose, you're bound to come away from the research process with new ideas and countless nuggets of fascinating information. 

The best research papers are the result of genuine interest and a thorough research process. With these ideas in mind, go forth and research. Welcome to the scholarly conversation!

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13.1 Formatting a Research Paper

Learning objectives.

  • Identify the major components of a research paper written using American Psychological Association (APA) style.
  • Apply general APA style and formatting conventions in a research paper.

In this chapter, you will learn how to use APA style , the documentation and formatting style followed by the American Psychological Association, as well as MLA style , from the Modern Language Association. There are a few major formatting styles used in academic texts, including AMA, Chicago, and Turabian:

  • AMA (American Medical Association) for medicine, health, and biological sciences
  • APA (American Psychological Association) for education, psychology, and the social sciences
  • Chicago—a common style used in everyday publications like magazines, newspapers, and books
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) for English, literature, arts, and humanities
  • Turabian—another common style designed for its universal application across all subjects and disciplines

While all the formatting and citation styles have their own use and applications, in this chapter we focus our attention on the two styles you are most likely to use in your academic studies: APA and MLA.

If you find that the rules of proper source documentation are difficult to keep straight, you are not alone. Writing a good research paper is, in and of itself, a major intellectual challenge. Having to follow detailed citation and formatting guidelines as well may seem like just one more task to add to an already-too-long list of requirements.

Following these guidelines, however, serves several important purposes. First, it signals to your readers that your paper should be taken seriously as a student’s contribution to a given academic or professional field; it is the literary equivalent of wearing a tailored suit to a job interview. Second, it shows that you respect other people’s work enough to give them proper credit for it. Finally, it helps your reader find additional materials if he or she wishes to learn more about your topic.

Furthermore, producing a letter-perfect APA-style paper need not be burdensome. Yes, it requires careful attention to detail. However, you can simplify the process if you keep these broad guidelines in mind:

  • Work ahead whenever you can. Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” includes tips for keeping track of your sources early in the research process, which will save time later on.
  • Get it right the first time. Apply APA guidelines as you write, so you will not have much to correct during the editing stage. Again, putting in a little extra time early on can save time later.
  • Use the resources available to you. In addition to the guidelines provided in this chapter, you may wish to consult the APA website at or the Purdue University Online Writing lab at , which regularly updates its online style guidelines.

General Formatting Guidelines

This chapter provides detailed guidelines for using the citation and formatting conventions developed by the American Psychological Association, or APA. Writers in disciplines as diverse as astrophysics, biology, psychology, and education follow APA style. The major components of a paper written in APA style are listed in the following box.

These are the major components of an APA-style paper:

Body, which includes the following:

  • Headings and, if necessary, subheadings to organize the content
  • In-text citations of research sources
  • References page

All these components must be saved in one document, not as separate documents.

The title page of your paper includes the following information:

  • Title of the paper
  • Author’s name
  • Name of the institution with which the author is affiliated
  • Header at the top of the page with the paper title (in capital letters) and the page number (If the title is lengthy, you may use a shortened form of it in the header.)

List the first three elements in the order given in the previous list, centered about one third of the way down from the top of the page. Use the headers and footers tool of your word-processing program to add the header, with the title text at the left and the page number in the upper-right corner. Your title page should look like the following example.

Beyond the Hype: Evaluating Low-Carb Diets cover page

The next page of your paper provides an abstract , or brief summary of your findings. An abstract does not need to be provided in every paper, but an abstract should be used in papers that include a hypothesis. A good abstract is concise—about one hundred fifty to two hundred fifty words—and is written in an objective, impersonal style. Your writing voice will not be as apparent here as in the body of your paper. When writing the abstract, take a just-the-facts approach, and summarize your research question and your findings in a few sentences.

In Chapter 12 “Writing a Research Paper” , you read a paper written by a student named Jorge, who researched the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets. Read Jorge’s abstract. Note how it sums up the major ideas in his paper without going into excessive detail.

Beyond the Hype: Abstract

Write an abstract summarizing your paper. Briefly introduce the topic, state your findings, and sum up what conclusions you can draw from your research. Use the word count feature of your word-processing program to make sure your abstract does not exceed one hundred fifty words.

Depending on your field of study, you may sometimes write research papers that present extensive primary research, such as your own experiment or survey. In your abstract, summarize your research question and your findings, and briefly indicate how your study relates to prior research in the field.

Margins, Pagination, and Headings

APA style requirements also address specific formatting concerns, such as margins, pagination, and heading styles, within the body of the paper. Review the following APA guidelines.

Use these general guidelines to format the paper:

  • Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch.
  • Use double-spaced text throughout your paper.
  • Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point).
  • Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section. Page numbers appear flush right within your header.
  • Section headings and subsection headings within the body of your paper use different types of formatting depending on the level of information you are presenting. Additional details from Jorge’s paper are provided.

Cover Page

Begin formatting the final draft of your paper according to APA guidelines. You may work with an existing document or set up a new document if you choose. Include the following:

  • Your title page
  • The abstract you created in Note 13.8 “Exercise 1”
  • Correct headers and page numbers for your title page and abstract

APA style uses section headings to organize information, making it easy for the reader to follow the writer’s train of thought and to know immediately what major topics are covered. Depending on the length and complexity of the paper, its major sections may also be divided into subsections, sub-subsections, and so on. These smaller sections, in turn, use different heading styles to indicate different levels of information. In essence, you are using headings to create a hierarchy of information.

The following heading styles used in APA formatting are listed in order of greatest to least importance:

  • Section headings use centered, boldface type. Headings use title case, with important words in the heading capitalized.
  • Subsection headings use left-aligned, boldface type. Headings use title case.
  • The third level uses left-aligned, indented, boldface type. Headings use a capital letter only for the first word, and they end in a period.
  • The fourth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are boldfaced and italicized.
  • The fifth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are italicized and not boldfaced.

Visually, the hierarchy of information is organized as indicated in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” .

Table 13.1 Section Headings

A college research paper may not use all the heading levels shown in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” , but you are likely to encounter them in academic journal articles that use APA style. For a brief paper, you may find that level 1 headings suffice. Longer or more complex papers may need level 2 headings or other lower-level headings to organize information clearly. Use your outline to craft your major section headings and determine whether any subtopics are substantial enough to require additional levels of headings.

Working with the document you developed in Note 13.11 “Exercise 2” , begin setting up the heading structure of the final draft of your research paper according to APA guidelines. Include your title and at least two to three major section headings, and follow the formatting guidelines provided above. If your major sections should be broken into subsections, add those headings as well. Use your outline to help you.

Because Jorge used only level 1 headings, his Exercise 3 would look like the following:

Citation Guidelines

In-text citations.

Throughout the body of your paper, include a citation whenever you quote or paraphrase material from your research sources. As you learned in Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” , the purpose of citations is twofold: to give credit to others for their ideas and to allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired. Your in-text citations provide basic information about your source; each source you cite will have a longer entry in the references section that provides more detailed information.

In-text citations must provide the name of the author or authors and the year the source was published. (When a given source does not list an individual author, you may provide the source title or the name of the organization that published the material instead.) When directly quoting a source, it is also required that you include the page number where the quote appears in your citation.

This information may be included within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence, as in these examples.

Epstein (2010) points out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Here, the writer names the source author when introducing the quote and provides the publication date in parentheses after the author’s name. The page number appears in parentheses after the closing quotation marks and before the period that ends the sentence.

Addiction researchers caution that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (Epstein, 2010, p. 137).

Here, the writer provides a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence that includes the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number separated by commas. Again, the parenthetical citation is placed after the closing quotation marks and before the period at the end of the sentence.

As noted in the book Junk Food, Junk Science (Epstein, 2010, p. 137), “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive.”

Here, the writer chose to mention the source title in the sentence (an optional piece of information to include) and followed the title with a parenthetical citation. Note that the parenthetical citation is placed before the comma that signals the end of the introductory phrase.

David Epstein’s book Junk Food, Junk Science (2010) pointed out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Another variation is to introduce the author and the source title in your sentence and include the publication date and page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the end of the sentence. As long as you have included the essential information, you can choose the option that works best for that particular sentence and source.

Citing a book with a single author is usually a straightforward task. Of course, your research may require that you cite many other types of sources, such as books or articles with more than one author or sources with no individual author listed. You may also need to cite sources available in both print and online and nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews. Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.2 “Citing and Referencing Techniques” and Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provide extensive guidelines for citing a variety of source types.

Writing at Work

APA is just one of several different styles with its own guidelines for documentation, formatting, and language usage. Depending on your field of interest, you may be exposed to additional styles, such as the following:

  • MLA style. Determined by the Modern Languages Association and used for papers in literature, languages, and other disciplines in the humanities.
  • Chicago style. Outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style and sometimes used for papers in the humanities and the sciences; many professional organizations use this style for publications as well.
  • Associated Press (AP) style. Used by professional journalists.

References List

The brief citations included in the body of your paper correspond to the more detailed citations provided at the end of the paper in the references section. In-text citations provide basic information—the author’s name, the publication date, and the page number if necessary—while the references section provides more extensive bibliographical information. Again, this information allows your reader to follow up on the sources you cited and do additional reading about the topic if desired.

The specific format of entries in the list of references varies slightly for different source types, but the entries generally include the following information:

  • The name(s) of the author(s) or institution that wrote the source
  • The year of publication and, where applicable, the exact date of publication
  • The full title of the source
  • For books, the city of publication
  • For articles or essays, the name of the periodical or book in which the article or essay appears
  • For magazine and journal articles, the volume number, issue number, and pages where the article appears
  • For sources on the web, the URL where the source is located

The references page is double spaced and lists entries in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If an entry continues for more than one line, the second line and each subsequent line are indented five spaces. Review the following example. ( Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provides extensive guidelines for formatting reference entries for different types of sources.)

References Section

In APA style, book and article titles are formatted in sentence case, not title case. Sentence case means that only the first word is capitalized, along with any proper nouns.

Key Takeaways

  • Following proper citation and formatting guidelines helps writers ensure that their work will be taken seriously, give proper credit to other authors for their work, and provide valuable information to readers.
  • Working ahead and taking care to cite sources correctly the first time are ways writers can save time during the editing stage of writing a research paper.
  • APA papers usually include an abstract that concisely summarizes the paper.
  • APA papers use a specific headings structure to provide a clear hierarchy of information.
  • In APA papers, in-text citations usually include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication.
  • In-text citations correspond to entries in the references section, which provide detailed bibliographical information about a source.

Writing for Success Copyright © 2015 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

How to Write a Research Paper

How to Write a Research Paper

research paper writing benefits

How To Write A Research Paper – The Clear-Cut and Error-Free Way!

To write a research paper, select a topic, gather and organize information, and formulate a thesis. Create an outline, draft the main content, reassess your thesis, and revise the draft. Finally, write the introduction and conclusion, then thoroughly proofread and edit.

Writing a research paper is a pivotal academic endeavor that deepens your understanding of a topic while contributing to your field of study. It involves selecting a relevant topic, conducting thorough research, and presenting your findings clearly.

This guide provides a step-by-step approach to navigate through this process, from choosing your subject to drafting and refining your paper, ensuring you create a work that is both informative and engaging. Whether for academic purposes or personal inquiry, this guide aims to equip you with the tools needed for effective research writing.

Guide to Writing a Research Paper: The Basics 

1. Know Your Expertise : Understand your strengths within your field of study. Look for underrepresented or novel areas that could benefit from further research.

2. Brainstorming Related Ideas : Generate ideas related to your main topic. Look for peculiar aspects or gaps that could form the basis of your research.

3. Narrowing Down the Topic One Last Time : Refine your topic to its most specific and polished form, ensuring it provides clear context for your study.

4. Be a Savant for Evidence :

  • Gathering initial information : Acquire prior knowledge about your topic from personal experiences or known issues.
  • Exploring Relevant Sources : Seek out credible and scientific sources from reputable organizations, academic institutions, and validated print materials.
  • Note-Take and Organize : Process and organize the gathered information using tools like mind maps or fishbone diagrams.

5. Create a Storyline : Develop a research narrative by connecting different relevant information and formulating a central point.

6. Create an Outline Like a PRO : Construct a specific, relevant, and strategic outline to provide a clear framework for your paper.

7. Structuring the Paper’s Framework : Ensure your outline is specific, relevant, and strategically organized to guide both the researcher and the readers.

8. Organizing Main Points, Subpoints, and a Thesis Statement : Break down your content into manageable subpoints to maintain clarity and coherence.

9. Maintaining a Logical Flow while Writing Research Papers : Ensure ideas are coherent and transitions are smooth for easy navigation.

10. Write the Draft Without Repeating it 100 Times : Utilize different writing strategies, focused draft creation, and content elaboration to develop a comprehensive manuscript.

11. Understanding Citation Styles and Bibliographies :

  • Knowing your Citation Styles : Choose the appropriate citation style based on your discipline or publication requirements.
  • Create a bibliography or reference list : Compile a comprehensive list of sources used in your research to reflect your academic integrity and provide a resource for others.

‍ Choose a Topic– Carefully

A topic may be the first thing to remember when starting to write your research paper, but most of the time, this phase is also a period of unexplainable agony and distress. Want to know why?

The bigger the universal body of knowledge that we strive to explore, the more we ask questions and get curious about exploring its depths, which may lead to endless thinking and unfinished progress. 

The good news about this, though, is that this agony may meet its deserving end by narrowing things out. By choosing topics carefully, we also mean that we need to end countless unnecessary thoughts and focus on the most realistic, feasible, and specific things that you can explore as a researcher that you know you are.

To do this and hopefully choose the best topic for your research project, read through the following tips:

1. Know Your Expertise

A particular field of study has subcomponents. Exploring the entirety of it is nearly impossible unless you are Aristotle for Biology or Hawking for Physics. You have to know where you are good at, and there is definitely a stream of fields that you may find interesting or noteworthy.

Sometimes, these streams are often underrepresented because of their novelty, or maybe some phenomena are yet to be discovered through considerable amounts of literature that could either approve or reject their existence. 

For example, exoplanets , or planets that orbit stars outside our solar system, were believed to be theoretical or speculative entities rather than confirmed astronomical entities. This concept was not widely embraced by experts due to the lack of empirical evidence and the limited technological capacities to detect such planets.

This changed through astronomy in 1995 when Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz, both Swiss astronomers, announced the discovery of an exoplanet named 51 Pegasi b, circling a sun-like star outside our solar system. 

2. Brainstorming Related Ideas

Finding a suitable topic for writing a research paper does not end here. Generating related ideas to that topic may surely be of great help in writing a research paper in its easiest sense. In doing so, you may use the cardinal rule in formulating a complete research topic: find something peculiar about the topic.

This peculiarity may be in the form of a problem, novelty, or even something that does not even exist yet. Even when you think your topic in the first step is already specific, brainstorming related ideas may find new gaps that could be the groundwork for your research endeavor. 

For instance, if you have "The Efficiency of Solar Panels in Residential Settings” as your proposed topic, you may explore other related ideas attached to it, such as its impact on homeowners, the intermittence which could be one of its problems, or its connection with the environment– whether the latter benefits from it or the other way around.

From this, you are not just expanding your options, but you are seeing exactly how your research will pan out should you choose to go two steps further in the topic.

3. Narrowing Down the Topic One Last Time

Once you get to this part, it means that you are doing well in filtering down your topic. The last “funnel” is needed to bring your topic to its most polished– and fool-proof– form! By narrowing down your topic one last time, you are ensuring that you provide the context of your study.

You may identify the type, locale, or even the dynamics of the variables included in your supposed research project. 

Suppose the proposed topic of interest is "The Influence of Social Media on Teenagers' Mental Health." To polish this topic further and present the study's context, you might dwell on "Instagram Use and Its Impact on Anxiety Levels in Adolescents from Urban Areas."

This polished version specifies the platform (Instagram), the demographic (adolescents), and a specific facet of mental health (anxiety levels). Furthermore, the study focuses on the demographics of teenagers living in urban areas, possibly opening the knowledge for comparisons between urban and rural settings or highlighting urban-specific stressors that impact mental health.

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Be a Savant for Evidence

You help yourself write a research paper by ensuring that your paper is an authority– leaving no trace of fraud or senseless information in it. In doing so, you have to prepare the information that MATTERS. 

1. Gathering initial information

You have to have a piece of prior knowledge about the issue. This prior knowledge may come from a personal experience, or something that you have known that you think affects a considerable number of individuals, regardless of whether you are included in it.

Going back to the example of solar power, you may have experienced using that kind of energy before, letting you know how it works and benefits you somehow. 

2. Exploring Relevant Sources

There are BUNCH (I could not emphasize this enough) of stuff on the Internet that have impressions to be used as a source of information to write a research paper. However, only a few can be as relevant, objective, scientific, and sensible to be included rightfully in an academic masterpiece.

The best relevant source may be found in reputable organizations, academic institutions, government-run pages, print materials, such as academic journals, and other validated print sources.

While blogs and newspapers can be enticing because of their eye-catching titles and claims, they are less superior than those mentioned in terms of credibility. You may still use them, however, when you want to provide raw data or anecdotal evidence related to a phenomenon.

3. Note-Take and Organize

This is where the ambivalent feeling of becoming a pseudo-detective begins. The information and evidence you have just gathered will not sit there to wait for a miracle to transpire.

You, as a researcher, must process them!

You need to take everything in a single base (a notebook may be handy at this part) and filter things out (yes, you need to remove some). For a good start, you may use graphic organizers like a mind map or a fishbone diagram– depending on the nature of your study.

These organizers will help you find the relationship between the concepts that potentially make up your study and minimize overcrowding of thoughts (because sometimes, too much information may overwhelm you).

4. Create a Storyline

Now comes the fun part of writing research papers! A good research paper is laid out as a story - with the preliminary research you've done, it's time to do more research, but that of a mental kind. It's time to connect different relevant information you've found and think of a central point of their convergence.

For the first draft, it's enough to come up with a research paper outline that takes your preliminary research and puts it into academic writing.

Our step by step guide guides your journey through the entire paper, including thesis statements, materials and methods section, and answering research questions. We'll also include a guide on how to properly cite resources and come up with a good introductory paragraph.

Create an Outline Like a PRO

A day will surely last without you asking the classic question, “How do I write a research paper?” if you have an outline from the get-go. Just like what was reiterated at the very beginning of this blog, all you need to do to breeze through this task of how to make a research paper is to create an outline. Creating one requires your keen eye for specificity, importance, and strategy.

You must be specific to ensure you are targeting the right answer to your question 100%– leaving no cookie crumbs. You have to make sure you are relaying the most important pointers, leaving no room for any senseless or incoherent details in your outline.

Lastly, you have to strategically place these pointers in a position where your readers can easily appreciate them while the lucid flow of your paper is carrying them. 

Having a keen eye for these criteria might be easy for a one-man team like you, but a research paper writing service like Studyfy can lay its hand for you in just a few days. With its roster of writers equipped with style knowledge, writing experience, and a keen eye for detail and nuances, your paper will never miss the harshest beat of success.

1. Structuring the Paper’s Framework

A specific, relevant, and strategic outline provides a strong framework for a paper. It provides a clear roadmap to the researcher on what to do methodically, and with clarity being considered, the paper’s framework ensures that the process maximizes finding the answer to the questions being asked by the researcher.

The harshness of having these three conditions for the outline (specificity, importance, and strategy) always comes with a prize: having a framework that guides the researcher and the readers on how the answers were extracted brilliantly.

2. Organizing Main Points, Subpoints and a Thesis Statement

A bulk of words in a paragraph can be a challenge for both the researcher and the audience. Breaking them down by dividing the points into components may ease this common writing problem.

ou may separate information into subpoints whenever you feel that they tackle an isolated topic that is distinct from one another. Subpoints may be regarded as “transition markers,” familiarizing readers with “where” they are in the paper.

3. Maintaining a Logical Flow while Writing Research Papers

The logical flow of a research paper can be seen in the way (a) ideas are coherent with each other and (b) visible transition devices connect these strings of ideas.

When you have these ticked inside the boxes, you have a paper that is easy to navigate, and ideas come off as united, giving you a singular impression even when you have read a lot of it in a single sitting.

Write the Draft Without Repeating it 100 Times

Now that you have a specific outline that will help writing a research paper, all you need to do is to start a manuscript. Writing a draft does not ideally happen overnight– unless you work in an exceptional and highly-tailored writing service that offers quality-laden research papers for sale – will not just make you monitor your progress.

Still, it will also help you check the parts you are having trouble with and strategically prioritize one over the other (you may start with the harder ones or the other way around, depending on your liking).

Other than time management, these are the other things to consider on how to do a research paper with the help of a draft: 

 1. Applying different writing strategies

Learning the different writing strategies is one of the best ways how to write a research essay in its initial stages. You can use various strategies interchangeably throughout the manuscript writing process.

These are, but are not limited to, definition, synthesis, critical analysis, argumentation, evidence integration, and storytelling, which are the approaches you can employ on the different parts of your paper.

2. Focused draft creation

A focused draft creation approach is a specialized strategy in completing a manuscript where the writer divides the writing process into sections. It does not necessarily have to be adherent to the topics or “chunks” that you have in mind before writing the manuscript.

You may divide them according to difficulty, nature of idea generation, or the recency of information. The main goal of this approach is to focus on one section before jumping to the next for clarity.

3. Content Elaboration

While this strategy may be included in the first pointer, the art of elaboration can stand on its own and possibly be imperative in the completion of a research manuscript. It often dictates how long should a research paper be due to its contribution to the word count.

However, one should not focus solely on this benefit, as elaboration has more profound work of substantiating the quality of the paper and ensuring that processes, concepts, and terminology are explained and elucidated well.

What's important for elaboration is the nature of the research question, the stance in your central argument, and the background information. A good research paper utilizes background information to provide a stream of cohesive data (which you get when you conduct research) and creates an elaborative story that simply makes sense.

Understanding Citation Styles and Bibliographies

1. knowing your citation styles.

APA, Chicago, MLA, Vancouver, and many more– you may choose freely— or NOT! The rule of thumb in this situation is the discipline of your study. Vancouver is mostly used in Natural Science, while APA and MLA are often employed in Social Sciences and Humanities. Aside from the field of study, the requirements for journal publication can affect your choice of citation style. These styles follow distinct citation and referencing formats, so be sure to know at least their basic features and iterations.

2. Create a bibliography or reference list

Although this part of the paper is the last (in most cases, if the Appendix page is not necessary) one to appear, it still holds significance, especially when the reader wants to see a copy of the work you previously used.

The reference list, aside from being the reflection of your integrity and commitment to sharing the knowledge with the academic community, also acts as a repository for people to find sources that they can likewise use for reference and counter-checking efforts.

Steps of Writing a Research Paper

Did you like our inspiring research paper guide.

For more help, tap into our pool of professional writers and get expert essay editing services!

‍ Frequently Asked Questions

How to write a good research paper if you do not have a clear outline.

Writing a research paper without a clear outline involves understanding the assignment, selecting a topic, conducting preliminary research, and drafting a tentative thesis. Start by writing sections that form a basic structure: introduction, body, and conclusion. Take detailed notes during research and focus on developing your argument. Revise your draft, ensuring coherence and logical flow. Finally, seek feedback and proofread for errors. The writing process is iterative, so be prepared to refine your paper as your ideas evolve. ‍

If you find yourself struggling with this process, considering the option to pay for a research paper can be a practical solution.

Can literary devices or other styles of writing help on research papers?

In some parts of the paper, such as the background of the study, the creative style of writing and the use of literary devices can escape the formality of research papers. If executed well, it can complement the rigid nature of the writing process. However, it must be used sparingly.

How do you write a research paper if you do not have sufficient literature to prove the existence of a gap?

The lack of literature on a research topic is already a sign of a novelty or unexplored aspect of the phenomenon. All you need to do is provide a clear context on the phenomenon, narrow down the topic into the said limitation, acknowledge it, and provide a strong rationale that will also prove why the insufficiency calls for further development of your proposed topic. 

Is it possible for a specialized service to craft a research paper tailored to my preferences?

Indeed, a service such as Studyfy offers the capability to produce a research paper that seems as though you've meticulously crafted it yourself. Their team of skilled writers can adapt their expertise to fit your specific requirements, ensuring your paper is of the highest quality, following the IMRAD format or any other structure you need.

Opting for such a service for your " write my research paper " need means receiving a professionally crafted document, with thorough citations, grammatical precision, correct formatting, and a well-chosen research topic.

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  • How to write a research paper

Last updated

11 January 2024

Reviewed by

With proper planning, knowledge, and framework, completing a research paper can be a fulfilling and exciting experience. 

Though it might initially sound slightly intimidating, this guide will help you embrace the challenge. 

By documenting your findings, you can inspire others and make a difference in your field. Here's how you can make your research paper unique and comprehensive.

  • What is a research paper?

Research papers allow you to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of a particular topic. These papers are usually lengthier and more detailed than typical essays, requiring deeper insight into the chosen topic.

To write a research paper, you must first choose a topic that interests you and is relevant to the field of study. Once you’ve selected your topic, gathering as many relevant resources as possible, including books, scholarly articles, credible websites, and other academic materials, is essential. You must then read and analyze these sources, summarizing their key points and identifying gaps in the current research.

You can formulate your ideas and opinions once you thoroughly understand the existing research. To get there might involve conducting original research, gathering data, or analyzing existing data sets. It could also involve presenting an original argument or interpretation of the existing research.

Writing a successful research paper involves presenting your findings clearly and engagingly, which might involve using charts, graphs, or other visual aids to present your data and using concise language to explain your findings. You must also ensure your paper adheres to relevant academic formatting guidelines, including proper citations and references.

Overall, writing a research paper requires a significant amount of time, effort, and attention to detail. However, it is also an enriching experience that allows you to delve deeply into a subject that interests you and contribute to the existing body of knowledge in your chosen field.

  • How long should a research paper be?

Research papers are deep dives into a topic. Therefore, they tend to be longer pieces of work than essays or opinion pieces. 

However, a suitable length depends on the complexity of the topic and your level of expertise. For instance, are you a first-year college student or an experienced professional? 

Also, remember that the best research papers provide valuable information for the benefit of others. Therefore, the quality of information matters most, not necessarily the length. Being concise is valuable.

Following these best practice steps will help keep your process simple and productive:

1. Gaining a deep understanding of any expectations

Before diving into your intended topic or beginning the research phase, take some time to orient yourself. Suppose there’s a specific topic assigned to you. In that case, it’s essential to deeply understand the question and organize your planning and approach in response. Pay attention to the key requirements and ensure you align your writing accordingly. 

This preparation step entails

Deeply understanding the task or assignment

Being clear about the expected format and length

Familiarizing yourself with the citation and referencing requirements 

Understanding any defined limits for your research contribution

Where applicable, speaking to your professor or research supervisor for further clarification

2. Choose your research topic

Select a research topic that aligns with both your interests and available resources. Ideally, focus on a field where you possess significant experience and analytical skills. In crafting your research paper, it's crucial to go beyond summarizing existing data and contribute fresh insights to the chosen area.

Consider narrowing your focus to a specific aspect of the topic. For example, if exploring the link between technology and mental health, delve into how social media use during the pandemic impacts the well-being of college students. Conducting interviews and surveys with students could provide firsthand data and unique perspectives, adding substantial value to the existing knowledge.

When finalizing your topic, adhere to legal and ethical norms in the relevant area (this ensures the integrity of your research, protects participants' rights, upholds intellectual property standards, and ensures transparency and accountability). Following these principles not only maintains the credibility of your work but also builds trust within your academic or professional community.

For instance, in writing about medical research, consider legal and ethical norms, including patient confidentiality laws and informed consent requirements. Similarly, if analyzing user data on social media platforms, be mindful of data privacy regulations, ensuring compliance with laws governing personal information collection and use. Aligning with legal and ethical standards not only avoids potential issues but also underscores the responsible conduct of your research.

3. Gather preliminary research

Once you’ve landed on your topic, it’s time to explore it further. You’ll want to discover more about available resources and existing research relevant to your assignment at this stage. 

This exploratory phase is vital as you may discover issues with your original idea or realize you have insufficient resources to explore the topic effectively. This key bit of groundwork allows you to redirect your research topic in a different, more feasible, or more relevant direction if necessary. 

Spending ample time at this stage ensures you gather everything you need, learn as much as you can about the topic, and discover gaps where the topic has yet to be sufficiently covered, offering an opportunity to research it further. 

4. Define your research question

To produce a well-structured and focused paper, it is imperative to formulate a clear and precise research question that will guide your work. Your research question must be informed by the existing literature and tailored to the scope and objectives of your project. By refining your focus, you can produce a thoughtful and engaging paper that effectively communicates your ideas to your readers.

5. Write a thesis statement

A thesis statement is a one-to-two-sentence summary of your research paper's main argument or direction. It serves as an overall guide to summarize the overall intent of the research paper for you and anyone wanting to know more about the research.

A strong thesis statement is:

Concise and clear: Explain your case in simple sentences (avoid covering multiple ideas). It might help to think of this section as an elevator pitch.

Specific: Ensure that there is no ambiguity in your statement and that your summary covers the points argued in the paper.

Debatable: A thesis statement puts forward a specific argument––it is not merely a statement but a debatable point that can be analyzed and discussed.

Here are three thesis statement examples from different disciplines:

Psychology thesis example: "We're studying adults aged 25-40 to see if taking short breaks for mindfulness can help with stress. Our goal is to find practical ways to manage anxiety better."

Environmental science thesis example: "This research paper looks into how having more city parks might make the air cleaner and keep people healthier. I want to find out if more green spaces means breathing fewer carcinogens in big cities."

UX research thesis example: "This study focuses on improving mobile banking for older adults using ethnographic research, eye-tracking analysis, and interactive prototyping. We investigate the usefulness of eye-tracking analysis with older individuals, aiming to spark debate and offer fresh perspectives on UX design and digital inclusivity for the aging population."

6. Conduct in-depth research

A research paper doesn’t just include research that you’ve uncovered from other papers and studies but your fresh insights, too. You will seek to become an expert on your topic––understanding the nuances in the current leading theories. You will analyze existing research and add your thinking and discoveries.  It's crucial to conduct well-designed research that is rigorous, robust, and based on reliable sources. Suppose a research paper lacks evidence or is biased. In that case, it won't benefit the academic community or the general public. Therefore, examining the topic thoroughly and furthering its understanding through high-quality research is essential. That usually means conducting new research. Depending on the area under investigation, you may conduct surveys, interviews, diary studies, or observational research to uncover new insights or bolster current claims.

7. Determine supporting evidence

Not every piece of research you’ve discovered will be relevant to your research paper. It’s important to categorize the most meaningful evidence to include alongside your discoveries. It's important to include evidence that doesn't support your claims to avoid exclusion bias and ensure a fair research paper.

8. Write a research paper outline

Before diving in and writing the whole paper, start with an outline. It will help you to see if more research is needed, and it will provide a framework by which to write a more compelling paper. Your supervisor may even request an outline to approve before beginning to write the first draft of the full paper. An outline will include your topic, thesis statement, key headings, short summaries of the research, and your arguments.

9. Write your first draft

Once you feel confident about your outline and sources, it’s time to write your first draft. While penning a long piece of content can be intimidating, if you’ve laid the groundwork, you will have a structure to help you move steadily through each section. To keep up motivation and inspiration, it’s often best to keep the pace quick. Stopping for long periods can interrupt your flow and make jumping back in harder than writing when things are fresh in your mind.

10. Cite your sources correctly

It's always a good practice to give credit where it's due, and the same goes for citing any works that have influenced your paper. Building your arguments on credible references adds value and authenticity to your research. In the formatting guidelines section, you’ll find an overview of different citation styles (MLA, CMOS, or APA), which will help you meet any publishing or academic requirements and strengthen your paper's credibility. It is essential to follow the guidelines provided by your school or the publication you are submitting to ensure the accuracy and relevance of your citations.

11. Ensure your work is original

It is crucial to ensure the originality of your paper, as plagiarism can lead to serious consequences. To avoid plagiarism, you should use proper paraphrasing and quoting techniques. Paraphrasing is rewriting a text in your own words while maintaining the original meaning. Quoting involves directly citing the source. Giving credit to the original author or source is essential whenever you borrow their ideas or words. You can also use plagiarism detection tools such as Scribbr or Grammarly to check the originality of your paper. These tools compare your draft writing to a vast database of online sources. If you find any accidental plagiarism, you should correct it immediately by rephrasing or citing the source.

12. Revise, edit, and proofread

One of the essential qualities of excellent writers is their ability to understand the importance of editing and proofreading. Even though it's tempting to call it a day once you've finished your writing, editing your work can significantly improve its quality. It's natural to overlook the weaker areas when you've just finished writing a paper. Therefore, it's best to take a break of a day or two, or even up to a week, to refresh your mind. This way, you can return to your work with a new perspective. After some breathing room, you can spot any inconsistencies, spelling and grammar errors, typos, or missing citations and correct them. 

  • The best research paper format 

The format of your research paper should align with the requirements set forth by your college, school, or target publication. 

There is no one “best” format, per se. Depending on the stated requirements, you may need to include the following elements:

Title page: The title page of a research paper typically includes the title, author's name, and institutional affiliation and may include additional information such as a course name or instructor's name. 

Table of contents: Include a table of contents to make it easy for readers to find specific sections of your paper.

Abstract: The abstract is a summary of the purpose of the paper.

Methods : In this section, describe the research methods used. This may include collecting data, conducting interviews, or doing field research.

Results: Summarize the conclusions you drew from your research in this section.

Discussion: In this section, discuss the implications of your research. Be sure to mention any significant limitations to your approach and suggest areas for further research.

Tables, charts, and illustrations: Use tables, charts, and illustrations to help convey your research findings and make them easier to understand.

Works cited or reference page: Include a works cited or reference page to give credit to the sources that you used to conduct your research.

Bibliography: Provide a list of all the sources you consulted while conducting your research.

Dedication and acknowledgments : Optionally, you may include a dedication and acknowledgments section to thank individuals who helped you with your research.

  • General style and formatting guidelines

Formatting your research paper means you can submit it to your college, journal, or other publications in compliance with their criteria.

Research papers tend to follow the American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA), or Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) guidelines.

Here’s how each style guide is typically used:

Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS):

CMOS is a versatile style guide used for various types of writing. It's known for its flexibility and use in the humanities. CMOS provides guidelines for citations, formatting, and overall writing style. It allows for both footnotes and in-text citations, giving writers options based on their preferences or publication requirements.

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Research and teaching writing

  • Published: 12 July 2021
  • Volume 34 , pages 1613–1621, ( 2021 )

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  • Steve Graham 1 , 2 &
  • Rui A. Alves 3  

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Writing is an essential but complex skill that students must master if they are to take full advantage of educational, occupational, and civic responsibilities. Schools, and the teachers who work in them, are tasked with teaching students how to write. Knowledge about how to teach writing can be obtained from many different sources, including one’s experience teaching or being taught to write, observing others teach writing, and advise offered by writing experts. It is difficult to determine if much of the lore teachers acquire through these methods are effective, generalizable, or reliable unless they are scientifically tested. This special issue of Reading & Writing includes 11 writing intervention studies conducted primarily with students in the elementary grades. It provides important new information on evidence-based writing practices.

Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

There are many different ways that teachers can learn about how to teach writing. One way of acquiring such knowledge is by teaching this skill to others. As teachers apply different instructional procedures, they form judgments about the value and efficacy of these practices. In essence, they learn by doing (Graham, 2018 ).

A second way teachers learn about how to teach writing is by observing others and learning from them (Graham, 2018 ). Teachers likely remember some of the instructional methods used by those who taught them to write (e.g., teachers, mentors, parents, guardians, and peers). They may in turn adopt some of these practices when they teach their own students. This may be particularly true for instructional practices they considered effective.

Teachers can gain additional insight into teaching writing by observing and absorbing insights offered by others who have taught writing or studied how to teach it. This includes knowledge acquired from instructors teaching literacy and writing courses as well as experts offering advice on writing instruction at conferences, through workshops, podcasts, or other forms of information sharing. Teachers may also learn about teaching writing by discussing this topic with their peers or observing them as they teach writing.

A third source of knowledge that teachers can access are published materials about how to teach writing. This includes textbooks and articles on the subject, curriculum guides, commercial materials, and position statements from professional organizations to provide just a few examples. These resources can further involve digital sources such as videos demonstrating how to apply specific writing procedures, experts promoting specific teaching techniques, or web sites devoted to writing instruction.

The concern

Given all of the possible knowledge sources teachers can access or experience, there is an abundance of information, recommendations, and teaching materials on how to teach writing that is available to teachers. This blessing experiences at least one serious limitation. Too often, there is limited, circumscribed, or no evidence that the proffered advice, know-how, or wisdom works. There are many claims about what is effective, but too little proof. Unfortunately, this observation applies to much of the lore that teachers acquire about writing instruction.

Teaching lore mainly involves writing practices teachers experienced when they learned to write, instructional practices teachers develop and apply with their students, writing practices they see other teachers apply, and teaching practices promoted by experts (Graham & Harris, 2014 ). While we have no doubt that teachers and experts possess considerable knowledge and insight about how to teach writing, basing the teaching of this complex skill on such lore alone is risky.

Why is this the case? One reason is that it is difficult to determine which aspects of teaching lore are valid. For example, there are many things a teacher does while teaching writing. When their students’ writing improves, they may attribute this change to specific procedures they applied. While this evaluation may be correct, it is also possible that this judgment is incorrect or only applies to some students or to a procedure in a given context.

Teachers are not the only ones who can succumb to such selective bias. Specific teaching lore promoted by writing experts are also susceptible to misinterpretation in terms of their effectiveness. To illustrate, writing experts can overestimate the impact of favored instructional methods, forming judgments consistent with their philosophical views on writing development or instruction. For instance, proponents of the whole language approach to learning to read and write believed that writing and reading develop naturally just like oral language (Goodman, 1992 ). Consistent with these beliefs, they championed an approach to literacy instruction based on the use of informal teaching methods (e.g., reading and writing for real purposes), while at the same time deemphasizing explicitly and systematically teaching students foundational writing and reading skills and strategies (Graham & Harris, 1997 ). Instead, these skills are only taught when the need arises, mostly through short mini-lessons. Advocates for whole language frequently promoted the effectiveness of this two-pronged approach (Begeron, 1990 ), without providing much in the way of empirical evidence that it was effective, or perhaps even more importantly, that it was as effective as other alternatives such as reading and writing programs that emphasized reading and writing for real purposes, coupled with systematic and explicit skills and strategy instruction (Graham & Harris, 1994 ). Even for fundamental writing skills such as spelling, there is considerable evidence that both informal teaching and explicit instruction are effective (Graham, 2000 ; Graham & Santangelo, 2014 ), while whole language approaches are fundamentally misguided about what is written language (Liberman, 1999 ).

Whole language is not the only approach to teaching writing that has suffered from questionable claims about its effectiveness. Even the venerable Donald Graves was guilty of this to some degree with the process approach to writing that he supported and advocated (see Smagorinski, 1987 ). The evidence he offered in support of his favored approach to teaching writing relied in large part on testimonials and exemplar writing of selected students, presenting a potentially overly optimistic assessment of this approach. This is not to say that the process approach is ineffective, as there is now considerable empirical evidence supporting the opposite conclusion (Sandmel & Graham, 2011 ). Instead, this example illustrates that adopting whole cloth even highly popular and widely used teaching lore without careful consideration of its effectiveness and the evidence available to support it can be risky. The lack of evidence or the type of evidence provided can make it extremely difficult for teachers or other interested parties to determine if the testimonials or evidence used to support specific teaching lore in writing are representative or atypical.

A third issue that makes some teaching lore risky is that it may be based on the experience of a single or a very small number of teachers. As an example, this can occur for knowledge a teacher acquires as a result of his or her experience teaching writing. The teaching practice(s) may in fact be effective for the students in this teacher’s classroom, but they may not be effective when applied by another teacher or with different students. Until this proposition is tested, there is no way to determine if this teaching lore will produce reliable results when applied more broadly.

As these concerns demonstrate, the validity, generalizability, and replicability of instructional practices based on teaching lore are uncertain. This is not to devalue what teachers or experts know, but to demonstrate the limits of this knowledge.

Evidence-based writing practices

The concerns about the value of teaching lore raised above raises the question: How should the structure and details of writing instruction be determined? The solution that we recommend is to take an evidence-based practice approach to both enhance teachers’ knowledge and develop writing instruction. Starting with medicine in the 1990s, and spreading quickly to psychology, informational science, business, education, and a host of other disciplines, this movement promoted the idea that practitioners in a field should apply the best scientific evidence available to make informed and judicious decisions for their clients (Sackett et al., 1996 ). The basic assumption underlying this approach is that the findings from research can positively impact practice. The evidence-based practice movement was a reaction to practitioners basing what they did almost strictly on tradition and lore, without scientific evidence to validate it.

One reason why this represents a positive step forward in education and the teaching of writing is that instructional practices based on high quality intervention research addresses the three issues of concern we raised about teaching lore. First, high quality intervention studies address the issue of validity. They are designed specifically to isolate the effects of a specific instructional practice or set of instructional practices. They provide systematically gathered evidence on whether the instructional practices tested produced the desired impact. They further apply methodological procedures to rule out alternative explanations for observed effects. Second, high quality intervention studies address issues of generalizability by describing the participants and the context in which the practice was applied, and by using statistical procedures to determine the confidence that can be placed in specific findings. Three, they address the issue of replicability, as the replication of effects across multiple situations is the hall mark of scientific testing (Graham & Harris, 2014 ).

Another reason why the evidence-based approach represents a positive step forward in terms of teaching writing is that the evidence gathered from high quality intervention studies can provide a general set of guidelines for designing an effective writing program. Graham et al. ( 2016 ) created such a roadmap by drawing on three sources of scientific evidence: true-and quasi- experimental writing intervention studies, single-case design studies, and qualitative studies of how exceptional literacy teachers taught writing (see also Graham & Harris, 2018 ). They indicated that the scientific evidence from these three sources supports the development of writing programs that include the following. Students write frequently. They are supported by teachers and peers as they write. Essential writing skills, strategies, and knowledge are taught. Students use word processors and other twenty-first century tools to write. Writing occurs in a positive and motivating environment. Writing is used to support learning. Based on several recent meta-analyses of high quality intervention studies (Graham, et al., 2018a , b ; Graham, et al., 2018a , b ), Graham now recommends that the evidence also supports connecting writing and reading instruction (Graham, 2019 , 2020 ).

A third reason why the evidence-based approach is a positive development is that it provides teachers with a variety of techniques for teaching writing that have been shown to be effective in other teachers’ classes and in multiple situations. While this does not guarantee that a specific evidence-based practices is effective in all situations, a highly unlikely proposition for any writing practice, it does provide teachers with instructional procedures with a proven track record. This includes, but is not limited to (Graham & Harris, 2018 ; Graham et al., 2016 ):

Setting goals for writing.

Teaching general as well as genre-specific strategies for planning, revising, editing, and regulating the writing process. Engaging students in prewriting practices for gathering, organizing, and evaluation possible writing contents and plans.

Teaching sentence construction skills with sentence-combining procedures.

Providing students with feedback about their writing and their progress learning new writing skills.

Teaching handwriting, spelling, and typing.

Increasing how much students write; analyzing and emulating model texts.

Teaching vocabulary for writing.

Creating routines for students to help each other as they write.

Putting into place procedures for enhancing motivation.

Teaching paragraph writing skills.

Employing technology such as word processing that makes it easier to write.

It is also important to realize that an evidence-based approach to writing does not mean that teachers should abandon the hard-earned knowledge they have acquired through their experiences as teachers or learners. The evidence-based movement emphasizes that teachers contextualize knowledge about teaching writing acquired through research with their own knowledge about their students, the context in which they work, and what they know about writing and teaching it (Graham et al., 2016 ). When applying instructional practices acquired through research as well as teaching lore, we recommend that teachers weigh the benefits, limitations, and possible harm that might ensue as a consequence of applying any teaching procedure. Once a decision is made to apply a specific practice, it is advisable to monitor its effectiveness and make adjustments as needed.

Finally, while the scientific testing of writing practices has provided considerable insight into how writing can be taught effectively, it is not broad, deep, or rich enough to tell us all we need to know about teaching writing. It is highly unlikely that this will ever be the case. We operate on the principle that there is no single best method for teaching writing to all students, nor is it likely that science will provide us with formulas to prescribe exactly how writing should be taught to each student individually. Writing, learning, children, and the contexts in which they operate are just too complex to make this a likely consequence of the evidence-based movement. As a result, we believe that the best writing instruction will be provided by teachers who apply evidence-based practices in conjunction with the best knowledge they have acquired as teachers and learners, using each of these forms of knowledge in an intelligent, judicious, and critical manner.

Over time, we anticipate that evidence-based practices will play an ever increasing role in the process described above. This is inevitable as our knowledge about evidence-based writing practices expands. This brings us to the purpose of this special issue of Reading & Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal . This special issue presents 11 writing intervention studies focusing almost exclusively with students in the elementary grades. These studies were conducted in Europe and the United States, and they replicate and extend prior research conducted with young developing writers.

The special issue

Perhaps the most tested writing instructional practice of all time, and the one yielding the largest effects sizes (Graham et al., 2013 ), is the Self-regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model developed by Karen Harris (see Harris et al., 2008 for a description of this approach). Several studies in the current special issue tested specific iterations of the use of the SRSD model as a means for teaching writing to elementary grade students. Collins and her colleagues examined the effectiveness of teaching third grade students in the United States task specific strategies for planning and drafting expository essays using information from social studies text using this model. This instruction enhanced the quality of students’ texts and resulted in improvement on a norm-referenced measure of writing where students identified their favorite game and provided reasons why this was the case.

In a second SRSD study conducted with second and third grade children in Spain, Salas and her colleagues examined if teaching planning and drafting strategies for writing an opinion essay was equally effective with children from more and less disadvantaged backgrounds. SRSD was equally effective in improving the opinion writing of children from both backgrounds, but carryover effects to reading comprehension (a skill not taught in this study) only occurred for students from less disadvantaged backgrounds.

A third study by Rosario and his colleagues involved a secondary analysis of data from an investigation in Portugal where third grade students were taught to write narratives using SRSD procedures and a story writing tool they developed. Their reanalysis focused on students experiencing difficulties learning to write showing that they differed in their approach and perceptions of teacher feedback. The majority of these children were able to use the feedback provided by their teacher and viewed it as helpful.

A fourth investigation by Hebert and his colleagues taught fourth grade students in the United States to write informational text using five text structures (description, compare/contrast, sequence of events, problem–solution, and cause effect). While the authors did not indicate they used SRSD to teach these strategies, the teaching methods mirrored this approach. In any event, the instruction provided to these children enhanced how well they wrote all five of these different kinds of text. These effects, however, did not generalize to better reading performance.

Lopez and her colleagues in Spain examined three approaches to improving sixth grade students’ writing. Students in all three conditions were taught how to set communicative goals for their writing. Students in one treatment condition were taught a strategy for revising. Students in a second treatment condition observed a reader trying to comprehend a text and suggesting ways it might be improved. Control students continued with the goal setting procedures. Students in both treatment conditions improved their writing and revising skills more than control students, but there were no differences between these two treatments.

In another Spanish study conducted by Rodriguez-Malaga and colleagues, the impact of two different treatments on the writing of fourth grade students was examined. One treatment group learned how to set product goals for their writing, whereas the other writing treatment group learned how to set product goals and strategies for planning compare/contrast texts. Only the students in the product goal and planning strategy treatment evidenced improved writing when compared to control students.

Philippakos and Voggt examined the effectiveness of on-line practice-based professional development (PBPD) for teaching genre-based writing strategies. Eighty-four second grade teachers were randomly assigned to PBPD or a no-treatment control condition. Treatment teachers taught the genre-based writing strategies with high fidelity and rated PBPD positively. Even more importantly, their students writing evidenced greater improvement than the writing of students in control teachers’ classes.

Walter and her colleagues in England examined the effectiveness of two writing interventions, sentence combining and spelling instruction, with 7 to 10 year old children experiencing difficulties learning to write. As expected, sentence combining instruction improved sentence construction skills, but even more importantly, these researchers found that the degree of improvements in sentence writing was related to students’ initial sentence, spelling, and reading skills.

In another study focused on improving students’ sentence construction skills, Arfé and her colleagues in Italy examined the effectiveness of an oral language intervention to improve the sentence construction skills of fifth and tenth grade students. This oral treatment did enhance the sentence writing skills of the younger fifth grade students. This study provides needed evidence that interventions aimed at improving oral language skills transfer to writing.

Chung and his colleagues in the United States examined if sixth grade students’ writing can be improved through self-assessment, planning and goal setting, and self-reflection when they revised a timed, on-demand essay. These students as well as students in the control condition were also taught how to revise such an essay. Treatment students evidenced greater writing gains, and were more confident about their revising capabilities than control students.

Lastly, Graham and his colleagues in the United States examined if the revising behavior of fourth grade students experiencing difficulties with writing can be enhanced through the use of revising goals that focused attention on making substantive when revising stories (e.g., change the setting of the story). Applying such goals across four stories had a positive effect on the revising behavior of these students when these goals were not in effect, resulting in more text-level revisions, more revisions that changed the meaning of text, and more revisions rated as improving text.

The 11 intervention studies in this special issue of Reading & Writing are particularly noteworthy for several reasons. One, some of these studies ( n  = 4) concentrated on improving students’ skills in writing informational and expository text. This is an area that has not received enough attention in existing writing literature. Two, enhancing students’ revising was the goal of multiple studies ( n  = 4). Again, too little attention has been given to this topic with either younger or older students. Three, it was especially gratifying to see that a pair of studies examined how to enhance sentence writing skills. This has been a neglected area of writing research since the 1980s. Four, multiple studies focused on improving the writing of students who experienced difficulties learning to write ( n  = 3). This is an area where we need much more research if we are to maximize these students’ writing success. Finally, more than half of the studies in this special issue ( n  = 6) were conducted in Europe, with the other half conducted in the United States. It is important to examine if specific writing treatments are effective in different social, cultural, political, institutional, and historical context (Graham, 2018 ), as was done with the four studies that applied SRSD to teach students strategies for writing.

We hope you enjoy the studies presented here. We further hope they serve as a catalyst to improve your own research if you are a writing scholar or your teaching if you are a practitioner.

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Academic Writing Groups: 5 Benefits for Researchers

Academic Writing Groups: 5 Benefits for Researchers

Writing for academia can be a daunting task, not just for early career researchers but also for seasoned experts, which has led to the emergence of academic writing groups. A lack of time, the pressure to publish and the consequent build-up of anxiety often translates into a situation where researchers find themselves struggling to write. A study undertaken in the US some years ago surveyed 40,000 academics and found that 27% had never published in a peer-reviewed journal, 43% had not published an article in a journal in the past two years, and an alarming 26% spent zero time on writing. 1 For those struggling to keep up with their writing, academic writing groups can be an invaluable support system!

What are writing groups?

Academic writing groups provide both early career researchers and faculty members a conducive environment where members can share their writing with others, receive feedback, and gain motivation and accountability for their writing goals. Online writing groups for academics are becoming increasingly popular with universities often encouraging students and faculty to join. Academic writing groups spur members to stay abreast and aware about reading and writing sources through regular interactions and networking. These groups provide a forum for researchers to come together frequently, either physically or online, to discuss theses or dissertations, journal articles, grant writings, and other kinds of academic articles or manuscript writing for publication.

The primary objective of writing groups is to help members to improve their writing skills with constructive criticism. Members of these academic writing groups evaluate and address specific challenges that members could be facing and also acknowledge and applaud progress milestones. In academia today, universities and academic institutions have specific, devoted faculty and PhD writing groups to help research students and scholars achieve their writing goals. While this broadly explains the increasing trend of researchers and scholars joining academic writing groups, let’s look at the specific benefits they offer.

Advantages of academic writing groups

Being part of physical or online writing groups for academics can benefit you in managing uncertainties in your publishing journey and professional growth. Here are 5 ways in which they can support research authors.

1. Providing a social anchor

The process of writing can often be a lonely effort that can be counter-productive and create apprehensions and doubt within the researcher or student. By being part of academic writing groups, you can always be assured to peer support and constructive feedback to your writing process. This can make the task more enjoyable. The constant interaction and exchange of ideas and perspectives imbues members with a sense of motivation.  Moreover, being part of a social support group enthuses them to move ahead with their writing tasks while successfully balancing work and home requirements.

2. Observing a writing schedule

Researchers and students are often constrained for time. They not only have to attend classes but also have to juggle multiple important tasks like reviewing literature, conducting lab experiments, data collection and analysis, along with taking on part-time teaching and attending seminars and conferences. Being a member of an academic writing group can help you reserve and devote specific time to focus only on your writing tasks and get assistance when required.

3. Increasing output and productivity

There is sufficient proof to show that being a member of an academic writing group increases productivity and output levels of members. There has been an increased rate of publications and grant proposals that have been submitted by members as part of writing groups. 2 Members are usually motivated to write more, and the regular writing group meetings and timelines enable them to be consistent with their writing goals.

4. Improving academic writing skills

One of the most beneficial aspects of being a member of an academic writing group is getting answers to any questions and/or doubts that you may have regarding your writing. The sustained process of exchanging information in a writing group means that one receives helpful advice and tips that can elevate the writing process and help you evolve as a better academic writer.

5. Creating a love for writing

Early career researchers, PhD students, and even experts sometimes, lack confidence in their own writing skills, which leads to a sense of fear and apprehension about the writing process. This gets worse when you don’t have English as your first language or when frequent rejections put a halt on your publishing journey. Here, academic writing groups come out as a supportive community, instilling confidence and empowering researchers and students to evolve as competent academic writers.

Making the Most of Your Academic Writing Group Experience

To fully benefit from your academic writing group experience, consider the following tips:

  • Set clear goals: Define your research and writing objectives at the outset to ensure that the group’s feedback and discussions align with your aspirations.
  • Actively participate: Engage proactively in discussions, provide constructive feedback to others, and share your insights openly.
  • Be open to feedback: Embrace feedback with an open mind, as constructive criticism is an integral part of the learning process.
  • Respect diverse perspectives: Embrace the diversity within the group and appreciate the array of perspectives and research backgrounds.
  • Establish regular meetings: Consistency is key to the success of an academic writing group. Set a regular meeting schedule to maintain momentum and progress.

So, if you are an early career researcher or student, you may want to explore online writing groups for academics. Find out more about the group’s focus and interest, whether it is a PhD writing group, a specific thesis writing group, or a broader academic writing group, make a choice and join. Not only do these groups act as a valuable resource to improve your writing skills, it is also a great way to build and strengthen your professional networks.


  • Majumder, K. Why are researchers joining writing groups. Editage Insights, September 2022.
  • Kwan. P.P., Sharp, S., Mason, S., Saetermoe, C.L. Faculty writing groups: The impact of protected writing time and group support, International Journal of Educational Research Open, Volume 2, 2021.

Paperpal is an AI writing assistant that help academics write better, faster with real-time suggestions for in-depth language and grammar correction. Trained on millions of research manuscripts enhanced by professional academic editors, Paperpal delivers human precision at machine speed.

Try it for free or upgrade to  Paperpal Prime , which unlocks unlimited access to premium features like academic translation, paraphrasing, contextual synonyms, consistency checks and more. It’s like always having a professional academic editor by your side! Go beyond limitations and experience the future of academic writing.  Get Paperpal Prime now at just US$12 a month!

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10 Benefits of Writing a Research Paper

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Scientific research is a systematic way to go through before submitting your Research Article for Publication   or meeting the requirements of a research project. There are usually items that you will have missed while authoring your research report.

So,what are the advantages of having your paper peer-reviewed?

Although the qualities of the Research Article Format have been explored elsewhere, here is a list of advantages that I have received from the experience.


Here is a list of the top ten advantages of peer review:, 1. fixes vague terms.

Early on, I began using an internet thesaurus to locate the right phrase to explain an idea. When I signed up for research writing, an online correction tool that automatically suggests a list of phrases to choose from, I noticed it was much easier to locate the right words. I’ve also observed that I employ ambiguous language and terms out of habit.

Despite the AI-powered software application’s assistance, I still make the final judgment when I reread each line of text. As the author of my work, I believe there is no substitute for my judgment.

A Research Article pdf confirms my choice of a word or phrase to communicate what I intend. Receiving comments from colleagues that allows me to decide if I should stick to my original terms or follow their recommendations. If the suggestion seems good, I don’t mind changing the terms in question.


So, that’s it. You can readily tell if your peer group understands the points you pushed in your Research Article topic based on their reactions. Assume it takes them longer than normal to provide feedback once a page has been displayed, this could indicate that there is something wrong with the flow of thought or conversation. Clarifying queries will almost certainly follow. And, indeed, they do.


Seeing other people’s points of view is a valuable addition to your study Research Article Example . It is here that you will understand you do not have a monopoly on good ideas. There may be better, more sound ideas out there that can improve your work. You will then be able to break free from your personal biases and think beyond the box.

Research Paper Benefits


You may have raised concerns that were based on incorrect assumptions. If your assumptions are incorrect, everything you’ve stated is effectively incorrect. This result adheres to logic’s norms. If your premises are flawed, everything that follows is untrustworthy.


They think that having more heads is better than having one. You will feel more confident after going through a battery of inquiries and critical comments and being able to fight them off or appropriately address them. It boosts self-esteem and alleviates rejection worries.


You may have written Research Article more than is required. Taking out extraneous paragraphs or phrases here and there results in a succinct, properly written book.


Some people like pointing out spelling and grammatical faults. Although the focus should be placed on the content or ideas of your Research Article Format , grammar is quite important. Reading becomes easier with better grammar because the reading flow becomes more efficient.


You might have felt you’d written enough to clarify the situation. Then you realize your peers have only gotten halfway to the ideals you wish to express. To grasp and clarify ideas, you must elaborate on the issues you have mentioned.

Research Paper Services


If you went to the field with a coworker, he or she can corroborate or deny your observation. The work of others verifies your results.


If the peer-review process provided you with useful feedback, you will be more aware of the potential remarks, suggestions, or criticism of your Research Article  PDF  next time it is reviewed. You will be able to write better than before since you will have incorporated all of your colleagues’ comments and advice. As a result, you avoid making the same blunders as in your prior paper. The advantages of peer review are significant.

These modernized review benefits listed here have an impact on your attitude and research paper writing abilities.

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Critical Writing Program: Decision Making - Spring 2024: Researching the White Paper

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Research the White Paper

Researching the White Paper:

The process of researching and composing a white paper shares some similarities with the kind of research and writing one does for a high school or college research paper. What’s important for writers of white papers to grasp, however, is how much this genre differs from a research paper.  First, the author of a white paper already recognizes that there is a problem to be solved, a decision to be made, and the job of the author is to provide readers with substantive information to help them make some kind of decision--which may include a decision to do more research because major gaps remain. 

Thus, a white paper author would not “brainstorm” a topic. Instead, the white paper author would get busy figuring out how the problem is defined by those who are experiencing it as a problem. Typically that research begins in popular culture--social media, surveys, interviews, newspapers. Once the author has a handle on how the problem is being defined and experienced, its history and its impact, what people in the trenches believe might be the best or worst ways of addressing it, the author then will turn to academic scholarship as well as “grey” literature (more about that later).  Unlike a school research paper, the author does not set out to argue for or against a particular position, and then devote the majority of effort to finding sources to support the selected position.  Instead, the author sets out in good faith to do as much fact-finding as possible, and thus research is likely to present multiple, conflicting, and overlapping perspectives. When people research out of a genuine desire to understand and solve a problem, they listen to every source that may offer helpful information. They will thus have to do much more analysis, synthesis, and sorting of that information, which will often not fall neatly into a “pro” or “con” camp:  Solution A may, for example, solve one part of the problem but exacerbate another part of the problem. Solution C may sound like what everyone wants, but what if it’s built on a set of data that have been criticized by another reliable source?  And so it goes. 

For example, if you are trying to write a white paper on the opioid crisis, you may focus on the value of  providing free, sterilized needles--which do indeed reduce disease, and also provide an opportunity for the health care provider distributing them to offer addiction treatment to the user. However, the free needles are sometimes discarded on the ground, posing a danger to others; or they may be shared; or they may encourage more drug usage. All of those things can be true at once; a reader will want to know about all of these considerations in order to make an informed decision. That is the challenging job of the white paper author.     
 The research you do for your white paper will require that you identify a specific problem, seek popular culture sources to help define the problem, its history, its significance and impact for people affected by it.  You will then delve into academic and grey literature to learn about the way scholars and others with professional expertise answer these same questions. In this way, you will create creating a layered, complex portrait that provides readers with a substantive exploration useful for deliberating and decision-making. You will also likely need to find or create images, including tables, figures, illustrations or photographs, and you will document all of your sources. 

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Benefits of Publishing a Research Paper

Benefits of Publishing Research Paper

Publishing your research paper is a form of acknowledging your work in your field. It is a way of presenting your work and your contribution in front of the whole world. It guarantees that you have experience, exposure, expertise, and views recognized in the field of research. Let’s discuss a few points on how publishing your research paper is going to be beneficial for you as a high school student or an undergrad.

1. Improves writing and research

In the process of doing research, writing, editing, and publishing an article for the first time, valuable feedback will be provided, giving you an idea of where you need to improve and where your strengths are. For a professional career and graduate studies, writing skills are helpful.

2. Experience with the Scholarly Publication Process

The publication is required in many disciplines. It is something that we will use in our future career. It also provides a connection to and understanding of the field.

3. Build connections and networks

You meet people and build a lot of connections and networks during a research project. It’s very important and very beneficial. Similarly, when you publish your work, you meet a lot of different people from different journals. A lot of students submit their projects and thesis for review and are returned with many questions and corrections. The way you present and document your hard work and all the data you have collected is a very important criterion for journals. Often it is seen that a publication may be rejected by a well-known journal but may be accepted by a less known or less impact journal. During this process, you learn a lot and build connections that can help you in your future work and career.

4. Professionalize the undergraduate experience

Publishing papers/projects will provide a level of professionalization to a resume that many undergraduates still need to have. Publishing a paper will also be helpful as a writing sample for graduate school applications. It will signal to the graduate school committee that serious steps were taken to pursue research interests.

5. Inform a future career path

Publishing a paper might help inform a future career path, and opportunities have yet to be considered. After completing their undergraduate degree, it piques students’ interest in publishing as the next step. Working with other students and faculty will allow students to enter a scholarly community that helps them decide their future plans.

6. Higher Education

With the growing competition in higher education, research gives you an upper hand in the crowd. Every school and college has a different selection process. A published research paper shows that you have academic excellence. Hands-on research at an early age brings many benefits, and you learn many skills and values. Colleges select candidates based on the potential and abilities displayed in the applied field. Experience in research and a published paper as a high school student or an undergrad adds a big advantage to your profile. So the earlier you begin, the faster you can achieve your goal. There are many other benefits to publishing the research paper that you will realize as you go further. For example

  • Experience the scholarly publication process.
  • Be eligible to share your work in conferences and seminars.
  • Help you set a mark in the research world.
  • Prove your area of interest and genre of expertise.
  • Be eligible to obtain scholarships and funding for your work.
  • Display leadership and initiative.
  • Gain access to better work opportunities, etc.

7. To earn money

Master’s and Ph.D. students’ CVs need outstanding information that attracts employers. In this regard, some published papers in peer-reviewed journals will attract employers in academia and the research industry. Research and publishing in journals are very important Key Performance Indicators (KPI) of academicians or researchers in many universities in different countries. Hence, to earn more, you have to research and publish because promotion to a higher level always brings extra money into your pocket.

Research would allow you to explore in deep and help reach a conclusion, which could be right or wrong, but as you have read a lot, you have learned a lot. Your subconscious mind will store the knowledge that you have learned from research on an issue. Thus, you will be an expert in some particular areas that would develop your confidence to make viable arguments with colleagues and peers, who will admire you and give you a promotion, especially when you are in academia. So, doing research and publishing papers in journals creates the opportunity to earn money!

8. To Get Scholarship

There are many scholarships for masters and Ph.D. courses in the universities, especially in developed countries in the UK, Europe, Australia, Japan, USA, Canada, and Middle Eastern countries. However, if you have at least one research paper published in a peer-reviewed journal, your application will be preferred by the scholarship selection team. It is because you have already shown your passion and hard work regarding research. So to secure a good scholarship, you should have at least 2-3 published papers in peer-reviewed journals.

9. To be an Independent and Critical Thinker

A published research paper in a journal indicates to a prospective employer that you have excellent powers of endurance. Developing a research paper requires an investment of a long time in being independent and critical of the issue. Thus, the article shows that you can think independently and critically and complete a long project, i.e., a research paper of many pages.

10. To Developing Communication Skills and Network

When a master’s or Ph.D. student writes a paper, he or she reads many articles of many authors, and sometimes he or she has to email them or even call them. As a result, it becomes easier for them to develop academic and research communication skills. This eventually gives an excellent opportunity to create and establish a network with intellectual people around the world.

Furthermore, in writing and developing a detailed research paper, master’s and Ph.D. students can practically develop analytical and networking skills by themselves that are globally sought-after and incredibly beneficial.

11. To develop determination

People often say that they are determined, but they are actually not. However, if you write a research paper and publish it finally, it shows your determination to achieve something by exploring more than hundreds of research papers. In the publication process, a student has to revise and resubmit papers to get acceptance. The entire process takes a long time and positive determination. Sometimes, they feel broken and frustrated, but they feel successful if they finally get the paper published. Hence, doing research and getting published a research paper makes a master’s and Ph.D. student determined. This ultimately makes every master’s and Ph.D. student determine what employers look for in the applicants.

Now you know the importance of publishing research papers in peer-reviewed journals. Yes, you also know the importance of peer-reviewed articles in your CV. So, do research and publish. All the best!

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research paper writing benefits

AI Writes Scientific Papers That Sound Great—but Aren’t Accurate

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F irst came the students, who wanted help with their homework and essays. Now, ChatGPT is luring scientists, who are under pressure to publish papers in reputable scientific journals.

AI is already disrupting the archaic world of scientific publishing. When Melissa Kacena, vice chair of orthopaedic surgery at Indiana University School of Medicine, reviews articles submitted for publication in journals, she now knows to look out for ones that might have been written by the AI program. “I have a rule of thumb now that if I pull up 10 random references cited in the paper, and if more than one isn’t accurate, then I reject the paper,” she says.

But despite the pitfalls, there is also promise. Writing review articles, for example, is a task well suited to AI: it involves sifting through the existing research on a subject, analyzing the results, reaching a conclusion about the state of the science on the topic, and providing some new insight. ChatGPT can do all of those things well.

Kacena decided to see who is better at writing review articles: people or ChatGPT. For her study published in Current Osteoporosis Reports , she sorted nine students and the AI program into three groups and asked each group to write a review article on a different topic. For one group, she asked the students to write review articles on the topics; for another, she instructed ChatGPT to write articles on the same topics; and for the last group, she gave each of the students their own ChatGPT account and told them to work together with the AI program to write articles. That allowed her to compare articles written by people, by AI, and a combination of people and AI. She asked faculty member colleagues and the students to fact check each of the articles, and compared the three types of articles on measures like accuracy, ease of reading, and use of appropriate language.

Read More : To Make a Real Difference in Health Care, AI Will Need to Learn Like We Do

The results were eye-opening. The articles written by ChatGPT were easy to read and were even better written than the students'. But up to 70% of the cited references were inaccurate: they were either incoherently merged from several different studies or completely fictitious. The AI versions were also more likely to be plagiarized.

“ChatGPT was pretty convincing with some of the phony statements it made, to be honest,” says Kacena. “It used the proper syntax and integrated them with proper statements in a paragraph, so sometimes there were no warning bells. It was only because the faculty members had a good understanding of the data, or because the students fact checked everything, that they were detected.”

There were some advantages to the AI-generated articles. The algorithm was faster and more efficient in processing all the required data, and in general, ChatGPT used better grammar than the students. But it couldn't always read the room: AI tended to use more flowery language that wasn’t always appropriate for scientific journals (unless the students had told ChatGPT to write it from the perspective of a graduate-level science student.)

Read More : The 100 Most Influential People in AI

That reflects a truth about the use of AI: it's only as good as the information it receives. While ChatGPT isn’t quite ready to author scientific journal articles, with the proper programming and training, it could improve and become a useful tool for researchers. “Right now it’s not great by itself, but it can be made to work,” says Kacena. For example, if queried, the algorithm was good at recommending ways to summarize data in figures and graphical depictions. “The advice it gave on those were spot on, and exactly what I would have done,” she says.

The more feedback the students provided on ChatGPT's work, the better it learned—and that represents its greatest promise. In the study, some students found that when they worked together with ChatGPT to write the article, the program continued to improve and provide better results if they told it what things it was doing right, and what was less helpful. That means that addressing problems like questionable references and plagiarism could potentially be fixed. ChatGPT could be programmed, for example, to not merge references and to treat each scientific journal article as its own separate reference, and to limit copying consecutive words to avoid plagiarism.

With more input and some fixes, Kacena believes that AI could help researchers smooth out the writing process and even gain scientific insights. "I think ChatGPT is here to stay, and figuring out how to make it better, and how to use it in an ethical and conscientious and scientifically sound manner, is going to be really important,” she says.

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February 21, 2024

Why Writing by Hand Is Better for Memory and Learning

Engaging the fine motor system to produce letters by hand has positive effects on learning and memory

By Charlotte Hu

Student handwriting notes in class

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Handwriting notes in class might seem like an anachronism as smartphones and other digital technology subsume every aspect of learning across schools and universities. But a steady stream of research continues to suggest that taking notes the traditional way—with pen and paper or even stylus and tablet—is still the best way to learn, especially for young children. And now scientists are finally zeroing in on why.

A recent study in Frontiers in Psychology monitored brain activity in students taking notes and found that those writing by hand had higher levels of electrical activity across a wide range of interconnected brain regions responsible for movement, vision, sensory processing and memory. The findings add to a growing body of evidence that has many experts speaking up about the importance of teaching children to handwrite words and draw pictures.

Differences in Brain Activity

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The new research, by Audrey van der Meer and Ruud van der Weel at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), builds on a foundational 2014 study . That work suggested that people taking notes by computer were typing without thinking, says van der Meer , a professor of neuropsychology at NTNU. “It’s very tempting to type down everything that the lecturer is saying,” she says. “It kind of goes in through your ears and comes out through your fingertips, but you don’t process the incoming information.” But when taking notes by hand, it’s often impossible to write everything down; students have to actively pay attention to the incoming information and process it—prioritize it, consolidate it and try to relate it to things they’ve learned before. This conscious action of building onto existing knowledge can make it easier to stay engaged and grasp new concepts .

To understand specific brain activity differences during the two note-taking approaches, the NTNU researchers tweaked the 2014 study’s basic setup. They sewed electrodes into a hairnet with 256 sensors that recorded the brain activity of 36 students as they wrote or typed 15 words from the game Pictionary that were displayed on a screen.

When students wrote the words by hand, the sensors picked up widespread connectivity across many brain regions. Typing, however, led to minimal activity, if any, in the same areas. Handwriting activated connection patterns spanning visual regions, regions that receive and process sensory information and the motor cortex. The latter handles body movement and sensorimotor integration, which helps the brain use environmental inputs to inform a person’s next action.

“When you are typing, the same simple movement of your fingers is involved in producing every letter, whereas when you’re writing by hand, you immediately feel that the bodily feeling of producing A is entirely different from producing a B,” van der Meer says. She notes that children who have learned to read and write by tapping on a digital tablet “often have difficulty distinguishing letters that look a lot like each other or that are mirror images of each other, like the b and the d.”

Reinforcing Memory and Learning Pathways

Sophia Vinci-Booher , an assistant professor of educational neuroscience at Vanderbilt University who was not involved in the new study, says its findings are exciting and consistent with past research. “You can see that in tasks that really lock the motor and sensory systems together, such as in handwriting, there’s this really clear tie between this motor action being accomplished and the visual and conceptual recognition being created,” she says. “As you’re drawing a letter or writing a word, you’re taking this perceptual understanding of something and using your motor system to create it.” That creation is then fed back into the visual system, where it’s processed again—strengthening the connection between an action and the images or words associated with it. It’s similar to imagining something and then creating it: when you materialize something from your imagination (by writing it, drawing it or building it), this reinforces the imagined concept and helps it stick in your memory.

The phenomenon of boosting memory by producing something tangible has been well studied. Previous research has found that when people are asked to write, draw or act out a word that they’re reading, they have to focus more on what they’re doing with the received information. Transferring verbal information to a different form, such as a written format, also involves activating motor programs in the brain to create a specific sequence of hand motions, explains Yadurshana Sivashankar , a cognitive neuroscience graduate student at the University of Waterloo in Ontario who studies movement and memory. But handwriting requires more of the brain’s motor programs than typing. “When you’re writing the word ‘the,’ the actual movements of the hand relate to the structures of the word to some extent,” says Sivashankar, who was not involved in the new study.

For example, participants in a 2021 study by Sivashankar memorized a list of action verbs more accurately if they performed the corresponding action than if they performed an unrelated action or none at all. “Drawing information and enacting information is helpful because you have to think about information and you have to produce something that’s meaningful,” she says. And by transforming the information, you pave and deepen these interconnections across the brain’s vast neural networks, making it “much easier to access that information.”

The Importance of Handwriting Lessons for Kids

Across many contexts, studies have shown that kids appear to learn better when they’re asked to produce letters or other visual items using their fingers and hands in a coordinated way—one that can’t be replicated by clicking a mouse or tapping buttons on a screen or keyboard. Vinci-Booher’s research has also found that the action of handwriting appears to engage different brain regions at different levels than other standard learning experiences, such as reading or observing. Her work has also shown that handwriting improves letter recognition in preschool children, and the effects of learning through writing “last longer than other learning experiences that might engage attention at a similar level,” Vinci-Booher says. Additionally, she thinks it’s possible that engaging the motor system is how children learn how to break “ mirror invariance ” (registering mirror images as identical) and begin to decipher things such as the difference between the lowercase b and p.

Vinci-Booher says the new study opens up bigger questions about the way we learn, such as how brain region connections change over time and when these connections are most important in learning. She and other experts say, however, that the new findings don’t mean technology is a disadvantage in the classroom. Laptops, smartphones and other such devices can be more efficient for writing essays or conducting research and can offer more equitable access to educational resources. Problems occur when people rely on technology too much , Sivashankar says. People are increasingly delegating thought processes to digital devices, an act called “ cognitive offloading ”—using smartphones to remember tasks, taking a photo instead of memorizing information or depending on a GPS to navigate. “It’s helpful, but we think the constant offloading means it’s less work for the brain,” Sivashankar says. “If we’re not actively using these areas, then they are going to deteriorate over time, whether it’s memory or motor skills.”

Van der Meer says some officials in Norway are inching toward implementing completely digital schools . She claims first grade teachers there have told her their incoming students barely know how to hold a pencil now—which suggests they weren’t coloring pictures or assembling puzzles in nursery school. Van der Meer says they’re missing out on opportunities that can help stimulate their growing brains.

“I think there’s a very strong case for engaging children in drawing and handwriting activities, especially in preschool and kindergarten when they’re first learning about letters,” Vinci-Booher says. “There’s something about engaging the fine motor system and production activities that really impacts learning.”


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  1. 11.1 The Purpose of Research Writing

    Step 4: Organizing Research and the Writer's Ideas. When your research is complete, you will organize your findings and decide which sources to cite in your paper. You will also have an opportunity to evaluate the evidence you have collected and determine whether it supports your thesis, or the focus of your paper.

  2. Benefits of Writing a Quality Research Paper

    Listed below are just a few of the many benefits to writing a quality research paper: Recognition from peers in your field of work for all your hard work and showing pride for your academic institution. Collaboration with others in your field of expertise from around the world and the potential for research jobs or job recruitment offers.

  3. How to Write a Research Paper

    Home Knowledge Base Research paper How to Write a Research Paper | A Beginner's Guide A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides analysis, interpretation, and argument based on in-depth independent research.

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    Writing a Research Paper Is Challenging, But a Strong Writing Process Can Help. Writing an academic research paper is always a challenge. But by following these tips on writing a research paper, you can typically produce your paper efficiently and effectively without wasting time on irrelevant information and sources. As a result, your final ...

  5. What Is Academic Writing?

    Academic writing is a formal style of writing used in universities and scholarly publications. You'll encounter it in journal articles and books on academic topics, and you'll be expected to write your essays, research papers, and dissertation in academic style. Academic writing follows the same writing process as other types of texts, but ...

  6. What are the advantages of writing a research paper?

    Answer: Publication of research articles is as important as carrying out the research; dissemination of findings being as critical as the actual finding. The ability to write good research papers makes the publication process simpler allowing for appropriate dissemination of the work in a timely manner.

  7. Writing a Research Paper Introduction

    Table of contents. Step 1: Introduce your topic. Step 2: Describe the background. Step 3: Establish your research problem. Step 4: Specify your objective (s) Step 5: Map out your paper. Research paper introduction examples. Frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.

  8. The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Research Paper

    What is a research paper? A research paper is a type of academic writing that provides an in-depth analysis, evaluation, or interpretation of a single topic, based on empirical evidence. Research papers are similar to analytical essays, except that research papers emphasize the use of statistical data and preexisting research, along with a strict code for citations.

  9. PDF Strategies for Essay Writing

    In a short paper—even a research paper—you don't need to provide an exhaustive summary as part of your conclusion. But you do need to make some kind of transition between your final body paragraph and your concluding paragraph. This may come in the form of a few sentences of summary. Or it may come in the form of a sentence that

  10. What Is a Research Paper?

    A research paper is a common form of academic writing. Research papers require students and academics to locate information about a topic (that is, to conduct research ), take a stand on that topic, and provide support (or evidence) for that position in an organized report. The term research paper may also refer to a scholarly article that ...

  11. Why Write a Scientific Research Paper

    Research work published as a scientific research paper disseminates the knowledge and information to a larger audience. Dissertation and thesis have a different meaning although both are used synonymously. Publication of research paper enhances fellowship and job opportunities for young researchers. Publication of research paper gives funding ...

  12. 13.1 Formatting a Research Paper

    Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch. Use double-spaced text throughout your paper. Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point). Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section.

  13. Writing the Research Paper Slowly

    The typical approach to the research paper -- the generic term for pretty much all academic writing -- is to assign it as a summative assessment at the end of the semester. Faculty members normally give students a couple of weeks to research a topic, acquire new knowledge and communicate that knowledge in a perfectly formatted 20-page paper.

  14. How to Write a Research Paper

    8 min read Jan 14, 2024 How To Write A Research Paper - The Clear-Cut and Error-Free Way! To write a research paper, select a topic, gather and organize information, and formulate a thesis. Create an outline, draft the main content, reassess your thesis, and revise the draft.

  15. How to Write a Research Paper

    By refining your focus, you can produce a thoughtful and engaging paper that effectively communicates your ideas to your readers. 5. Write a thesis statement. A thesis statement is a one-to-two-sentence summary of your research paper's main argument or direction.

  16. PDF The Benefits of Writing

    Writing might be beneficial to cognitive skills because it re-quires focusing of attention, planning and forethought, organization of one's thinking, and reflective thought, among other abilities - thereby sharpening these skills through practice and reinforcement.

  17. Research and teaching writing

    Writing is an essential but complex skill that students must master if they are to take full advantage of educational, occupational, and civic responsibilities. Schools, and the teachers who work in them, are tasked with teaching students how to write. Knowledge about how to teach writing can be obtained from many different sources, including one's experience teaching or being taught to ...

  18. The Benefits of Research Papers for Students

    The Benefits of Writing Research Papers. Research papers can be a great way for students to engage in independent learning. As they complete their research, the student will become familiar with primary and secondary sources as well as how to evaluate information. By having experience in such activities, it is likely that a student's critical ...

  19. 7 Benefits of Reading Research Papers Regularly

    4. Creates a rich repository of relevant references 5. Develops critical thinking 6.Teaches you how to identify credible information 7. Builds professional relationships and stronger networks Key benefits of reading research papers It is critical for researchers to develop a habit of reading research papers from the very beginning of their careers.

  20. Academic Writing Groups: 5 Benefits for Researchers

    Here are 5 ways in which they can support research authors. 1. Providing a social anchor. The process of writing can often be a lonely effort that can be counter-productive and create apprehensions and doubt within the researcher or student. By being part of academic writing groups, you can always be assured to peer support and constructive ...

  21. 10 Benefits of Writing a Research Paper

    10 Benefits of Writing a Research Paper by United Innovators February 11, 2022 Scientific research is a systematic way to go through before submitting your Research Article for Publication or meeting the requirements of a research project. There are usually items that you will have missed while authoring your research report.

  22. Researching the White Paper

    Researching the White Paper: The process of researching and composing a white paper shares some similarities with the kind of research and writing one does for a high school or college research paper. What's important for writers of white papers to grasp, however, is how much this genre differs from a research paper.

  23. Benefits of Publishing a Research Paper

    1. Improves writing and research In the process of doing research, writing, editing, and publishing an article for the first time, valuable feedback will be provided, giving you an idea of where you need to improve and where your strengths are. For a professional career and graduate studies, writing skills are helpful. 2.

  24. What is the benefit of using sources of information for writing a

    1 Answer to this question. Answer: Actually, using sources of information - in other words, referencing - is not just beneficial for writing a research paper, it's essential to it. There doesn't seem to be any form of a scientific article that may not require some amount of referencing, even a perspective piece or a letter to the editor.

  25. What's All This About Journaling?

    There are the obvious benefits, like a boost in mindfulness, memory and communication skills. But studies have also found that writing in a journal can lead to better sleep, a stronger immune ...

  26. AI Writes Scientific Papers That Sound Great—But Aren't Accurate

    The results were eye-opening. The articles written by ChatGPT were easy to read and were even better written than the students'. But up to 70% of the cited references were inaccurate: they were ...

  27. Why Writing by Hand Is Better for Memory and Learning

    But a steady stream of research continues to suggest that taking notes the traditional way—with pen and paper or even stylus and tablet—is still the best way to learn, especially for young ...

  28. Study finds that urban agriculture must be carefully planned to have

    Despite strong evidence of the social and nutritional benefits of urban agriculture, its carbon footprint remains understudied. Most previously published studies have focused on high-tech, energy-intensive forms of UA—such as vertical farms and rooftop greenhouses—even though the vast majority of urban farms are decidedly low-tech: crops grown in soil on open-air plots.