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Study and Investigation on 5G Technology: A Systematic Review

Ramraj dangi.

1 School of Computing Science and Engineering, VIT University Bhopal, Bhopal 466114, India; [email protected] (R.D.); [email protected] (P.L.)

Praveen Lalwani

Gaurav choudhary.

2 Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark; moc.liamg@7777yrahduohcvaruag

3 Department of Information Security Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan-si 31538, Korea

Giovanni Pau

4 Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Kore University of Enna, 94100 Enna, Italy; [email protected]

Associated Data

Not applicable.

In wireless communication, Fifth Generation (5G) Technology is a recent generation of mobile networks. In this paper, evaluations in the field of mobile communication technology are presented. In each evolution, multiple challenges were faced that were captured with the help of next-generation mobile networks. Among all the previously existing mobile networks, 5G provides a high-speed internet facility, anytime, anywhere, for everyone. 5G is slightly different due to its novel features such as interconnecting people, controlling devices, objects, and machines. 5G mobile system will bring diverse levels of performance and capability, which will serve as new user experiences and connect new enterprises. Therefore, it is essential to know where the enterprise can utilize the benefits of 5G. In this research article, it was observed that extensive research and analysis unfolds different aspects, namely, millimeter wave (mmWave), massive multiple-input and multiple-output (Massive-MIMO), small cell, mobile edge computing (MEC), beamforming, different antenna technology, etc. This article’s main aim is to highlight some of the most recent enhancements made towards the 5G mobile system and discuss its future research objectives.

1. Introduction

Most recently, in three decades, rapid growth was marked in the field of wireless communication concerning the transition of 1G to 4G [ 1 , 2 ]. The main motto behind this research was the requirements of high bandwidth and very low latency. 5G provides a high data rate, improved quality of service (QoS), low-latency, high coverage, high reliability, and economically affordable services. 5G delivers services categorized into three categories: (1) Extreme mobile broadband (eMBB). It is a nonstandalone architecture that offers high-speed internet connectivity, greater bandwidth, moderate latency, UltraHD streaming videos, virtual reality and augmented reality (AR/VR) media, and many more. (2) Massive machine type communication (eMTC), 3GPP releases it in its 13th specification. It provides long-range and broadband machine-type communication at a very cost-effective price with less power consumption. eMTC brings a high data rate service, low power, extended coverage via less device complexity through mobile carriers for IoT applications. (3) ultra-reliable low latency communication (URLLC) offers low-latency and ultra-high reliability, rich quality of service (QoS), which is not possible with traditional mobile network architecture. URLLC is designed for on-demand real-time interaction such as remote surgery, vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication, industry 4.0, smart grids, intelligent transport system, etc. [ 3 ].

1.1. Evolution from 1G to 5G

First generation (1G): 1G cell phone was launched between the 1970s and 80s, based on analog technology, which works just like a landline phone. It suffers in various ways, such as poor battery life, voice quality, and dropped calls. In 1G, the maximum achievable speed was 2.4 Kbps.

Second Generation (2G): In 2G, the first digital system was offered in 1991, providing improved mobile voice communication over 1G. In addition, Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Global System for Mobile (GSM) concepts were also discussed. In 2G, the maximum achievable speed was 1 Mpbs.

Third Generation (3G): When technology ventured from 2G GSM frameworks into 3G universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS) framework, users encountered higher system speed and quicker download speed making constant video calls. 3G was the first mobile broadband system that was formed to provide the voice with some multimedia. The technology behind 3G was high-speed packet access (HSPA/HSPA+). 3G used MIMO for multiplying the power of the wireless network, and it also used packet switching for fast data transmission.

Fourth Generation (4G): It is purely mobile broadband standard. In digital mobile communication, it was observed information rate that upgraded from 20 to 60 Mbps in 4G [ 4 ]. It works on LTE and WiMAX technologies, as well as provides wider bandwidth up to 100 Mhz. It was launched in 2010.

Fourth Generation LTE-A (4.5G): It is an advanced version of standard 4G LTE. LTE-A uses MIMO technology to combine multiple antennas for both transmitters as well as a receiver. Using MIMO, multiple signals and multiple antennas can work simultaneously, making LTE-A three times faster than standard 4G. LTE-A offered an improved system limit, decreased deferral in the application server, access triple traffic (Data, Voice, and Video) wirelessly at any time anywhere in the world.LTE-A delivers speeds of over 42 Mbps and up to 90 Mbps.

Fifth Generation (5G): 5G is a pillar of digital transformation; it is a real improvement on all the previous mobile generation networks. 5G brings three different services for end user like Extreme mobile broadband (eMBB). It offers high-speed internet connectivity, greater bandwidth, moderate latency, UltraHD streaming videos, virtual reality and augmented reality (AR/VR) media, and many more. Massive machine type communication (eMTC), it provides long-range and broadband machine-type communication at a very cost-effective price with less power consumption. eMTC brings a high data rate service, low power, extended coverage via less device complexity through mobile carriers for IoT applications. Ultra-reliable low latency communication (URLLC) offers low-latency and ultra-high reliability, rich quality of service (QoS), which is not possible with traditional mobile network architecture. URLLC is designed for on-demand real-time interaction such as remote surgery, vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication, industry 4.0, smart grids, intelligent transport system, etc. 5G faster than 4G and offers remote-controlled operation over a reliable network with zero delays. It provides down-link maximum throughput of up to 20 Gbps. In addition, 5G also supports 4G WWWW (4th Generation World Wide Wireless Web) [ 5 ] and is based on Internet protocol version 6 (IPv6) protocol. 5G provides unlimited internet connection at your convenience, anytime, anywhere with extremely high speed, high throughput, low-latency, higher reliability and scalability, and energy-efficient mobile communication technology [ 6 ]. 5G mainly divided in two parts 6 GHz 5G and Millimeter wave(mmWave) 5G.

6 GHz is a mid frequency band which works as a mid point between capacity and coverage to offer perfect environment for 5G connectivity. 6 GHz spectrum will provide high bandwidth with improved network performance. It offers continuous channels that will reduce the need for network densification when mid-band spectrum is not available and it makes 5G connectivity affordable at anytime, anywhere for everyone.

mmWave is an essential technology of 5G network which build high performance network. 5G mmWave offer diverse services that is why all network providers should add on this technology in their 5G deployment planning. There are lots of service providers who deployed 5G mmWave, and their simulation result shows that 5G mmwave is a far less used spectrum. It provides very high speed wireless communication and it also offers ultra-wide bandwidth for next generation mobile network.

The evolution of wireless mobile technologies are presented in Table 1 . The abbreviations used in this paper are mentioned in Table 2 .

Summary of Mobile Technology.

Table of Notations and Abbreviations.

1.2. Key Contributions

The objective of this survey is to provide a detailed guide of 5G key technologies, methods to researchers, and to help with understanding how the recent works addressed 5G problems and developed solutions to tackle the 5G challenges; i.e., what are new methods that must be applied and how can they solve problems? Highlights of the research article are as follows.

  • This survey focused on the recent trends and development in the era of 5G and novel contributions by the researcher community and discussed technical details on essential aspects of the 5G advancement.
  • In this paper, the evolution of the mobile network from 1G to 5G is presented. In addition, the growth of mobile communication under different attributes is also discussed.
  • This paper covers the emerging applications and research groups working on 5G & different research areas in 5G wireless communication network with a descriptive taxonomy.
  • This survey discusses the current vision of the 5G networks, advantages, applications, key technologies, and key features. Furthermore, machine learning prospects are also explored with the emerging requirements in the 5G era. The article also focused on technical aspects of 5G IoT Based approaches and optimization techniques for 5G.
  • we provide an extensive overview and recent advancement of emerging technologies of 5G mobile network, namely, MIMO, Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA), mmWave, Internet of Things (IoT), Machine Learning (ML), and optimization. Also, a technical summary is discussed by highlighting the context of current approaches and corresponding challenges.
  • Security challenges and considerations while developing 5G technology are discussed.
  • Finally, the paper concludes with the future directives.

The existing survey focused on architecture, key concepts, and implementation challenges and issues. In contrast, this survey covers the state-of-the-art techniques as well as corresponding recent novel developments by researchers. Various recent significant papers are discussed with the key technologies accelerating the development and production of 5G products.

2. Existing Surveys and Their Applicability

In this paper, a detailed survey on various technologies of 5G networks is presented. Various researchers have worked on different technologies of 5G networks. In this section, Table 3 gives a tabular representation of existing surveys of 5G networks. Massive MIMO, NOMA, small cell, mmWave, beamforming, and MEC are the six main pillars that helped to implement 5G networks in real life.

A comparative overview of existing surveys on different technologies of 5G networks.

2.1. Limitations of Existing Surveys

The existing survey focused on architecture, key concepts, and implementation challenges and issues. The numerous current surveys focused on various 5G technologies with different parameters, and the authors did not cover all the technologies of the 5G network in detail with challenges and recent advancements. Few authors worked on MIMO (Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access) NOMA, MEC, small cell technologies. In contrast, some others worked on beamforming, Millimeter-wave (mmWave). But the existing survey did not cover all the technologies of the 5G network from a research and advancement perspective. No detailed survey is available in the market covering all the 5G network technologies and currently published research trade-offs. So, our main aim is to give a detailed study of all the technologies working on the 5G network. In contrast, this survey covers the state-of-the-art techniques as well as corresponding recent novel developments by researchers. Various recent significant papers are discussed with the key technologies accelerating the development and production of 5G products. This survey article collected key information about 5G technology and recent advancements, and it can be a kind of a guide for the reader. This survey provides an umbrella approach to bring multiple solutions and recent improvements in a single place to accelerate the 5G research with the latest key enabling solutions and reviews. A systematic layout representation of the survey in Figure 1 . We provide a state-of-the-art comparative overview of the existing surveys on different technologies of 5G networks in Table 3 .

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Object name is sensors-22-00026-g001.jpg

Systematic layout representation of survey.

2.2. Article Organization

This article is organized under the following sections. Section 2 presents existing surveys and their applicability. In Section 3 , the preliminaries of 5G technology are presented. In Section 4 , recent advances of 5G technology based on Massive MIMO, NOMA, Millimeter Wave, 5G with IoT, machine learning for 5G, and Optimization in 5G are provided. In Section 5 , a description of novel 5G features over 4G is provided. Section 6 covered all the security concerns of the 5G network. Section 7 , 5G technology based on above-stated challenges summarize in tabular form. Finally, Section 8 and Section 9 conclude the study, which paves the path for future research.

3. Preliminary Section

3.1. emerging 5g paradigms and its features.

5G provides very high speed, low latency, and highly salable connectivity between multiple devices and IoT worldwide. 5G will provide a very flexible model to develop a modern generation of applications and industry goals [ 26 , 27 ]. There are many services offered by 5G network architecture are stated below:

Massive machine to machine communications: 5G offers novel, massive machine-to-machine communications [ 28 ], also known as the IoT [ 29 ], that provide connectivity between lots of machines without any involvement of humans. This service enhances the applications of 5G and provides connectivity between agriculture, construction, and industries [ 30 ].

Ultra-reliable low latency communications (URLLC): This service offers real-time management of machines, high-speed vehicle-to-vehicle connectivity, industrial connectivity and security principles, and highly secure transport system, and multiple autonomous actions. Low latency communications also clear up a different area where remote medical care, procedures, and operation are all achievable [ 31 ].

Enhanced mobile broadband: Enhance mobile broadband is an important use case of 5G system, which uses massive MIMO antenna, mmWave, beamforming techniques to offer very high-speed connectivity across a wide range of areas [ 32 ].

For communities: 5G provides a very flexible internet connection between lots of machines to make smart homes, smart schools, smart laboratories, safer and smart automobiles, and good health care centers [ 33 ].

For businesses and industry: As 5G works on higher spectrum ranges from 24 to 100 GHz. This higher frequency range provides secure low latency communication and high-speed wireless connectivity between IoT devices and industry 4.0, which opens a market for end-users to enhance their business models [ 34 ].

New and Emerging technologies: As 5G came up with many new technologies like beamforming, massive MIMO, mmWave, small cell, NOMA, MEC, and network slicing, it introduced many new features to the market. Like virtual reality (VR), users can experience the physical presence of people who are millions of kilometers away from them. Many new technologies like smart homes, smart workplaces, smart schools, smart sports academy also came into the market with this 5G Mobile network model [ 35 ].

3.2. Commercial Service Providers of 5G

5G provides high-speed internet browsing, streaming, and downloading with very high reliability and low latency. 5G network will change your working style, and it will increase new business opportunities and provide innovations that we cannot imagine. This section covers top service providers of 5G network [ 36 , 37 ].

Ericsson: Ericsson is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company, investing around 25.62 billion USD in 5G network, which makes it the biggest telecommunication company. It claims that it is the only company working on all the continents to make the 5G network a global standard for the next generation wireless communication. Ericsson developed the first 5G radio prototype that enables the operators to set up the live field trials in their network, which helps operators understand how 5G reacts. It plays a vital role in the development of 5G hardware. It currently provides 5G services in over 27 countries with content providers like China Mobile, GCI, LGU+, AT&T, Rogers, and many more. It has 100 commercial agreements with different operators as of 2020.

Verizon: It is American multinational telecommunication which was founded in 1983. Verizon started offering 5G services in April 2020, and by December 2020, it has actively provided 5G services in 30 cities of the USA. They planned that by the end of 2021, they would deploy 5G in 30 more new cities. Verizon deployed a 5G network on mmWave, a very high band spectrum between 30 to 300 GHz. As it is a significantly less used spectrum, it provides very high-speed wireless communication. MmWave offers ultra-wide bandwidth for next-generation mobile networks. MmWave is a faster and high-band spectrum that has a limited range. Verizon planned to increase its number of 5G cells by 500% by 2020. Verizon also has an ultra wide-band flagship 5G service which is the best 5G service that increases the market price of Verizon.

Nokia: Nokia is a Finnish multinational telecommunications company which was founded in 1865. Nokia is one of the companies which adopted 5G technology very early. It is developing, researching, and building partnerships with various 5G renders to offer 5G communication as soon as possible. Nokia collaborated with Deutsche Telekom and Hamburg Port Authority and provided them 8000-hectare site for their 5G MoNArch project. Nokia is the only company that supplies 5G technology to all the operators of different countries like AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile US and Verizon in the USA, Korea Telecom, LG U+ and SK Telecom in South Korea and NTT DOCOMO, KDDI, and SoftBank in Japan. Presently, Nokia has around 150+ agreements and 29 live networks all over the world. Nokia is continuously working hard on 5G technology to expand 5G networks all over the globe.

AT&T: AT&T is an American multinational company that was the first to deploy a 5G network in reality in 2018. They built a gigabit 5G network connection in Waco, TX, Kalamazoo, MI, and South Bend to achieve this. It is the first company that archives 1–2 gigabit per second speed in 2019. AT&T claims that it provides a 5G network connection among 225 million people worldwide by using a 6 GHz spectrum band.

T-Mobile: T-Mobile US (TMUS) is an American wireless network operator which was the first service provider that offers a real 5G nationwide network. The company knew that high-band 5G was not feasible nationwide, so they used a 600 MHz spectrum to build a significant portion of its 5G network. TMUS is planning that by 2024 they will double the total capacity and triple the full 5G capacity of T-Mobile and Sprint combined. The sprint buyout is helping T-Mobile move forward the company’s current market price to 129.98 USD.

Samsung: Samsung started their research in 5G technology in 2011. In 2013, Samsung successfully developed the world’s first adaptive array transceiver technology operating in the millimeter-wave Ka bands for cellular communications. Samsung provides several hundred times faster data transmission than standard 4G for core 5G mobile communication systems. The company achieved a lot of success in the next generation of technology, and it is considered one of the leading companies in the 5G domain.

Qualcomm: Qualcomm is an American multinational corporation in San Diego, California. It is also one of the leading company which is working on 5G chip. Qualcomm’s first 5G modem chip was announced in October 2016, and a prototype was demonstrated in October 2017. Qualcomm mainly focuses on building products while other companies talk about 5G; Qualcomm is building the technologies. According to one magazine, Qualcomm was working on three main areas of 5G networks. Firstly, radios that would use bandwidth from any network it has access to; secondly, creating more extensive ranges of spectrum by combining smaller pieces; and thirdly, a set of services for internet applications.

ZTE Corporation: ZTE Corporation was founded in 1985. It is a partially Chinese state-owned technology company that works in telecommunication. It was a leading company that worked on 4G LTE, and it is still maintaining its value and doing research and tests on 5G. It is the first company that proposed Pre5G technology with some series of solutions.

NEC Corporation: NEC Corporation is a Japanese multinational information technology and electronics corporation headquartered in Minato, Tokyo. ZTE also started their research on 5G, and they introduced a new business concept. NEC’s main aim is to develop 5G NR for the global mobile system and create secure and intelligent technologies to realize 5G services.

Cisco: Cisco is a USA networking hardware company that also sleeves up for 5G network. Cisco’s primary focus is to support 5G in three ways: Service—enable 5G services faster so all service providers can increase their business. Infrastructure—build 5G-oriented infrastructure to implement 5G more quickly. Automation—make a more scalable, flexible, and reliable 5G network. The companies know the importance of 5G, and they want to connect more than 30 billion devices in the next couple of years. Cisco intends to work on network hardening as it is a vital part of 5G network. Cisco used AI with deep learning to develop a 5G Security Architecture, enabling Secure Network Transformation.

3.3. 5G Research Groups

Many research groups from all over the world are working on a 5G wireless mobile network [ 38 ]. These groups are continuously working on various aspects of 5G. The list of those research groups are presented as follows: 5GNOW (5th Generation Non-Orthogonal Waveform for Asynchronous Signaling), NEWCOM (Network of Excellence in Wireless Communication), 5GIC (5G Innovation Center), NYU (New York University) Wireless, 5GPPP (5G Infrastructure Public-Private Partnership), EMPHATIC (Enhanced Multi-carrier Technology for Professional Adhoc and Cell-Based Communication), ETRI(Electronics and Telecommunication Research Institute), METIS (Mobile and wireless communication Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society) [ 39 ]. The various research groups along with the research area are presented in Table 4 .

Research groups working on 5G mobile networks.

3.4. 5G Applications

5G is faster than 4G and offers remote-controlled operation over a reliable network with zero delays. It provides down-link maximum throughput of up to 20 Gbps. In addition, 5G also supports 4G WWWW (4th Generation World Wide Wireless Web) [ 5 ] and is based on Internet protocol version 6 (IPv6) protocol. 5G provides unlimited internet connection at your convenience, anytime, anywhere with extremely high speed, high throughput, low-latency, higher reliability, greater scalablility, and energy-efficient mobile communication technology [ 6 ].

There are lots of applications of 5G mobile network are as follows:

  • High-speed mobile network: 5G is an advancement on all the previous mobile network technologies, which offers very high speed downloading speeds 0 of up to 10 to 20 Gbps. The 5G wireless network works as a fiber optic internet connection. 5G is different from all the conventional mobile transmission technologies, and it offers both voice and high-speed data connectivity efficiently. 5G offers very low latency communication of less than a millisecond, useful for autonomous driving and mission-critical applications. 5G will use millimeter waves for data transmission, providing higher bandwidth and a massive data rate than lower LTE bands. As 5 Gis a fast mobile network technology, it will enable virtual access to high processing power and secure and safe access to cloud services and enterprise applications. Small cell is one of the best features of 5G, which brings lots of advantages like high coverage, high-speed data transfer, power saving, easy and fast cloud access, etc. [ 40 ].
  • Entertainment and multimedia: In one analysis in 2015, it was found that more than 50 percent of mobile internet traffic was used for video downloading. This trend will surely increase in the future, which will make video streaming more common. 5G will offer High-speed streaming of 4K videos with crystal clear audio, and it will make a high definition virtual world on your mobile. 5G will benefit the entertainment industry as it offers 120 frames per second with high resolution and higher dynamic range video streaming, and HD TV channels can also be accessed on mobile devices without any interruptions. 5G provides low latency high definition communication so augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR) will be very easily implemented in the future. Virtual reality games are trendy these days, and many companies are investing in HD virtual reality games. The 5G network will offer high-speed internet connectivity with a better gaming experience [ 41 ].
  • Smart homes : smart home appliances and products are in demand these days. The 5G network makes smart homes more real as it offers high-speed connectivity and monitoring of smart appliances. Smart home appliances are easily accessed and configured from remote locations using the 5G network as it offers very high-speed low latency communication.
  • Smart cities: 5G wireless network also helps develop smart cities applications such as automatic traffic management, weather update, local area broadcasting, energy-saving, efficient power supply, smart lighting system, water resource management, crowd management, emergency control, etc.
  • Industrial IoT: 5G wireless technology will provide lots of features for future industries such as safety, process tracking, smart packing, shipping, energy efficiency, automation of equipment, predictive maintenance, and logistics. 5G smart sensor technology also offers smarter, safer, cost-effective, and energy-saving industrial IoT operations.
  • Smart Farming: 5G technology will play a crucial role in agriculture and smart farming. 5G sensors and GPS technology will help farmers track live attacks on crops and manage them quickly. These smart sensors can also be used for irrigation, pest, insect, and electricity control.
  • Autonomous Driving: The 5G wireless network offers very low latency high-speed communication, significant for autonomous driving. It means self-driving cars will come to real life soon with 5G wireless networks. Using 5G autonomous cars can easily communicate with smart traffic signs, objects, and other vehicles running on the road. 5G’s low latency feature makes self-driving more real as every millisecond is essential for autonomous vehicles, decision-making is done in microseconds to avoid accidents.
  • Healthcare and mission-critical applications: 5G technology will bring modernization in medicine where doctors and practitioners can perform advanced medical procedures. The 5G network will provide connectivity between all classrooms, so attending seminars and lectures will be easier. Through 5G technology, patients can connect with doctors and take their advice. Scientists are building smart medical devices which can help people with chronic medical conditions. The 5G network will boost the healthcare industry with smart devices, the internet of medical things, smart sensors, HD medical imaging technologies, and smart analytics systems. 5G will help access cloud storage, so accessing healthcare data will be very easy from any location worldwide. Doctors and medical practitioners can easily store and share large files like MRI reports within seconds using the 5G network.
  • Satellite Internet: In many remote areas, ground base stations are not available, so 5G will play a crucial role in providing connectivity in such areas. The 5G network will provide connectivity using satellite systems, and the satellite system uses a constellation of multiple small satellites to provide connectivity in urban and rural areas across the world.

4. 5G Technologies

This section describes recent advances of 5G Massive MIMO, 5G NOMA, 5G millimeter wave, 5G IOT, 5G with machine learning, and 5G optimization-based approaches. In addition, the summary is also presented in each subsection that paves the researchers for the future research direction.

4.1. 5G Massive MIMO

Multiple-input-multiple-out (MIMO) is a very important technology for wireless systems. It is used for sending and receiving multiple signals simultaneously over the same radio channel. MIMO plays a very big role in WI-FI, 3G, 4G, and 4G LTE-A networks. MIMO is mainly used to achieve high spectral efficiency and energy efficiency but it was not up to the mark MIMO provides low throughput and very low reliable connectivity. To resolve this, lots of MIMO technology like single user MIMO (SU-MIMO), multiuser MIMO (MU-MIMO) and network MIMO were used. However, these new MIMO also did not still fulfill the demand of end users. Massive MIMO is an advancement of MIMO technology used in the 5G network in which hundreds and thousands of antennas are attached with base stations to increase throughput and spectral efficiency. Multiple transmit and receive antennas are used in massive MIMO to increase the transmission rate and spectral efficiency. When multiple UEs generate downlink traffic simultaneously, massive MIMO gains higher capacity. Massive MIMO uses extra antennas to move energy into smaller regions of space to increase spectral efficiency and throughput [ 43 ]. In traditional systems data collection from smart sensors is a complex task as it increases latency, reduced data rate and reduced reliability. While massive MIMO with beamforming and huge multiplexing techniques can sense data from different sensors with low latency, high data rate and higher reliability. Massive MIMO will help in transmitting the data in real-time collected from different sensors to central monitoring locations for smart sensor applications like self-driving cars, healthcare centers, smart grids, smart cities, smart highways, smart homes, and smart enterprises [ 44 ].

Highlights of 5G Massive MIMO technology are as follows:

  • Data rate: Massive MIMO is advised as the one of the dominant technologies to provide wireless high speed and high data rate in the gigabits per seconds.
  • The relationship between wave frequency and antenna size: Both are inversely proportional to each other. It means lower frequency signals need a bigger antenna and vise versa.

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Object name is sensors-22-00026-g002.jpg

Pictorial representation of multi-input and multi-output (MIMO).

  • MIMO role in 5G: Massive MIMO will play a crucial role in the deployment of future 5G mobile communication as greater spectral and energy efficiency could be enabled.

State-of-the-Art Approaches

Plenty of approaches were proposed to resolve the issues of conventional MIMO [ 7 ].

The MIMO multirate, feed-forward controller is suggested by Mae et al. [ 46 ]. In the simulation, the proposed model generates the smooth control input, unlike the conventional MIMO, which generates oscillated control inputs. It also outperformed concerning the error rate. However, a combination of multirate and single rate can be used for better results.

The performance of stand-alone MIMO, distributed MIMO with and without corporation MIMO, was investigated by Panzner et al. [ 47 ]. In addition, an idea about the integration of large scale in the 5G technology was also presented. In the experimental analysis, different MIMO configurations are considered. The variation in the ratio of overall transmit antennas to spatial is deemed step-wise from equality to ten.

The simulation of massive MIMO noncooperative and cooperative systems for down-link behavior was performed by He et al. [ 48 ]. It depends on present LTE systems, which deal with various antennas in the base station set-up. It was observed that collaboration in different BS improves the system behaviors, whereas throughput is reduced slightly in this approach. However, a new method can be developed which can enhance both system behavior and throughput.

In [ 8 ], different approaches that increased the energy efficiency benefits provided by massive MIMO were presented. They analyzed the massive MIMO technology and described the detailed design of the energy consumption model for massive MIMO systems. This article has explored several techniques to enhance massive MIMO systems’ energy efficiency (EE) gains. This paper reviews standard EE-maximization approaches for the conventional massive MIMO systems, namely, scaling number of antennas, real-time implementing low-complexity operations at the base station (BS), power amplifier losses minimization, and radio frequency (RF) chain minimization requirements. In addition, open research direction is also identified.

In [ 49 ], various existing approaches based on different antenna selection and scheduling, user selection and scheduling, and joint antenna and user scheduling methods adopted in massive MIMO systems are presented in this paper. The objective of this survey article was to make awareness about the current research and future research direction in MIMO for systems. They analyzed that complete utilization of resources and bandwidth was the most crucial factor which enhances the sum rate.

In [ 50 ], authors discussed the development of various techniques for pilot contamination. To calculate the impact of pilot contamination in time division duplex (TDD) massive MIMO system, TDD and frequency division duplexing FDD patterns in massive MIMO techniques are used. They discussed different issues in pilot contamination in TDD massive MIMO systems with all the possible future directions of research. They also classified various techniques to generate the channel information for both pilot-based and subspace-based approaches.

In [ 19 ], the authors defined the uplink and downlink services for a massive MIMO system. In addition, it maintains a performance matrix that measures the impact of pilot contamination on different performances. They also examined the various application of massive MIMO such as small cells, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) schemes, massive MIMO IEEE 802, 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) specifications, and higher frequency bands. They considered their research work crucial for cutting edge massive MIMO and covered many issues like system throughput performance and channel state acquisition at higher frequencies.

In [ 13 ], various approaches were suggested for MIMO future generation wireless communication. They made a comparative study based on performance indicators such as peak data rate, energy efficiency, latency, throughput, etc. The key findings of this survey are as follows: (1) spatial multiplexing improves the energy efficiency; (2) design of MIMO play a vital role in the enhancement of throughput; (3) enhancement of mMIMO focusing on energy & spectral performance; (4) discussed the future challenges to improve the system design.

In [ 51 ], the study of large-scale MIMO systems for an energy-efficient system sharing method was presented. For the resource allocation, circuit energy and transmit energy expenditures were taken into consideration. In addition, the optimization techniques were applied for an energy-efficient resource sharing system to enlarge the energy efficiency for individual QoS and energy constraints. The author also examined the BS configuration, which includes homogeneous and heterogeneous UEs. While simulating, they discussed that the total number of transmit antennas plays a vital role in boosting energy efficiency. They highlighted that the highest energy efficiency was obtained when the BS was set up with 100 antennas that serve 20 UEs.

This section includes various works done on 5G MIMO technology by different author’s. Table 5 shows how different author’s worked on improvement of various parameters such as throughput, latency, energy efficiency, and spectral efficiency with 5G MIMO technology.

Summary of massive MIMO-based approaches in 5G technology.

4.2. 5G Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)

NOMA is a very important radio access technology used in next generation wireless communication. Compared to previous orthogonal multiple access techniques, NOMA offers lots of benefits like high spectrum efficiency, low latency with high reliability and high speed massive connectivity. NOMA mainly works on a baseline to serve multiple users with the same resources in terms of time, space and frequency. NOMA is mainly divided into two main categories one is code domain NOMA and another is power domain NOMA. Code-domain NOMA can improve the spectral efficiency of mMIMO, which improves the connectivity in 5G wireless communication. Code-domain NOMA was divided into some more multiple access techniques like sparse code multiple access, lattice-partition multiple access, multi-user shared access and pattern-division multiple access [ 52 ]. Power-domain NOMA is widely used in 5G wireless networks as it performs well with various wireless communication techniques such as MIMO, beamforming, space-time coding, network coding, full-duplex and cooperative communication etc. [ 53 ]. The conventional orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) used by 3GPP in 4G LTE network provides very low spectral efficiency when bandwidth resources are allocated to users with low channel state information (CSI). NOMA resolved this issue as it enables users to access all the subcarrier channels so bandwidth resources allocated to the users with low CSI can still be accessed by the users with strong CSI which increases the spectral efficiency. The 5G network will support heterogeneous architecture in which small cell and macro base stations work for spectrum sharing. NOMA is a key technology of the 5G wireless system which is very helpful for heterogeneous networks as multiple users can share their data in a small cell using the NOMA principle.The NOMA is helpful in various applications like ultra-dense networks (UDN), machine to machine (M2M) communication and massive machine type communication (mMTC). As NOMA provides lots of features it has some challenges too such as NOMA needs huge computational power for a large number of users at high data rates to run the SIC algorithms. Second, when users are moving from the networks, to manage power allocation optimization is a challenging task for NOMA [ 54 ]. Hybrid NOMA (HNOMA) is a combination of power-domain and code-domain NOMA. HNOMA uses both power differences and orthogonal resources for transmission among multiple users. As HNOMA is using both power-domain NOMA and code-domain NOMA it can achieve higher spectral efficiency than Power-domain NOMA and code-domain NOMA. In HNOMA multiple groups can simultaneously transmit signals at the same time. It uses a message passing algorithm (MPA) and successive interference cancellation (SIC)-based detection at the base station for these groups [ 55 ].

Highlights of 5G NOMA technology as follows:

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Pictorial representation of orthogonal and Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA).

  • NOMA provides higher data rates and resolves all the loop holes of OMA that makes 5G mobile network more scalable and reliable.
  • As multiple users use same frequency band simultaneously it increases the performance of whole network.
  • To setup intracell and intercell interference NOMA provides nonorthogonal transmission on the transmitter end.
  • The primary fundamental of NOMA is to improve the spectrum efficiency by strengthening the ramification of receiver.

State-of-the-Art of Approaches

A plenty of approaches were developed to address the various issues in NOMA.

A novel approach to address the multiple receiving signals at the same frequency is proposed in [ 22 ]. In NOMA, multiple users use the same sub-carrier, which improves the fairness and throughput of the system. As a nonorthogonal method is used among multiple users, at the time of retrieving the user’s signal at the receiver’s end, joint processing is required. They proposed solutions to optimize the receiver and the radio resource allocation of uplink NOMA. Firstly, the authors proposed an iterative MUDD which utilizes the information produced by the channel decoder to improve the performance of the multiuser detector. After that, the author suggested a power allocation and novel subcarrier that enhances the users’ weighted sum rate for the NOMA scheme. Their proposed model showed that NOMA performed well as compared to OFDM in terms of fairness and efficiency.

In [ 53 ], the author’s reviewed a power-domain NOMA that uses superposition coding (SC) and successive interference cancellation (SIC) at the transmitter and the receiver end. Lots of analyses were held that described that NOMA effectively satisfies user data rate demands and network-level of 5G technologies. The paper presented a complete review of recent advances in the 5G NOMA system. It showed the comparative analysis regarding allocation procedures, user fairness, state-of-the-art efficiency evaluation, user pairing pattern, etc. The study also analyzes NOMA’s behavior when working with other wireless communication techniques, namely, beamforming, MIMO, cooperative connections, network, space-time coding, etc.

In [ 9 ], the authors proposed NOMA with MEC, which improves the QoS as well as reduces the latency of the 5G wireless network. This model increases the uplink NOMA by decreasing the user’s uplink energy consumption. They formulated an optimized NOMA framework that reduces the energy consumption of MEC by using computing and communication resource allocation, user clustering, and transmit powers.

In [ 10 ], the authors proposed a model which investigates outage probability under average channel state information CSI and data rate in full CSI to resolve the problem of optimal power allocation, which increase the NOMA downlink system among users. They developed simple low-complexity algorithms to provide the optimal solution. The obtained simulation results showed NOMA’s efficiency, achieving higher performance fairness compared to the TDMA configurations. It was observed from the results that NOMA, through the appropriate power amplifiers (PA), ensures the high-performance fairness requirement for the future 5G wireless communication networks.

In [ 56 ], researchers discussed that the NOMA technology and waveform modulation techniques had been used in the 5G mobile network. Therefore, this research gave a detailed survey of non-orthogonal waveform modulation techniques and NOMA schemes for next-generation mobile networks. By analyzing and comparing multiple access technologies, they considered the future evolution of these technologies for 5G mobile communication.

In [ 57 ], the authors surveyed non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) from the development phase to the recent developments. They have also compared NOMA techniques with traditional OMA techniques concerning information theory. The author discussed the NOMA schemes categorically as power and code domain, including the design principles, operating principles, and features. Comparison is based upon the system’s performance, spectral efficiency, and the receiver’s complexity. Also discussed are the future challenges, open issues, and their expectations of NOMA and how it will support the key requirements of 5G mobile communication systems with massive connectivity and low latency.

In [ 17 ], authors present the first review of an elementary NOMA model with two users, which clarify its central precepts. After that, a general design with multicarrier supports with a random number of users on each sub-carrier is analyzed. In performance evaluation with the existing approaches, resource sharing and multiple-input multiple-output NOMA are examined. Furthermore, they took the key elements of NOMA and its potential research demands. Finally, they reviewed the two-user SC-NOMA design and a multi-user MC-NOMA design to highlight NOMA’s basic approaches and conventions. They also present the research study about the performance examination, resource assignment, and MIMO in NOMA.

In this section, various works by different authors done on 5G NOMA technology is covered. Table 6 shows how other authors worked on the improvement of various parameters such as spectral efficiency, fairness, and computing capacity with 5G NOMA technology.

Summary of NOMA-based approaches in 5G technology.

4.3. 5G Millimeter Wave (mmWave)

Millimeter wave is an extremely high frequency band, which is very useful for 5G wireless networks. MmWave uses 30 GHz to 300 GHz spectrum band for transmission. The frequency band between 30 GHz to 300 GHz is known as mmWave because these waves have wavelengths between 1 to 10 mm. Till now radar systems and satellites are only using mmWave as these are very fast frequency bands which provide very high speed wireless communication. Many mobile network providers also started mmWave for transmitting data between base stations. Using two ways the speed of data transmission can be improved one is by increasing spectrum utilization and second is by increasing spectrum bandwidth. Out of these two approaches increasing bandwidth is quite easy and better. The frequency band below 5 GHz is very crowded as many technologies are using it so to boost up the data transmission rate 5G wireless network uses mmWave technology which instead of increasing spectrum utilization, increases the spectrum bandwidth [ 58 ]. To maximize the signal bandwidth in wireless communication the carrier frequency should also be increased by 5% because the signal bandwidth is directly proportional to carrier frequencies. The frequency band between 28 GHz to 60 GHz is very useful for 5G wireless communication as 28 GHz frequency band offers up to 1 GHz spectrum bandwidth and 60 GHz frequency band offers 2 GHz spectrum bandwidth. 4G LTE provides 2 GHz carrier frequency which offers only 100 MHz spectrum bandwidth. However, the use of mmWave increases the spectrum bandwidth 10 times, which leads to better transmission speeds [ 59 , 60 ].

Highlights of 5G mmWave are as follows:

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Pictorial representation of millimeter wave.

  • The 5G mmWave offer three advantages: (1) MmWave is very less used new Band, (2) MmWave signals carry more data than lower frequency wave, and (3) MmWave can be incorporated with MIMO antenna with the potential to offer a higher magnitude capacity compared to current communication systems.

In [ 11 ], the authors presented the survey of mmWave communications for 5G. The advantage of mmWave communications is adaptability, i.e., it supports the architectures and protocols up-gradation, which consists of integrated circuits, systems, etc. The authors over-viewed the present solutions and examined them concerning effectiveness, performance, and complexity. They also discussed the open research issues of mmWave communications in 5G concerning the software-defined network (SDN) architecture, network state information, efficient regulation techniques, and the heterogeneous system.

In [ 61 ], the authors present the recent work done by investigators in 5G; they discussed the design issues and demands of mmWave 5G antennas for cellular handsets. After that, they designed a small size and low-profile 60 GHz array of antenna units that contain 3D planer mesh-grid antenna elements. For the future prospect, a framework is designed in which antenna components are used to operate cellular handsets on mmWave 5G smartphones. In addition, they cross-checked the mesh-grid array of antennas with the polarized beam for upcoming hardware challenges.

In [ 12 ], the authors considered the suitability of the mmWave band for 5G cellular systems. They suggested a resource allocation system for concurrent D2D communications in mmWave 5G cellular systems, and it improves network efficiency and maintains network connectivity. This research article can serve as guidance for simulating D2D communications in mmWave 5G cellular systems. Massive mmWave BS may be set up to obtain a high delivery rate and aggregate efficiency. Therefore, many wireless users can hand off frequently between the mmWave base terminals, and it emerges the demand to search the neighbor having better network connectivity.

In [ 62 ], the authors provided a brief description of the cellular spectrum which ranges from 1 GHz to 3 GHz and is very crowed. In addition, they presented various noteworthy factors to set up mmWave communications in 5G, namely, channel characteristics regarding mmWave signal attenuation due to free space propagation, atmospheric gaseous, and rain. In addition, hybrid beamforming architecture in the mmWave technique is analyzed. They also suggested methods for the blockage effect in mmWave communications due to penetration damage. Finally, the authors have studied designing the mmWave transmission with small beams in nonorthogonal device-to-device communication.

This section covered various works done on 5G mmWave technology. The Table 7 shows how different author’s worked on the improvement of various parameters i.e., transmission rate, coverage, and cost, with 5G mmWave technology.

Summary of existing mmWave-based approaches in 5G technology.

4.4. 5G IoT Based Approaches

The 5G mobile network plays a big role in developing the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT will connect lots of things with the internet like appliances, sensors, devices, objects, and applications. These applications will collect lots of data from different devices and sensors. 5G will provide very high speed internet connectivity for data collection, transmission, control, and processing. 5G is a flexible network with unused spectrum availability and it offers very low cost deployment that is why it is the most efficient technology for IoT [ 63 ]. In many areas, 5G provides benefits to IoT, and below are some examples:

Smart homes: smart home appliances and products are in demand these days. The 5G network makes smart homes more real as it offers high speed connectivity and monitoring of smart appliances. Smart home appliances are easily accessed and configured from remote locations using the 5G network, as it offers very high speed low latency communication.

Smart cities: 5G wireless network also helps in developing smart cities applications such as automatic traffic management, weather update, local area broadcasting, energy saving, efficient power supply, smart lighting system, water resource management, crowd management, emergency control, etc.

Industrial IoT: 5G wireless technology will provide lots of features for future industries such as safety, process tracking, smart packing, shipping, energy efficiency, automation of equipment, predictive maintenance and logistics. 5G smart sensor technology also offers smarter, safer, cost effective, and energy-saving industrial operation for industrial IoT.

Smart Farming: 5G technology will play a crucial role for agriculture and smart farming. 5G sensors and GPS technology will help farmers to track live attacks on crops and manage them quickly. These smart sensors can also be used for irrigation control, pest control, insect control, and electricity control.

Autonomous Driving: 5G wireless network offers very low latency high speed communication which is very significant for autonomous driving. It means self-driving cars will come to real life soon with 5G wireless networks. Using 5G autonomous cars can easily communicate with smart traffic signs, objects and other vehicles running on the road. 5G’s low latency feature makes self-driving more real as every millisecond is important for autonomous vehicles, decision taking is performed in microseconds to avoid accidents [ 64 ].

Highlights of 5G IoT are as follows:

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Pictorial representation of IoT with 5G.

  • 5G with IoT is a new feature of next-generation mobile communication, which provides a high-speed internet connection between moderated devices. 5G IoT also offers smart homes, smart devices, sensors, smart transportation systems, smart industries, etc., for end-users to make them smarter.
  • IoT deals with moderate devices which connect through the internet. The approach of the IoT has made the consideration of the research associated with the outcome of providing wearable, smart-phones, sensors, smart transportation systems, smart devices, washing machines, tablets, etc., and these diverse systems are associated to a common interface with the intelligence to connect.
  • Significant IoT applications include private healthcare systems, traffic management, industrial management, and tactile internet, etc.

Plenty of approaches is devised to address the issues of IoT [ 14 , 65 , 66 ].

In [ 65 ], the paper focuses on 5G mobile systems due to the emerging trends and developing technologies, which results in the exponential traffic growth in IoT. The author surveyed the challenges and demands during deployment of the massive IoT applications with the main focus on mobile networking. The author reviewed the features of standard IoT infrastructure, along with the cellular-based, low-power wide-area technologies (LPWA) such as eMTC, extended coverage (EC)-GSM-IoT, as well as noncellular, low-power wide-area (LPWA) technologies such as SigFox, LoRa etc.

In [ 14 ], the authors presented how 5G technology copes with the various issues of IoT today. It provides a brief review of existing and forming 5G architectures. The survey indicates the role of 5G in the foundation of the IoT ecosystem. IoT and 5G can easily combine with improved wireless technologies to set up the same ecosystem that can fulfill the current requirement for IoT devices. 5G can alter nature and will help to expand the development of IoT devices. As the process of 5G unfolds, global associations will find essentials for setting up a cross-industry engagement in determining and enlarging the 5G system.

In [ 66 ], the author introduced an IoT authentication scheme in a 5G network, with more excellent reliability and dynamic. The scheme proposed a privacy-protected procedure for selecting slices; it provided an additional fog node for proper data transmission and service types of the subscribers, along with service-oriented authentication and key understanding to maintain the secrecy, precision of users, and confidentiality of service factors. Users anonymously identify the IoT servers and develop a vital channel for service accessibility and data cached on local fog nodes and remote IoT servers. The author performed a simulation to manifest the security and privacy preservation of the user over the network.

This section covered various works done on 5G IoT by multiple authors. Table 8 shows how different author’s worked on the improvement of numerous parameters, i.e., data rate, security requirement, and performance with 5G IoT.

Summary of IoT-based approaches in 5G technology.

4.5. Machine Learning Techniques for 5G

Various machine learning (ML) techniques were applied in 5G networks and mobile communication. It provides a solution to multiple complex problems, which requires a lot of hand-tuning. ML techniques can be broadly classified as supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. Let’s discuss each learning technique separately and where it impacts the 5G network.

Supervised Learning, where user works with labeled data; some 5G network problems can be further categorized as classification and regression problems. Some regression problems such as scheduling nodes in 5G and energy availability can be predicted using Linear Regression (LR) algorithm. To accurately predict the bandwidth and frequency allocation Statistical Logistic Regression (SLR) is applied. Some supervised classifiers are applied to predict the network demand and allocate network resources based on the connectivity performance; it signifies the topology setup and bit rates. Support Vector Machine (SVM) and NN-based approximation algorithms are used for channel learning based on observable channel state information. Deep Neural Network (DNN) is also employed to extract solutions for predicting beamforming vectors at the BS’s by taking mapping functions and uplink pilot signals into considerations.

In unsupervised Learning, where the user works with unlabeled data, various clustering techniques are applied to enhance network performance and connectivity without interruptions. K-means clustering reduces the data travel by storing data centers content into clusters. It optimizes the handover estimation based on mobility pattern and selection of relay nodes in the V2V network. Hierarchical clustering reduces network failure by detecting the intrusion in the mobile wireless network; unsupervised soft clustering helps in reducing latency by clustering fog nodes. The nonparametric Bayesian unsupervised learning technique reduces traffic in the network by actively serving the user’s requests and demands. Other unsupervised learning techniques such as Adversarial Auto Encoders (AAE) and Affinity Propagation Clustering techniques detect irregular behavior in the wireless spectrum and manage resources for ultradense small cells, respectively.

In case of an uncertain environment in the 5G wireless network, reinforcement learning (RL) techniques are employed to solve some problems. Actor-critic reinforcement learning is used for user scheduling and resource allocation in the network. Markov decision process (MDP) and Partially Observable MDP (POMDP) is used for Quality of Experience (QoE)-based handover decision-making for Hetnets. Controls packet call admission in HetNets and channel access process for secondary users in a Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). Deep RL is applied to decide the communication channel and mobility and speeds up the secondary user’s learning rate using an antijamming strategy. Deep RL is employed in various 5G network application parameters such as resource allocation and security [ 67 ]. Table 9 shows the state-of-the-art ML-based solution for 5G network.

The state-of-the-art ML-based solution for 5G network.

Highlights of machine learning techniques for 5G are as follows:

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Pictorial representation of machine learning (ML) in 5G.

  • In ML, a model will be defined which fulfills the desired requirements through which desired results are obtained. In the later stage, it examines accuracy from obtained results.
  • ML plays a vital role in 5G network analysis for threat detection, network load prediction, final arrangement, and network formation. Searching for a better balance between power, length of antennas, area, and network thickness crossed with the spontaneous use of services in the universe of individual users and types of devices.

In [ 79 ], author’s firstly describes the demands for the traditional authentication procedures and benefits of intelligent authentication. The intelligent authentication method was established to improve security practice in 5G-and-beyond wireless communication systems. Thereafter, the machine learning paradigms for intelligent authentication were organized into parametric and non-parametric research methods, as well as supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning approaches. As a outcome, machine learning techniques provide a new paradigm into authentication under diverse network conditions and unstable dynamics. In addition, prompt intelligence to the security management to obtain cost-effective, better reliable, model-free, continuous, and situation-aware authentication.

In [ 68 ], the authors proposed a machine learning-based model to predict the traffic load at a particular location. They used a mobile network traffic dataset to train a model that can calculate the total number of user requests at a time. To launch access and mobility management function (AMF) instances according to the requirement as there were no predictions of user request the performance automatically degrade as AMF does not handle these requests at a time. Earlier threshold-based techniques were used to predict the traffic load, but that approach took too much time; therefore, the authors proposed RNN algorithm-based ML to predict the traffic load, which gives efficient results.

In [ 15 ], authors discussed the issue of network slice admission, resource allocation among subscribers, and how to maximize the profit of infrastructure providers. The author proposed a network slice admission control algorithm based on SMDP (decision-making process) that guarantees the subscribers’ best acceptance policies and satisfiability (tenants). They also suggested novel N3AC, a neural network-based algorithm that optimizes performance under various configurations, significantly outperforms practical and straightforward approaches.

This section includes various works done on 5G ML by different authors. Table 10 shows the state-of-the-art work on the improvement of various parameters such as energy efficiency, Quality of Services (QoS), and latency with 5G ML.

The state-of-the-art ML-based approaches in 5G technology.

4.6. Optimization Techniques for 5G

Optimization techniques may be applied to capture NP-Complete or NP-Hard problems in 5G technology. This section briefly describes various research works suggested for 5G technology based on optimization techniques.

In [ 80 ], Massive MIMO technology is used in 5G mobile network to make it more flexible and scalable. The MIMO implementation in 5G needs a significant number of radio frequencies is required in the RF circuit that increases the cost and energy consumption of the 5G network. This paper provides a solution that increases the cost efficiency and energy efficiency with many radio frequency chains for a 5G wireless communication network. They give an optimized energy efficient technique for MIMO antenna and mmWave technologies based 5G mobile communication network. The proposed Energy Efficient Hybrid Precoding (EEHP) algorithm to increase the energy efficiency for the 5G wireless network. This algorithm minimizes the cost of an RF circuit with a large number of RF chains.

In [ 16 ], authors have discussed the growing demand for energy efficiency in the next-generation networks. In the last decade, they have figured out the things in wireless transmissions, which proved a change towards pursuing green communication for the next generation system. The importance of adopting the correct EE metric was also reviewed. Further, they worked through the different approaches that can be applied in the future for increasing the network’s energy and posed a summary of the work that was completed previously to enhance the energy productivity of the network using these capabilities. A system design for EE development using relay selection was also characterized, along with an observation of distinct algorithms applied for EE in relay-based ecosystems.

In [ 81 ], authors presented how AI-based approach is used to the setup of Self Organizing Network (SON) functionalities for radio access network (RAN) design and optimization. They used a machine learning approach to predict the results for 5G SON functionalities. Firstly, the input was taken from various sources; then, prediction and clustering-based machine learning models were applied to produce the results. Multiple AI-based devices were used to extract the knowledge analysis to execute SON functionalities smoothly. Based on results, they tested how self-optimization, self-testing, and self-designing are done for SON. The author also describes how the proposed mechanism classifies in different orders.

In [ 82 ], investigators examined the working of OFDM in various channel environments. They also figured out the changes in frame duration of the 5G TDD frame design. Subcarrier spacing is beneficial to obtain a small frame length with control overhead. They provided various techniques to reduce the growing guard period (GP) and cyclic prefix (CP) like complete utilization of multiple subcarrier spacing, management and data parts of frame at receiver end, various uses of timing advance (TA) or total control of flexible CP size.

This section includes various works that were done on 5G optimization by different authors. Table 11 shows how other authors worked on the improvement of multiple parameters such as energy efficiency, power optimization, and latency with 5G optimization.

Summary of Optimization Based Approaches in 5G Technology.

5. Description of Novel 5G Features over 4G

This section presents descriptions of various novel features of 5G, namely, the concept of small cell, beamforming, and MEC.

5.1. Small Cell

Small cells are low-powered cellular radio access nodes which work in the range of 10 meters to a few kilometers. Small cells play a very important role in implementation of the 5G wireless network. Small cells are low power base stations which cover small areas. Small cells are quite similar with all the previous cells used in various wireless networks. However, these cells have some advantages like they can work with low power and they are also capable of working with high data rates. Small cells help in rollout of 5G network with ultra high speed and low latency communication. Small cells in the 5G network use some new technologies like MIMO, beamforming, and mmWave for high speed data transmission. The design of small cells hardware is very simple so its implementation is quite easier and faster. There are three types of small cell tower available in the market. Femtocells, picocells, and microcells [ 83 ]. As shown in the Table 12 .

Types of Small cells.

MmWave is a very high band spectrum between 30 to 300 GHz. As it is a significantly less used spectrum, it provides very high-speed wireless communication. MmWave offers ultra-wide bandwidth for next-generation mobile networks. MmWave has lots of advantages, but it has some disadvantages, too, such as mmWave signals are very high-frequency signals, so they have more collision with obstacles in the air which cause the signals loses energy quickly. Buildings and trees also block MmWave signals, so these signals cover a shorter distance. To resolve these issues, multiple small cell stations are installed to cover the gap between end-user and base station [ 18 ]. Small cell covers a very shorter range, so the installation of a small cell depends on the population of a particular area. Generally, in a populated place, the distance between each small cell varies from 10 to 90 meters. In the survey [ 20 ], various authors implemented small cells with massive MIMO simultaneously. They also reviewed multiple technologies used in 5G like beamforming, small cell, massive MIMO, NOMA, device to device (D2D) communication. Various problems like interference management, spectral efficiency, resource management, energy efficiency, and backhauling are discussed. The author also gave a detailed presentation of all the issues occurring while implementing small cells with various 5G technologies. As shown in the Figure 7 , mmWave has a higher range, so it can be easily blocked by the obstacles as shown in Figure 7 a. This is one of the key concerns of millimeter-wave signal transmission. To solve this issue, the small cell can be placed at a short distance to transmit the signals easily, as shown in Figure 7 b.

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Pictorial representation of communication with and without small cells.

5.2. Beamforming

Beamforming is a key technology of wireless networks which transmits the signals in a directional manner. 5G beamforming making a strong wireless connection toward a receiving end. In conventional systems when small cells are not using beamforming, moving signals to particular areas is quite difficult. Beamforming counter this issue using beamforming small cells are able to transmit the signals in particular direction towards a device like mobile phone, laptops, autonomous vehicle and IoT devices. Beamforming is improving the efficiency and saves the energy of the 5G network. Beamforming is broadly divided into three categories: Digital beamforming, analog beamforming and hybrid beamforming. Digital beamforming: multiuser MIMO is equal to digital beamforming which is mainly used in LTE Advanced Pro and in 5G NR. In digital beamforming the same frequency or time resources can be used to transmit the data to multiple users at the same time which improves the cell capacity of wireless networks. Analog Beamforming: In mmWave frequency range 5G NR analog beamforming is a very important approach which improves the coverage. In digital beamforming there are chances of high pathloss in mmWave as only one beam per set of antenna is formed. While the analog beamforming saves high pathloss in mmWave. Hybrid beamforming: hybrid beamforming is a combination of both analog beamforming and digital beamforming. In the implementation of MmWave in 5G network hybrid beamforming will be used [ 84 ].

Wireless signals in the 4G network are spreading in large areas, and nature is not Omnidirectional. Thus, energy depletes rapidly, and users who are accessing these signals also face interference problems. The beamforming technique is used in the 5G network to resolve this issue. In beamforming signals are directional. They move like a laser beam from the base station to the user, so signals seem to be traveling in an invisible cable. Beamforming helps achieve a faster data rate; as the signals are directional, it leads to less energy consumption and less interference. In [ 21 ], investigators evolve some techniques which reduce interference and increase system efficiency of the 5G mobile network. In this survey article, the authors covered various challenges faced while designing an optimized beamforming algorithm. Mainly focused on different design parameters such as performance evaluation and power consumption. In addition, they also described various issues related to beamforming like CSI, computation complexity, and antenna correlation. They also covered various research to cover how beamforming helps implement MIMO in next-generation mobile networks [ 85 ]. Figure 8 shows the pictorial representation of communication with and without using beamforming.

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Pictorial Representation of communication with and without using beamforming.

5.3. Mobile Edge Computing

Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) [ 24 ]: MEC is an extended version of cloud computing that brings cloud resources closer to the end-user. When we talk about computing, the very first thing that comes to our mind is cloud computing. Cloud computing is a very famous technology that offers many services to end-user. Still, cloud computing has many drawbacks. The services available in the cloud are too far from end-users that create latency, and cloud user needs to download the complete application before use, which also increases the burden to the device [ 86 ]. MEC creates an edge between the end-user and cloud server, bringing cloud computing closer to the end-user. Now, all the services, namely, video conferencing, virtual software, etc., are offered by this edge that improves cloud computing performance. Another essential feature of MEC is that the application is split into two parts, which, first one is available at cloud server, and the second is at the user’s device. Therefore, the user need not download the complete application on his device that increases the performance of the end user’s device. Furthermore, MEC provides cloud services at very low latency and less bandwidth. In [ 23 , 87 ], the author’s investigation proved that successful deployment of MEC in 5G network increases the overall performance of 5G architecture. Graphical differentiation between cloud computing and mobile edge computing is presented in Figure 9 .

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Pictorial representation of cloud computing vs. mobile edge computing.

6. 5G Security

Security is the key feature in the telecommunication network industry, which is necessary at various layers, to handle 5G network security in applications such as IoT, Digital forensics, IDS and many more [ 88 , 89 ]. The authors [ 90 ], discussed the background of 5G and its security concerns, challenges and future directions. The author also introduced the blockchain technology that can be incorporated with the IoT to overcome the challenges in IoT. The paper aims to create a security framework which can be incorporated with the LTE advanced network, and effective in terms of cost, deployment and QoS. In [ 91 ], author surveyed various form of attacks, the security challenges, security solutions with respect to the affected technology such as SDN, Network function virtualization (NFV), Mobile Clouds and MEC, and security standardizations of 5G, i.e., 3GPP, 5GPPP, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN), European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). In [ 92 ], author elaborated various technological aspects, security issues and their existing solutions and also mentioned the new emerging technological paradigms for 5G security such as blockchain, quantum cryptography, AI, SDN, CPS, MEC, D2D. The author aims to create new security frameworks for 5G for further use of this technology in development of smart cities, transportation and healthcare. In [ 93 ], author analyzed the threats and dark threat, security aspects concerned with SDN and NFV, also their Commercial & Industrial Security Corporation (CISCO) 5G vision and new security innovations with respect to the new evolving architectures of 5G [ 94 ].

AuthenticationThe identification of the user in any network is made with the help of authentication. The different mobile network generations from 1G to 5G have used multiple techniques for user authentication. 5G utilizes the 5G Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA) authentication method, which shares a cryptographic key between user equipment (UE) and its home network and establishes a mutual authentication process between the both [ 95 ].

Access Control To restrict the accessibility in the network, 5G supports access control mechanisms to provide a secure and safe environment to the users and is controlled by network providers. 5G uses simple public key infrastructure (PKI) certificates for authenticating access in the 5G network. PKI put forward a secure and dynamic environment for the 5G network. The simple PKI technique provides flexibility to the 5G network; it can scale up and scale down as per the user traffic in the network [ 96 , 97 ].

Communication Security 5G deals to provide high data bandwidth, low latency, and better signal coverage. Therefore secure communication is the key concern in the 5G network. UE, mobile operators, core network, and access networks are the main focal point for the attackers in 5G communication. Some of the common attacks in communication at various segments are Botnet, message insertion, micro-cell, distributed denial of service (DDoS), and transport layer security (TLS)/secure sockets layer (SSL) attacks [ 98 , 99 ].

Encryption The confidentiality of the user and the network is done using encryption techniques. As 5G offers multiple services, end-to-end (E2E) encryption is the most suitable technique applied over various segments in the 5G network. Encryption forbids unauthorized access to the network and maintains the data privacy of the user. To encrypt the radio traffic at Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) layer, three 128-bits keys are applied at the user plane, nonaccess stratum (NAS), and access stratum (AS) [ 100 ].

7. Summary of 5G Technology Based on Above-Stated Challenges

In this section, various issues addressed by investigators in 5G technologies are presented in Table 13 . In addition, different parameters are considered, such as throughput, latency, energy efficiency, data rate, spectral efficiency, fairness & computing capacity, transmission rate, coverage, cost, security requirement, performance, QoS, power optimization, etc., indexed from R1 to R14.

Summary of 5G Technology above stated challenges (R1:Throughput, R2:Latency, R3:Energy Efficiency, R4:Data Rate, R5:Spectral efficiency, R6:Fairness & Computing Capacity, R7:Transmission Rate, R8:Coverage, R9:Cost, R10:Security requirement, R11:Performance, R12:Quality of Services (QoS), R13:Power Optimization).

8. Conclusions

This survey article illustrates the emergence of 5G, its evolution from 1G to 5G mobile network, applications, different research groups, their work, and the key features of 5G. It is not just a mobile broadband network, different from all the previous mobile network generations; it offers services like IoT, V2X, and Industry 4.0. This paper covers a detailed survey from multiple authors on different technologies in 5G, such as massive MIMO, Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA), millimeter wave, small cell, MEC (Mobile Edge Computing), beamforming, optimization, and machine learning in 5G. After each section, a tabular comparison covers all the state-of-the-research held in these technologies. This survey also shows the importance of these newly added technologies and building a flexible, scalable, and reliable 5G network.

9. Future Findings

This article covers a detailed survey on the 5G mobile network and its features. These features make 5G more reliable, scalable, efficient at affordable rates. As discussed in the above sections, numerous technical challenges originate while implementing those features or providing services over a 5G mobile network. So, for future research directions, the research community can overcome these challenges while implementing these technologies (MIMO, NOMA, small cell, mmWave, beam-forming, MEC) over a 5G network. 5G communication will bring new improvements over the existing systems. Still, the current solutions cannot fulfill the autonomous system and future intelligence engineering requirements after a decade. There is no matter of discussion that 5G will provide better QoS and new features than 4G. But there is always room for improvement as the considerable growth of centralized data and autonomous industry 5G wireless networks will not be capable of fulfilling their demands in the future. So, we need to move on new wireless network technology that is named 6G. 6G wireless network will bring new heights in mobile generations, as it includes (i) massive human-to-machine communication, (ii) ubiquitous connectivity between the local device and cloud server, (iii) creation of data fusion technology for various mixed reality experiences and multiverps maps. (iv) Focus on sensing and actuation to control the network of the entire world. The 6G mobile network will offer new services with some other technologies; these services are 3D mapping, reality devices, smart homes, smart wearable, autonomous vehicles, artificial intelligence, and sense. It is expected that 6G will provide ultra-long-range communication with a very low latency of 1 ms. The per-user bit rate in a 6G wireless network will be approximately 1 Tbps, and it will also provide wireless communication, which is 1000 times faster than 5G networks.

Acknowledgments

Author contributions.

Conceptualization: R.D., I.Y., G.C., P.L. data gathering: R.D., G.C., P.L, I.Y. funding acquisition: I.Y. investigation: I.Y., G.C., G.P. methodology: R.D., I.Y., G.C., P.L., G.P., survey: I.Y., G.C., P.L, G.P., R.D. supervision: G.C., I.Y., G.P. validation: I.Y., G.P. visualization: R.D., I.Y., G.C., P.L. writing, original draft: R.D., I.Y., G.C., P.L., G.P. writing, review, and editing: I.Y., G.C., G.P. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

This paper was supported by Soonchunhyang University.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Informed consent statement, data availability statement, conflicts of interest.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Computer Networking Dissertation Topics

Published by Carmen Troy at January 5th, 2023 , Revised On August 16, 2023

A dissertation is an essential aspect of completing your degree program. Whether you are pursuing your master’s or are enrolled in a PhD program, you will not be awarded a degree without successfully submitting a thesis. To ensure that your thesis is submitted successfully without any hindrances, you should first get your topic and dissertation outline approved by your professor. When approving, supervisors focus on a lot of aspects. However, relevance, recency, and conciseness of your topic play a huge role in accepting or rejecting your topic.

As a computer networking student, you have a variety of networking topics to choose from. With the field evolving with each passing day, you must ensure that your thesis covers recent computer networking topics and explores a relevant problem or issue. To help you choose the right topic for your dissertation, here is a list of recent and relevant computer networking dissertation topics.

2022 Computer Networking Dissertation Topics

Topic 1: an evaluation of the network security during machine to machine communication in iot.

Research Aim: The research aims to evaluate the network security issues associated with M2M communication in IoT.

 Objectives:

  • To evaluate the factors affecting the network security of IoT devices.
  • To determine the methods for increasing data integrity in M2M communication against physical tampering and unauthorised monitoring.
  • To evaluate the network security issues associated with M2M communication in IoT and offer suitable recommendations for improvement.

Topic 2: An analysis of the cybersecurity challenges in public clouds and appropriate intrusion detection mechanisms.

Research Aim: The aim of the research is to analyse the cybersecurity challenges in public clouds and the appropriate intrusion detection mechanisms.

Objectives:

  • To analyse the types of cybersecurity threats impacting public clouds.
  • To determine some of the competent intrusion detection techniques that can be used in cloud computing.
  • To investigate the cybersecurity challenges in public clouds and offer mitigating with appropriate intrusion detection techniques.

Topic 3: Investigating the impact of SaaS cloud ERP on the scalability and cost-effectiveness of business.

Research Aim: The research aims to investigate the impact of SaaS cloud ERP on the scalability and cost-effectiveness of business.

  • To analyse the benefits of SaaS ERP over traditional ERP.
  • To evaluate the characteristics of SaaS architecture in cloud computing and determine its varieties.
  • To investigate how SaaS cloud ERP impacts business scalability and cost-effectiveness.

Topic 4: An evaluation of the requirements of cloud repatriation and the challenges associated with it.

Research Aim: The research aims to evaluate the requirements of cloud repatriation in organisations and the associated challenges

  • To analyse the key factors of cloud repatriation.
  • To determine the challenges associated with cloud repatriation from public clouds.
  • To evaluate the need for cloud repatriation in organisations and the associated complexities

Topic 5: An examination of the security mechanisms in decentralised networks and the ways of enhancing system robustness

Research Aim: The research aims to investigate the security mechanisms in decentralised networks and the ways of enhancing system robustness.

  • To analyse the concept of decentralised networks and understand its difference from centralised networks.
  • To analyse the security mechanisms in decentralised networks for determining how it offers visibility and traceability.
  • To investigate the security mechanisms in decentralised networks and how system robustness can be increased for better privacy and security.

Computer Networking Dissertation Topics for 2021

Exploring the importance of computer networking in today’s era.

Research Aim: Even though computer networking has been practised for a few years now, its importance has increased immensely over the past two years. A few main reasons include the use of technology by almost every business and the aim to offer customers an easy and convenient shopping experience. The main aim of this research will be to explain the concepts of computer networking, its benefits, and its importance in the current era. The research will also discuss how computer networking has helped businesses and individuals perform their work and benefit from it. The research will then specifically state examples where computer networking has brought positive changes and helped people achieve what they want.

Wireless Networks in Business Settings – An Analysis

Research Aim: Wireless networks are crucial in computer networking. They help build networks seamlessly, and once the networks are set up on a wireless network, it becomes extremely easy for the business to perform its daily activities. This research will investigate all about wireless networks in a business setting. It will first introduce the various wireless networks that can be utilized by a business and will then talk about how these networks help companies build their workflow around it. The study will analyze different wireless networks used by businesses and will conclude how beneficial they are and how they are helping the business.

Understanding Virtual Private Networks – A Deep Analysis of their Challenges

Research Aim: Private virtual networks (VPN) are extremely common today. These are used by businesses and individuals alike. This research aims to understand how these networks operate and how they help businesses build strong and successful systems and address the challenges of VPNs. A lot of businesses do not adopt virtual private networks due to the challenges that they bring. This research will address these challenges in a way that will help businesses implement VPN successfully.

A Survey of the Application of Wireless Sensor Networks

Research Aim: Wireless sensor networks are self-configured, infrastructure-less wireless networks to pass data. These networks are now extremely popular amongst businesses because they can solve problems in various application domains and possess the capacity to change the way work is done. This research will investigate where wireless sensor networks are implemented, how they are being used, and how they are performing. The research will also investigate how businesses implement these systems and consider factors when utilizing these wireless sensor networks.

Computer Network Security Attacks – Systems and Methods to Respond

Research Aim: With the advent of technology today, computer networks are extremely prone to security attacks. A lot of networks have security systems in place. However, people with nefarious intent find one way to intrude and steal data/information. This research will address major security attacks that have impacted businesses and will aim to address this challenge. Various methods and systems will be highlighted to protect the computer networks. In addition to this, the research will also discuss various methods to respond to attacks and to keep the business network protected.

Preventing a Cyberattack – How Can you Build a Powerful Computer Network?

Research Aim: Cyberattacks are extremely common these days. No matter how powerful your network is, you might be a victim of phishing or hacking. The main aim of this research will be to outline how a powerful computer network can be built. Various methods to build a safe computer network that can keep data and information will be outlined, and the study will also highlight ways to prevent a cyberattack. In addition to this, the research will talk about the steps that should be taken to keep the computer network safe. The research will conclude with the best way and system to build a powerful and safe computer network.

Types of Computer Networks: A Comparison and Analysis

Research Aim: There are different types of computer networks, including LAN, WAN, PAN, MAN, CAN, SAN, etc. This research will discuss all the various types of computer networks to help readers understand how all these networks work. The study will then compare the different types of networks and analyze how each of them is implemented in different settings. The dissertation will also discuss the type of computer networks that businesses should use and how they can utilize them for their success. The study will then conclude which computer network is the best and how it can benefit when implemented.

Detecting Computer Network Attacks by Signatures and Fast Content Analysis

Research Aim: With technological advancement, today, many computer network attacks can be detected beforehand. While many techniques are utilized for detecting these attacks, the use of signatures and fast content analysis are the most popular ones. This research will explore these techniques in detail and help understand how they can detect a computer network attack and prevent it. The research will present different ways these techniques are utilised to detect an attack and help build powerful and safe computer networks. The research will then conclude how helpful these two techniques are and whether businesses should implement them.

Overview of Wireless Network Technologies and their Role in Healthcare

Research Aim: Wireless network technologies are utilised by several industries. Their uses and benefits have helped businesses resolve many business problems and assisted them in conducting their daily activities without any hindrance. This networking topic will help explore how wireless network technologies work and will talk about their benefits. This research aims to find out how wireless technologies help businesses carry out their daily routine tasks effortlessly. For this research, the focuas will be the healthcare industry. The study will investigate how wireless network technology has helped the healthcare sector and how it has benefited them to perform their daily tasks without much effort.

Setting up a Business Communication System over a Computer Network

Research Aim: Communication is an essential aspect of every business. Employees need to communicate effectively to keep the business going. In the absence of effective communication, businesses suffer a lot as the departments are not synchronized, and the operations are haphazard. This research will explore the different ways through which network technologies help conduct smooth and effective communication within organizations. This research will conclude how wireless networks have helped businesses build effective communication systems within their organization and how they have benefited from it. It will then conclude how businesses have improved and solved major business problems with the help of these systems.

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To find computer networking dissertation topics:

  • Follow industry news and emerging technologies.
  • Investigate unresolved networking challenges.
  • Review recent research papers.
  • Explore IoT, cybersecurity, cloud computing.
  • Consider real-world applications.
  • Select a topic aligned with your expertise and career aspirations.

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Charting an integrated future: IoT and 5G research papers

The fifth-generation cellular network (5G) represents a major step forward for technology. In particular, it offers benefits for the network of interrelated devices reliant on wireless technology for communication and data transfer, otherwise known as the Internet of Things (IoT). 

The 5G wireless network uses Internet Protocol (IP) for all communications, including voice and short message service (SMS) data. Compared to earlier networks, such as 3G and 4G, it will have higher response speeds (lower latency), greater bandwidth, and support for many more devices. 

Every sector is using some form of wireless-enabled technology. Low latency plays a critical role in many IoT applications where a lag in data transfer to an IoT device can mean a disruption in the manufacturing process, a crashed car, or a disrupted power grid. Increased capacity to support IoT devices means more of the world’s population will be able to access the global digital economy. 

Yet with more capability comes more complexity, and there are challenges to making 5G connection a full reality. There is global interest in realizing the potential of 5G and IoT integration. Research papers on a wide array of topics are helping to advance the field and bring the vision of 5G technology and IoT connectivity into focus. 

INGR 2021Ed Banner

Realizing the potential of 5G and IoT through research

The 5G network represents the best chance for an ever-growing array of wirelessly connected devices to realize their full potential . 

Making the case for 5G technology

Using millimeter wave technology, 5G connectivity offers increased speed, bandwidth, and reliability of data transfers. These improvements mean that more computing power can be pushed to the cloud, clearing the way for smaller, cheaper, and simpler devices that can do more. Smartphones are a great example of how increased wireless network capacity has allowed devices to get smaller while increasing the range of a user’s cloud-based activities. 

The 5G mobile network also has social justice implications. As Brookings Institute senior fellow Nicol Turner Lee discusses in her research paper “ Enabling Opportunities: 5G, the Internet of Things, and Communities of Color ,” the development of wireless networks will factor heavily in whether mobile-only users can fully participate in the global digital economy. 

Universal benefits, inspired innovations

The 5G network could spur additional IoT innovations such as the following:

  • Advancements in edge computing
  • Creation of smart cities, smart power grids, and expanded functionality of smart homes
  • Improvements in health-care monitoring and delivery of services
  • Retail improvements
  • Real-time remote control of robots that could improve farming efficiency
  • Automated manufacturing
  • Supply chain improvements
  • Improved transportation and self-driving cars 
  • Expanded use of artificial intelligence reliant on machine learning
  • More cloud computing
  • Expansion of virtual reality and augmented reality

While work to build out 5G has begun, many of the challenges and logistics of completing this vast network still need to be resolved. Some of the challenges include the following:

  • Managing disruption to the radio transmission
  • Network and wireless security
  • Connectivity issues from the network to the internet (known as “backhaul”)
  • Assuaging concerns over health impacts of increased high-speed electromagnetic energy
  • Cost and logistics of building a vast network of towers across different governmental jurisdictions

Those with a stake in making 5G a reality are investing in researching solutions that explore the possibilities and challenges of 5G deployment and IoT integration. Research is also emerging on how 5G and IoT technology can be utilized to respond and fight the COVID-19 pandemic. 

Two halves of a whole—the relationship between IoT and 5G

5G is revolutionary in that it replaces hardware components of wireless networks with software components that offer increased system flexibility. In doing so, it delivers more power to wireless devices that rely upon fast, uninterrupted data transmission. 

Making IoT smarter

Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, which plays heavily in many IoT applications, relies on smooth and frequent transmission of data. Every disruption in the data transfer process interrupts the feedback loop that facilitates machine learning. 5G’s lower latency eliminates these data hiccups, which translates to better performance over time. 

The 2019 paper “ AI Management System to Prevent Accidents in Construction Zones Using 4K Cameras Based on 5G Network ,” published in the IEEE Xplore digital library, examines how workplace safety can be improved through AI technologies running on the 5G wireless platform. 

Critical and massive IoT

There are two types of IoT devices: Critical IoT devices offer low latency, high uptime benefits. They facilitate bandwidth-hungry applications that include telemedicine, first responder applications, and factory automation. Massive IoT refers to a network of lots of devices using little bandwidth or speed. These devices find use in applications such as wearables, smart agriculture, smart homes, and smart cities. 

5G technology also allows a service provider to dedicate portions of their networks for specific IoT applications. Known as network slicing, the ability to segment a set of optimized resources further improves the ability of 5G to respond to the varying data and bandwidth needs of critical and massive IoT applications. 

The recent paper “ Secure Healthcare: 5G-enabled Network Slicing for Elderly Care,” published in the IEEE Xplore digital library, provides insight into the existing limitations in elder care and discusses a solution that encompasses 5G network slicing techniques and innovations. 

Cybersecurity on the 5G

One fundamental difference between 5G and its predecessors is the shift from a hardware-based system to a software-based system. This shift presents new security challenges as software is more vulnerable to hacking—the same wireless pathways over the 5G that enable IoT can be used to breach it, whereas to hack hardware you need direct physical access. 

Technical solutions to expanding capacity while increasing IoT security, such as those that the IEEE paper “ Wideband Antennas and Phased Arrays for Enhancing Cybersecurity in 5G Mobile Wireless ” discusses, are being researched and discussed worldwide. In addition, the Brookings Institute’s 2019 research paper “ Why 5G Requires a New Approach to Cybersecurity ,” discusses why developing coordinated cybersecurity public policies is of paramount importance.

Investing in the future—top research projects on IoT and 5G integration

Governments and the private sector, including trade associations, service providers, and major tech players are funding research at academic institutions. For example, the University of Texas at Austin’s Wireless Network and Communications Group has an Industrial Affiliates Program that allows companies like Huawei to become stakeholders in the center and to participate in the growth and direction of its research on millimeter waves. Similarly, New York University’s Brooklyn engineering program partners with Nokia, Intel, and AT&T to support its research. 

In the US, the National Science Foundation is supporting advanced wireless research. Research England’s UK Research Partnership Investment Fund (UKRPIF) supports 5G research, including that being done at the University of Surrey’s 5G Innovation Centre . Nonprofit organizations, such as the Brookings Institute , are also conducting research on the logistics and impacts of 5G and IoT. 

Universities, companies, and organizations such as IEEE regularly team up to host conferences around the world that showcase all aspects of 5G. IEEE’s Future Networks is dedicated to enabling 5G and regularly calls for papers related to 5G. 

Opportunities for 5G and IoT—building a sustainable future

The ultimate goal of 5G and IoT integration is for everything to be connected more simply on smaller, less expensive devices. The 5G network has the potential to drive advancements in IoT and to fundamentally change the way humankind operates around the globe with long-term positive impacts possible with respect to sustainability. 

In practical terms, the 5G network provides better efficiency through increased control. At the local level, a smart city would be better able to monitor, through IoT applications, public safety and utilities. This would mean greater conservation and a reduction in their overall carbon impact while improving the lives of its residents. 

As Darrel M. West examines in his paper “ Achieving Sustainability in a 5G World ,” IoT innovation in the energy, manufacturing, agriculture and land use, buildings, and transportation sectors coupled with full 5G deployment could allow the global community to meet our long-term sustainability goals. 

Want to learn more about the latest IoT and 5G research? Participate in the 2020 IEEE 3rd 5G World Forum (5GWF'20). The virtual conference, which will be available from September 10–12, aims to bring together experts from industry, academia, and research to exchange their vision as well as their achieved advances towards 5G. In addition, it aims to encourage innovative cross-domain studies, research, early deployment, and large-scale pilot showcases that address the challenges of 5G.

Interested in becoming an IEEE member ? Joining this community of over 420,000 technology and engineering professionals will give you access to the resources and opportunities you need to keep on top of changes in technology, as well as help you get involved in standards development, network with other professionals in your local area or within a specific technical interest, mentor the next generation of engineers and technologists, and so much more.

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ITC 2007: Managing Traffic Performance in Converged Networks pp 3–4 Cite as

Topics in Networking Research

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Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCCN,volume 4516)

What are the big movements in networking that researchers should heed? A standout is the global spread of communities of interest (the networking analogue of the flat world) and their need for “dynamic virtual networks” that support rich applications requiring resources from several domains. The imperative for inter-networking, i.e., the enablement of coordinated sharing of resources across multiple domains, is certain. This challenge has many facets, ranging from the organizational, e.g., different, possibly competing, owners to the technical, e.g., different technologies. Yet another key characteristic of the emerging networking environment is that the service provider is required to handle ever-increasing uncertainty in demand, both in volume and time. On the other hand there are new instruments available to handle the challenge. Thus, inter-networking and uncertainty management are important challenges of emerging networking that deserve attention from the research community.

We describe research that touch on both topics. First, we consider a model of data-optical inter-networking, where routes connecting end-points in data domains are concatenation of segments in the data and optical domains. The optical domain in effect acts as a carrier’s carrier for multiple data domains. The challenge to inter-networking stems from the limited view that the data and optical domains have of each other. Coordination has to be enabled through parsimonious and qualitatively restrictive information exchange across domains. Yet the overall optimization objective, which is to maximize end-to-end carried traffic with minimum lightpath provisioning cost, enmeshes data and optical domains. This example of inter-networking also involves two technologies. A mathematical reflection of the latter fact is the integrality of some of the decision variables due to wavelengths being the bandwidth unit in optical transmission. Through an application of Generalized Bender’s Decomposition the problem of optimizing provisioning and routing is decomposed into sub-problems, which are solved by the different domains and the results exchanged in iterations that provably converge to the global optimum.

In turning to uncertainty management we begin by presenting a framework for stochastic traffic management. Traffic demands are uncertain and given by probability distributions. While there are alternative perspectives (and metrics) to resource usage, such as social welfare and network revenue, we adopt the latter, which is aligned with the service provider’s interests. Uncertainty introduces the risk of misallocation of resources. What is the right measure of risk in networking? We examine various definitions of risk, some taken from modern portfolio theory, and suggest a balanced solution. Next we consider the optimization of an objective which is a risk-adjusted measure of network revenue. We obtain conditions under which the optimization problem is an instance of convex programming. Studies of the properties of the solution show that it asymptotically meets the stochastic efficiency criterion. Service providers’ risk mitigation policies are suggested. For instance, by selecting the appropriate mix of long-term contracts and opportunistic servicing of random demand, the service provider can optimize its risk-adjusted revenue. The “efficient frontier”, which is the set of Pareto optimal pairs of mean revenue and revenue risk, is useful to the service provider in selecting its operating point.

Joint work with Qiong Wang and Anwar Walid, Bell Labs, Murray Hill.

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Mitra, D. (2007). Topics in Networking Research. In: Mason, L., Drwiega, T., Yan, J. (eds) Managing Traffic Performance in Converged Networks. ITC 2007. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 4516. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-72990-7_3

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Comparative analysis between snort and suricata IDS software(s)

Description of the topic

The main focus of this research is to conduct a comparative analysis between Snort and Suricata software to determine which IDS software can provide better performance. There are various IDS software(s) available that can be used by organizations but it is difficult to identify which one is best (Aldarwbi et al., 2022). Different organizational structures are often facing problems while setting up an IDS system which results in false positives and intrusions. Through this research, it can be identified which IDS software is better and what secure configuration is required to detect intrusions (Waleed et al., 2022).

Research objectives

  • To evaluate Snort and Suricata IDS software(s) to determine the most optimal one.
  • To identify the false positive rate of Snort and Suricata on the networked environment.

Research questions

RQ1: Which IDS software can perform better on the production network in terms of performance, security, scalability and reliability?

RQ2: What different ways can be followed to deal with false positive problems in IDS technology?

Research methodology

The given research objectives and research questions can be addressed using quantitative research methodology where an experimental approach can be followed. For the given topic, both Snort and Suricata IDS systems should be configured and tested against different attacks. Depending on the findings, it can be analyzed which IDS software can perform better in terms of performance and security (Shuai & Li, 2021).

  • Aldarwbi, M.Y., Lashkari, A.H. and Ghorbani, A.A. (2022) “The sound of intrusion: A novel network intrusion detection system,” Computers and Electrical Engineering , 104, p. 108455.
  • Shuai, L. and Li, S. (2021) “Performance optimization of Snort based on DPDK and Hyperscan,” Procedia Computer Science , 183, pp. 837-843.
  • Waleed, A., Jamali, A.F. and Masood, A. (2022) “Which open-source ids? Snort, Suricata or Zeek,” Computer Networks , 213, p. 109116.

Role of honeypots and honey nets in network security

Network Security has become essential nowadays and there is a need for setting up robust mechanisms to maintain confidentiality and integrity (Feng et al., 2023). Due to the number of security mechanisms available, organizations found it hard to finalize and implement them on their network. For example, honey pots and honeynet approaches look almost the same and have the same purpose but work differently. Under this research topic, the configuration of honeynets and honeypots can be done to check which one can perform better security in terms of trapping cyber attackers. The entire implementation can be carried out in the cloud-based instance for improved security and it can be identified which type of honey pot technology must be preferred (Maesschalck et al., 2022).

  • To set up a honey pot system using Open Canary on the virtual instance to protect against cyber attackers.
  • To set up a honeynet system on the virtual instance to assure protection is provided against malicious attackers.
  • To test honeypots and honeynets by executing DDoS attacks to check which can provide better security.

RQ1: Why is there a need for using honeypots over honey pots in a production networked environment?

RQ2: What are the differences between cloud-based and local honey pot systems for endpoint protection?

This research can be carried out using the quantitative method of research. At the initial stage, the implementation of honeypots and honeypots can be done on the virtual instance following different security rules. Once the rules are applied, the testing can be performed using a Kali Linux machine to check whether honey pots were effective or honeynets (Gill et al., 2020).

  • Feng, H. et al. (2023) “Game theory in network security for Digital Twins in industry,” Digital Communications and Networks [Preprint].
  • Gill, K.S., Saxena, S. and Sharma, A. (2020) “GTM-CSEC: A game theoretic model for cloud security based on ids and Honeypot,” Computers & Security , 92, p. 101732
  • Maesschalck, S. et al. (2022) “Don’t get stung, cover your ICS in honey: How do honeypots fit within industrial control system security,” Computers & Security , 114, p. 102598.

How do malware variants are progressively improving?

This research can be based on evaluating how malware variants are progressively improving and what should be its state in the coming future. Malware is able to compromise confidential user’s information assets which is why this research can be based on identifying current and future consequences owing to its improvements (Deng et al., 2023). In this field, there is no research work that has been carried out to identify how malware variants are improving their working and what is expected to see in future. Once the evaluation is done, a clear analysis can also be done on some intelligent preventive measures to deal with dangerous malware variants and prevent any kind of technological exploitation (Tang et al., 2023).

  • To investigate types of malware variants available to learn more about malware's hidden features.
  • To focus on future implications of malware executable programs and how they can be avoided.
  • To discuss intelligent solutions to deal with all malware variants.

RQ1: How do improvements in malware variants impact enterprises?

RQ2: What additional solutions are required to deal with malware variants?

In this research, qualitative analysis can be conducted on malware variants and the main reason behind their increasing severity. The entire research can be completed based on qualitative research methodology to answer defined research questions and objectives. Some real-life case studies should also be integrated into the research which can be supported by the selected topic (Saidia Fasci et al., 2023).

  • Deng, H. et al. (2023) “MCTVD: A malware classification method based on three-channel visualization and deep learning,” Computers & Security , 126, p. 103084.
  • Saidia Fasci, L. et al. (2023) “Disarming visualization-based approaches in malware detection systems,” Computers & Security , 126, p. 103062.
  • Tang, Y. et al. (2023) “BHMDC: A byte and hex n-gram based malware detection and classification method,” Computers & Security , p. 103118.

Implementation of IoT - enabled smart office/home using cisco packet tracer

The Internet of Things has gained much more attention over the past few years which is why each enterprise and individual aims at setting up an IoT network to automate their processes (Barriga et al., 2023). This research can be based on designing and implementing an IoT-enabled smart home/office network using Cisco Packet Tracer software. Logical workspace, all network devices, including IoT devices can be used for preparing a logical network star topology (Elias & Ali, 2014). To achieve automation, the use of different IoT rules can be done to allow devices to work based on defined rules.

  • To set up an IoT network on a logical workspace using Cisco Packet Tracer simulation software.
  • To set up IoT-enabled rules on an IoT registration server to achieve automation (Hou et al., 2023).

RQ: Why is the Cisco packet tracer preferred for network simulation over other network simulators?

At the beginning of this research, a quantitative research methodology can be followed where proper experimental set-up can be done. As a packet tracer is to be used, the star topology can be used to interconnect IoT devices, sensors and other network devices at the home/office. Once a placement is done, the configuration should be done using optimal settings and all IoT devices can be connected to the registration server. This server will have IoT rules which can help in achieving automation by automatically turning off lights and fans when no motion is detected (Baggan et al., 2022).

  • Baggan, V. et al. (2022) “A comprehensive analysis and experimental evaluation of Routing Information Protocol: An Elucidation,” Materials Today: Proceedings , 49, pp. 3040–3045.
  • Barriga, J.A. et al. (2023) “Design, code generation and simulation of IOT environments with mobility devices by using model-driven development: Simulateiot-Mobile,” Pervasive and Mobile Computing , 89, p. 101751.
  • Elias, M.S. and Ali, A.Z. (2014) “Survey on the challenges faced by the lecturers in using packet tracer simulation in computer networking course,” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences , 131, pp. 11–15.
  • Hou, L. et al. (2023) “Block-HRG: Block-based differentially private IOT networks release,” Ad Hoc Networks , 140, p. 103059.

Comparative analysis between AODV, DSDV and DSR routing protocols in WSN networks

For wireless sensor networks (WSN), there is a major need for using WSN routing rather than performing normal routines. As WSN networks are self-configured, there is a need for an optimal routing protocol that can improve network performance in terms of latency, jitter, and packet loss (Luo et al., 2023). There are often various problems faced when WSN networks are set up due to a lack of proper routing protocol selection. As a result of this, severe downtime is faced and all links are not able to communicate with each other easily (Hemanand et al., 2023). In this research topic, the three most widely used WSN routing protocols AODV, DSDV and DSR can be compared based on network performance. To perform analysis, three different scenarios can be created in network simulator 2 (Ns2).

  • To create three different scenarios on ns2 software to simulate a network for 1 to 100 seconds.
  • To analyze which WSN routing is optimal in terms of network performance metrics, including latency, jitter and packet loss.
  • To use CBR and NULL agents for all wireless scenarios to start with simulation purposes.

RQ: How do AODV, DSR and DSDV routing protocols differ from each other in terms of network performance?

This research can be carried out using a quantitative research method. The implementation for the provided research topic can be based on Ns2 simulation software where three different scenarios can be created (AODV, DSDV and DSR). For each scenario, NULL, CSR and UDP agents can be done to start with simulation for almost 1 to 100 seconds. For all transmissions made during the given time, network performance can be checked to determine which routing is best (Mohapatra & Kanungo, 2012).

  • Human and, D. et al. (2023) “Analysis of power optimization and enhanced routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Measurement: Sensors , 25, p. 100610. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measen.2022.100610.
  • Luo, S., Lai, Y. and Liu, J. (2023) “Selective forwarding attack detection and network recovery mechanism based on cloud-edge cooperation in software-defined wireless sensor network,” Computers & Security , 126, p. 103083. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cose.2022.103083.
  • Mohapatra, S. and Kanungo, P. (2012) “Performance analysis of AODV, DSR, OLSR and DSDV routing protocols using NS2 Simulator,” Procedia Engineering , 30, pp. 69–76. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.01.835.

Securing wireless network using AAA authentication and WLAN controller

Wireless networks often face intrusion attempts due to insecure protocols and sometimes open SSIDs. As a result of this, man-in-the-middle and eavesdropping attacks become easier which results in the loss of confidential information assets (Sivasankari & Kamalakkannan, 2022). When it comes to managing networks in a large area, there are higher chances for attacks that enable cyber attackers in intercepting ongoing communication sessions. However, there is currently no research conducted where the use of AAA authentication has been done with WLAN controllers to make sure a higher level of protection is provided (Nashwan, 2021). The proposed research topic can be based on securing wireless networks with the help of AAA authentication and WLAN controllers. The use of AAA authentication can be done to set up a login portal for users whilst the WLAN controller can be used for managing all wireless access points connected to the network (Nashwan, 2021).

  • To set up AAA authentication service on the wireless network simulated on Cisco Packet Tracer for proper access control.
  • To set up a WLAN controller on the network to manage all wireless access points effortlessly.
  • To use WPA2-PSK protocol on the network to assure guest users are only able to access wireless networks over a secure protocol.

RQ1: What additional benefits are offered by AAA authentication on the WLAN networks?

RQ2: Why are wireless networks more likely to face network intrusions than wired networks?

This research topic is based on the secure implementation of a wireless LAN network using a Cisco packet tracer. Hence, this research can be carried out using a quantitative research method. The implementation can be carried out using AAA authentication which can assure that access control is applied for wireless logins. On the other hand, a WLAN controller can also be configured which can ensure that all WAPs are managed (ZHANG et al., 2012).

  • Nashwan, S. (2021) “AAA-WSN: Anonymous Access Authentication Scheme for wireless sensor networks in Big Data Environment,” Egyptian Informatics Journal , 22(1), pp. 15–26.
  • Sivasankari, N. and Kamalakkannan, S. (2022) “Detection and prevention of man-in-the-middle attack in IOT network using regression modeling,” Advances in Engineering Software , 169, p. 103126.
  • ZHANG, J. et al. (2012) “AAA authentication for Network mobility,” The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications , 19(2), pp. 81-86.

OWASP's approach to secure web applications from web application exploits

The research can revolve around the development of web applications by considering OWASP's top 10 rules. Usually, web applications are deployed by organizations depending on their requirements and these applications are vulnerable to various exploits, including injection, broken authentication and other forgery attacks (Poston, 2020). Identifying every single vulnerability is difficult when reference is not taken and often organizations end up hosting a vulnerable server that leads to privacy issues and compromises confidential information easily. In this research, OWASP's top 10 approaches can be followed to develop a secure web application that can be able to protect against top web application exploits. This approach is based on emphasizing severe and minor vulnerabilities which must be patched for protecting against web application attacks (Deepa & Thilagam, 2016).

  • The first objective can be setting up an insecure web application on the cloud environment which can be exploited with different techniques.
  • The second objective can be to consider all techniques and procedures provided by OWASP's top 10 methodologies.
  • The last objective can be applying all fixes to insecure web applications to make them resistant to OWASP top 10 attacks (Sonmez, 2019).

RQ1: What are the benefits of using OWASP's top 10 approaches to harden web applications in comparison to other security approaches?

The research methodology considered for this research project can be quantitative using an experimental approach. The practical work can be done for the selected topic using AWS or the Azure cloud platform. Simply, a virtual web server can be configured and set up with a secure and insecure web application. Following OWASP's top 10 techniques and procedures, the web application can be secured from possible attacks. In addition, insecure applications can also be exploited and results can be evaluated (Applebaum et al., 2021).

  • Applebaum, S., Gaber, T. and Ahmed, A. (2021) “Signature-based and machine-learning-based web application firewalls: A short survey,” Procedia Computer Science , 189, pp. 359–367. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2021.05.105.
  • Deepa, G. and Thilagam, P.S. (2016) “Securing web applications from injection and logic vulnerabilities: Approaches and challenges,” Information and Software Technology , 74, pp. 160–180. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infsof.2016.02.005.
  • Poston, H. (2020) “Mapping the owasp top Ten to the blockchain,” Procedia Computer Science , 177, pp. 613-617. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2020.10.087.
  • Sonmez, F.Ö. (2019) “Security qualitative metrics for Open Web Application Security Project Compliance,” Procedia Computer Science , 151, pp. 998-1003. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2019.04.140.

Importance of configuring RADIUS (AAA) server on the network

User authentication has become significant nowadays as it guarantees that a legitimate user is accessing the network. But a problem is faced when a particular security control is to be identified for authentication and authorization. These controls can be categorized based on mandatory access controls, role-based access control, setting up captive portals and many more. Despite several other security controls, one of the most efficient ones is the RADIUS server (SONG et al., 2008). This server can authenticate users on the network to make sure network resources are accessible to only legal users. This research topic can be based on understanding the importance of RADIUS servers on the network which can also be demonstrated with the help of the Cisco Packet Tracer. A network can be designed and equipped with a RADIUS server to ensure only legal users can access network resources (WANG et al., 2009).

  • To configure RADIUS (AAA) server on the network which can be able to authenticate users who try to access network resources.
  • To simulate a network on a packet tracer simulation software and verify network connectivity.

RQ1: What are other alternatives to RADIUS (AAA) authentication servers for network security?

RQ2: What are the common and similarities between RADIUS and TACACS+ servers?

As a logical network is to be designed and configured, a quantitative research methodology can be followed. In this research coursework, a secure network design can be done using a packet tracer network simulator, including a RADIUS server along with the DMZ area. The configuration for the RADIUS server can be done to allow users to only access network resources by authenticating and authorizing (Nugroho et al., 2022).

  • Nugroho, Y.S. et al. (2022) “Dataset of network simulator related-question posts in stack overflow,” Data in Brief , 41, p. 107942.
  • SONG, M., WANG, L. and SONG, J.-de (2008) “A secure fast handover scheme based on AAA protocol in Mobile IPv6 Networks,” The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications , 15, pp. 14-18.
  • WANG, L. et al. (2009) “A novel congestion control model for interworking AAA in heterogeneous networks,” The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications , 16, pp. 97-101.

Comparing mod security and pF sense firewall to block illegitimate traffic

Firewalls are primarily used for endpoint security due to their advanced features ranging from blocking to IDS capabilities and many more. It is sometimes challenging to identify which type of firewall is best and due to this reason, agencies end up setting up misconfigured firewalls (Tiwari et al., 2022). This further results in a cyber breach, destroying all business operations. The research can be emphasizing conducting a comparison between the two most widely used firewalls i.e. Mod Security and pF sense. Using a virtualized environment, both firewalls can be configured and tested concerning possible cyber-attacks (Lu & Yang, 2020).

  • To use the local environment to set up Mod security and pF sense firewall with appropriate access control rules.
  • To test both firewalls by executing distributed denial of service attacks from a remote location.
  • To compare which type of firewall can provide improved performance and robust security.

RQ: How do Mod security and pF sense differ from each other in terms of features and performance?

The practical experimentation for both firewalls can be done using a virtualized environment where two different machines can be created. Hence, this research can be carried out using a quantitative research method . The first machine can have Mod security and the second machine can have pF sense configured. A new subnet can be created which can have these two machines. The third machine can be an attacking machine which can be used for testing firewalls. The results obtained can be then evaluated to identify which firewall is best for providing security (Uçtu et al., 2021).

  • Lu, N. and Yang, Y. (2020) “Application of evolutionary algorithm in performance optimization of Embedded Network Firewall,” Microprocessors and Microsystems , 76, p. 103087.
  • Tiwari, A., Papini, S. and Hemamalini, V. (2022) “An enhanced optimization of parallel firewalls filtering rules for scalable high-speed networks,” Materials Today: Proceedings , 62, pp. 4800-4805.
  • Uçtu, G. et al. (2021) “A suggested testbed to evaluate multicast network and threat prevention performance of Next Generation Firewalls,” Future Generation Computer Systems , 124, pp. 56-67.

Conducting a comprehensive investigation on the PETYA malware

The main purpose of this research is to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the PETYA malware variant (McIntosh et al., 2021). PETYA often falls under the category of ransomware attacks which not only corrupt and encrypt files but can compromise confidential information easily. Along with PETYA, there are other variants also which lead to a security outage and organizations are not able to detect these variants due to a lack of proper detection capabilities (Singh & Singh, 2021). In this research, a comprehensive analysis has been done on PETYA malware to identify its working and severity level. Depending upon possible causes of infection of PETYA malware, some proactive techniques can also be discussed (Singh & Singh, 2021). A separation discussion can also be made on other malware variants, their features, and many more.

  • The main objective of this research is to scrutinize the working of PETYA malware because a ransomware attack can impact the micro and macro environment of the organizations severely.
  • The working of PETYA malware along with its source code can be reviewed to identify its structure and encryption type.
  • To list all possible CVE IDs which are exploited by the PETYA malware.

RQ1: How dangerous is PETYA malware in comparison to other ransomware malware?

This research can be based on qualitative research methodology to evaluate the working of PETYA malware from various aspects, the methodology followed and what are its implications. The research can be initiated by evaluating the working of PETYA malware, how it is triggered, what encryption is applied and other factors. A sample source code can also be analyzed to learn more about how cryptography is used with ransomware (Abijah Roseline & Geetha, 2021).

  • Abijah Roseline, S. and Geetha, S. (2021) “A comprehensive survey of tools and techniques mitigating computer and mobile malware attacks,” Computers & Electrical Engineering , 92, p. 107143.
  • McIntosh, T. et al. (2021) “Enforcing situation-aware access control to build malware-resilient file systems,” Future Generation Computer Systems , 115, pp. 568-582.
  • Singh, J. and Singh, J. (2021) “A survey on machine learning-based malware detection in executable files,” Journal of Systems Architecture , 112, p. 101861.

Setting up a Live streaming server on the cloud platform

Nowadays, various organizations require a live streaming server to stream content depending upon their business. However, due to a lack of proper hardware, organizations are likely to face high network congestion, slowness and other problems (Ji et al., 2023). Referring to the recent cases, it has been observed that setting up a streaming server on the local environment is not expected to perform better than a cloud-based streaming server configuration (Martins et al., 2019). This particular research topic can be based on setting up a live streaming server on the AWS or Azure cloud platform to make sure high network bandwidth is provided with decreased latency. The research gap analysis would be conducted to analyze the performance of live streaming servers on local and cloud environments in terms of network performance metrics (Bilal et al., 2018).

  • To set up a live streaming server on the AWS or Azure cloud platform to provide live streaming services.
  • To use load balancers alongside streaming servers to ensure the load is balanced and scalability is achieved.
  • To use Wireshark software to test network performance during live streaming.

RQ1: Why are in-house streaming servers not able to provide improved performance in comparison to cloud-based servers?

RQ2: What additional services are provided by cloud service providers which help in maintaining network performance?

The implementation is expected to carry out on the AWS cloud platform with other AWS services i.e. load balancer, private subnet and many more (Efthymiopoulou et al., 2017). Hence, this research can be carried out using a quantitative research method. The configuration of ec2 instances can be done which can act as a streaming server for streaming media and games. For testing this project, the use of OBS studio can be done which can help in checking whether streaming is enabled or not. For network performance, Wireshark can be used for testing network performance (George et al., 2020).

  • Bilal, KErbad, A. and Hefeeda, M. (2018) “QoE-aware distributed cloud-based live streaming of multi-sourced Multiview Videos,” Journal of Network and Computer Applications , 120, pp. 130-144.
  • Efthymiopoulou, M. et al. (2017) “Robust control in cloud-assisted peer-to-peer live streaming systems,” Pervasive and Mobile Computing , 42, pp. 426-443.
  • George, L.C. et al. (2020) “Usage visualization for the AWS services,” Procedia Computer Science , 176, pp. 3710–3717.
  • Ji, X. et al. (2023) “Adaptive QoS-aware multipath congestion control for live streaming,” Computer Networks , 220, p. 109470.
  • Martins, R. et al. (2019) “Iris: Secure reliable live-streaming with Opportunistic Mobile Edge Cloud offloading,” Future Generation Computer Systems , 101, pp. 272-292.

Significance of using OSINT framework for Network reconnaissance

Network reconnaissance is becoming important day by day when it comes to penetration testing. Almost all white hat hackers are dependent on the OSINT framework to start with network reconnaissance and footprinting when it comes to evaluating organizational infrastructure. On the other hand, cyber attackers are also using this technique to start fetching information about their target. Currently, there is no investigation carried out to identify how effective the OSINT framework is over traditional reconnaissance activities (Liu et al., 2022). This research is focused on using OSINT techniques to analyze victims using different sets of tools like Maltego, email analysis and many other techniques. The analysis can be based on fetching sensitive information about the target which can be used for conducting illegal activities (Abdullah, 2019).

  • To use Maltego software to conduct network reconnaissance on the target by fetching sensitive information.
  • To compare the OSINT framework with other techniques to analyze why it performs well.

RQ1: What is the significance of using the OSINT framework in conducting network reconnaissance?

RQ2: How can the OSINT framework be used by cyber hackers for conducting illegitimate activities?

The OSINT framework is easily accessible on its official website where different search options are given. Hence, this research can be carried out using a quantitative research method. Depending upon the selected target, each option can be selected and tools can be shortlisted for final implementation. Once the tools are shortlisted, they can be used to conduct network reconnaissance (González-Granadillo et al., 2021). For example, Maltego can be used as it is a powerful software to fetch information about the target.

  • Abdullah, S.A. (2019) “Seui-64, bits an IPv6 addressing strategy to mitigate reconnaissance attacks,” Engineering Science and Technology , an International Journal, 22(2), pp. 667–672.
  • Gonzalez-Granadillo, G. et al. (2021) “ETIP: An enriched threat intelligence platform for improving OSINT correlation, analysis, visualization and sharing capabilities,” Journal of Information Security and Applications , 58, p. 102715.
  • Liu, W. et al. (2022) “A hybrid optimization framework for UAV Reconnaissance Mission Planning,” Computers & Industrial Engineering , 173, p. 108653.

Wired and wireless network hardening in cisco packet tracer

At present, network security has become essential and if enterprises are not paying attention to the security infrastructure, there are several chances for cyber breaches. To overcome all these issues, there is a need for setting up secure wired and wireless networks following different techniques such as filtered ports, firewalls, VLANs and other security mechanisms. For the practical part, the use of packet tracer software can be done to design and implement a highly secure network (Sun, 2022).

  • To use packet tracer simulation software to set up secure wired and wireless networks.
  • Use different hardening techniques, including access control rules, port filtering, enabling passwords and many more to assure only authorized users can access the network (Zhang et al., 2012).

RQ: Why is there a need for emphasizing wired and wireless network security?

Following the quantitative approach, the proposed research topic implementation can be performed in Cisco Packet Tracer simulation software. Several devices such as routers, switches, firewalls, wireless access points, hosts and workstations can be configured and interconnected using Cat 6 e cabling. For security, every device can be checked and secure design principles can be followed like access control rules, disabled open ports, passwords, encryption and many more (Smith & Hasan, 2020).

  • Smith, J.D. and Hasan, M. (2020) “Quantitative approaches for the evaluation of Implementation Research Studies,” Psychiatry Research , 283, p. 112521.
  • Sun, J. (2022) “Computer Network Security Technology and prevention strategy analysis,” Procedia Computer Science , 208, pp. 570–576.
  • Zhang, YLiang, R. and Ma, H. (2012) “Teaching innovation in computer network course for undergraduate students with a packet tracer,” IERI Procedia , 2, pp. 504–510.

Different Preemptive ways to resist spear phishing attacks

When it comes to social engineering, phishing attacks are rising and are becoming one of the most common ethical issues as it is one of the easiest ways to trick victims into stealing information. This research topic is based on following different proactive techniques which would help in resisting spear phishing attacks (Xu et al., 2023). This can be achieved by using the Go-Phish filter on the machine which can automatically detect and alert users as soon as the phished URL is detected. It can be performed on the cloud platform where the apache2 server can be configured along with an anti-phishing filter to protect against phishing attacks (Yoo & Cho, 2022).

  • To set up a virtual instance on the cloud platform with an apache2 server and anti-phishing software to detect possible phishing attacks.
  • To research spear phishing and other types of phishing attacks that can be faced by victims (Al-Hamar et al., 2021).

RQ1: Are phishing attacks growing just like other cyber-attacks?

RQ2: How effective are anti-phishing filters in comparison to cyber awareness sessions?

The entire research can be conducted by adhering to quantitative research methodology which helps in justifying all research objectives and questions. The implementation of the anti-phishing filter can be done by creating a virtual instance on the cloud platform which can be configured with an anti-phishing filter. Along with this, some phishing attempts can also be performed to check whether the filter works or not (Siddiqui et al., 2022).

  • Al-Hamar, Y. et al. (2021) “Enterprise credential spear-phishing attack detection,” Computers & Electrical Engineering , 94, p. 107363.
  • Siddiqui, N. et al. (2022) “A comparative analysis of US and Indian laws against phishing attacks,” Materials Today: Proceedings , 49, pp. 3646–3649.
  • Xu, T., Singh, K. and Rajivan, P. (2023) “Personalized persuasion: Quantifying susceptibility to information exploitation in spear-phishing attacks,” Applied Ergonomics , 108, p. 103908.
  • Yoo, J. and Cho, Y. (2022) “ICSA: Intelligent chatbot security assistant using text-CNN and multi-phase real-time defense against SNS phishing attacks,” Expert Systems with Applications , 207, p. 117893.

Evaluating the effectiveness of distributed denial of service attacks

The given research topic is based on evaluating the effectiveness of distributed denial of service attacks on cloud and local environments. Hence, this research can be carried out using a quantitative research method. Cyber attackers find DDoS as one of the most dangerous technological exploitation when it comes to impacting network availability (Krishna Kishore et al., 2023). This research can revolve around scrutinizing the impact of DDoS attacks on the local environment and cloud environment. This can be done by executing DDoS attacks on a simulated environment using hoping or other software(s) to check where it has a higher magnitude (de Neira et al., 2023).

  • To set up a server on the local and cloud environment to target using DDoS attacks for checking which had experienced slowness.
  • To determine types of DDoS attack types, their magnitude and possible mitigation techniques.

RQ: Why do DDoS attacks have dynamic nature and how is it likely to sternly impact victims?

The experimentation for this research can be executed by creating a server on the local and cloud environment. Hence, this research can be carried out using a quantitative research method. These servers can be set up as web servers using apache 2 service. On the other hand, a Kali Linux machine can be configured with DDoS execution software. Each server can be targeted with DDoS attacks to check its effectiveness (Benlloch-Caballero et al., 2023).

  • Benlloch-Caballero, P., Wang, Q. and Alcaraz Calero, J.M. (2023) “Distributed dual-layer autonomous closed loops for self-protection of 5G/6G IOT networks from distributed denial of service attacks,” Computer Networks , 222, p. 109526.
  • de Neira, A.B., Kantarci, B. and Nogueira, M. (2023) “Distributed denial of service attack prediction: Challenges, open issues and opportunities,” Computer Networks , 222, p. 109553.
  • Krishna Kishore, P., Ramamoorthy, S. and Rajavarman, V.N. (2023) “ARTP: Anomaly-based real time prevention of distributed denial of service attacks on the web using machine learning approach,” International Journal of Intelligent Networks , 4, pp. 38–45.

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15 Latest Networking Research Topics for Students

Research in every field is becoming more and more essential because of constant developments around the world. Similar is the case in the field of networking. This is the reason; students who are preparing to master the field of networking need to keep their knowledge of the current state of the art in the field up to date.

However, choosing the right research topic often becomes a tough task for students to carry out their research effectively. That being the case, this list contains 15 latest research topics in the field of networking. Whether you are a seasoned researcher or just starting, this list can provide you with ample inspiration and guidance to drive your research forward in the dynamic and evolving field of Networking.

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Technology and Communication Research Paper Topics

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  • Archiving of Internet Content
  • Code as Law
  • Communication Infrastructure
  • Communication Technology and Democracy
  • Communication Technology Standards
  • Crime and Communication Technology
  • Development of Information and Communication Technology
  • Digital Divide
  • Digitization and Media Convergence
  • Domain Names
  • Domestication of Technology
  • Economics of Technology
  • E-Government
  • Human–Computer Interaction
  • Information and Communication
  • Information Literacy
  • Information Overload
  • Information Society
  • Internet Ratings Systems
  • Internet Research Ethics
  • Language and the Internet
  • Link Analysis
  • Log-File Analysis
  • Network Organizations through Communication Technology
  • Online Media
  • Open Access Journals
  • Open Source
  • P2P Networking
  • Personal Communication by CMC
  • Personal Publishing
  • Search Engines
  • Sex and Pornography Online
  • Social Construction of Technology
  • Technology and Globalization
  • Technology as Fashion
  • Technology Assessment
  • Technology for Mobility
  • Technology of Internet
  • Terrorism and Communication Technologies
  • Ubiquitous Computing
  • Virtual Communities

Endogenous and Exogenous Perspective

ICT innovation can be treated conceptually as either exogenous or endogenous to a social system. The exogenous perspective treats ICTs as if they are objects isolated from the social, political, and economic environment in which they are produced and consumed. If it is technology that is the determining factor in social organization, then what is left for the researcher is an observer role. The exogenous perspective emphasizes the efficiency and rationality of an autonomous technological system where there is little room for human agency.

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In contrast, from an endogenous perspective, research focuses on the way ICTs become woven into the fabric of life – in terms of morality, the economy, culture, or the political world and on the specific, material conditions under which technology is produced and consumed. Technology is regarded as part of the social fabric where actors sanction certain forms of change and not others. Power is understood to be located in the interwoven alignment of state (administrative and military), private capital, and civil society interests. In this view, the emphasis is on the way technology mediates human relationships and on the constraints that distort benefits that might otherwise accrue to those who are not at the center of economic and political power (Curran et al. 2012; Mansell 2012; Silverstone 2007).

Among the many strands of research in this context are studies of the political implications of the information society for democracy and participation in public debate and in electoral processes and whether a right to communicate should be enshrined in international law (Jørgensen 2013). Within sociology, research on the domestication of technologies (Hartmann 2013) has helped to reveal that ICT artifacts are not prefigured by technology designers for their users, and that older and newer media and ICTs are appropriated in unpredictable ways depending on the cultural specificities of their use. Economic analysis tends to focus on the diffusion of ICTs and the implications for productivity in the economy since these technologies are classed as general-purpose technologies and associated with major transformations when they become widely dispersed across all ICT-using sectors of the economy (Freeman 2007).

Research Topics

The disruptive characteristics of innovations in ICTs have given rise to many debates about their positive or negative implications for the global order, with research emphasizing links between local and distant places and the sometimes unifying, and at other times fragmenting, consequences. There is no stable definition but the term virtual community generally applies to online interactions that give rise to new forms of relationships and new organizational forms. Research focuses on the network relations among activists, bloggers, scientists and many other communities of users of social media. The digital platforms that support these communicative activities are increasingly being used by researchers to map the architecture of networks and social relations with a focus on the directionality of communication, synchronicity, content modularity, interactivity, personalization, and meaning construction. Research on issues of information control, privacy, and security raised by user-generated content, the co-creation of content, and interactive Web 2.0 applications is beginning to tackle the implications of ‘big data’ analytics which uses web-harvesting, ratings systems, and identity profiling to support corporate and state information collection and processing activities (Mayer- Schönberger & Cukier 2013). Digital means of interacting online support the networking activities of individuals and of networked organizations which enable virtual teamworking and outsourcing, raising questions about the ownership of creative capabilities, privacy, and trust, whether the public can have confidence in the digital services provided by governments, and whether new forms of interaction are consistent with democratic practice.

When the diffusion of ICTs is uneven, or where the distribution of the gains as a result of investing in them is uneven, this is referred to as a digital divide. For some it is an article of faith that ICTs hold the solutions to economic, political, and cultural problems, while others argue that digital divides mean that it is unlikely that these technologies will alleviate deeply rooted social and economic problems. This concept has been criticized for its oversimplification of the factors that give rise to inequality and research focusing on digital literacies (including information literacy or media literacy) and cultural differences have yielded insight into the many forms and consequences of digital exclusion (Livingstone and Helsper 2010). Differences in views about the relationship between technology and communication and the persistence of digital divides are reflected in research on whether a global media and communication policy environment is feasible and the roles of the nation state and multistakeholder groups in governing digital media.

Different framings of the relationship between globalization and communication are echoed in research on the governance regimes that enable the production and consumption of ICTs and media content, locally and globally. The governance of Internet has become a hotly contested area of research drawing on legal expertise and examining the values embedded in the architecture of the Internet and other digital applications. Brown and Marsden (2013) provide comprehensive examinations of the proliferation of policies, regulations, and legislation in response to the global spread of digital networks and their applications, especially the Internet. In addition, there is research on specific online behaviors and whether there should be sanctions for ‘bad’ behavior in the case of hacktivism or crime and terrorism.

Finally, the relationship between technology and communication raises many issues with respect to ethical conduct within the humanities and the social sciences. Guidelines with respect to Internet-related research have been developed nationally and by organizations such as the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR). Different methods raise concerns about the risks involved to researchers and to those they study.

References:

  • Brown, I. & Marsden, C. (2013). Regulating code: good governance and better regulation in the information age. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Castells, M. (2009). Communication Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Curran, J., Fenton, N., & Freedman, D. (2012). Misunderstanding the internet. London: Routledge.
  • Freeman, C. (2007). The ICT paradigm. In R. Mansell, C. Avgerou, D. Quah, & R. Silverstone (eds.), The Oxford handbook of information and communication technologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 34–54.
  • Hartmann, M. (2013). From domestication to mediated mobilism. Mobile Media and Communication, 1(1), 42–49.
  • Jørgensen, R. F. (2013). Framing the net: The Internet and human rights. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • Livingstone, S. & Helsper, E. (2010). Balancing opportunities and risks in teenagers’ use of the Internet: The role of online skills and Internet self-efficacy. New Media & Society, 12(2), 309–329.
  • Mansell, R. (2012). Imagining the Internet: Communication, innovation and governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Mayer-Schönberger, V. & Cukier, K. (2013). Big data: a revolution that will transform how we live, work and think. London: John Murray.
  • Silverstone, R. (2007). Media and morality: On the rise of the mediapolis. Cambridge: Polity.

Back to Communication Research Paper Topics .

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25 of today’s coolest network and computing research projects

Latest concoctions from university labs include language learning website, a newfangled Internet for mobile devices and even IP over xylophones

University labs, fueled with millions of dollars in funding and some of the biggest brains around, are bursting with new research into computer and networking technologies.

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networks, computer and a general focus on shrinking things and making them faster are among the hottest areas, with some advances already making their way into the market. Here’s a roundup of 25 such projects that caught our eyes:

This free website, Duolingo , from a pair of Carnegie Mellon University computer scientists serves double duty: It helps people learn new languages while also translating the text on Web pages into different languages.

CMU’s Luis von Ahn and Severin Hacker have attracted more than 100,000 people in a beta test of the system, which initially offered free language lessons in English, Spanish, French and German, with the computer offering advice and guidance on unknown words. Using the system could go a long way toward translating the Web, many of whose pages are unreadable by those whose language skills are narrow.

Von Ahn is a veteran of such crowdsourcing technologies, having created online reCAPTCHA puzzles to cut down on spam while simultaneously digitizing old books and periodicals. Von Ahn’s spinoff company, reCAPTCHA, was acquired by Google in 2009. Duolingo, spun off in November to offer commercial and free translation services, received $3.3 million in funding from Union Square Ventures, actor Ashton Kutcher and others.

Princeton University Computer Science researchers envision an Internet that is more flexible for operators and more useful to mobile users. Princeton’s Serval system is what Assistant Professor of Computer Science Michael Freedman calls a Service Access Layer that sits between the IP Network Layer (Layer 3) and Transport Layer (Layer 4), where it can work with unmodified network devices. Serval’s purpose is to make Web services such as Gmail and Facebook more easily accessible, regardless of where an end user is, via a services naming scheme that augments what the researchers call an IP address set-up “designed for communication between fixed hosts with topology-dependent addresses.” Data center operators could benefit by running Web servers in virtual machines across the cloud and rely less on traditional load balancers.

Serval, which Freedman describes as a “replacement” technology, will likely have its first production in service-provider networks. “Its largest benefits come from more dynamic settings, so its features most clearly benefit the cloud and mobile spaces,” he says.

If any of this sounds similar to software-defined networking (SDN), there are in fact connections. Freedman worked on an SDN/OpenFlow project at Stanford University called Ethane that was spun out into a startup called Nicira for which VMware recently plunked down $1.26 billion.

WiFi routers to the rescue

Researchers at Germany’sTechnical University in Darmstadt have described a way for home Wi-Fi routers to form a backup mesh network to be used by the police, firefighters and other emergency personnel in the case of a disaster or other incident that wipes out standard cell and phone systems.

The proliferation of Wi-Fi routers makes the researchers confident that a dense enough ad hoc network could be created, but they noted that a lack of unsecured routers would require municipalities to work with citizens to allow for the devices to be easily switched into emergency mode. The big question is whether enough citizens would really allow such access, even if security was assured.

Hyperspeed signaling

University of Tulsa engineers want to slow everything down, for just a few milliseconds, to help network administrations avoid cyberattacks.

By slowing traffic, the researchers figure more malware can be detected and then headed off via an algorithm that signals at hyperspeed to set up defenses. Though researcher Sujeet Shenoi told the publication New Scientist that it might not be cheap to set up such a defense system, between the caching system and reserved data pipes needed to support the signals.

Control-Alt-Hack

University of Washington researchers have created a card game called Control-Alt-Hack that’s designed to introduce computer science students to security topics.

The game, funded in part by Intel Labs and the National Science Foundation, made its debut at the Black Hat security conference in Las Vegas over the summer. The tabletop game involves three to six players working for an outfit dubbed Hackers, Inc., that conducts security audits and consulting, and players are issued challenges, such as hacking a hotel mini bar payment system or wireless medical implant, or converting a robotic vacuum cleaner into a toy. The game features cards (including descriptions of well-rounded hackers who rock climb, ride motorcycles and do more than sit at their computers), dice, mission cards, “hacker cred tokens” and other pieces, and is designed for players ages 14 and up. It takes about an hour to play a game. No computer security degree needed.

“We went out of our way to incorporate humor,” said co-creator Tamara Denning, a UW doctoral student in computer science and engineering, referring to the hacker descriptions and challenges on the cards. “We wanted it to be based in reality, but more importantly we want it to be fun for the players.”

Ghost-USB-Honeypot project

This effort, focused on nixing malware like Flame that spreads from computer to computer via USB storage drives, got its start based on research from Sebastian Poeplau at Bonn University’s Institute of Computer Science. Now it’s being overseen by the broader Honeynet Project.

The breakthrough by Poeplau and colleagues was to create a virtual drive that runs inside a USB drive to snag malware . According to the project website: “Basically, the honeypot emulates a USB storage device. If your machine is infected by malware that uses such devices for propagation, the honeypot will trick it into infecting the emulated device.”

One catch: the security technology only works on XP 32 bit, for starters.

IP over Xylophone Players (IPoXP)

Practical applications for running IP over xylophones might be a stretch, but doing so can teach you a few things about the truly ubiquitous protocol.

A University of California Berkeley researcher named R. Stuart Geiger led this project, which he discussed earlier this year at the Association for Computing Machinery’s Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems . Geiger’s Internet Protocol over Xylophone Players (IPoXP) provides a fully compliant IP connection between two computers. His setup uses a pair of Arduino microcontrollers, some sensors, a pair of xylophones and two people to play the xylophones.

The exercise provided some insights into the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). It emulates a technique HCI specialists use to design interfaces called umwelt, which is a practice of imagining what the world must look like to the potential users of the interface. This experiment allowed participants to get the feel for what it would be like to be a circuit.

“I don’t think I realized how robust and modular the OSI model is,” Geiger said. “The Internet was designed for much more primitive technologies, but we haven’t been able to improve on it, because it is such a brilliant model.”

Making software projects work

San Francisco State University and other researchers are puzzling over why so many software projects wind up getting ditched, fail or get completed, but late and over budget. The key, they’ve discovered, is rethinking how software engineers are trained and managed to ensure they can work as teams.

The researchers, also from Florida Atlantic University and Fulda University in Germany, are conducting a National Science Foundation-funded study with their students that they hope will result in a software model that can predict whether a team is likely to fail. Their study will entail collecting information on how often software engineering students – teamed with students at the same university and at others — meet, email each other, etc.

“We want to give advice to teachers and industry leaders on how to manage their teams,” says Dragutin Petkovic, professor and chair of SF State’s Computer Science Department. “Research overwhelmingly shows that it is ‘soft skills,’ how people work together, that are the most critical to success.”

Ultra low-power wireless

Forget about 3G, 4G and the rest: University of Arkansas engineering researchers are focused on developing very low-power wireless systems that can grab data from remote sensors regardless of distortion along the network path.

These distortion-tolerant systems would enable sensors, powered by batteries or energy-harvesting, to remain in the field for long periods of time and withstand rough conditions to monitor diverse things such as tunnel stability and animal health. By tolerating distortion, the devices would expend less energy on trying to clean up communications channels.

“If we accept the fact that distortion is inevitable in practical communication systems, why not directly design a system that is naturally tolerant to distortion?” says Jingxian Wu, assistant professor of electrical engineering.

The National Science Foundation is backing this research with $280,000 in funding.

2-way wireless

University of Waterloo engineering researchers have developed a way for wireless voice and data signals to be sent and received simultaneously on a single radio channel frequency, a breakthrough they say could make for better performing, more easily connected and more secure networks.

“This means wireless companies can increase the bandwidth of voice and data services by at least a factor of two by sending and receiving at the same time, and potentially by a much higher factor through better adaptive transmission and user management in existing networks,” said Amir Khandani, a Waterloo electrical and computer engineering professor, in a statement. He says the cost for hardware and antennas to support such a system wouldn’t cost any more than for current one-way systems.

Next up is getting industry involved in bringing such technology into the standards process.

Next steps require industry involvement by including two-way in forthcoming standards to enable wide spread implementation.

The Waterloo research was funded in part by the Canada Foundation for Innovation and the Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation.

Spray-on batteries

Researchers at Rice University in Houston have developed a prototype spray-on battery that could allow engineers to rethink the way portable electronics are designed.

The rechargeable battery boasts similar electrical characteristics to the lithium ion batteries that power almost every mobile gadget, but it can be applied in layers to almost any surface with a conventional airbrush, said Neelam Singh, a Rice University graduate student who led a team working on the technology for more than a year.

Current lithium ion batteries are almost all variations on the same basic form: an inflexible block with electrodes at one end. Because they cannot easily be shaped, they sometimes restrict designers, particularly when it comes to small gadgets with curved surfaces, but the Rice prototypes could change that. “Today, we only have a few form factors of batteries, but this battery can be fabricated to fill the space available,” said Singh.

The battery is sprayed on in five layers: two current collectors sandwich a cathode, a polymer separator and an anode. The result is a battery that can be sprayed on to plastics, metal and ceramics.

The researchers are hoping to attract interest from electronics companies, which Singh estimates could put it into production relatively easily. “Airburshing technology is well-established. At an industrial level it could be done very fast,” she said.

Mobile Mosh pit

Two MIT researchers formally unveiled over the summer a protocol called State Synchronization Protocol (SSP) and a remote log-in program using it dubbed Mosh (for mobile shell) that’s intended as an alternative to Secure Shell (SSH) for ensuring good connectivity for mobile clients even when dealing with low bandwidth connections. SSP and Mosh have been made available for free, on GNU/, FreeBSD and OS X, via an MIT website .

SSH, often used by network and system admins for remotely logging into servers, traditionally connects computers via TCP, but it’s that use of TCP that creates headaches for mobile users, since TCP assumes that the two endpoints are fixed, says Keith Winstein, a graduate student with MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab (CSAIL), and Mosh’s lead developer. “This is not a great way to do real-time communications,” Winstein says. SSP uses UDP, a connectionless, stateless transport mechanism that could be useful for stabilizing mobile usage of apps from Gmail to Skype.

Network Coding

Researchers from MIT, California Institute of Technology and University of Technology in Munich are putting network coding and error-correction coding to use in an effort to measure capacity of wired, and more challengingly, even small wireless networks (read their paper here for the gory details).

The researchers have figured out a way to gauge the upper and lower bounds of capacity in a wireless network. Such understanding could enable enterprises and service providers to design more efficient networks regardless of how much noise is on them (and wireless networks can get pretty darn noisy).

More details from MIT press office.

100 terahertz level

A University of Pittsburgh research team is claiming a communications breakthrough that they say could be used to speed up electronic devices such as and laptops in a big way. Their advance is a demonstrated access to more than 100 terahertz of bandwidth (electromagnetic spectrum between infrared and microwave light), whereas electronic devices traditionally have been limited to bandwidth in the gigahertz realm.

Researchers Hrvoje Petek of the University of Pittsburgh and visiting professor Muneaki Hase of the University of Tsukuba in Japan, have published their NSF-funded research findings in a paper in Nature Photonics. The researchers “detail their success in generating a frequency comb-dividing a single color of light into a series of evenly spaced spectral lines for a variety of uses-that spans a more than 100 terahertz bandwidth by exciting a coherent collective of atomic motions in a semiconductor silicon crystal.”

Petek says the advance could result in devices that carry a thousand-fold more information.

Separately, IBM researchers have developed a prototype optical chip that can transfer data at 1Tbps, the equivalent of downloading 500 high-definition movies, using light pulses rather than by sending electrons over wires.

The Holey Optochip is described as a parallel optical transceiver consisting of a transmitter and a receiver, and designed to handle gobs of data on corporate and consumer networks.

Cooling off with graphene

Graphene is starting to sound like a potential wonder material for the electronics business. Researchers from the University of California at Riverside, the University of Texas at Dallas and Austin, and Xiamen University in China have come up with a way to engineer graphene so that it has much better thermal properties. Such an isotopically-engineered version of graphene could be used to build cooler-running laptops, wireless gear and other equipment. The need for such a material has grown as electronic devices have gotten more powerful but shrunk in size.

“The important finding is the possibility of a strong enhancement of thermal conduction properties of isotopically pure graphene without substantial alteration of electrical, optical and other physical properties,” says UC Riverside Professor of Electrical Engineering Alexander Balandin, in a statement. “Isotopically pure graphene can become an excellent choice for many practical applications provided that the cost of the material is kept under control.”

Such a specially engineered type of graphene would likely first find its way into some chip packaging materials as well into photovoltaic solar cells and flexible displays, according to UC Riverside. Beyond that, it could be used with silicon in computer chips, for interconnect wiring to to spread heat.

Industry researchers have been making great strides on the graphene front in recent years. IBM, for example, last year said it had created the first graphene-based integrated circuit. Separately, two Nobel Prize winning scientists out of the U.K. have come up with a new way to use graphene – the thinnest material in the world – that could make Internet pipes feel a lot fatter.

Keeping GPS honest

Cornell University researchers are going on the offense against those who would try to hack GPS systems like those used in everything from cars to military drones to cellphone systems and power grids. Over the summer, Cornell researchers tested their system for outsmarting GPS spoofers during a Department of Homeland Security-sponsored demo involving a mini helicopter in the New Mexico desert at the White Sands Missile Range.

Cornell researchers have come up with GPS receiver modifications that allow the systems to distinguish between real and bogus signals that spoofers would use to trick cars, airplanes and other devices into handing over control. They emphasized that the threat of GPS spoofing is very real, with Iran last year claiming to have downed a GPS-guided American drone using such techniques.

Getting smartphones their ZZZZs

Purdue University researchers have come up with a way to detect smartphone bugs that can drain batteries while they’re not in use.

“These energy bugs are a silent battery killer,” says Y. Charlie Hu, a Purdue University professor of electrical and computer engineering. “A fully charged phone battery can be drained in as little as five hours.”

The problem is that app developers aren’t perfect when it comes to building programs that need to perform functions when phones are asleep and that use APIs provided by smartphone makers. The researchers, whose work is funded in part by the National Science Foundation, investigated the problem on Android phones, and found that about a quarter of some 187 apps contained errors that could drain batteries. The tools they’re developing to detect such bugs could be made available to developers to help them cut down on battery-draining mistakes.

Quantum leap in search

University of Southern California and University of Waterloo researchers are exploring how quantum computing technology can be used to speed up the math calculations needed to make Internet search speedy even as the gobs of data on the Web expands.

The challenge is that Google’s page ranking algorithm is considered by some to be the largest numerical calculation carried out worldwide, and no quantum computer exists to handle that. However, the researchers have created models of the web to simulate how quantum computing could be used to slice and dice the Web’s huge collection of data. Early findings have been encouraging, with quantum computers shown through the models to be faster at ranking the most important pages and improving as more pages needed to be ranked.

The research was funded by the NSF, NASA Ames Research Center, Lockheed Martin’s University Research Initiative and a Google faculty research award.

Sharing malware in a good way

Georgia Tech Research Institute security specialists have built a system called Titan designed to help corporate and government officials anonymously share information on malware attacks they are fighting, in hopes of fighting back against industrial espionage.

The threat analysis system plows through a repository of some 100,000 pieces of malicious code per day, and will give contributors quick feedback on malware samples that can be reverse-engineered by the Titan crew. Titan will also alert members of new threats, such as targeted spear-phishing attacks, and will keep tabs on not just Windows threats, but also those to MacIntosh and iOS, and Google Android systems.

“As a university, Georgia Tech is uniquely positioned to take this white hat role in between industry and government,” said Andrew Howard, a GTRI research scientist who is part of the Titan project . “We want to bring communities together to break down the walls between industry and government to provide a trusted, sharing platform.”

Touch-feely computing

Researchers from the University of Notre Dame, MIT and the University of Memphis are working on educational software that can respond to students’ cognitive and emotional states, and deliver the appropriate content based on how knowledgeable a student is about a subject, or even how bored he or she is with it.

AutoTutor and Affective AutoTutor get a feel for students’ mood and capabilities based on their responses to questions, including their facial expressions, speech patterns and hand movements.

“Most of the 20th-century systems required humans to communicate with computers through windows, icons, menus and pointing devices,” says Notre Dame Assistant Professor of Psychology Sidney D’Mello, an expert in human-computer interaction and AI in education . “But humans have always communicated with each other through speech and a host of nonverbal cues such as facial expressions, eye contact, posture and gesture. In addition to enhancing the content of the message, the new technology provides information regarding the cognitive states, motivation levels and social dynamics of the students.”

Mobile nets on the move

For emergency responders and others who need to take their mobile networks with them, even in fast-moving vehicles, data transmission quality can be problematic. North Carolina State University researchers say they’ve come up with a way to improve the quality of these Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET).

“Our goal was to get the highest data rate possible, without compromising the fidelity of the signal,” says Alexandra Duel-Hallen, a professor of electrical and computer engineering at NC State whose work is outlined in the paper “ Enabling Adaptive Rate and Relay Selection for 802.11 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks .” 

The challenge is that fast moving wireless nodes make it difficult for relay paths to be identified by the network, as channel power tends to fluctuate much more in fast-moving vehicles. The researchers have come up with an algorithm for nodes to choose the best data relay and transmission paths, based on their experience with recent transmissions.

Tweet the Street

Researchers from the University of California, Riverside and Yahoo Research Barcelona have devised a model that uses data about volumes to predict how financial markets will behave. Their model bested other baseline strategies by 1.4% to 11% and outperformed the Dow Jones Industrial Average during a four-month simulation.

“These findings have the potential to have a big impact on market investors,” said Vagelis Hristidis, an associate professor at the Bourns College of Engineering. “With so much data available from social media, many investors are looking to sort it out and profit from it.”

The research, focused on what Twitter volumes, retweets and who is doing the tweeting might say about individual stocks, differs from that of earlier work focused on making sense of the broader market based on positive and negative sentiments in tweets.

As with so many stock-picking techniques, the researchers here tossed out plenty of caveats about their system, which they said might work quite differently, for example, during a period of overall market growth rather than the down market that their research focused on.

Franken-software

University of Texas, Dallas scientists have developed software dubbed Frankenstein that’s designed to be even more monstrous than the worst malware in the wild so that such threats can be understood better and defended against. Frankenstein can disguise itself as it swipes and messes with data, and could be used as a cover for a virus or other malware by stitching together pieces of such data to avoid antivirus detection methods.

“[Mary] Shelley’s story [about Dr. Frankenstein and his monster] is an example of a horror that can result from science, and similarly, we intend our creation as a warning that we need better detections for these types of intrusions,” said Kevin Hamlen, associate professor of computer science at UT Dallas who created the software, along with doctoral student Vishwath Mohan. “Criminals may already know how to create this kind of software, so we examined the science behind the danger this represents, in hopes of creating countermeasures.”

Such countermeasures might include infiltrating terrorist computer networks, the researchers say. To date, they’ve used the NSF and Air Force Office of Scientific Research-funded technology on benign algorithms, not any production systems.

Safer e-wallets

While e-wallets haven’t quite taken off yet, University of Pittsburgh researchers are doing their part to make potential e-wallet users more comfortable with the near-field communications (NRC) and/or RFID-powered technology.

Security has been a chief concern among potential users, who are afraid thieves could snatch their credit card numbers through the air. But these researchers have come up with a way for e-wallet credit cards to turn on and off, rather than being always on whenever in an electromagnetic field.

“Our new design integrates an antenna and other electrical circuitry that can be interrupted by a simple switch, like turning off the lights in the home or office,” says Marlin Mickle, the Nickolas A. DeCecco Professor of Engineering and executive director of the RFID Center for Excellence in the Swanson School. “The RFID or NFC credit card is disabled if left in a pocket or lying on a surface and unreadable by thieves using portable scanners.”

Mickle claims the advance is both simple and inexpensive, and once the researchers have received what they hope will be patent approval, they expect the technology to be adopted commercially.

Digging into Big Data

The University of California, Berkeley has been handed $10 million by the National Science Foundation as part of a broader $200 million federal government effort to encourage the exploration and better exploitation of massive amounts of information dubbed Big Data collected by far-flung wireless sensors, social media systems and more.

UC Berkeley has five years to use its funds for a project called the Algorithms, Machines and People (AMP) Expedition, which will focus on developing tools to extract important information from Big Data, such as trends that could predict everything from earthquakes to cyberattacks to epidemics.

“Buried within this flood of information are the keys to solving huge societal problems and answering the big questions of science,” said Michael Franklin, director of the AMP Expedition team and a UC Berkeley professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences, in a statement . “Our goal is to develop a new generation of data analysis tools that provide a quantum leap in our ability to make sense of the world around us.”

AMP Expedition researchers are building an open-source software stack called the Berkeley Data Analysis System (BDAS) that boasts large-scale machine-learning and data analysis methods, infrastructure that lets programmers take advantage of cloud and cluster computing, and crowdsourcing (in other words, human intelligence). It builds on the AMPLab formed early last year, with backing from Google, SAP and others.

Bob Brown tracks network research in his and Facebook page, as well on Twitter and Google + . 

IDG News Service and other IDG publications contributed to this report

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Bob Brown is the former news editor for Network World.

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research paper topics network technology

177 of the Finest Technology Research Topics in 2023

Technology Research Topics

We live in a technological era, and you can be sure of being asked to write a technology-oriented paper. Despite the contrary opinion that this is one of the most complicated tasks, students can comfortably develop a professional topic about technology for writing a research paper . In a technology research paper, students are tasked with exploring the various aspects of technology, such as inventions, their impacts, and emerging challenges. Since almost every sphere of life encompasses technology, it is nearly impossible to miss out on a technology topic or two.

High-quality technology research paper topics should: Demonstrate your understanding of various technological concepts Portray your ability to apply these concepts to real-life situations Show how technology impacts society.

The task of coming up with technology topics involves the following stages:

  • Extensively reading on technology
  • Identifying distinct technological aspects
  • Brainstorming on potential technology titles for your paper
  • Consulting your supervisor

The last step is essential in ensuring that your topic aligns with the academic standards of your institutions. Have a look at the following writing prompts for your inspiration:

Medical laboratory Technology Research Topics

  • The role of technological innovations in the medical laboratories
  • Cost-saving technologies in the field of medical laboratory
  • A comparative analysis of the current techniques in the microbial examination
  • The role of technology in the isolation and identification of nematodes
  • The effects of 5G on the study of cancerous cells
  • Evaluating the concentration of electrolytes using technology
  • Describe the various parameters used in biochemical reactions
  • A comparative analysis of the activities of cells under a light microscope
  • Assess the various technologies used to view microscopic organisms
  • An evaluation of the role of technology in combating COVID-19

Interesting Information Technology Topics

  • Challenges facing cloud computing and virtualization
  • Various Federal information standards that affect information technologies
  • Discuss the various identity and access management practices for information technologies
  • Why the male dominates the field of computational science
  • Analyze the various cybersecurity issues arising
  • Evaluate the various challenges associated with software research
  • Why is the field of networking prone to attacks?
  • Health issues arising from the use of biometrics in companies
  • Why data entry is attracting a large number of interested parties
  • The role of the Internet of Things is transforming the world.

Argumentative Technology Topics

  • Why mobile devices can be both instruments and victims of privacy violations
  • Why PINs and passwords for mobile devices are a security threat
  • The impact of downloading malware disguised as a useful application
  • Reasons why out-of-date operating systems are a threat to your computer’s security
  • Why it is not advisable to use wireless transmissions that are not always encrypted
  • Changes in workflow and project management arising from technological advancements
  • The best method to develop and implement cloud solutions for companies
  • The cost of having cloud engineers and support professionals
  • The role of workplace monitoring in interfering with people’s privacy
  • Why information technology laws vary from one country to another

Trending Topics in Technology

  • Why technology is essential for an informed society
  • The impact of freedom of speech on social networking sites
  • Was Facebook justified in blocking Donald Trump from its platform?
  • Ethical challenges arising from the new technological innovations
  • Why it is not possible to achieve social media privacy
  • The impact of online learning sites on the quality of workplace professionals
  • Are electric cars the future of the world
  • Reasons why technology is essential in developing coronavirus vaccines
  • Discuss the various aspects of the Internet of Behaviours (IoB)
  • Strides made in the development of intelligent process automation technologies

Hot Research Proposal Topics in Information Technology

  • Discuss the considerations in developing human augmentation technologies
  • Will big data analytics survive in the future?
  • Is it possible to achieve a paper-free world?
  • Long-term effects of over-dependence on technology
  • Is technology solving world problems or creating more of them?
  • What is the impact of children growing up in a technology oriented world?
  • How was social media responsible for the chaos at the US Capitol?
  • Is it right for governments to monitor and censor citizen’s access to the internet?
  • The impact of texting and calling on family relationships
  • What are the implications of depending on online thesis help?

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Top-notch Research Paper Topics on Technology

  • The impact of Genetically Modified organisms on the health of a population
  • Compare and contrast the functioning of the human brain to that of a computer.
  • The role of video games on a person’s problem-solving skills
  • Where is technology taking the world in the next ten years?
  • What digital tools make people less productive?
  • What censorship mechanisms are needed to control people’s behavior on the internet?
  • The impact of digital learning on schools
  • Why is genetic testing essential for couples?
  • Discuss the ethical implications of mechanical reproduction
  • Discuss the role of innovations in finding treatment for terminal diseases

Latest Research Topics About technology

  • The impact of computers in academic research
  • Why artificial intelligence may not be the best option for our daily lives
  • Should parents restrict the amount of time spent on the internet by their kids?
  • What are the legal and moral implications of digital voting?
  • Is augmented reality the new way of online shopping?
  • Discuss the challenges that arise from game addiction
  • Evaluate the safety of VPNs in a global enterprise
  • Why is streaming becoming the best option for church services?
  • Discuss the efficiency of working from home versus physically going to the workplace
  • The effects of computer-generated imagery in films and games

Controversial Technology Topics

  • Does online communication make the world bigger or smaller?
  • What is the ethical implication of having ID chips in our brains?
  • Should families use gene editing for coming up with children of desirable qualities?
  • Are the cybersecurity laws punitive enough?
  • Is cryptocurrency turning around the financial industry for the worst?
  • Are self-driving vehicles safe on our roads?
  • Is it possible to attain self-awareness using Artificial Intelligence technologies?
  • The risk of x-rays on a person’s health
  • Is it possible for robots to live peacefully with humans?
  • Compare and contrast between machine learning and natural language processing

Impressive Technology Topic Ideas for High School

  • The impact of developing autonomous cars using computer vision applications
  • Discuss the interconnection between the internet of things and artificial intelligence
  • The effects of ultra-violet technologies in the health industry
  • The impact of communication networks on people’s attitudes
  • The role of internet technologies on marketing and branding
  • How has the world of music changed with the emergence of video editing technologies?
  • Describe the psychology behind video blog communication
  • Effective ways of maintaining privacy in social media
  • Is it possible to live without mass media in the world?
  • The impact of technology on the morality of the world in the 21 st century

Educational Technology Topics

  • Why is technology relevant in advancing scientific research?
  • Discuss how computational thinking is shaping critical thinking among students
  • What is the effect of professional learning for college students?
  • The role of virtual reality in helping students understand complex concepts
  • Is global learning through technology watering down education standards?
  • Discuss various energy sources to support technology use in education
  • Is the architecture of learning systems inclusive enough?
  • Discuss the impact of connectivity for schools & learning, esp. in rural environments
  • The role of data centers in education
  • Is it possible to develop sufficient national capacities related to science, technology, and innovation?

Updated Technology Related Topics in Agriculture

  • The role of soil and water sensors in improving crop yields
  • Why farmers rely on weather tracking technologies for their farming activities
  • The significant role of satellite imaging in agricultural activities
  • How do farmers use pervasive automation technologies for their farms?
  • The effect of mini-chromosomal technologies on agriculture
  • Why vertical agriculture is the future of agriculture
  • Conditions necessary for hydroponics in developed nations
  • The impact of agricultural technologies in ensuring stable food supply
  • How agricultural technologies can be used to ensure decreased use of water
  • Using agricultural technologies to enhance worker safety on the farm

Top Technology Persuasive Speech Topics

  • An analysis of digital media outreach and engagement in workplaces
  • What are the challenges experienced in distance learning
  • Describe personalized and adaptive learning platforms and tools
  • Should computer viruses count as life?
  • Describe the connection between human perception and virtual reality
  • What is the future of computer-assisted education in colleges?
  • Analyze the high dimensional data modeling procedure
  • Evaluate the imperative and declarative languages in computer programming
  • Analyze how the machine architecture affects the efficiency of the code
  • What are the discrepancies in different languages for parallel computing?

Latest Controversial Topics in Technology

  • Do you think computational thinking affects science?
  • An overview of the phishing trends in the recent past
  • How are sensor networks a threat to one’s privacy?
  • Compare and contrast lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries.
  • Can hydrogen replace all other energy sources in the future?
  • Discuss the future of tidal power: Will it persist or become extinct?
  • Why robots are a threat to the survival of humanity
  • Analyze the effectiveness of small nuclear reactors in the wake of climatic change
  • An overview of the different types of renewable energy technologies in the world
  • Are drones a threat to security or a potential security mechanism?

Hot Topics in Technology

  • Discuss the impacts of new technologies on food production and security
  • The effectiveness of 3D printing for medical products
  • What is the ethical argument behind the production of artificial body organs?
  • Discuss the role of genetic engineering in medicine
  • Challenges associated with the development of telemedicine
  • Conduct a case study analysis on the effectiveness of genome editing
  • Discuss the role of nanotechnology in cancer treatment
  • The role of virtual reality in medical schools
  • Discuss the effectiveness of wireless communication technologies for teenagers
  • How safe are you when connected to a wireless network?

Science and Technology Topics

  • Analyze the security threats associated with pharmaceutical technologies
  • An overview of the chip technology in the practice of medicine
  • Compare and contrast between electric cars and hybrid cars
  • Why are personal transportation pods the future of transport
  • Threats and solutions to cell phone use during driving
  • Effects of scientific innovations on the world
  • Are water-fueled cars a future fantasy or reality?
  • The role of robotics in food packaging
  • Modern solar system innovations
  • The role of smart energy in combating global warming

Top-Notch Research Topics on Technology

  • An overview of the different operating systems
  • The role of theoretical computer science
  • Discuss the development of computer graphics
  • What are the loopholes in block-chain technology?
  • Why banking systems need extra security measures
  • What is the future of cyber systems?
  • Ways of protecting your password from hackers
  • The role of ICT in new media technologies
  • How to deal with cyberbullying from Twitter
  • The future of interpersonal communication with the rise of social media

Researchable Topics About Technology

  • Factors that lead to viral messages on Twitter
  • Freedom of speech and social media
  • Activism in the wake of new media
  • Discuss the psychology behind advertising techniques
  • Interactive media technologies
  • How has the internet changed communication networks?
  • Role of media during pandemics
  • Ethics in internet technologies
  • The persistence of newspapers in the digital age
  • Impact of technology on lifestyle diseases

Bonus Technology Topic Ideas

  • Agricultural biotechnology
  • Gene therapy
  • Development of vaccines
  • Genome sequencing
  • Food processing technologies
  • Technology and drugs
  • Recommended systems

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130 Information Technology Research Topics And Quick Writing Prompts

Information Technology Research Topics

The field of information technology is one of the most recent developments of the 21st century. Scholars argue that we are living in a technological age. Despite this buzz, however, many students still find it challenging to compose an information technology research topic.

Nonetheless, we are here to show you the way and lead you accordingly. Let us explore professional topics in information technology together then.

Quality Information Technology Topics For Research Paper

  • The effects of Artificial Intelligence on complex and tedious tasks
  • Discuss the development of computational & synthetic biology in research
  • What are the limitations to the study of computer architecture in colleges?
  • Discuss the evolution of animation, computer graphics, and game science
  • Critically analyze how computing is contributing to the development
  • What are the emerging fields of study in computer data science?
  • How to manage data in the age of the 5G technology
  • The impact of human-computer interaction on innovations
  • How is machine learning exposing students to more recent opportunities in life?
  • Evaluate molecular information systems and their role in biotechnology
  • How information technology has contributed to natural language processing
  • What are the latest developments in programming languages and software engineering
  • Analyze emerging opportunities in the field of Robotics

College Research Paper Topics in Information Technology

  • The rising security and privacy concerns with technological advancements
  • What are the considerations when setting up systems and networking?
  • Discuss the theory of computation and its contribution to information technology
  • Why is ubiquitous computing attracting fewer students?
  • The role of wireless and sensor systems in making the world a safe place
  • Reasons, why cloud computing has helped save on space and efficiency
  • Why are most computer students comprised of the male?
  • Discuss the essence of amorphous computing in the 21st century
  • How has biomedical mining impacted the health sector?
  • Can cyborgs relate well with the man?
  • How neural networking is making brain surgery a swift process
  • The role of swarm intelligence in collaboration and brainstorming
  • How are companies maximizing the use of Big Data?

List of Topics For Research Paper in Information Technology

  • Discuss how the Internet of Things is transforming how people conduct their activities
  • Challenges to software-defined networking
  • How are marketers and promoters taking up software as a service?
  • The role of augmented reality and virtual reality in healthcare systems
  • How intelligent apps are making life easier for man
  • The role of information technology in detecting fake news and malicious viral content
  • Long term effects of a technologically oriented world
  • Technological advancements that made it possible for the SpaceX shuttle to land on the International Space Station
  • How technology is making learning more practical and student-centered
  • What role has technology played in the spread of world pandemics?
  • How are governments able to shut down the Internet for their countries during particular events?
  • Does social media make the world a global village or a divided universe?
  • Discuss the implications of technological globalization

Unique Information Technology Research Topics

  • Discuss the areas of life which have been least exploited using technology
  • What are the considerations for setting up an educational curriculum on computer technology?
  • Compare and contrast between different computer processing powers
  • Why is Random Access Memory so crucial to the functioning of a computer?
  • Should computer as a subject be mandatory for all students in college?
  • How information technology has helped keep the world together during the quarantine period
  • Discuss why most hackers manage to break firewalls of banks
  • Are automated teller machine cards a safe way of keeping your bank details?
  • Why should every institution incorporate automated systems in its functions?
  • Who is more intelligent than the other? Man or Computer systems?
  • How is NASA implementing the use of Information technology to explore space?
  • The impact of automated message replies on smartphones.
  • Do mobile phones contain radiations that cause cancer?

IT Research Topics For High School Students

  • How does natural language processing compare with machine learning?
  • What is the role of virtual reality in the entertainment industry?
  • Discuss the application of computer vision technology in autonomous cars
  • How have CCTVs assisted in keeping the world safe?
  • Effects of phishing and spying on relationships
  • Why cyber espionage is on the rise in the face of the 5G technology
  • Compare and contrast between content-based recommendation vs. collaborative filtering
  • Evaluate the interconnection between the Internet of things and artificial intelligence
  • Analyze the amount of data generated from the Internet of things in devices
  • Ethical and legal implications of various technological practices
  • How technology has contributed to the formation of Genetically Modified Organisms
  • Describe in detail the vaccine development process
  • Why nanotechnology may be the only hope left in treating HIV

Hot Topics in IT

  • How companies can incorporate information technologies in their policy management systems
  • The role of IT in enhancing service delivery in customer care centers
  • How IT has made advertising more appealing and authentic to the consumer
  • Discuss the innovation of the Next Generation education systems
  • Why are there fewer Information Technology colleges and universities in developing countries?
  • Discuss WIFI connectivity in developed countries
  • What are the considerations when purchasing a Bandwidth Monitor?
  • How to create an effective Clinic Management System for intensive care
  • Factors that necessitate the development of an Enterprise Level System Information Management
  • Is it possible to develop fully functional Intelligent Car Transportation Systems?
  • Why the world should adopt E-Waste Management systems ASAP
  • Discuss the impact of weather and climate on internet strength and connectivity
  • The role of advanced information technologies preserving classified documents

Interesting Information Technology Topics

  • Human resource information management systems in large organizations
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of online enterprise resource planning
  • A critical analysis of object tracking using radial function networks
  • How has Bluetooth mobile phone technology developed over time?
  • Ethical challenges arising from new media information technologies
  • How the computer has developed over the last decade
  • The role of social media in enhancing communication strategies
  • Why new media technologies have made physical newspapers obsolete
  • The impact of the Internet of news sourcing, production, distribution, and sharing
  • Discuss the structures of various communication structures
  • How social media is making ads easily accessible
  • The impact of social networking sites on personal contact
  • Discuss the latest content marketing ideas in the wake of information technology

Topics Related To Information Technology

  • The impact of media exposure to adolescents and teenagers
  • How mass media is slowly but surely taking over the place of personal socialization
  • How to use the Internet and interactive media as advertising tools
  • Discuss the trends in music marketing in a digital world
  • The use of hype in new media technologies
  • The impact of using YouTube and video blogs in communication messages
  • Discuss the challenges that are arising as a result of new media technologies
  • How to build trustful relationships in virtual communication channels
  • Why it is impossible to maintain privacy in social media
  • Reasons why cyberbullying continues to persist in various communication technologies
  • The change in interpersonal communication with the invention of information technology
  • Is the future of information technologies right?
  • Discuss how sensationalism is persisting in the wake of new media technologies

Research Proposal Topics in Information Technology

  • Is it possible to live in a world without social media?
  • The impact of mass media on morality and decency in the 21st century
  • Advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy sources
  • How effective is hydrogen power over others?
  • An overview of renewable energy technologies
  • The impact of robots in improving food safety
  • How are drones useful in keeping large acres of land secure?
  • The impact of 3D printing on the practice of medicine
  • The effectiveness of having robots in infectious disease units
  • The impact of hydroponic farming
  • How to improve disease control using technology
  • Eliminating poisonous substances in food using technology
  • The effectiveness of robotic surgeries

Hot Topics in Computer Science

  • Distinguish between virtual reality and human perception
  • How are the inventions in the field of computer science transforming the world
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of high-dimensional data modeling
  • Limitations to the field of computer science
  • Are colleges and universities producing competent computer scientists?
  • How ethical hacking has turned out to be worse
  • The essence of having specialized banking systems
  • What is the most effective security measure: A serial code or fingerprint?
  • The development of programming languages
  • The effect of computational thinking on science
  • Is it possible to eliminate stalking?
  • Ways of improving patent rights for technological innovations
  • An overview of the different types of software security

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411 Technology Research Paper Topics & Ideas

18 January 2024

last updated

Technology research topics are deeply engaged with the exploration of data science and big data analytics, an increasingly critical area as human societies generate vast amounts of information daily. Various themes cover the study of the Internet of Things (IoT) and data exchange, improving efficiency and decision-making. The implications of nanotechnology, designing and utilizing materials at the molecular or atomic level, are another captivating research option. In addition, technology research is probing into the potential of effective communication, a concept that uses many networks that people use as a medium to interact with others. Scientists can also investigate the progress and effects of edge computing, a method of optimizing cloud computing systems by performing data processing within the network. Thus, technology research topics are ceaselessly evolving, driving people toward an increasingly interconnected, efficient, and innovative future.

Hot Technology Research Paper Topics

  • Advancements in Quantum Computing: A Paradigm Shift
  • Breakthroughs in Nanotechnology: Promises and Challenges
  • Artificial Intelligence Ethics: Deciphering the Grey Areas
  • Augmented Reality in Education: Revolution or Hype?
  • The Blockchain Revolution: Possibilities Beyond Cryptocurrency
  • Biometric Technology: Privacy Concerns in the Modern World
  • Internet of Things (IoT) and Cybersecurity: A Global Perspective
  • Integrating Renewable Energy with Smart Grids: Challenges and Solutions
  • Rise of Autonomous Vehicles: Implications for Urban Planning
  • Machine Learning Applications in Healthcare: Promises and Perils
  • Neurotechnology and Human Rights: Navigating the Uncharted
  • Virtual Reality in Mental Health: Opportunities and Obstacles
  • Deep Learning Techniques in Weather Prediction: An Analytical Study
  • Space Technology and Climate Change: A Symbiotic Relationship
  • 5G Network Technology: Exploring Unforeseen Risks and Rewards
  • Crisis Management in Social Media: Analyzing Algorithms and Bias
  • Innovations in AgriTech: Shaping the Future of Sustainable Farming
  • 3D Printing Applications in Medicine: A Transformative Leap
  • Dark Web Surveillance: Ethical Dilemmas and Technological Advances
  • Biological Computing: Decoding the Potential for Future Technologies

Simple Technology Research Paper Topics

  • Navigating Privacy in Social Media Platforms
  • Drones in Delivery Services: Efficiency versus Safety
  • Data Encryption: An Essential in Modern-Day Communication
  • Applications and Challenges of Chatbots in Customer Service
  • Neural Networks: Unraveling the Complexity
  • Voice Recognition Technology in Smart Devices
  • Mobile Technology: Changing the Face of E-Commerce
  • Gamification in E-Learning Platforms
  • Internet of Things (IoT): Redefining Home Automation
  • Cloud Computing: Understanding the Pros and Cons
  • Bluetooth Technology: An Analysis of Connectivity Issues
  • 3D Printing: A Revolution in Manufacturing
  • Virtual Reality: A Game Changer for the Gaming Industry
  • Light Fidelity (Li-Fi): An Alternative to Wi-Fi
  • Understanding Cryptography in Blockchain
  • Advancements in Facial Recognition Systems
  • E-Waste Management: Technological Solutions
  • Artificial Intelligence: Decoding Its Myths and Realities
  • Electronic Voting Systems: Security Concerns

Technology Research Paper Topics & Ideas

Interesting Technology Research Paper Topics

  • Intricacies of Quantum Cryptography: A Closer Look
  • Bridging the Digital Divide: Technology in Rural Education
  • Machine Learning and Predictive Analysis: Unseen Patterns
  • Reality Mining: Exploring Data From Social Interactions
  • Smart Cities: Prospects and Pitfalls
  • Augmented Humans: Exploring Biohacking Techniques
  • Nanobots in Medicine: A Future Perspective
  • Interplay Between Social Media Algorithms and User Behavior
  • Predictive Policing: Merits and Ethical Dilemmas
  • Internet of Things (IoT) in Disaster Management
  • Biometric Technology in Immigration: Assessing Effectiveness
  • Autonomous Weapons: Ethical Implications and Control Measures
  • Forensic Applications of DNA Sequencing Technology
  • Space Tourism: Technological Challenges and Future Prospects
  • Machine Learning in Stock Market Predictions
  • Blockchain in Digital Identity Verification
  • Cognitive Radio: Optimizing Spectrum Use
  • Risks and Rewards of Cyber-Physical Systems
  • Big Data in Genomics and Personalized Medicine
  • Food Technology: Innovations for Sustainable Diets

Technology Research Topics for College Students

  • Smart Fabrics: Merging Fashion With Technology
  • Wireless Power Transfer: Understanding its Feasibility
  • Artificial Intelligence in Personal Finance: An Emerging Trend
  • Understanding Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities in IoT Devices
  • Bioinformatics: Decoding the Data of Life
  • Nano-Bio Technology: Applications in Health and Environment
  • Augmented Reality in Tourism: A New Era of Exploration
  • Neural Networks in Image Processing: A Detailed Study
  • Hydroponics and Vertical Farming: Technology for Urban Agriculture
  • Challenges and Solutions in E-Waste Recycling
  • Brain-Computer Interfaces: The Future of Neurological Therapies
  • 3D Bioprinting: Revolutionizing Transplant Medicine
  • Big Data in Sports Analytics: Changing the Game
  • Haptic Technology: Enhancing the Virtual Reality Experience
  • Understanding the Potential of Quantum Sensors
  • Green IT: Sustainable Practices in Technology Companies
  • Digital Forensics: Tools and Techniques for Cyber Crime Investigation
  • Solar Power Technology: Innovations for a Greener Future
  • Digital Watermarking: Applications in Media and Art

Technology Research Topics for University

  • Blockchain and Healthcare: Ensuring Data Privacy
  • Fusion Energy: Understanding Technological Challenges
  • Gene Editing Technology: Implications for Human Health
  • Intrusion Detection Systems in Cybersecurity: An Evaluation
  • Artificial Intelligence in Climate Change Modelling
  • Wireless Sensor Networks in Environmental Monitoring
  • Digital Twins: Facing the Gap Between Physical and Virtual
  • Internet of Nano Things (IoNT): A Look Into the Future
  • Quantum Computing and Post-Quantum Cryptography
  • Exploring the Applications of Holographic Technology
  • Machine Learning in Predicting Disease Outbreaks
  • Autonomous Drones in Search and Rescue Operations
  • Understanding the Mechanism of Neural Implants
  • Smart Packaging: The Future of Food Safety
  • Analyzing the Potential of Perovskite Solar Cells
  • Digital Accessibility: Overcoming Barriers in Technology
  • Molecular Computing: An Alternative to Silicon-Based Computers
  • 5G Technology: Exploring the Cybersecurity Implications
  • Augmented Reality in Structural Design and Architecture
  • Plastic Recycling Technology: An Approach Toward Circular Economy

Technologies & Computer Science Research Topics

  • Harnessing Quantum Entanglement in Secure Communication
  • Advancements in Distributed Systems: A Deeper Look Into Edge Computing
  • Understanding and Overcoming Challenges in Deep Learning Optimization
  • Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery: Techniques and Limitations
  • In-Depth Analysis of Probabilistic Graphical Models
  • Algorithmic Fairness and Transparency in Machine Learning
  • Biocomputation: Exploring the Frontier of Molecular Machines
  • Emerging Techniques in Non-Volatile Memory Systems
  • Application and Limitations of Homomorphic Encryption in Cloud Computing
  • Internet of Things (IoT): Addressing the Scalability Issues
  • Designing Energy-Efficient Architectures for High-Performance Computing
  • Exploring the Efficacy of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms
  • Nano-Scale Communication: Challenges in Network Design
  • Bayesian Deep Learning: Bridging Uncertainty and Complexity
  • Development of Sustainable Cryptocurrencies: A Technological Perspective
  • Interpretable Machine Learning: Making AI Transparent and Accountable
  • Analyzing the Security Measures in Next-Generation 6G Networks
  • Computer Vision and Image Understanding: Advanced Techniques and Applications
  • Advanced Intrusion Detection Systems in Cybersecurity: New Approaches
  • Quantum Machine Learning: Convergence of Quantum Computing and AI

Artificial Intelligence Technology Research Topics

  • Explainable AI: Techniques for Improving Transparency
  • Neurosymbolic Computing: Bridging the Gap Between Neural and Symbolic Networks
  • Artificial General Intelligence: Feasibility and Challenges
  • Reinforcement Learning: Novel Approaches for Reward Function Design
  • Machine Ethics: Incorporating Human Values Into Autonomous Systems
  • Adversarial Attacks on Deep Learning Systems: Mitigation Techniques
  • Automated Machine Learning: Improving Efficiency of Model Development
  • Emotion AI: Building Empathetic Machines
  • Developing Robustness in AI Systems: A Study on Uncertainty Quantification
  • Multimodal Learning: AI Understanding of Integrated Sensory Data
  • AI Governance: Frameworks for Ethical Machine Decision-making
  • Natural Language Processing: Advances in Contextual Understanding
  • Generative Models: Novel Applications and Challenges in AI Artistry
  • Understanding AI Bias: Techniques for Fair Algorithmic Practices
  • Swarm Intelligence: Inspirations From Nature for Problem-Solving AI
  • Human-AI Collaboration: Enhancing Synergy in Mixed Teams
  • Machine Vision: Next-Gen Innovations in Image Recognition
  • Transfer Learning: Maximizing Efficiency in AI Training
  • Artificial Creativity: Understanding the Mechanisms of AI in Art and Design

Video Gaming Technology Research Topics

  • Game Physics: Realism and Computation Trade-Offs
  • Procedural Generation: Advanced Techniques in Game Design
  • Development of Next-Generation Gaming Consoles: A Technical Perspective
  • Deep Learning in Video Game AI: Emerging Trends
  • Haptic Feedback Technology: Enhancing User Experience in Virtual Reality Games
  • Exploring the Limitations of Cloud Gaming Technology
  • Player Behavior Modeling: Machine Learning Applications in Multiplayer Games
  • Use of Ray Tracing in Real-Time Rendering: Technical Challenges
  • Neurogaming: Merging Neuroscience With Video Game Technology
  • Audio Techniques in Immersive Gaming: A Comprehensive Study
  • Augmented Reality Gaming: Future Prospects and Challenges
  • AI-Driven Game Design: Automating the Creative Process
  • Virtual Reality Motion Sickness: Understanding and Addressing the Problem
  • Cybersecurity in Online Gaming: Protecting Against Emerging Threats
  • Biofeedback in Gaming: Personalizing the Player Experience
  • Esports and AI: Improving Training and Performance Analysis
  • Next-Level Gaming: Exploring the Potential of Quantum Computing
  • Blockchain Technology in Gaming: Opportunities and Challenges
  • Cross-Platform Gaming: Technical Hurdles and Solutions
  • Spatial Computing: The Future of Augmented Reality Games

Educational Technology Research Topics

  • Integration of Augmented Reality in Classroom Learning
  • Adaptive Learning Systems: Tailoring Education to Individual Needs
  • Exploring the Efficacy of Digital Game-Based Learning
  • Artificial Intelligence in Personalized Education: Scope and Challenges
  • Serious Games: Assessing their Potential in Education
  • Implementing Cybersecurity Education in School Curricula
  • Effectiveness of Mobile Learning in Diverse Educational Settings
  • Learning Analytics: Enhancing Student Success With Big Data
  • Virtual Reality in Special Education: Overcoming Barriers
  • Applying Natural Language Processing in Automatic Essay Grading
  • Developing Open-Source Educational Software: Challenges and Opportunities
  • E-Learning: Identifying Optimal Strategies for Adult Education
  • Technological Approaches for Inclusive Education
  • Blockchain in Education: A Study on Records Management
  • Harnessing the Power of AI in STEM Education
  • Flipped Classroom Model: Evaluating its Effectiveness With Technology
  • Immersive Learning Environments: The Role of Virtual Reality
  • Collaborative Learning in Online Education: Technological Tools and Strategies
  • Machine Learning Applications in Predicting Student Performance
  • Exploring the Intersection of Neuroscience and EdTech

Biotechnology Research Topics

  • Harnessing CRISPR Technology for Precision Medicine
  • Synthetic Biology: Developing Novel Biological Systems
  • Genome Editing: Ethical and Safety Considerations
  • Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery: Prospects and Challenges
  • Tissue Engineering: Innovations in Regenerative Medicine
  • AI Applications in Genomics: Exploring Potential and Limitations
  • Pharmacogenomics: Personalizing Medicine With Genetics
  • Therapeutic Applications of Stem Cell Technology
  • Microbiome Research: Implications for Human Health
  • Gene Therapy: Advanced Techniques and Challenges
  • Biomaterials in Medical Implants: A Comprehensive Study
  • Bioinformatics in Disease Prediction: Latest Approaches
  • Cellular Agriculture: The Science Behind Lab-Grown Meat
  • Microbial Fuel Cells: Biotechnology in Sustainable Energy
  • Molecular Diagnostics: Innovations in Pathogen Detection
  • Bioprinting: 3D Printing of Organs and Tissues
  • Nanobiosensors: Early Disease Detection Techniques
  • Proteomics: Advanced Technologies and Their Applications
  • DNA Data Storage: Understanding the Feasibility and Challenges

Communications and Media Technology Research Topics

  • Network Function Virtualization: Innovations and Challenges
  • Deep Learning Algorithms in Automated Journalism
  • 5G Wireless Technology: Overcoming Implementation Hurdles
  • Digital Broadcasting: Exploring the Future of Television
  • Artificial Intelligence in Media Production: Potential and Limitations
  • Blockchain Applications in Digital Rights Management
  • Internet of Things: Enhancing Smart Home Connectivity
  • Satellite Communication: New Frontiers in Space-Based Networks
  • Quantum Cryptography in Secure Communication
  • 3D Holography: Future of Telecommunication
  • AI-Driven Media Personalization: Ethical Considerations
  • Optical Fiber Technology: Enhancing Global Connectivity
  • Social Media Analytics: Leveraging Big Data
  • Next Generation Networks: Preparing for 6G Wireless Communication
  • Human-Computer Interaction: Advancements in Conversational AI
  • Deepfake Technology: Assessing Societal Implications and Countermeasures
  • Immersive Journalism: Leveraging VR in News Reporting
  • AI in Content Moderation: Efficiency and Accuracy Trade-Offs
  • Data Compression Techniques: Innovations for Efficient Storage
  • Digital Forensics: Advanced Techniques for Media Analysis

Energy Technologies Research Topics

  • Harnessing Tidal Power: Advances in Marine Energy
  • Fusion Energy Technology: Exploring the Challenges
  • Nanotechnology in Solar Cells: Efficiency Enhancement Methods
  • Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Overcoming Technological Hurdles
  • Geothermal Energy: Innovations in Power Generation
  • Artificial Photosynthesis: A Sustainable Energy Solution
  • Thermoelectric Materials: Converting Waste Heat Into Power
  • Wireless Power Transmission: Assessing Feasibility and Efficiency
  • Smart Grids: Incorporating AI for Energy Management
  • Carbon Capture Technologies: Solutions for Climate Change
  • Biofuels: Advanced Techniques in Renewable Energy
  • Solid-State Batteries: Future of Energy Storage
  • Energy Harvesting: Utilizing Ambient Energy Sources
  • Next-Generation Nuclear Power: Advancements in Reactor Designs
  • Grid Energy Storage: Addressing Intermittency in Renewable Power
  • Perovskite Solar Cells: Investigating Stability and Performance
  • Wind Energy: Exploring Offshore and Floating Turbines
  • Thermochemical Storage: Solutions for Seasonal Energy Storage
  • Concentrated Solar Power: Technological Advances and Challenges

Food Technology Research Topics

  • Precision Fermentation: Innovations in Food Production
  • Edible Packaging: Exploring Sustainable Solutions
  • Artificial Intelligence in Food Quality Control
  • Food Fortification: Enhancing Nutrient Bioavailability
  • Cultured Meat: Technological Challenges and Opportunities
  • Microbial Biotechnology in Fermented Foods
  • Nanotechnology Applications in Food Preservation
  • 3D Food Printing: Potential and Limitations
  • Insect Farming: A Sustainable Protein Source
  • Smart Farming: AI in Crop Management and Disease Detection
  • Food Traceability: Applications of Blockchain
  • Nutrigenomics: Personalized Nutrition Based on Genetics
  • Active and Intelligent Packaging: Enhancing Food Safety
  • Aquaponics: Sustainable Solutions for Urban Farming
  • Food Waste Management: Advanced Biotechnological Approaches
  • High-Pressure Processing: Enhancing Food Shelf Life
  • Synthetic Biology: Developing Novel Flavors and Textures
  • CRISPR Technology in Crop Breeding
  • Functional Foods: Advances in Probiotics and Prebiotics
  • Bioactive Peptides: Extraction Techniques and Health Benefits

Medical Technology Research Topics

  • Innovations in Medical Imaging: Exploring the Potential of AI
  • Telemedicine: Addressing Barriers to Adoption
  • 3D Bioprinting: A New Frontier in Regenerative Medicine
  • Neuroprosthetics: Advances in Brain-Computer Interfaces
  • Genetic Testing: Navigating Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues
  • Health Informatics: Applying Big Data to Improve Patient Outcomes
  • Nanomedicine: Progress and Challenges in Targeted Drug Delivery
  • Wearable Technology: Enhancing Patient Monitoring
  • Robot-Assisted Surgery: Evaluating Effectiveness and Patient Safety
  • Artificial Organs: Developments in Bioartificial Technology
  • Precision Medicine: Integrating Genomics Into Healthcare
  • Remote Patient Monitoring: The Future of Chronic Disease Management
  • Virtual Reality in Pain Management: Investigating Efficacy
  • Cybersecurity in Healthcare: Safeguarding Patient Data
  • CRISPR in Disease Treatment: Examining the Potential of Gene Editing
  • AI in Predictive Analysis: Anticipating Disease Outbreaks
  • Smart Pills: Revolutionizing Drug Delivery and Diagnostic Capabilities
  • Machine Learning in Medical Diagnosis: Limitations and Possibilities
  • Biomedical Optics: Advanced Imaging for Early Cancer Detection
  • Brain Implants: Investigating the Potential for Memory Enhancement

Pharmaceutical Technologies Research Topics

  • Enhancing Bioavailability in Drug Delivery With Nanotechnology
  • Pharmacogenomics: Personalizing Medication Regimens
  • Gene Therapy: Overcoming Delivery and Safety Challenges
  • Biologics: Advances in Production and Purification Techniques
  • AI in Drug Discovery: Speeding Up the Process
  • Protein Engineering: Designing Next-Generation Therapeutics
  • 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals: Customization and Precision Dosing
  • CRISPR: Opportunities for Novel Drug Development
  • Pharmaceutical Formulation: Advances in Controlled Release Systems
  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: Modern Computational Approaches
  • Neuropharmacology: Understanding the Blood-Brain Barrier for Drug Delivery
  • Microfluidics in Drug Discovery: High-Throughput Screening Methods
  • Advanced Biosensors for Drug Level Monitoring
  • Antibody-Drug Conjugates: Balancing Efficacy and Safety
  • Smart Drug Delivery Systems: Responsive and Targeted Approaches
  • Machine Learning in Predicting Drug Interactions
  • Bioequivalence Studies: New Approaches for Complex Drug Products
  • Pharmaceutical Biotechnology: Developments in Therapeutic Proteins
  • Nanoparticles in Vaccine Development: Innovations and Challenges

Transportation Technology Research Topics

  • Autonomous Vehicles: Navigating the Road to Full Autonomy
  • Hyperloop Technology: A Future Transportation Solution?
  • Electric Aircraft: Challenges in Battery Technology and Infrastructure
  • Maritime Drones: Applications and Challenges in Oceanic Transport
  • Smart Traffic Management: AI Solutions for Urban Congestion
  • Connected Vehicles: Cybersecurity Considerations and Solutions
  • Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) Trains: Exploring Technological Advances
  • Intelligent Transportation Systems: Evaluating the Role of IoT
  • Sustainable Maritime Transport: Opportunities for Green Ships
  • Aerodynamics in Vehicle Design: Energy Efficiency Strategies
  • Air Taxis: Investigating Feasibility and Infrastructure Needs
  • Digital Twins in Transportation: Improving Maintenance and Predicting Failures
  • Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Transportation: Overcoming Technological Hurdles
  • AI in Public Transportation: Optimizing Routes and Schedules
  • Cargo Bikes: Assessing their Potential in Urban Freight Transport
  • Battery Technology for Electric Vehicles: Future Prospects
  • High-Speed Rail Networks: Exploring Economic and Environmental Impact
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Regulations and Safety Measures
  • Space Tourism: Technological Challenges and Prospects
  • Self-Healing Materials: Innovations in Road and Infrastructure Maintenance

High-Quality Technology Research Topics

  • Cybersecurity in Quantum Computing: Protecting the Future
  • Blockchain Applications Beyond Cryptocurrency
  • Machine Learning in Astrophysics: Uncovering Cosmic Mysteries
  • AI-Driven Climate Change Models: Enhancing Predictive Accuracy
  • Advanced Robotics: Exploring Humanoid Potential
  • Genetic Algorithms: Solutions for Optimization Problems
  • Nanotechnology in Environmental Remediation: Promise and Challenges
  • Dark Web: Investigating Patterns and Anomalies
  • Neural Networks in Weather Prediction: Optimizing Models
  • Smart Homes: AI in Domestic Energy Management
  • Quantum Teleportation: Exploring Real-World Applications
  • Exoskeletons: Advances in Wearable Robotics
  • Internet of Things (IoT) in Agriculture: Precision Farming Solutions
  • Photonics: Innovations in Optical Computing
  • Underwater Wireless Communication: Technological Challenges
  • Smart Dust: Applications and Ethical Concerns
  • Biometric Authentication: Enhancing Security in the Digital Age
  • Mixed Reality in Education: Potential and Limitations
  • Swarm Robotics: Coordinated Autonomy and Applications

Informative Technology Research Topics

  • Information Security: Addressing Emerging Cyber Threats
  • Blockchain Technology: Beyond Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies
  • Digital Forensics: Unveiling Cyber Crime Investigations
  • Cloud Computing: Data Privacy and Security Concerns
  • Data Visualization: Enhancing Decision-Making With Interactive Graphics
  • Internet of Things: Smart Homes and Their Privacy Implications
  • Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare: Automating Diagnosis
  • Quantum Computing: Future Scenarios and Challenges
  • Social Media Analytics: Understanding Consumer Behavior
  • Virtual Reality: Applications in Mental Health Therapy
  • Augmented Reality in Retail: Changing the Shopping Experience
  • Machine Learning: Improving Weather Forecast Accuracy
  • Cyber-Physical Systems: The Backbone of Industry 4.0
  • Deep Learning: Enhancements in Image Recognition
  • Digital Twin Technology: Applications in Manufacturing
  • Neural Networks: Enhancing Language Translation Systems
  • Big Data Analytics: Overcoming Processing Challenges
  • Edge Computing: Handling IoT Data Closer to the Source
  • Cryptocurrency Regulations: Balancing Innovation and Security

Lucrative Technology Research Topics

  • Artificial Intelligence in Stock Market Predictions: Accuracy and Profits
  • Fintech Innovations: Disrupting Traditional Banking
  • Big Data in E-commerce: Driving Sales and Customer Satisfaction
  • Blockchain Technology: Applications in Supply Chain Management
  • Cloud Computing: Revenue Generation in the Software Industry
  • Internet of Things: Business Opportunities in Smart Home Technologies
  • Cybersecurity Services: A Growing Market in the Digital Age
  • Machine Learning: Enhancing Profitability in Digital Advertising
  • Virtual Reality in Real Estate: Boosting Sales Through Immersive Experiences
  • Robotic Process Automation: Cost Savings in Business Operations
  • Biometric Technology: Revenue Opportunities in Security Systems
  • 5G Technology: Impact on Telecommunications Industry Revenue
  • E-Waste Recycling: Profitable and Environmentally Friendly Solutions
  • AI Chatbots: Customer Service Cost Reduction
  • Health Informatics: Profitability in Healthcare Data Management
  • Cryptocurrencies: Financial Opportunities and Risks
  • Digital Twin Technology: Revenue Generation in Industrial Applications
  • EdTech Innovations: Business Opportunities in Online Education
  • Wearable Tech: Profitability in the Fitness Industry
  • Data Science Consulting: Lucrative Opportunities in Business Intelligence

Outstanding Technology Research Topics

  • Artificial Intelligence in Climate Change: Predictive Models and Solutions
  • Blockchain Technology: Enhancing Food Traceability
  • Quantum Computing: Breaking New Ground in Cryptography
  • Augmented Reality: Changing the Landscape of Tourism
  • Virtual Reality in Pain Management: Emerging Therapeutic Approaches
  • Machine Learning in Wildlife Conservation: Species Identification and Tracking
  • Neural Networks: Improving Seismic Data Interpretation
  • Internet of Things: Smart Farming and Precision Agriculture
  • Cloud Computing: Opportunities in Healthcare Data Storage and Analysis
  • Genomic Data Analysis: Unraveling Complex Biological Systems
  • Autonomous Vehicles: A Deep Dive Into Lidar Technologies
  • 5G Networks: Enabling Next-Generation IoT Devices
  • Cybersecurity: AI-Driven Solutions for Advanced Persistent Threats
  • Green Data Centers: Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Practices
  • Robotics in Elder Care: Opportunities and Ethical Considerations
  • Big Data in Astronomy: Handling Petabytes of Sky Surveys
  • Space Technologies: Advances in Satellite Communication Systems
  • Deep Learning: Progress in Natural Language Processing
  • Edge Computing: Potential in Autonomous Vehicle Infrastructure

War Technology Research Topics

  • Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles: An Ethical Examination
  • Cyber Warfare: Defensive Strategies and National Security
  • Artificial Intelligence in Military Decision Making: Prospects and Concerns
  • Weaponized Drones: A Review of Current Capabilities
  • Stealth Technology: Advances in Radar Evasion
  • Military Robotics: Exploring Autonomous Ground Systems
  • Biotechnology in Warfare: Threats and Opportunities
  • Space Weapons: Evaluating Anti-Satellite Capabilities
  • Quantum Computing: Potential Applications in Cryptanalysis
  • Psychological Warfare: Analyzing Influence Operations in Social Media
  • Nuclear Technology: Examining Modern Proliferation Risks
  • Directed Energy Weapons: A Study on High-Energy Lasers
  • Information Warfare: Impact on Military Strategy
  • Hypersonic Missiles: Technological Challenges and Strategic Implications
  • Electronic Warfare: Advances in Signal Jamming Technologies
  • Augmented Reality in Military Training: Utility and Effectiveness
  • Blockchain Technology: Uses in Secure Military Communication
  • Autonomous Naval Systems: Revolutionizing Maritime Warfare
  • Bioinformatics in Defense: Tracking Biological Threats
  • Future Soldier Technology: Enhancing Capabilities With Wearable Tech

To Learn More, Read Relevant Articles

295 criminal justice research topics & ideas, 115 british literature research paper topics & ideas.

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Why the Tech Industry Won’t Disrupt Health Care

  • John Glaser,
  • Sara Vaezy,
  • Janet Guptill

research paper topics network technology

Digital transformation will most likely come from established health systems. Here’s what they need to do.

At first glance, it looks like health care in the United States is ripe for disruption. Digital technology advances have the power to help address the shortcomings of care delivery: It costs too much, its quality isn’t what it could and should be, and millions of people live hundreds of miles from the nearest hospital and/or don’t have a primary care doctor. But for many reasons, the incumbents — established health systems — will be extremely hard to displace. Instead, the winners will be health systems that team up with digital tech companies.

We’ve all watched digital innovators demolish certain industries: video and record stores, neighborhood movie theaters, travel agents. A one-time #18 on the Fortune 500, photo film giant Eastman Kodak was felled by digital photography. But some industries and players successfully fend off digital competitors and incorporate their innovations into their daily operations. An Economist article observed that even though most banking has moved online, the average large bank is 138 years old. Walmart, the world’s largest brick-and-mortar retailer, is also the second-largest online retailer.

  • John Glaser is an executive in residence at Harvard Medical School. He previously served as the CIO of Partners Healthcare (now Mass General Brigham), a senior vice president at Cerner, and the CEO of Siemens Health Services. He is co-chair of the HL7 Advisory Council and a board member of the National Committee for Quality Assurance.
  • Sara Vaezy is executive vice president and chief strategy and digital officer at Providence, where she is responsible for corporate strategy, artificial intelligence strategy, marketing, digital, and experience for the integrated delivery network, which includes 51 hospitals and 1,000 clinics serving 5 million patients annually. She also is a member of the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s board of directors and the Harvard Executive Education faculty.
  • Janet Guptill is president and CEO of the Scottsdale Institute, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to helping its more than 60 large, integrated health systems leverage information and technology to create effective, affordable, and equitable health care centered on whole person care.

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Latest Research Topics in Networking

                Latest Research Topics in Networking offer newfangled project topics for our students from bachelors and master degree (B.E/M.E/M.Phil/M.Tech/MCA) in the field of networking. Networking is the biggest and fastest emerging area, making it hinder students with new research into networking technologies. However, students spend more money on their networking projects. To help our students, we also offer the latest networking projects at optimum cost as far as we also provided 5000+ projects from 120+ countries students from all over the world.

We develop projects both in software and hardware, and in software, we use both open source and proprietary software. We also suggest our students always choose the latest topics because the latest ideas only give something innovative and colorful.

Think well…Always be a part of us… we pose your pioneering projects…..

Topics in Networking

                  Latest Research Topics in Networking covers possible list of topics intended also for under graduate and also post graduate students and scholars. In networking, security is one of the major issues in all types of wired and wireless networks, e.g., cloud networking. There is also a lot of research in the networking field because it is also a vast area that prefers among more users.  

Generally,  networking is defined as the computing devices that exchange information and share ideas among individuals or groups of devices or users using either wired or wireless connection.

Let us see the latest topics in networking,

  • Secure and control sensitive data also in cloud environment (any)
  • The future of IoT and also bio metrics
  • Software defined networking
  • Network security and also cryptography
  • Network Function Virtualization
  • Cognitive computing and also machine learning
  • Micro services architecture
  • Adaptive security
  • Augmented and virtual reality
  • Cloud networking
  • Big data analytics in mobile networking
  • Smart personal assistants
  • Wearable’s in sensor networks
  • Blockchain as a service (BaaS)
  • Containerization (traditional virtualization)
  • Resource allocation SDN
  • Ultra dense wireless networks planning
  • SDN + Virtualized radio Access Networks also with Fog computing
  • Spectrum efficiency enhancement by LTE-U also with Wi-Fi
  • 5G wireless backhaul networks
  • SDN based Elastic optical networks also in cloud.
  • Green mobile cloud network: Green cloudlet
  • C-RAN: Cloud Radio Access Network
  • 5G networks multicasting
  • Traffic engineering also in software defined networks
  • D2D communication in 5G
  • Over Wi-Fi secure device-to-device communication
  • Cloud Robotics
  • 5G networks for visible light communication
  • Big data in mobile cloud networks
  • Prevention and also in detection of network attacks
  • SDN network automation to 802.11ac and also in IPv6

Simulation Tools, Software’s and Programming Languages Used in Networking Projects

Programming languages:.

  • R-programming
  • Matlab and also in scilab

Simulation Software’s:

  • Psimulator2
  • Network simulators (NS2 and also in NS3)

Other Tools:

  • Matlab Simulink
  • Matlab tool boxes
  • Word net tool
  • And also in MADAMIRA tool

        We also provide a few collections of networking and simulation tools, software, and programming languages for developing projects in the networking and other areas. For each project, we give PPT, documents, video files, and also completed code implementation. Our additional support for our students is journal paper writing support, paper publication in high reputed journals, and thesis writing support.

A good beginning is often overt as happy endings…..

Let us come together for your immense research…… , related pages, services we offer.

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Sat / act prep online guides and tips, 113 great research paper topics.

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General Education

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One of the hardest parts of writing a research paper can be just finding a good topic to write about. Fortunately we've done the hard work for you and have compiled a list of 113 interesting research paper topics. They've been organized into ten categories and cover a wide range of subjects so you can easily find the best topic for you.

In addition to the list of good research topics, we've included advice on what makes a good research paper topic and how you can use your topic to start writing a great paper.

What Makes a Good Research Paper Topic?

Not all research paper topics are created equal, and you want to make sure you choose a great topic before you start writing. Below are the three most important factors to consider to make sure you choose the best research paper topics.

#1: It's Something You're Interested In

A paper is always easier to write if you're interested in the topic, and you'll be more motivated to do in-depth research and write a paper that really covers the entire subject. Even if a certain research paper topic is getting a lot of buzz right now or other people seem interested in writing about it, don't feel tempted to make it your topic unless you genuinely have some sort of interest in it as well.

#2: There's Enough Information to Write a Paper

Even if you come up with the absolute best research paper topic and you're so excited to write about it, you won't be able to produce a good paper if there isn't enough research about the topic. This can happen for very specific or specialized topics, as well as topics that are too new to have enough research done on them at the moment. Easy research paper topics will always be topics with enough information to write a full-length paper.

Trying to write a research paper on a topic that doesn't have much research on it is incredibly hard, so before you decide on a topic, do a bit of preliminary searching and make sure you'll have all the information you need to write your paper.

#3: It Fits Your Teacher's Guidelines

Don't get so carried away looking at lists of research paper topics that you forget any requirements or restrictions your teacher may have put on research topic ideas. If you're writing a research paper on a health-related topic, deciding to write about the impact of rap on the music scene probably won't be allowed, but there may be some sort of leeway. For example, if you're really interested in current events but your teacher wants you to write a research paper on a history topic, you may be able to choose a topic that fits both categories, like exploring the relationship between the US and North Korea. No matter what, always get your research paper topic approved by your teacher first before you begin writing.

113 Good Research Paper Topics

Below are 113 good research topics to help you get you started on your paper. We've organized them into ten categories to make it easier to find the type of research paper topics you're looking for.

Arts/Culture

  • Discuss the main differences in art from the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance .
  • Analyze the impact a famous artist had on the world.
  • How is sexism portrayed in different types of media (music, film, video games, etc.)? Has the amount/type of sexism changed over the years?
  • How has the music of slaves brought over from Africa shaped modern American music?
  • How has rap music evolved in the past decade?
  • How has the portrayal of minorities in the media changed?

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Current Events

  • What have been the impacts of China's one child policy?
  • How have the goals of feminists changed over the decades?
  • How has the Trump presidency changed international relations?
  • Analyze the history of the relationship between the United States and North Korea.
  • What factors contributed to the current decline in the rate of unemployment?
  • What have been the impacts of states which have increased their minimum wage?
  • How do US immigration laws compare to immigration laws of other countries?
  • How have the US's immigration laws changed in the past few years/decades?
  • How has the Black Lives Matter movement affected discussions and view about racism in the US?
  • What impact has the Affordable Care Act had on healthcare in the US?
  • What factors contributed to the UK deciding to leave the EU (Brexit)?
  • What factors contributed to China becoming an economic power?
  • Discuss the history of Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies  (some of which tokenize the S&P 500 Index on the blockchain) .
  • Do students in schools that eliminate grades do better in college and their careers?
  • Do students from wealthier backgrounds score higher on standardized tests?
  • Do students who receive free meals at school get higher grades compared to when they weren't receiving a free meal?
  • Do students who attend charter schools score higher on standardized tests than students in public schools?
  • Do students learn better in same-sex classrooms?
  • How does giving each student access to an iPad or laptop affect their studies?
  • What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Montessori Method ?
  • Do children who attend preschool do better in school later on?
  • What was the impact of the No Child Left Behind act?
  • How does the US education system compare to education systems in other countries?
  • What impact does mandatory physical education classes have on students' health?
  • Which methods are most effective at reducing bullying in schools?
  • Do homeschoolers who attend college do as well as students who attended traditional schools?
  • Does offering tenure increase or decrease quality of teaching?
  • How does college debt affect future life choices of students?
  • Should graduate students be able to form unions?

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  • What are different ways to lower gun-related deaths in the US?
  • How and why have divorce rates changed over time?
  • Is affirmative action still necessary in education and/or the workplace?
  • Should physician-assisted suicide be legal?
  • How has stem cell research impacted the medical field?
  • How can human trafficking be reduced in the United States/world?
  • Should people be able to donate organs in exchange for money?
  • Which types of juvenile punishment have proven most effective at preventing future crimes?
  • Has the increase in US airport security made passengers safer?
  • Analyze the immigration policies of certain countries and how they are similar and different from one another.
  • Several states have legalized recreational marijuana. What positive and negative impacts have they experienced as a result?
  • Do tariffs increase the number of domestic jobs?
  • Which prison reforms have proven most effective?
  • Should governments be able to censor certain information on the internet?
  • Which methods/programs have been most effective at reducing teen pregnancy?
  • What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Keto diet?
  • How effective are different exercise regimes for losing weight and maintaining weight loss?
  • How do the healthcare plans of various countries differ from each other?
  • What are the most effective ways to treat depression ?
  • What are the pros and cons of genetically modified foods?
  • Which methods are most effective for improving memory?
  • What can be done to lower healthcare costs in the US?
  • What factors contributed to the current opioid crisis?
  • Analyze the history and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic .
  • Are low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets more effective for weight loss?
  • How much exercise should the average adult be getting each week?
  • Which methods are most effective to get parents to vaccinate their children?
  • What are the pros and cons of clean needle programs?
  • How does stress affect the body?
  • Discuss the history of the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.
  • What were the causes and effects of the Salem Witch Trials?
  • Who was responsible for the Iran-Contra situation?
  • How has New Orleans and the government's response to natural disasters changed since Hurricane Katrina?
  • What events led to the fall of the Roman Empire?
  • What were the impacts of British rule in India ?
  • Was the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki necessary?
  • What were the successes and failures of the women's suffrage movement in the United States?
  • What were the causes of the Civil War?
  • How did Abraham Lincoln's assassination impact the country and reconstruction after the Civil War?
  • Which factors contributed to the colonies winning the American Revolution?
  • What caused Hitler's rise to power?
  • Discuss how a specific invention impacted history.
  • What led to Cleopatra's fall as ruler of Egypt?
  • How has Japan changed and evolved over the centuries?
  • What were the causes of the Rwandan genocide ?

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  • Why did Martin Luther decide to split with the Catholic Church?
  • Analyze the history and impact of a well-known cult (Jonestown, Manson family, etc.)
  • How did the sexual abuse scandal impact how people view the Catholic Church?
  • How has the Catholic church's power changed over the past decades/centuries?
  • What are the causes behind the rise in atheism/ agnosticism in the United States?
  • What were the influences in Siddhartha's life resulted in him becoming the Buddha?
  • How has media portrayal of Islam/Muslims changed since September 11th?

Science/Environment

  • How has the earth's climate changed in the past few decades?
  • How has the use and elimination of DDT affected bird populations in the US?
  • Analyze how the number and severity of natural disasters have increased in the past few decades.
  • Analyze deforestation rates in a certain area or globally over a period of time.
  • How have past oil spills changed regulations and cleanup methods?
  • How has the Flint water crisis changed water regulation safety?
  • What are the pros and cons of fracking?
  • What impact has the Paris Climate Agreement had so far?
  • What have NASA's biggest successes and failures been?
  • How can we improve access to clean water around the world?
  • Does ecotourism actually have a positive impact on the environment?
  • Should the US rely on nuclear energy more?
  • What can be done to save amphibian species currently at risk of extinction?
  • What impact has climate change had on coral reefs?
  • How are black holes created?
  • Are teens who spend more time on social media more likely to suffer anxiety and/or depression?
  • How will the loss of net neutrality affect internet users?
  • Analyze the history and progress of self-driving vehicles.
  • How has the use of drones changed surveillance and warfare methods?
  • Has social media made people more or less connected?
  • What progress has currently been made with artificial intelligence ?
  • Do smartphones increase or decrease workplace productivity?
  • What are the most effective ways to use technology in the classroom?
  • How is Google search affecting our intelligence?
  • When is the best age for a child to begin owning a smartphone?
  • Has frequent texting reduced teen literacy rates?

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How to Write a Great Research Paper

Even great research paper topics won't give you a great research paper if you don't hone your topic before and during the writing process. Follow these three tips to turn good research paper topics into great papers.

#1: Figure Out Your Thesis Early

Before you start writing a single word of your paper, you first need to know what your thesis will be. Your thesis is a statement that explains what you intend to prove/show in your paper. Every sentence in your research paper will relate back to your thesis, so you don't want to start writing without it!

As some examples, if you're writing a research paper on if students learn better in same-sex classrooms, your thesis might be "Research has shown that elementary-age students in same-sex classrooms score higher on standardized tests and report feeling more comfortable in the classroom."

If you're writing a paper on the causes of the Civil War, your thesis might be "While the dispute between the North and South over slavery is the most well-known cause of the Civil War, other key causes include differences in the economies of the North and South, states' rights, and territorial expansion."

#2: Back Every Statement Up With Research

Remember, this is a research paper you're writing, so you'll need to use lots of research to make your points. Every statement you give must be backed up with research, properly cited the way your teacher requested. You're allowed to include opinions of your own, but they must also be supported by the research you give.

#3: Do Your Research Before You Begin Writing

You don't want to start writing your research paper and then learn that there isn't enough research to back up the points you're making, or, even worse, that the research contradicts the points you're trying to make!

Get most of your research on your good research topics done before you begin writing. Then use the research you've collected to create a rough outline of what your paper will cover and the key points you're going to make. This will help keep your paper clear and organized, and it'll ensure you have enough research to produce a strong paper.

What's Next?

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Pics and it didn't happen —

Openai collapses media reality with sora, a photorealistic ai video generator, hello, cultural singularity—soon, every video you see online could be completely fake..

Benj Edwards - Feb 16, 2024 5:23 pm UTC

Snapshots from three videos generated using OpenAI's Sora.

On Thursday, OpenAI announced Sora , a text-to-video AI model that can generate 60-second-long photorealistic HD video from written descriptions. While it's only a research preview that we have not tested, it reportedly creates synthetic video (but not audio yet) at a fidelity and consistency greater than any text-to-video model available at the moment. It's also freaking people out.

Further Reading

"It was nice knowing you all. Please tell your grandchildren about my videos and the lengths we went to to actually record them," wrote Wall Street Journal tech reporter Joanna Stern on X.

"This could be the 'holy shit' moment of AI," wrote Tom Warren of The Verge.

"Every single one of these videos is AI-generated, and if this doesn't concern you at least a little bit, nothing will," tweeted YouTube tech journalist Marques Brownlee.

For future reference—since this type of panic will some day appear ridiculous—there's a generation of people who grew up believing that photorealistic video must be created by cameras. When video was faked (say, for Hollywood films), it took a lot of time, money, and effort to do so, and the results weren't perfect. That gave people a baseline level of comfort that what they were seeing remotely was likely to be true, or at least representative of some kind of underlying truth. Even when the kid jumped over the lava , there was at least a kid and a room.

The prompt that generated the video above: " A movie trailer featuring the adventures of the 30 year old space man wearing a red wool knitted motorcycle helmet, blue sky, salt desert, cinematic style, shot on 35mm film, vivid colors. "

Technology like Sora pulls the rug out from under that kind of media frame of reference. Very soon, every photorealistic video you see online could be 100 percent false in every way. Moreover, every historical video you see could also be false. How we confront that as a society and work around it while maintaining trust in remote communications is far beyond the scope of this article, but I tried my hand at offering some solutions  back in 2020, when all of the tech we're seeing now seemed like a distant fantasy to most people.

In that piece, I called the moment that truth and fiction in media become indistinguishable the "cultural singularity." It appears that OpenAI is on track to bring that prediction to pass a bit sooner than we expected.

Prompt: Reflections in the window of a train traveling through the Tokyo suburbs.

OpenAI has found that, like other AI models that use the transformer architecture, Sora scales with available compute . Given far more powerful computers behind the scenes, AI video fidelity could improve considerably over time. In other words, this is the "worst" AI-generated video is ever going to look. There's no synchronized sound yet, but that might be solved in future models.

How (we think) they pulled it off

AI video synthesis has progressed by leaps and bounds over the past two years. We first covered text-to-video models in September 2022 with Meta's Make-A-Video . A month later, Google showed off Imagen Video . And just 11 months ago, an AI-generated version of Will Smith eating spaghetti went viral. In May of last year, what was previously considered to be the front-runner in the text-to-video space, Runway Gen-2, helped craft a fake beer commercial full of twisted monstrosities, generated in two-second increments. In earlier video-generation models, people pop in and out of reality with ease, limbs flow together like pasta, and physics doesn't seem to matter.

Sora (which means "sky" in Japanese) appears to be something altogether different. It's high-resolution (1920x1080), can generate video with temporal consistency (maintaining the same subject over time) that lasts up to 60 seconds, and appears to follow text prompts with a great deal of fidelity. So, how did OpenAI pull it off?

OpenAI doesn't usually share insider technical details with the press, so we're left to speculate based on theories from experts and information given to the public.

OpenAI says that Sora is a diffusion model, much like DALL-E 3 and Stable Diffusion . It generates a video by starting off with noise and "gradually transforms it by removing the noise over many steps," the company explains. It "recognizes" objects and concepts listed in the written prompt and pulls them out of the noise, so to speak, until a coherent series of video frames emerge.

Sora is capable of generating videos all at once from a text prompt, extending existing videos, or generating videos from still images. It achieves temporal consistency by giving the model "foresight" of many frames at once, as OpenAI calls it, solving the problem of ensuring a generated subject remains the same even if it falls out of view temporarily.

OpenAI represents video as collections of smaller groups of data called "patches," which the company says are similar to tokens (fragments of a word) in GPT-4. "By unifying how we represent data, we can train diffusion transformers on a wider range of visual data than was possible before, spanning different durations, resolutions, and aspect ratios," the company writes.

An important tool in OpenAI's bag of tricks is that its use of AI models is compounding . Earlier models are helping to create more complex ones. Sora follows prompts well because, like DALL-E 3 , it utilizes synthetic captions that describe scenes in the training data generated by another AI model like GPT-4V . And the company is not stopping here. "Sora serves as a foundation for models that can understand and simulate the real world," OpenAI writes, "a capability we believe will be an important milestone for achieving AGI."

One question on many people's minds is what data OpenAI used to train Sora. OpenAI has not revealed its dataset, but based on what people are seeing in the results, it's possible OpenAI is using synthetic video data generated in a video game engine in addition to sources of real video (say, scraped from YouTube or licensed from stock video libraries). Nvidia's Dr. Jim Fan, who is a specialist in training AI with synthetic data, wrote on X, "I won't be surprised if Sora is trained on lots of synthetic data using Unreal Engine 5. It has to be!" Until confirmed by OpenAI, however, that's just speculation.

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RIT researchers highlight the changing connectivity of the Amazon rainforest to global climate

Team uses an innovative approach for analyzing large-scale climate data known as climate network analysis.

'an arial photo of the amazon shows a large amount of deforestation'

Tarcisio Schnaider/stock.adobe.com

The Amazon rainforest is one of the largest ecosystems in the world, and its climate is changing due to warming and deforestation. Researchers from Rochester Institute of Technology studied the region’s connectivity to the global climate crisis.

The Amazon rainforest is a unique region where climatologists have studied the effects of warming and deforestation for decades. With the global climate crisis becoming more evident, a new study is linking the Amazon to climate change around the rest of the world.

Scholars at Rochester Institute of Technology have looked at the issue from a mathematical perspective and have reinforced the idea that the Amazon’s climate is very much connected to the global climate system and that the connectivity is reconfiguring.

Mathematical modeling Ph.D. student Adam Giammarese ’21 BS/MS ( applied mathematics ) and Assistant Professor Nishant Malik recently had their findings published as a featured article in Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science . Giammarese began the work as part of RIT’s Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program, along with co-author Jacob Brown.

The team used both old and new approaches to climate network analysis for their research, analyzing decades of temperature data.

“The goal was to look at it purely from a mathematics and data perspective and to see what results we could find that mesh well with other findings about the Amazon and other climate changes,” said Giammarese.

 the image depicts the four-step process that uses math equations and climate maps.

Adam Giammarese/RIT

Researchers used climate network analysis, an innovative approach, to study the Amazon rainforest’s climate data and its connectivity to other climate regions.

As Malik explained, our planet’s climate system comprises several highly vulnerable elements called tipping points. These tipping points have critical warming thresholds. Once global warming crosses the threshold, the specific climate element will irreversibly collapse. The Amazon rainforest is one such tipping point, and it is also one of the most important ecosystems on earth.

“If such a big ecosystem disappears,” Malik added, “it will have a catastrophic consequence for our planet. We wanted to see if there are already signs of its interactions reconfiguring in the climate system.”

The researchers found that not only is the Amazon’s climate linked to the global climate system, but that it is changing, becoming even more connected to other climate regions around the world.

“It shows how vulnerable our climate system is,” said Malik. “We have provided proof that it is connected and it is changing its connectivity.”

In their analysis, the authors observed that the Amazon’s regional climate patterns have started to disappear as the Amazon is gaining more long-range links. The more change that comes to the Amazon region, the more impact it will have on the overall planet as the connectivity expands.

With these findings, Giammarese believes the next step is to look at other tipping points around the globe, like in the Arctic Circle, applying the same methodology used for climate network analysis. Looking at other climate regions and their interactions and connectivity would help provide a clearer picture of the global climate crisis.

“I think it would help discover how close we are to reaching tipping points and how we can mitigate them,” said Giammarese. “The main extension of the work is the methodology and how it can be applied to other places.”

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OpenAI teases an amazing new generative video model called Sora

The firm is sharing Sora with a small group of safety testers but the rest of us will have to wait to learn more.

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OpenAI has built a striking new generative video model called Sora that can take a short text description and turn it into a detailed, high-definition film clip up to a minute long.

Based on four sample videos that OpenAI shared with MIT Technology Review ahead of today’s announcement, the San Francisco–based firm has pushed the envelope of what’s possible with text-to-video generation (a hot new research direction that we flagged as a trend to watch in 2024 ).

“We think building models that can understand video, and understand all these very complex interactions of our world, is an important step for all future AI systems,” says Tim Brooks, a scientist at OpenAI.

But there’s a disclaimer. OpenAI gave us a preview of Sora (which means sky in Japanese) under conditions of strict secrecy. In an unusual move, the firm would only share information about Sora if we agreed to wait until after news of the model was made public to seek the opinions of outside experts. [Editor’s note: We’ve updated this story with outside comment below.] OpenAI has not yet released a technical report or demonstrated the model actually working. And it says it won’t be releasing Sora anytime soon. [ Update: OpenAI has now shared more technical details on its website.]

The first generative models that could produce video from snippets of text appeared in late 2022. But early examples from Meta , Google, and a startup called Runway were glitchy and grainy. Since then, the tech has been getting better fast. Runway’s gen-2 model, released last year, can produce short clips that come close to matching big-studio animation in their quality. But most of these examples are still only a few seconds long.  

The sample videos from OpenAI’s Sora are high-definition and full of detail. OpenAI also says it can generate videos up to a minute long. One video of a Tokyo street scene shows that Sora has learned how objects fit together in 3D: the camera swoops into the scene to follow a couple as they walk past a row of shops.

OpenAI also claims that Sora handles occlusion well. One problem with existing models is that they can fail to keep track of objects when they drop out of view. For example, if a truck passes in front of a street sign, the sign might not reappear afterward.  

In a video of a papercraft underwater scene, Sora has added what look like cuts between different pieces of footage, and the model has maintained a consistent style between them.

It’s not perfect. In the Tokyo video, cars to the left look smaller than the people walking beside them. They also pop in and out between the tree branches. “There’s definitely some work to be done in terms of long-term coherence,” says Brooks. “For example, if someone goes out of view for a long time, they won’t come back. The model kind of forgets that they were supposed to be there.”

Impressive as they are, the sample videos shown here were no doubt cherry-picked to show Sora at its best. Without more information, it is hard to know how representative they are of the model’s typical output.   

It may be some time before we find out. OpenAI’s announcement of Sora today is a tech tease, and the company says it has no current plans to release it to the public. Instead, OpenAI will today begin sharing the model with third-party safety testers for the first time.

In particular, the firm is worried about the potential misuses of fake but photorealistic video . “We’re being careful about deployment here and making sure we have all our bases covered before we put this in the hands of the general public,” says Aditya Ramesh, a scientist at OpenAI, who created the firm’s text-to-image model DALL-E .

But OpenAI is eyeing a product launch sometime in the future. As well as safety testers, the company is also sharing the model with a select group of video makers and artists to get feedback on how to make Sora as useful as possible to creative professionals. “The other goal is to show everyone what is on the horizon, to give a preview of what these models will be capable of,” says Ramesh.

To build Sora, the team adapted the tech behind DALL-E 3, the latest version of OpenAI’s flagship text-to-image model. Like most text-to-image models, DALL-E 3 uses what’s known as a diffusion model. These are trained to turn a fuzz of random pixels into a picture.

Sora takes this approach and applies it to videos rather than still images. But the researchers also added another technique to the mix. Unlike DALL-E or most other generative video models, Sora combines its diffusion model with a type of neural network called a transformer.

Transformers are great at processing long sequences of data, like words. That has made them the special sauce inside large language models like OpenAI’s GPT-4 and Google DeepMind’s Gemini . But videos are not made of words. Instead, the researchers had to find a way to cut videos into chunks that could be treated as if they were. The approach they came up with was to dice videos up across both space and time. “It’s like if you were to have a stack of all the video frames and you cut little cubes from it,” says Brooks.

The transformer inside Sora can then process these chunks of video data in much the same way that the transformer inside a large language model processes words in a block of text. The researchers say that this let them train Sora on many more types of video than other text-to-video models, varied in terms of resolution, duration, aspect ratio, and orientation. “It really helps the model,” says Brooks. “That is something that we’re not aware of any existing work on.”

“From a technical perspective it seems like a very significant leap forward,” says Sam Gregory, executive director at Witness, a human rights organization that specializes in the use and misuse of video technology. “But there are two sides to the coin,” he says. “The expressive capabilities offer the potential for many more people to be storytellers using video. And there are also real potential avenues for misuse.” 

OpenAI is well aware of the risks that come with a generative video model. We are already seeing the large-scale misuse of deepfake images . Photorealistic video takes this to another level.

Gregory notes that you could use technology like this to misinform people about conflict zones or protests. The range of styles is also interesting, he says. If you could generate shaky footage that looked like something shot with a phone, it would come across as more authentic.

The tech is not there yet, but generative video has gone from zero to Sora in just 18 months. “We’re going to be entering a universe where there will be fully synthetic content, human-generated content and a mix of the two,” says Gregory.

The OpenAI team plans to draw on the safety testing it did last year for DALL-E 3. Sora already includes a filter that runs on all prompts sent to the model that will block requests for violent, sexual, or hateful images, as well as images of known people. Another filter will look at frames of generated videos and block material that violates OpenAI’s safety policies.

OpenAI says it is also adapting a fake-image detector developed for DALL-E 3 to use with Sora. And the company will embed industry-standard C2PA tags , metadata that states how an image was generated, into all of Sora’s output. But these steps are far from foolproof. Fake-image detectors are hit-or-miss. Metadata is easy to remove, and most social media sites strip it from uploaded images by default.  

“We’ll definitely need to get more feedback and learn more about the types of risks that need to be addressed with video before it would make sense for us to release this,” says Ramesh.

Brooks agrees. “Part of the reason that we’re talking about this research now is so that we can start getting the input that we need to do the work necessary to figure out how it could be safely deployed,” he says.

Update 2/15: Comments from Sam Gregory were added .

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Stanford Medicine study identifies distinct brain organization patterns in women and men

Stanford Medicine researchers have developed a powerful new artificial intelligence model that can distinguish between male and female brains.

February 20, 2024

sex differences in brain

'A key motivation for this study is that sex plays a crucial role in human brain development, in aging, and in the manifestation of psychiatric and neurological disorders,' said Vinod Menon. clelia-clelia

A new study by Stanford Medicine investigators unveils a new artificial intelligence model that was more than 90% successful at determining whether scans of brain activity came from a woman or a man.

The findings, published Feb. 20 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, help resolve a long-term controversy about whether reliable sex differences exist in the human brain and suggest that understanding these differences may be critical to addressing neuropsychiatric conditions that affect women and men differently.

“A key motivation for this study is that sex plays a crucial role in human brain development, in aging, and in the manifestation of psychiatric and neurological disorders,” said Vinod Menon , PhD, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and director of the Stanford Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience Laboratory . “Identifying consistent and replicable sex differences in the healthy adult brain is a critical step toward a deeper understanding of sex-specific vulnerabilities in psychiatric and neurological disorders.”

Menon is the study’s senior author. The lead authors are senior research scientist Srikanth Ryali , PhD, and academic staff researcher Yuan Zhang , PhD.

“Hotspots” that most helped the model distinguish male brains from female ones include the default mode network, a brain system that helps us process self-referential information, and the striatum and limbic network, which are involved in learning and how we respond to rewards.

The investigators noted that this work does not weigh in on whether sex-related differences arise early in life or may be driven by hormonal differences or the different societal circumstances that men and women may be more likely to encounter.

Uncovering brain differences

The extent to which a person’s sex affects how their brain is organized and operates has long been a point of dispute among scientists. While we know the sex chromosomes we are born with help determine the cocktail of hormones our brains are exposed to — particularly during early development, puberty and aging — researchers have long struggled to connect sex to concrete differences in the human brain. Brain structures tend to look much the same in men and women, and previous research examining how brain regions work together has also largely failed to turn up consistent brain indicators of sex.

test

Vinod Menon

In their current study, Menon and his team took advantage of recent advances in artificial intelligence, as well as access to multiple large datasets, to pursue a more powerful analysis than has previously been employed. First, they created a deep neural network model, which learns to classify brain imaging data: As the researchers showed brain scans to the model and told it that it was looking at a male or female brain, the model started to “notice” what subtle patterns could help it tell the difference.

This model demonstrated superior performance compared with those in previous studies, in part because it used a deep neural network that analyzes dynamic MRI scans. This approach captures the intricate interplay among different brain regions. When the researchers tested the model on around 1,500 brain scans, it could almost always tell if the scan came from a woman or a man.

The model’s success suggests that detectable sex differences do exist in the brain but just haven’t been picked up reliably before. The fact that it worked so well in different datasets, including brain scans from multiple sites in the U.S. and Europe, make the findings especially convincing as it controls for many confounds that can plague studies of this kind.

“This is a very strong piece of evidence that sex is a robust determinant of human brain organization,” Menon said.

Making predictions

Until recently, a model like the one Menon’s team employed would help researchers sort brains into different groups but wouldn’t provide information about how the sorting happened. Today, however, researchers have access to a tool called “explainable AI,” which can sift through vast amounts of data to explain how a model’s decisions are made.

Using explainable AI, Menon and his team identified the brain networks that were most important to the model’s judgment of whether a brain scan came from a man or a woman. They found the model was most often looking to the default mode network, striatum, and the limbic network to make the call.

The team then wondered if they could create another model that could predict how well participants would do on certain cognitive tasks based on functional brain features that differ between women and men. They developed sex-specific models of cognitive abilities: One model effectively predicted cognitive performance in men but not women, and another in women but not men. The findings indicate that functional brain characteristics varying between sexes have significant behavioral implications.

“These models worked really well because we successfully separated brain patterns between sexes,” Menon said. “That tells me that overlooking sex differences in brain organization could lead us to miss key factors underlying neuropsychiatric disorders.”

While the team applied their deep neural network model to questions about sex differences, Menon says the model can be applied to answer questions regarding how just about any aspect of brain connectivity might relate to any kind of cognitive ability or behavior. He and his team plan to make their model publicly available for any researcher to use.

“Our AI models have very broad applicability,” Menon said. “A researcher could use our models to look for brain differences linked to learning impairments or social functioning differences, for instance — aspects we are keen to understand better to aid individuals in adapting to and surmounting these challenges.”

The research was sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (grants MH084164, EB022907, MH121069, K25HD074652 and AG072114), the Transdisciplinary Initiative, the Uytengsu-Hamilton 22q11 Programs, the Stanford Maternal and Child Health Research Institute, and the NARSAD Young Investigator Award.

About Stanford Medicine

Stanford Medicine is an integrated academic health system comprising the Stanford School of Medicine and adult and pediatric health care delivery systems. Together, they harness the full potential of biomedicine through collaborative research, education and clinical care for patients. For more information, please visit med.stanford.edu .

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  25. OpenAI collapses media reality with Sora, a photorealistic AI video

    Technology like Sora pulls the rug out from under that kind of media frame of reference. Very soon, every photorealistic video you see online could be 100 percent false in every way.

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