phd question paper on research methodology

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Multiple Choice Questions

  • Conference proceedings are considered as.documents. a. Conventional b. Primary c. Secondary d. Tertiary Answer : b. Primary
  • Informationis….. a. RawData b. Processed Data c. Inputdata d. Organized data Answer : b. Processed Data
  • Information acquired by experience or experimentation is called as: a. Empirical b. Scientific c. Facts d. Scientific Evidence Answer : b. Scientific
  • Abstract elements representing classes of phenomena within the field of study are called : a.Concepts b.Theories c.Variables d.Hypothesis Answer: a. Concepts
  • All living things are made up of cells Blue whale is a living being, Thereforeblue whale is made up of cells’ The reasoning used here is a. Inductive b. Deductive c. Hypothetic deductive d. Both a and b Answer : b. Deductive
  • Questionnaire is a: a. Research method b. Measurement technique c. Tool for data collection d. Data analysis technique Answer : b. Measurement Technique
  • Mean, Median and Mode are a. Measures of deviation b. Ways of sampling c. Measure of control tendency d. None of the above Answer : c. Measure of control tendency
  • The reasoning that uses general principle to predict specific results is calledas- a. Inductive b. Deductive c. Both a and b d. Hypothetic o-deductive Answer : b. Deductive
  • A research paper is a brief report of research work based on a. Primary Data only b. Secondary Data only c. Both a and b d. None of the above Answer : c. Both a and b
  • Research is a. Searching again and again b. Finding solutions to any problem c. Working in a scientific way to d. None -of the above Answer : c. Working in a scientific way to
  • Multiple-choice questions are an example of a. OrdinalMeasure b. Nominal Measure c. RatioMeasure d. None of the above Answer : b. Nominal Measure
  • Which of the variables cannot be expressed in quantitative terms a. Socio economic status b. Marital status c. Numerical aptitude d. Professional attitude Answer : d. Professional attitude
  • The essential qualities of a researcher are : a. Spirit of free enquiry b. Reliance on observation c. Reliance on evidences d. All of the above Answer : d. All the above
  • A research process starts with- a. Hypothesis b. Experiment to test hypothesis c. Observation d. None of the above Answer : a. Hypothesis
  • Who was the proponent of deductive method- a. FrancisBacon b. Christian Huygenes c. Aristotle d. Isaac Newton Answer : b. Christian Huygenes
  • The non-random sampling type that involves selecting a convenience sample from a population with a specific set of characteristics for your research study is called a. Convenience sampling b. Quota sampling c. Purposive sampling d. None of the above Answer : a. Convenience Sampling
  • Which of the following is NOT an example of a non-random sampling technique? a. Purposive b. Quota c. Convenience d. Cluster Answer : c. Convenience
  • The purpose of drawing sample from a population is known as a. Sampling b. Census c. Survey research d. None of the above Answer : a. Sampling
  • Sampling in qualitative research is similar to which type of sampling in quantitative research a. Simple random sampling b. Systematic sampling c. Quotasampling d. Purposive sampling Answer : d. Purposive sampling
  • A set of rules that govern overall data communications system is popularly known as……….. a. Protocol b. Agreement c. Pact d. Memorandum Answer : a. Protocol

Essay Questions

  •  Basic Research: In this type of research, data is collected to enhance knowledge. The purpose is non-commercial research that is generally not used to invent anything.
  •  Applied research: The focus of this research is to analyze and solve real-life problems. It prefers to help solve a practical problem with scientific methods.
  •  Problem-Oriented research: It focuses on understanding the nature of the problem to find a relevant solution. The problem could be in various forms; this research analyses the situation.
  •  Problem-solving research: Companies usually conduct this type of research to understand and resolve their problems. The research is to find a solution to an existing problem.
  •  Qualitative research is a process of inquiry that helps to create an in-depth understanding of problems and issues. It has open ended questions
  • State the purpose clearly
  • Define the concepts used
  • Describe the research procedure in sufficient detail that allows another researcher to make further advancement on the topic
  • Design the procedure carefully to achieve desired results
  • Data analysis should reveal adequate significance
  • Appropriate analysis methods should be used.
  • Carefully check the validity and reliability of the data.
  • Conclusions should be confined to justify the research data and limit for the which data provides and adequate basis
  • Systematic research: Conduct research in structured format with specified steps, rules while keeping in perspective the creative thinking.
  •  Research is guided by logical reasoning and process of deduction and induction, which serves as a great value in carrying out research.
  •  It is empirical: research is related to one or more than one aspects in real situation that deals with concrete data
  •  It is replicable: the characteristics allow researchers to replicate study and building a sound basis for decisions.
  • Observing Behaviors of Participants:
  • Questionnaire Method
  • Interview Method
  • Schedules Method
  • Information from Correspondents
  • Identify the problem
  • Review the Literature
  • Clarify the Problem
  • Clearly Define Terms and Concepts
  • Define the Population
  • Develop the Instrumentation Plan
  • Collect Data
  • Analyze the Data

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65 Research Methodology Question Paper PDF Download Free

In case you are preparing for your final year dissertation, you might be interested in downloading a research methodology question paper PDF.

This article will discuss where to find such a question bank. We have given the direct links to download the question papers .

The links in this article will guide you through the steps needed to download and use the question bank. Moreover, it will help you understand what exactly goes into creating a good research methodology question paper. Here are some tips that will help you succeed in this course.


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Research Methodology Question Paper PDF

The Research methodology MCQ questions are designed to test the knowledge of the students in their field. They are applicable to competitive and academic MBA, regular, and distance-learning courses. It is important to choose the research question carefully, as it determines the purpose of your study.

The Research Methodology Question Paper questions may be related to a gap in knowledge, analyzing academic assumptions, monitoring a practice development, testing theories, or comparing methods. Ensure that the research question is appropriate for the discipline and institution and is based on a problem-solving framework.

Research Methodology Question Bank pdf

The M.Com Accountancy (IDOL) Research Methodology question paper is available in pdf format for download. It is a good practice to download previous year’s question papers from the Internet as this will help you to learn the techniques used in solving them.

Also, you can look up the solutions of the sample papers to know how to do better in your own research. However, be sure to select the right question paper for your course.

The first step in any research is the formulation of a hypothesis. A hypothesis is a statement regarding a particular population’s size or behaviour. This is followed by research designs. Samples are the group of individuals chosen for a study.

The data collected is analyzed using various techniques. They may be observational or experimental. Regardless of the technique used, the study must answer two research questions. The data collection is based on several methods, including observational research, experimentation, simulation, and derived methodology.

Download from the below links

Research Methodology Question Bank with Answers pdf

The first thing you need to do is figure out the research methodology. The research methodology includes the methods and procedures for conducting research. These Research Methodology Question Paper may include physical surveys, questionnaires, interviews, or participant observations. Once you have decided what method to use, you can begin preparing for the exam. Here are some things you need to know about this type of exam.

This article will help you decide what method you want to use. You can also use the research methodology question bank to study various subject aspects.

The objective of the Research Methodology Question Papers is to discover a frequency or an association. It involves collecting data and conducting research using a systematic, logical approach. It involves data analysis, interpretation, and formation of principles.

With the help of Research Methodology Question Papers, you will also need to figure out if the research problem is true or false and whether it’s valid. The process includes steps and criteria for valid research. You will need to know how to gather data, evaluate results, and evaluate findings correctly.

Assignment Questions

  • Define and explain the term “Research”. Explain its importance and objectives.
  • Define the main issues which should receive the attention of the researcher in formulating the research problem. Give suitable examples.
  • Explain in brief the stages in the data processing.
  • Briefly explain the significance of data processing. What is the problem associated with data processing?

Firstly, you need to determine whether you’re conducting an ex post facto study. This type of research design is used to investigate the effects of a situation after it happens.

In this case, the researcher can use data not relevant to the problem understudies, such as cash register receipts or customer grievance data. Alternatively, you can use a sample from a national survey.

This type of research is very useful for various situations, such as market research, because it allows you to compare different factors, such as cost, quality, and consistency.

Research Methodology Question Paper in English

Research Methodology Question Paper in Hindi

Ultimately, it would be best if you defined your research question. You need to know your objectives and goals. Once you’ve defined your research question, you need to define your variables. T

hese will result in your final result. By defining your variables and identifying the variables in a study, you will know what to focus on for the final analysis. It’s a must-have tool for any researcher who needs to conduct research. You may take the help of Research Methodology Question Papers.

Experimentation is another method you’ll need to know. In this method, you can establish a causal relationship among variables. The method is also known as experimental research. You can also perform qualitative research, which is mostly exploratory and relies on subjective data. By collecting data, you can develop testable hypotheses and make predictions about the outcome. These results then prove the hypotheses. This method can be used for any research, whether you’re experimenting with science or social work.

A problem is usually defined. Once you’ve defined the problem and chosen the methodology, you can begin collecting data. Research Methodology Question Paper will help you develop the problem, gather data, and test hypotheses. You’ll also need to write a study plan. After that, you’ll need to write the hypothesis, which outlines the methodology you’ll use for your research. If you’re unsure, refer to a research methodology question bank with answers pdf.

PhD Entrance Exam Question Paper For Research Methodology

The PhD entrance exam for research methodology focuses on the principles of a research project. It includes questions on the following: the characteristics of a good researcher, the types of research, case study research, and statistical applications. It also covers the types of research reports, their structure, and their reasoning. The exam will also cover current affairs. Here are some tips to help you ace the research methodology section of the entrance exam with the help of Research Methodology Question Papers.

Answer any TWO of the following

(2 x20 = 40 Marks)

  • Write an essay on the preparation of  a manuscript for publications
  • Describe various methods of collection of insects in the field.
  • Describe any two types of Taxonomic keys with examples.
  • Give an account of the types of preservation of insects.

Attempt Research Methodology Question Paper:  Attempt a PHD entrance exam in research methodology to familiarize yourself with the topics. By doing this, you will have an idea of the types of questions you will be asked during the examination.

This is also a good time to get advice from senior students. Ask them for help and clarification on any question that they feel is tricky. In this way, you can maximize your chances of acing the PhD entrance exam.

PhD Research Methodology Old Question Papers

Are you planning to write your PhD in Research Methodology? Are you wondering how to prepare for the PhD research methodology question paper? You can learn how to prepare from the below tips.

The research methodology syllabus consists of several topics that cover the qualities of a good researcher. Other topics in this section are the various types of research and their merits. The topics also cover logic and reasoning, the structure of a research report, and its components.

Class Test Questions

  • What are ethical issues concerning the research participants of the research activity? Explain.
  • What are the characteristics of research? Explain how quantitative researches differ from qualitative research.
  • Explain the significance of primary data. What are the limitations of primary data? Explain in brief the stages in the data processing.
  • Discuss the various methods of research? Explain the various factors to be considered in making the decision on the sampling method.

1. PhD Research Methodology Old Question Paper 2020

In the PhD research methodology question paper 2020, students must explain the main reasons behind their chosen data collection and analysis method.

They must also highlight the practical limitations of the method used. This information should be limited to the reasons for the choice of the methodology, which should not include irrelevant details.

For instance, basic procedures should only be explained when the research subject is unfamiliar with them. This will help them score a high mark in the research methodology section.

2. PhD Research Methodology Old Question Paper 2019

A key feature of a PHD research methodology question paper is that it should be based on an academic question that is of interest to researchers and practitioners in the subject. It should be derived from the literature, current situation, or practice of the subject.

Research Methodology Question Papersuld has a clearly stated purpose and can be anything from filling a knowledge gap to analyzing academic assumptions and monitoring developments in practice. It can also be about testing theories within a certain population. The question should also be appropriate for the discipline, institution, and community.


(10 x 2 = 20 Marks)

Answer ALL questions

  • What are the advantages of Websites in literature collections?
  • What is Curating?
  • Distinguish conceptual from empirical research.
  • What are Tautonyms?
  • Define international code of Zoological Nomenclature.
  • Define the term – Null hypothesis.
  • Distinguish bar diagram from a histogram.
  • What is a holotype?
  • Mention any two objectives of the Research.
  • Differentiate acclimation from acclimatisation

UGC NET Research Methodology Old Question Paper

In the recent UGC NET exam, questions were asked about the research methods. Research Methodology Question Papers covered critical features of research methods, the definition of the research question, hypotheses, data collection, analysis, and reporting procedures.

Students should familiarize themselves with these topics and the questions that will be asked during the examination. If you are preparing for the UGC NET exam, you should prepare by referring to UGC NET mock tests.

In addition to studying the UGC NET syllabus, it is also important to learn the different referencing styles. The UGC NET Research methodology question paper includes study notes on the various accepted referencing styles. The study notes also feature a list of helpful ICT tools to aid you in your preparation. These include tools such as Mendeley and IBM SPSS. Also, the notes include information about the application of ICT to research.


(4X 10  = 40 Marks)

Answer any four of the following

  • Explain briefly the types of sampling.
  • What is Berlese Funnel?  Explain its use in the collection of arthropods.
  • Write an account of types in insect taxonomy.
  • Summarize statistical techniques used in experiments.
  • Explain the impact of physicochemical parameters in stress experiments.
  • Bring out the significance of current contents and review volumes in research.

MBA Research Methodology Old Question Paper

The MBA research methodology question paper is for the first year of the course and has a simple pattern. Each question carries the same number of marks and includes long answer types. The questions in the question paper cover different aspects of the research process, such as the types of experimental designs, the scales used for measuring variables, and the different factor analyses.

The research methodology question paper also includes the format and layout of a research report. To ensure a good score, candidates are advised to read previous year’s papers to familiarize themselves with the format and content of the exam.

Students should understand the importance of selecting the appropriate statistical technique for the analysis. They must be able to distinguish between non-parametric statistical techniques and parametric statistics. They must also be able to define the research report, thesis, and the significance of the research work.

The question paper also requires the students to understand the format and pattern of the Business Research methodology question paper. The syllabus of the course is available for download in pdf format.

Research Methodology Old Question Paper MCQs

Students preparing for MBA exams should familiarize themselves with Research methodology MCQ questions. Research Methodology Question Papers may be asked in the regular or distance mode. They can be asked about academic, competitive, and managerial research topics. Identifying the problem is the first step in designing a research study.

This process will help you develop a hypothesis and plan of investigation. Then you will have to reduce the problem to a more manageable one.

Moreover, you should understand that Secondary data does not necessarily have to be relevant to the problem under study. For example, you can use cash register receipts or customer grievances data.

Secondary data may also be obtained from national surveys, such as the Statistical Abstracts of India. The purpose of secondary data is to inform decision-makers and make them aware of the importance of their findings. The next step is to analyze the data.

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  • अनुसंधान पद्धति प्रश्न पत्र 2020

How to Answer Research Methodology MCQs

This article will teach you how to answer the research methodology MCQs on the UGC NET and MBA research methodology question papers. Hopefully, this will make the task a little easier. But, first, you should be familiar with how the research methodology question paper is formatted.

Below are some questions to keep in mind. When possible, make sure to use an example question paper to illustrate the different methods. If possible, you should also record your research methods. This will ensure that you capture all the small details.

1. “One of the methods of logical reasoning process” is called

   a) Induction   b) Deduction   c) Research d) Experiment

2. “A systematic step-by-step Procedure following the logical process of reasoning” called

   a) Experiment b) Observation c) Deduction d) Scientific method

3. An essential Criterion of Scientific study is called

   a) Belief   b) Value    c) Objectivity d) Subjective

4. “Reasoning from general to particular “is called

   a) Induction   b) deduction c) Observation d) experience

5“Deduction and induction are a part of the system of reasoning” – stated by

a) Caroline   b) P.V.Young  c) Dewey John d) Emory

6 ……….. is a “systematically conceptual structure of interrelated elements in some schematic form”

a) Concept   b) Variable c) Model   d) Facts

7 The method by which a sample is chosen

a) Unit   b) design   c) Random   d) Census

8 Research conducted to find a solution for an immediate problem is ………….

a) Fundamental Research              b) Analytical Research

c) Survey.                                          d) Action Research

9 Fundamental Research is otherwise called

a) Action Research   b) Survey   c) Pilot study   d) Pure Research

10 A research which follows the case study method is called

a) Clinical or diagnostic    b) Causal

c) Analytical                        d) Qualitative

11 Research conducted in a classroom atmosphere is called

a) Field study                        b) Survey

c) Laboratory Research      d) Empirical Research

12. Research through experiment and observation is called

   a) Clinical Research             b) Experimental Research

   c) Laboratory Research       d) Empirical Research

13 ………….. is a way to systematically solve the research problem

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  • What Is a Research Methodology? | Steps & Tips

What Is a Research Methodology? | Steps & Tips

Published on August 25, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on November 20, 2023.

Your research methodology discusses and explains the data collection and analysis methods you used in your research. A key part of your thesis, dissertation , or research paper , the methodology chapter explains what you did and how you did it, allowing readers to evaluate the reliability and validity of your research and your dissertation topic .

It should include:

  • The type of research you conducted
  • How you collected and analyzed your data
  • Any tools or materials you used in the research
  • How you mitigated or avoided research biases
  • Why you chose these methods
  • Your methodology section should generally be written in the past tense .
  • Academic style guides in your field may provide detailed guidelines on what to include for different types of studies.
  • Your citation style might provide guidelines for your methodology section (e.g., an APA Style methods section ).

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Table of contents

How to write a research methodology, why is a methods section important, step 1: explain your methodological approach, step 2: describe your data collection methods, step 3: describe your analysis method, step 4: evaluate and justify the methodological choices you made, tips for writing a strong methodology chapter, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about methodology.

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Your methods section is your opportunity to share how you conducted your research and why you chose the methods you chose. It’s also the place to show that your research was rigorously conducted and can be replicated .

It gives your research legitimacy and situates it within your field, and also gives your readers a place to refer to if they have any questions or critiques in other sections.

You can start by introducing your overall approach to your research. You have two options here.

Option 1: Start with your “what”

What research problem or question did you investigate?

  • Aim to describe the characteristics of something?
  • Explore an under-researched topic?
  • Establish a causal relationship?

And what type of data did you need to achieve this aim?

  • Quantitative data , qualitative data , or a mix of both?
  • Primary data collected yourself, or secondary data collected by someone else?
  • Experimental data gathered by controlling and manipulating variables, or descriptive data gathered via observations?

Option 2: Start with your “why”

Depending on your discipline, you can also start with a discussion of the rationale and assumptions underpinning your methodology. In other words, why did you choose these methods for your study?

  • Why is this the best way to answer your research question?
  • Is this a standard methodology in your field, or does it require justification?
  • Were there any ethical considerations involved in your choices?
  • What are the criteria for validity and reliability in this type of research ? How did you prevent bias from affecting your data?

Once you have introduced your reader to your methodological approach, you should share full details about your data collection methods .

Quantitative methods

In order to be considered generalizable, you should describe quantitative research methods in enough detail for another researcher to replicate your study.

Here, explain how you operationalized your concepts and measured your variables. Discuss your sampling method or inclusion and exclusion criteria , as well as any tools, procedures, and materials you used to gather your data.

Surveys Describe where, when, and how the survey was conducted.

  • How did you design the questionnaire?
  • What form did your questions take (e.g., multiple choice, Likert scale )?
  • Were your surveys conducted in-person or virtually?
  • What sampling method did you use to select participants?
  • What was your sample size and response rate?

Experiments Share full details of the tools, techniques, and procedures you used to conduct your experiment.

  • How did you design the experiment ?
  • How did you recruit participants?
  • How did you manipulate and measure the variables ?
  • What tools did you use?

Existing data Explain how you gathered and selected the material (such as datasets or archival data) that you used in your analysis.

  • Where did you source the material?
  • How was the data originally produced?
  • What criteria did you use to select material (e.g., date range)?

The survey consisted of 5 multiple-choice questions and 10 questions measured on a 7-point Likert scale.

The goal was to collect survey responses from 350 customers visiting the fitness apparel company’s brick-and-mortar location in Boston on July 4–8, 2022, between 11:00 and 15:00.

Here, a customer was defined as a person who had purchased a product from the company on the day they took the survey. Participants were given 5 minutes to fill in the survey anonymously. In total, 408 customers responded, but not all surveys were fully completed. Due to this, 371 survey results were included in the analysis.

  • Information bias
  • Omitted variable bias
  • Regression to the mean
  • Survivorship bias
  • Undercoverage bias
  • Sampling bias

Qualitative methods

In qualitative research , methods are often more flexible and subjective. For this reason, it’s crucial to robustly explain the methodology choices you made.

Be sure to discuss the criteria you used to select your data, the context in which your research was conducted, and the role you played in collecting your data (e.g., were you an active participant, or a passive observer?)

Interviews or focus groups Describe where, when, and how the interviews were conducted.

  • How did you find and select participants?
  • How many participants took part?
  • What form did the interviews take ( structured , semi-structured , or unstructured )?
  • How long were the interviews?
  • How were they recorded?

Participant observation Describe where, when, and how you conducted the observation or ethnography .

  • What group or community did you observe? How long did you spend there?
  • How did you gain access to this group? What role did you play in the community?
  • How long did you spend conducting the research? Where was it located?
  • How did you record your data (e.g., audiovisual recordings, note-taking)?

Existing data Explain how you selected case study materials for your analysis.

  • What type of materials did you analyze?
  • How did you select them?

In order to gain better insight into possibilities for future improvement of the fitness store’s product range, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 8 returning customers.

Here, a returning customer was defined as someone who usually bought products at least twice a week from the store.

Surveys were used to select participants. Interviews were conducted in a small office next to the cash register and lasted approximately 20 minutes each. Answers were recorded by note-taking, and seven interviews were also filmed with consent. One interviewee preferred not to be filmed.

  • The Hawthorne effect
  • Observer bias
  • The placebo effect
  • Response bias and Nonresponse bias
  • The Pygmalion effect
  • Recall bias
  • Social desirability bias
  • Self-selection bias

Mixed methods

Mixed methods research combines quantitative and qualitative approaches. If a standalone quantitative or qualitative study is insufficient to answer your research question, mixed methods may be a good fit for you.

Mixed methods are less common than standalone analyses, largely because they require a great deal of effort to pull off successfully. If you choose to pursue mixed methods, it’s especially important to robustly justify your methods.

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phd question paper on research methodology

Next, you should indicate how you processed and analyzed your data. Avoid going into too much detail: you should not start introducing or discussing any of your results at this stage.

In quantitative research , your analysis will be based on numbers. In your methods section, you can include:

  • How you prepared the data before analyzing it (e.g., checking for missing data , removing outliers , transforming variables)
  • Which software you used (e.g., SPSS, Stata or R)
  • Which statistical tests you used (e.g., two-tailed t test , simple linear regression )

In qualitative research, your analysis will be based on language, images, and observations (often involving some form of textual analysis ).

Specific methods might include:

  • Content analysis : Categorizing and discussing the meaning of words, phrases and sentences
  • Thematic analysis : Coding and closely examining the data to identify broad themes and patterns
  • Discourse analysis : Studying communication and meaning in relation to their social context

Mixed methods combine the above two research methods, integrating both qualitative and quantitative approaches into one coherent analytical process.

Above all, your methodology section should clearly make the case for why you chose the methods you did. This is especially true if you did not take the most standard approach to your topic. In this case, discuss why other methods were not suitable for your objectives, and show how this approach contributes new knowledge or understanding.

In any case, it should be overwhelmingly clear to your reader that you set yourself up for success in terms of your methodology’s design. Show how your methods should lead to results that are valid and reliable, while leaving the analysis of the meaning, importance, and relevance of your results for your discussion section .

  • Quantitative: Lab-based experiments cannot always accurately simulate real-life situations and behaviors, but they are effective for testing causal relationships between variables .
  • Qualitative: Unstructured interviews usually produce results that cannot be generalized beyond the sample group , but they provide a more in-depth understanding of participants’ perceptions, motivations, and emotions.
  • Mixed methods: Despite issues systematically comparing differing types of data, a solely quantitative study would not sufficiently incorporate the lived experience of each participant, while a solely qualitative study would be insufficiently generalizable.

Remember that your aim is not just to describe your methods, but to show how and why you applied them. Again, it’s critical to demonstrate that your research was rigorously conducted and can be replicated.

1. Focus on your objectives and research questions

The methodology section should clearly show why your methods suit your objectives and convince the reader that you chose the best possible approach to answering your problem statement and research questions .

2. Cite relevant sources

Your methodology can be strengthened by referencing existing research in your field. This can help you to:

  • Show that you followed established practice for your type of research
  • Discuss how you decided on your approach by evaluating existing research
  • Present a novel methodological approach to address a gap in the literature

3. Write for your audience

Consider how much information you need to give, and avoid getting too lengthy. If you are using methods that are standard for your discipline, you probably don’t need to give a lot of background or justification.

Regardless, your methodology should be a clear, well-structured text that makes an argument for your approach, not just a list of technical details and procedures.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Normal distribution
  • Measures of central tendency
  • Chi square tests
  • Confidence interval
  • Quartiles & Quantiles


  • Cluster sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Thematic analysis
  • Cohort study
  • Peer review
  • Ethnography

Research bias

  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Conformity bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Availability heuristic
  • Attrition bias

Methodology refers to the overarching strategy and rationale of your research project . It involves studying the methods used in your field and the theories or principles behind them, in order to develop an approach that matches your objectives.

Methods are the specific tools and procedures you use to collect and analyze data (for example, experiments, surveys , and statistical tests ).

In shorter scientific papers, where the aim is to report the findings of a specific study, you might simply describe what you did in a methods section .

In a longer or more complex research project, such as a thesis or dissertation , you will probably include a methodology section , where you explain your approach to answering the research questions and cite relevant sources to support your choice of methods.

In a scientific paper, the methodology always comes after the introduction and before the results , discussion and conclusion . The same basic structure also applies to a thesis, dissertation , or research proposal .

Depending on the length and type of document, you might also include a literature review or theoretical framework before the methodology.

Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings.

Quantitative methods allow you to systematically measure variables and test hypotheses . Qualitative methods allow you to explore concepts and experiences in more detail.

Reliability and validity are both about how well a method measures something:

  • Reliability refers to the  consistency of a measure (whether the results can be reproduced under the same conditions).
  • Validity   refers to the  accuracy of a measure (whether the results really do represent what they are supposed to measure).

If you are doing experimental research, you also have to consider the internal and external validity of your experiment.

A sample is a subset of individuals from a larger population . Sampling means selecting the group that you will actually collect data from in your research. For example, if you are researching the opinions of students in your university, you could survey a sample of 100 students.

In statistics, sampling allows you to test a hypothesis about the characteristics of a population.

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What Is Research Methodology? A Plain-Language Explanation & Definition (With Examples)

By Derek Jansen (MBA)  and Kerryn Warren (PhD) | June 2020 (Last updated April 2023)

If you’re new to formal academic research, it’s quite likely that you’re feeling a little overwhelmed by all the technical lingo that gets thrown around. And who could blame you – “research methodology”, “research methods”, “sampling strategies”… it all seems never-ending!

In this post, we’ll demystify the landscape with plain-language explanations and loads of examples (including easy-to-follow videos), so that you can approach your dissertation, thesis or research project with confidence. Let’s get started.

Research Methodology 101

  • What exactly research methodology means
  • What qualitative , quantitative and mixed methods are
  • What sampling strategy is
  • What data collection methods are
  • What data analysis methods are
  • How to choose your research methodology
  • Example of a research methodology

Free Webinar: Research Methodology 101

What is research methodology?

Research methodology simply refers to the practical “how” of a research study. More specifically, it’s about how  a researcher  systematically designs a study  to ensure valid and reliable results that address the research aims, objectives and research questions . Specifically, how the researcher went about deciding:

  • What type of data to collect (e.g., qualitative or quantitative data )
  • Who  to collect it from (i.e., the sampling strategy )
  • How to  collect  it (i.e., the data collection method )
  • How to  analyse  it (i.e., the data analysis methods )

Within any formal piece of academic research (be it a dissertation, thesis or journal article), you’ll find a research methodology chapter or section which covers the aspects mentioned above. Importantly, a good methodology chapter explains not just   what methodological choices were made, but also explains  why they were made. In other words, the methodology chapter should justify  the design choices, by showing that the chosen methods and techniques are the best fit for the research aims, objectives and research questions. 

So, it’s the same as research design?

Not quite. As we mentioned, research methodology refers to the collection of practical decisions regarding what data you’ll collect, from who, how you’ll collect it and how you’ll analyse it. Research design, on the other hand, is more about the overall strategy you’ll adopt in your study. For example, whether you’ll use an experimental design in which you manipulate one variable while controlling others. You can learn more about research design and the various design types here .

Need a helping hand?

phd question paper on research methodology

What are qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods?

Qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods are different types of methodological approaches, distinguished by their focus on words , numbers or both . This is a bit of an oversimplification, but its a good starting point for understanding.

Let’s take a closer look.

Qualitative research refers to research which focuses on collecting and analysing words (written or spoken) and textual or visual data, whereas quantitative research focuses on measurement and testing using numerical data . Qualitative analysis can also focus on other “softer” data points, such as body language or visual elements.

It’s quite common for a qualitative methodology to be used when the research aims and research questions are exploratory  in nature. For example, a qualitative methodology might be used to understand peoples’ perceptions about an event that took place, or a political candidate running for president. 

Contrasted to this, a quantitative methodology is typically used when the research aims and research questions are confirmatory  in nature. For example, a quantitative methodology might be used to measure the relationship between two variables (e.g. personality type and likelihood to commit a crime) or to test a set of hypotheses .

As you’ve probably guessed, the mixed-method methodology attempts to combine the best of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies to integrate perspectives and create a rich picture. If you’d like to learn more about these three methodological approaches, be sure to watch our explainer video below.

What is sampling strategy?

Simply put, sampling is about deciding who (or where) you’re going to collect your data from . Why does this matter? Well, generally it’s not possible to collect data from every single person in your group of interest (this is called the “population”), so you’ll need to engage a smaller portion of that group that’s accessible and manageable (this is called the “sample”).

How you go about selecting the sample (i.e., your sampling strategy) will have a major impact on your study.  There are many different sampling methods  you can choose from, but the two overarching categories are probability   sampling and  non-probability   sampling .

Probability sampling  involves using a completely random sample from the group of people you’re interested in. This is comparable to throwing the names all potential participants into a hat, shaking it up, and picking out the “winners”. By using a completely random sample, you’ll minimise the risk of selection bias and the results of your study will be more generalisable  to the entire population. 

Non-probability sampling , on the other hand,  doesn’t use a random sample . For example, it might involve using a convenience sample, which means you’d only interview or survey people that you have access to (perhaps your friends, family or work colleagues), rather than a truly random sample. With non-probability sampling, the results are typically not generalisable .

To learn more about sampling methods, be sure to check out the video below.

What are data collection methods?

As the name suggests, data collection methods simply refers to the way in which you go about collecting the data for your study. Some of the most common data collection methods include:

  • Interviews (which can be unstructured, semi-structured or structured)
  • Focus groups and group interviews
  • Surveys (online or physical surveys)
  • Observations (watching and recording activities)
  • Biophysical measurements (e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, etc.)
  • Documents and records (e.g., financial reports, court records, etc.)

The choice of which data collection method to use depends on your overall research aims and research questions , as well as practicalities and resource constraints. For example, if your research is exploratory in nature, qualitative methods such as interviews and focus groups would likely be a good fit. Conversely, if your research aims to measure specific variables or test hypotheses, large-scale surveys that produce large volumes of numerical data would likely be a better fit.

What are data analysis methods?

Data analysis methods refer to the methods and techniques that you’ll use to make sense of your data. These can be grouped according to whether the research is qualitative  (words-based) or quantitative (numbers-based).

Popular data analysis methods in qualitative research include:

  • Qualitative content analysis
  • Thematic analysis
  • Discourse analysis
  • Narrative analysis
  • Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)
  • Visual analysis (of photographs, videos, art, etc.)

Qualitative data analysis all begins with data coding , after which an analysis method is applied. In some cases, more than one analysis method is used, depending on the research aims and research questions . In the video below, we explore some  common qualitative analysis methods, along with practical examples.  

Moving on to the quantitative side of things, popular data analysis methods in this type of research include:

  • Descriptive statistics (e.g. means, medians, modes )
  • Inferential statistics (e.g. correlation, regression, structural equation modelling)

Again, the choice of which data collection method to use depends on your overall research aims and objectives , as well as practicalities and resource constraints. In the video below, we explain some core concepts central to quantitative analysis.

How do I choose a research methodology?

As you’ve probably picked up by now, your research aims and objectives have a major influence on the research methodology . So, the starting point for developing your research methodology is to take a step back and look at the big picture of your research, before you make methodology decisions. The first question you need to ask yourself is whether your research is exploratory or confirmatory in nature.

If your research aims and objectives are primarily exploratory in nature, your research will likely be qualitative and therefore you might consider qualitative data collection methods (e.g. interviews) and analysis methods (e.g. qualitative content analysis). 

Conversely, if your research aims and objective are looking to measure or test something (i.e. they’re confirmatory), then your research will quite likely be quantitative in nature, and you might consider quantitative data collection methods (e.g. surveys) and analyses (e.g. statistical analysis).

Designing your research and working out your methodology is a large topic, which we cover extensively on the blog . For now, however, the key takeaway is that you should always start with your research aims, objectives and research questions (the golden thread). Every methodological choice you make needs align with those three components. 

Example of a research methodology chapter

In the video below, we provide a detailed walkthrough of a research methodology from an actual dissertation, as well as an overview of our free methodology template .

phd question paper on research methodology

Psst… there’s more (for free)

This post is part of our dissertation mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project. 

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What is descriptive statistics?


Leo Balanlay

Thank you for this simple yet comprehensive and easy to digest presentation. God Bless!

Derek Jansen

You’re most welcome, Leo. Best of luck with your research!


I found it very useful. many thanks

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Thankyou So much Sir Derek…

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Research methodology with a simplest way i have never seen before this article.

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Im so glad you clarified my misconceptions. Im now ready to fry my onions. Thank you so much. God bless


Thank you a lot.


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Thanks a lot. I am inspired

Visor Likali

Well written

Pondris Patrick

I am writing a APA Format paper . I using questionnaire with 120 STDs teacher for my participant. Can you write me mthology for this research. Send it through email sent. Just need a sample as an example please. My topic is ” impacts of overcrowding on students learning

Thanks for your comment.

We can’t write your methodology for you. If you’re looking for samples, you should be able to find some sample methodologies on Google. Alternatively, you can download some previous dissertations from a dissertation directory and have a look at the methodology chapters therein.

All the best with your research.


Thank you so much for this!! God Bless


Thank you. Explicit explanation


Thank you, Derek and Kerryn, for making this simple to understand. I’m currently at the inception stage of my research.


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I am currently doing my dissertation proposal and I am sure that I will do quantitative research. Thank you very much it was extremely helpful.

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Very interesting and informative yet I would like to know about examples of Research Questions as well, if possible.

Maisnam loyalakla

I’m about to submit a research presentation, I have come to understand from your simplification on understanding research methodology. My research will be mixed methodology, qualitative as well as quantitative. So aim and objective of mixed method would be both exploratory and confirmatory. Thanks you very much for your guidance.

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I’m going to write synopsis which will be quantitative research method and I don’t know how to frame my topic, can I kindly get some ideas..


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An interesting nice exploration of a topic.


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Thank you Doctor Derek for this wonderful piece, please help to provide your details for reference purpose. God bless.


Many compliments to you


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thank you, its very informative.


Well explained. Now I know my research methodology will be qualitative and exploratory. Thank you so much, keep up the good work


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This is good explanation, I have understood the different methods of research. Thanks a lot.

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Great work…very well explanation

Hyacinth Chebe Ukwuani

Thanks Derek. Kerryn was just fantastic!

Great to hear that, Hyacinth. Best of luck with your research!

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Its a good templates very attractive and important to PhD students and lectuter

Thanks for the feedback, Matobela. Good luck with your research methodology.


Thank you. This is really helpful.

You’re very welcome, Elie. Good luck with your research methodology.

Sakina Dalal

Well explained thanks


This is a very helpful site especially for young researchers at college. It provides sufficient information to guide students and equip them with the necessary foundation to ask any other questions aimed at deepening their understanding.

Thanks for the kind words, Edward. Good luck with your research!

Ngwisa Marie-claire NJOTU

Thank you. I have learned a lot.

Great to hear that, Ngwisa. Good luck with your research methodology!


Thank you for keeping your presentation simples and short and covering key information for research methodology. My key takeaway: Start with defining your research objective the other will depend on the aims of your research question.


My name is Zanele I would like to be assisted with my research , and the topic is shortage of nursing staff globally want are the causes , effects on health, patients and community and also globally

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Thanks for making it simple and clear. It greatly helped in understanding research methodology. Regards.


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Gabriel mugangavari

Thank you Dr

Dina Haj Ibrahim

I was given an assignment to research 2 publications and describe their research methodology? I don’t know how to start this task can someone help me?

Sure. You’re welcome to book an initial consultation with one of our Research Coaches to discuss how we can assist – .


Thanks a lot I am relieved of a heavy burden.keep up with the good work

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I’m very much grateful Dr Derek. I’m planning to pursue one of the careers that really needs one to be very much eager to know. There’s a lot of research to do and everything, but since I’ve gotten this information I will use it to the best of my potential.

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Thank you so much, words are not enough to explain how helpful this session has been for me!


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Very concise and helpful. Thanks a lot

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Thank Derek. This is very helpful. Your step by step explanation has made it easier for me to understand different concepts. Now i can get on with my research.


I wish i had come across this sooner. So simple but yet insightful

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really nice explanation thank you so much


I’m so grateful finding this site, it’s really helpful…….every term well explained and provide accurate understanding especially to student going into an in-depth research for the very first time, even though my lecturer already explained this topic to the class, I think I got the clear and efficient explanation here, much thanks to the author.


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I would like to be assisted with my research topic : Literature Review and research methodologies. My topic is : what is the relationship between unemployment and economic growth?


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Ekokobe Aloysius



Short but sweet.Thank you

Shishir Pokharel

Informative article. Thanks for your detailed information.

Badr Alharbi

I’m currently working on my Ph.D. thesis. Thanks a lot, Derek and Kerryn, Well-organized sequences, facilitate the readers’ following.


great article for someone who does not have any background can even understand

Hasan Chowdhury

I am a bit confused about research design and methodology. Are they the same? If not, what are the differences and how are they related?

Thanks in advance.

Ndileka Myoli

concise and informative.

Sureka Batagoda

Thank you very much

More Smith

How can we site this article is Harvard style?


Very well written piece that afforded better understanding of the concept. Thank you!

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Am a new researcher trying to learn how best to write a research proposal. I find your article spot on and want to download the free template but finding difficulties. Can u kindly send it to my email, the free download entitled, “Free Download: Research Proposal Template (with Examples)”.

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Thank too much


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Thank u sir, it is really a good guideline.


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Thanks for the video it was very explanatory and detailed, easy to comprehend and follow up. please, keep it up the good work


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orebotswe morokane

how do i reference this?


MLA Jansen, Derek, and Kerryn Warren. “What (Exactly) Is Research Methodology?” Grad Coach, June 2021,

APA Jansen, D., & Warren, K. (2021, June). What (Exactly) Is Research Methodology? Grad Coach.


Your explanation is easily understood. Thank you

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phd question paper on research methodology

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What is Research Methodology? Definition, Types, and Examples

phd question paper on research methodology

Research methodology 1,2 is a structured and scientific approach used to collect, analyze, and interpret quantitative or qualitative data to answer research questions or test hypotheses. A research methodology is like a plan for carrying out research and helps keep researchers on track by limiting the scope of the research. Several aspects must be considered before selecting an appropriate research methodology, such as research limitations and ethical concerns that may affect your research.

The research methodology section in a scientific paper describes the different methodological choices made, such as the data collection and analysis methods, and why these choices were selected. The reasons should explain why the methods chosen are the most appropriate to answer the research question. A good research methodology also helps ensure the reliability and validity of the research findings. There are three types of research methodology—quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method, which can be chosen based on the research objectives.

What is research methodology ?

A research methodology describes the techniques and procedures used to identify and analyze information regarding a specific research topic. It is a process by which researchers design their study so that they can achieve their objectives using the selected research instruments. It includes all the important aspects of research, including research design, data collection methods, data analysis methods, and the overall framework within which the research is conducted. While these points can help you understand what is research methodology, you also need to know why it is important to pick the right methodology.

Why is research methodology important?

Having a good research methodology in place has the following advantages: 3

  • Helps other researchers who may want to replicate your research; the explanations will be of benefit to them.
  • You can easily answer any questions about your research if they arise at a later stage.
  • A research methodology provides a framework and guidelines for researchers to clearly define research questions, hypotheses, and objectives.
  • It helps researchers identify the most appropriate research design, sampling technique, and data collection and analysis methods.
  • A sound research methodology helps researchers ensure that their findings are valid and reliable and free from biases and errors.
  • It also helps ensure that ethical guidelines are followed while conducting research.
  • A good research methodology helps researchers in planning their research efficiently, by ensuring optimum usage of their time and resources.

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Types of research methodology.

There are three types of research methodology based on the type of research and the data required. 1

  • Quantitative research methodology focuses on measuring and testing numerical data. This approach is good for reaching a large number of people in a short amount of time. This type of research helps in testing the causal relationships between variables, making predictions, and generalizing results to wider populations.
  • Qualitative research methodology examines the opinions, behaviors, and experiences of people. It collects and analyzes words and textual data. This research methodology requires fewer participants but is still more time consuming because the time spent per participant is quite large. This method is used in exploratory research where the research problem being investigated is not clearly defined.
  • Mixed-method research methodology uses the characteristics of both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in the same study. This method allows researchers to validate their findings, verify if the results observed using both methods are complementary, and explain any unexpected results obtained from one method by using the other method.

What are the types of sampling designs in research methodology?

Sampling 4 is an important part of a research methodology and involves selecting a representative sample of the population to conduct the study, making statistical inferences about them, and estimating the characteristics of the whole population based on these inferences. There are two types of sampling designs in research methodology—probability and nonprobability.

  • Probability sampling

In this type of sampling design, a sample is chosen from a larger population using some form of random selection, that is, every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. The different types of probability sampling are:

  • Systematic —sample members are chosen at regular intervals. It requires selecting a starting point for the sample and sample size determination that can be repeated at regular intervals. This type of sampling method has a predefined range; hence, it is the least time consuming.
  • Stratified —researchers divide the population into smaller groups that don’t overlap but represent the entire population. While sampling, these groups can be organized, and then a sample can be drawn from each group separately.
  • Cluster —the population is divided into clusters based on demographic parameters like age, sex, location, etc.
  • Convenience —selects participants who are most easily accessible to researchers due to geographical proximity, availability at a particular time, etc.
  • Purposive —participants are selected at the researcher’s discretion. Researchers consider the purpose of the study and the understanding of the target audience.
  • Snowball —already selected participants use their social networks to refer the researcher to other potential participants.
  • Quota —while designing the study, the researchers decide how many people with which characteristics to include as participants. The characteristics help in choosing people most likely to provide insights into the subject.

What are data collection methods?

During research, data are collected using various methods depending on the research methodology being followed and the research methods being undertaken. Both qualitative and quantitative research have different data collection methods, as listed below.

Qualitative research 5

  • One-on-one interviews: Helps the interviewers understand a respondent’s subjective opinion and experience pertaining to a specific topic or event
  • Document study/literature review/record keeping: Researchers’ review of already existing written materials such as archives, annual reports, research articles, guidelines, policy documents, etc.
  • Focus groups: Constructive discussions that usually include a small sample of about 6-10 people and a moderator, to understand the participants’ opinion on a given topic.
  • Qualitative observation : Researchers collect data using their five senses (sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing).

Quantitative research 6

  • Sampling: The most common type is probability sampling.
  • Interviews: Commonly telephonic or done in-person.
  • Observations: Structured observations are most commonly used in quantitative research. In this method, researchers make observations about specific behaviors of individuals in a structured setting.
  • Document review: Reviewing existing research or documents to collect evidence for supporting the research.
  • Surveys and questionnaires. Surveys can be administered both online and offline depending on the requirement and sample size.

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What are data analysis methods.

The data collected using the various methods for qualitative and quantitative research need to be analyzed to generate meaningful conclusions. These data analysis methods 7 also differ between quantitative and qualitative research.

Quantitative research involves a deductive method for data analysis where hypotheses are developed at the beginning of the research and precise measurement is required. The methods include statistical analysis applications to analyze numerical data and are grouped into two categories—descriptive and inferential.

Descriptive analysis is used to describe the basic features of different types of data to present it in a way that ensures the patterns become meaningful. The different types of descriptive analysis methods are:

  • Measures of frequency (count, percent, frequency)
  • Measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode)
  • Measures of dispersion or variation (range, variance, standard deviation)
  • Measure of position (percentile ranks, quartile ranks)

Inferential analysis is used to make predictions about a larger population based on the analysis of the data collected from a smaller population. This analysis is used to study the relationships between different variables. Some commonly used inferential data analysis methods are:

  • Correlation: To understand the relationship between two or more variables.
  • Cross-tabulation: Analyze the relationship between multiple variables.
  • Regression analysis: Study the impact of independent variables on the dependent variable.
  • Frequency tables: To understand the frequency of data.
  • Analysis of variance: To test the degree to which two or more variables differ in an experiment.

Qualitative research involves an inductive method for data analysis where hypotheses are developed after data collection. The methods include:

  • Content analysis: For analyzing documented information from text and images by determining the presence of certain words or concepts in texts.
  • Narrative analysis: For analyzing content obtained from sources such as interviews, field observations, and surveys. The stories and opinions shared by people are used to answer research questions.
  • Discourse analysis: For analyzing interactions with people considering the social context, that is, the lifestyle and environment, under which the interaction occurs.
  • Grounded theory: Involves hypothesis creation by data collection and analysis to explain why a phenomenon occurred.
  • Thematic analysis: To identify important themes or patterns in data and use these to address an issue.

How to choose a research methodology?

Here are some important factors to consider when choosing a research methodology: 8

  • Research objectives, aims, and questions —these would help structure the research design.
  • Review existing literature to identify any gaps in knowledge.
  • Check the statistical requirements —if data-driven or statistical results are needed then quantitative research is the best. If the research questions can be answered based on people’s opinions and perceptions, then qualitative research is most suitable.
  • Sample size —sample size can often determine the feasibility of a research methodology. For a large sample, less effort- and time-intensive methods are appropriate.
  • Constraints —constraints of time, geography, and resources can help define the appropriate methodology.

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How to write a research methodology .

A research methodology should include the following components: 3,9

  • Research design —should be selected based on the research question and the data required. Common research designs include experimental, quasi-experimental, correlational, descriptive, and exploratory.
  • Research method —this can be quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method.
  • Reason for selecting a specific methodology —explain why this methodology is the most suitable to answer your research problem.
  • Research instruments —explain the research instruments you plan to use, mainly referring to the data collection methods such as interviews, surveys, etc. Here as well, a reason should be mentioned for selecting the particular instrument.
  • Sampling —this involves selecting a representative subset of the population being studied.
  • Data collection —involves gathering data using several data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, etc.
  • Data analysis —describe the data analysis methods you will use once you’ve collected the data.
  • Research limitations —mention any limitations you foresee while conducting your research.
  • Validity and reliability —validity helps identify the accuracy and truthfulness of the findings; reliability refers to the consistency and stability of the results over time and across different conditions.
  • Ethical considerations —research should be conducted ethically. The considerations include obtaining consent from participants, maintaining confidentiality, and addressing conflicts of interest.

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The methods section is a critical part of the research papers, allowing researchers to use this to understand your findings and replicate your work when pursuing their own research. However, it is usually also the most difficult section to write. This is where Paperpal can help you overcome the writer’s block and create the first draft in minutes with Paperpal Copilot, its secure generative AI feature suite.  

With Paperpal you can get research advice, write and refine your work, rephrase and verify the writing, and ensure submission readiness, all in one place. Here’s how you can use Paperpal to develop the first draft of your methods section.  

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  • Choose the right words: Enhance text by choosing contextual synonyms based on how the words have been used in previously published work.  
  • Check and verify text : Make sure the generated text showcases your methods correctly, has all the right citations, and is original and authentic. .   

You can repeat this process to develop each section of your research manuscript, including the title, abstract and keywords. Ready to write your research papers faster, better, and without the stress? Sign up for Paperpal and start writing today!

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What are the key components of research methodology?

A1. A good research methodology has the following key components:

  • Research design
  • Data collection procedures
  • Data analysis methods
  • Ethical considerations

Q2. Why is ethical consideration important in research methodology?

A2. Ethical consideration is important in research methodology to ensure the readers of the reliability and validity of the study. Researchers must clearly mention the ethical norms and standards followed during the conduct of the research and also mention if the research has been cleared by any institutional board. The following 10 points are the important principles related to ethical considerations: 10

  • Participants should not be subjected to harm.
  • Respect for the dignity of participants should be prioritized.
  • Full consent should be obtained from participants before the study.
  • Participants’ privacy should be ensured.
  • Confidentiality of the research data should be ensured.
  • Anonymity of individuals and organizations participating in the research should be maintained.
  • The aims and objectives of the research should not be exaggerated.
  • Affiliations, sources of funding, and any possible conflicts of interest should be declared.
  • Communication in relation to the research should be honest and transparent.
  • Misleading information and biased representation of primary data findings should be avoided.

Q3. What is the difference between methodology and method?

A3. Research methodology is different from a research method, although both terms are often confused. Research methods are the tools used to gather data, while the research methodology provides a framework for how research is planned, conducted, and analyzed. The latter guides researchers in making decisions about the most appropriate methods for their research. Research methods refer to the specific techniques, procedures, and tools used by researchers to collect, analyze, and interpret data, for instance surveys, questionnaires, interviews, etc.

Research methodology is, thus, an integral part of a research study. It helps ensure that you stay on track to meet your research objectives and answer your research questions using the most appropriate data collection and analysis tools based on your research design.

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  • Research methodologies. Pfeiffer Library website. Accessed August 15, 2023.
  • Types of research methodology. Eduvoice website. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  • The basics of research methodology: A key to quality research. Voxco. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  • Sampling methods: Types with examples. QuestionPro website. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  • What is qualitative research? Methods, types, approaches, examples. Researcher.Life blog. Accessed August 15, 2023.
  • What is quantitative research? Definition, methods, types, and examples. Researcher.Life blog. Accessed August 15, 2023.
  • Data analysis in research: Types & methods. QuestionPro website. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  • Factors to consider while choosing the right research methodology. PhD Monster website. Accessed August 17, 2023.
  • What is research methodology? Research and writing guides. Accessed August 14, 2023.
  • Ethical considerations. Business research methodology website. Accessed August 17, 2023.

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Research Methodology Syllabus for NTA-PhD Entrance Exam 2023

Research Methodology for PhD entrance Exam

Research Methodology

The Research Methodology syllabus for the Ph.D. NTA Entrance Exam covers a comprehensive range of topics designed to equip prospective doctoral candidates with essential skills and knowledge related to conducting research effectively. The syllabus aims to provide a solid foundation in research principles, methodologies, and techniques.

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Key areas of study include:

1. Science and Research: Definition – History – Evolution of Scientific Inquiry, Scientific Research: Definition, Characteristics, types, need of research. Identification of the problem, assessing the status of the problem, formulating the objectives, preparing design (experimental or otherwise), Actual investigation.

2. Introduction to Research: Meaning and importance of Research – Types of Research – Selection and formulation of Research Problem

Research Design – Need – Features – Inductive, Deductive and Development of models

Developing a Research Plan – Exploration, Description, Diagnosis, Experimentation, Determining Experimental and Sample Designs.

Analysis of Literature Review – Primary and Secondary Sources, Web sources –critical Literature Review

Hypothesis – Different Types – Significance – Development of Working Hypothesis, Null hypothesis

Research Methods: Scientific method vs Arbitrary Method, Logical Scientific Methods: Deductive, Inductive, Deductive-Inductive, pattern of Deductive – Inductive logical process – Different types of inductive logical methods.

3. Data Collection:

Sources of Data – Primary and Secondary Types of Data – Categorical (nominal and ordinal), Numerical (discrete, continuous, ratio and interval)

Methods of Data Collection: Survey, Interviews (in-depth or Key Informant interviews), Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Observation, Records or Experimental Observations.

Sampling methods – Data Processing and Analysis strategies- Graphical representation – Descriptive Analysis – Inferential Analysis- Correlation analysis – Least square method – Data Analysis using statistical package – Hypothesis – testing – Generalization and Interpretation – Modeling.

4. Data Processing and Analysis: Statistical Graphics – Histograms, Frequency Polygon, Ogive, Dotplots, Stemplots, Bar Graphs, Pareto Charts, Pie Charts, Scatterplots, Boxplots Descriptive Analysis – Frequency Distributions, Measures of Central Tendency, Measures of Variation/Dispersion, Skewness and Kurtosis, Measures of Relative Standing Qualitative Approaches Including Grounded Theory, Ethnography, Narrative Inquiry, Phenomenology and Case-Study.

5. Scientific Writing:

Structure and components of Scientific Reports – types of Report – Technical Reports and Thesis – Significance – Different steps in the preparation – Layout, structure and Language of typical reports – Illustrations and tables – Bibliography, Referencing and foot notes –Importance of Effective Communication.

Preparing Research papers for journals, Seminars and Conferences – Design of paper using TEMPLATE, Calculations of Impact factor of a journal, citation Index, ISBN & ISSN. Preparation of Project Proposal – Title, Abstract, Introduction – Rationale, Objectives, Methodology – Time frame and work plan – Budget and Justification – References.

Preparation of the Project Proposal – Title, Abstract, Introduction – Rationale, Objectives, Methodology – Time frame and Work Plan – Budget and Justification.

Documentation and scientific writing Results and Conclusions, Preparation of manuscript for Publication of Research paper, presenting a paper in scientific seminar, Thesis writing. Structure and Components of Research Report, Types of Report: research papers, thesis, Research Project Reports, Pictures and Graphs, citation styles, writing a review of paper, Bibliography.

6. Information sources: Types of publications, Indexing and abstracting services, Online library, Search engines, Citation indexes, Citations analysis, Online searching methods, Initiatives for knowledge management.

7. Research Ethics: Research Ethics Committees/Institutional Review Board – Roles and Importance Intellectual Property rights – Commercialization, Royalty Reproduction of Published Material – Citation and Acknowledgement, Plagiarism.

8. References: How to cite and list correctly, Common documentation styles, Citation of sources in the text, Reference management softwares, Selecting a journal, conference.

9. Computer applications and Statistics: Use of word processing, spread sheet and database software. Plotting of graphs. Internet and its application: E‐mail, WWW, Web browsing, acquiring technical skills, drawing inferences from data, Introduction to Statistics – Probability Theories ‐ Conditional Probability, Poisson distribution, Binomial Distribution and Properties of Normal Distributions, Estimates of Means and Proportions; Chi Square Test, Association of Attributes t-Test –Anova, Standard deviation Coefficient of variations. Co relation and Regression Analysis.


  • What is the primary purpose of a research methodology? a) To summarize existing research b) To provide a theoretical framework c) To guide the research process d) To present statistical analysis
  • Which research approach focuses on numerical data and statistical analysis? a) Qualitative research b) Descriptive research c) Quantitative research d) Case study research
  • Which sampling method gives every individual in the population an equal chance of being selected? a) Convenience sampling b) Purposive sampling c) Quota sampling d) Random sampling
  • What is the purpose of a literature review in research? a) To showcase the author’s writing skills b) To provide a summary of the methodology c) To analyze and critique existing research d) To present personal opinions on the topic
  • In hypothesis testing, which type of error occurs when a true null hypothesis is rejected? a) Type I error b) Type II error c) Sampling error d) Measurement error
  • What is the role of an Institutional Review Board (IRB) in research? a) Data analysis and interpretation b) Selection of research participants c) Ensuring ethical considerations are met d) Writing research reports
  • Which research method involves studying a single individual or case in depth? a) Survey research b) Experimental research c) Case study research d) Correlational research
  • What is the purpose of triangulation in research? a) To use multiple methods to confirm findings b) To manipulate research data c) To select a representative sample d) To conduct cross-cultural research
  • What does a p-value in statistical analysis indicate? a) The size of the sample b) The strength of the relationship between variables c) The probability of obtaining results by chance d) The number of research participants
  • Which section of a research paper discusses the implications and significance of the findings? a) Introduction b) Methodology c) Results d) Discussion

phd question paper on research methodology

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    Design/methodology/approach - The paper investigates the underlying concepts of the GTM, case study approach, and the soft system methodology (SSM) from which the RPD was originally derived.

  12. PDF Course Work for Ph.D Paper 1 : Research Methodology

    Paper 1 : Research Methodology Unit I : Research: A way of thinking Definition, Characteristics of research, Process of research Formulation of a research problem: a) The importance of formulating a research problem b) Sources of research problem c) Considerations in selecting a research problem d) Steps in formulation of a research problem


    Research Research is, a very powerful instrument of knowledge and development. Research is a movement —a movement from 'known' to the 'unknown'. The method we employ for obtaining the knowledge of the 'unknown' is research. The word research is combination of "re" and "search," which means a systematic investigation to gain new knowledge from

  14. PDF Unit-1: Research

    Ph.D - MODEL QUESTION PAPER PAPER I- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY [Common to all the Candidates] Answer any FIVE Questions (Time: 3 Hours) All questions carry equal marks (Max: 75 marks) 1. Discuss the nature, scope and value of historical and Fundamental Research? 2. What are the sources for identification and the factors influencing selection of

  15. Paper 1 Phd Course Work- Research Methodology Exam

    Paper1: Research Methodology Exam Sheet Shivananda R Koteshwar, PhD Research Scholar, Bangalore University 1 Paper 1 Exam Sheet Research Methodology and Statistics Shivananda R Koteshwar TITLE: A Study on Pragmatic Approaches and Quality Initiatives for Enhancing Teachers' Calibe...

  16. PDF Microsoft Word

    METHODOLOGY EXAMINATION PAPER I - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Time: Three Hours Maximum: 100 marks Answer ALL questions I. Essays: (2 x 20 = 40) 1. As a researcher you are asked to evaluate an intervention to address the problem of obesity among adolescents. Write a detailed project proposal highlighting the research design and methods. 2.

  17. What Is Research Methodology? Definition + Examples

    As we mentioned, research methodology refers to the collection of practical decisions regarding what data you'll collect, from who, how you'll collect it and how you'll analyse it. Research design, on the other hand, is more about the overall strategy you'll adopt in your study. For example, whether you'll use an experimental design ...

  18. Previous Year Question Papers

    Research and Publication Ethics. Research Methodology -Stream I. Research Methodology -Stream II. Research Methodology Stream III. Theory and Concept -Arabic. Theory and Concept-Biosciences. Theory and Concept-Botany. Theory and Concept-Commerce. Theory and Concept-Economics.

  19. What is Research Methodology? Definition, Types, and Examples

    Research methodology 1,2 is a structured and scientific approach used to collect, analyze, and interpret quantitative or qualitative data to answer research questions or test hypotheses. A research methodology is like a plan for carrying out research and helps keep researchers on track by limiting the scope of the research.

  20. 801 questions with answers in RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Answer. Research, research methodology, and publication ethics are all essential components of scientific inquiry. Conducting research using rigorous methodology and adhering to ethical ...

  21. VTU PhD Question Papers

    VTU PhD question papers all schemes updated upto 2019. Vturesource. ... Research Methodology Subject Code : 14PHDRM Download Research Methodology PhD Question Paper. Last Updated: Monday, November 13, 2020. Categories. VTU last year question papers; VTU E Learning; VTU Time Table New;

  22. Research Methodology Syllabus for NTA-PhD Entrance Exam 2023

    Research Methodology The Research Methodology syllabus for the Ph.D. NTA Entrance Exam covers a comprehensive range of topics designed to equip prospective doctoral candidates with essential skills and knowledge related to conducting research effectively.

  23. Ph.D Entrance Research Methodology & Statistics Part 1

    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY & STATISTICS Set - 1 / 3 (1). Discuss the importance of illustrations, graphs and photographs in research papers. (2). What is the relevance of questionnaires in data collection and interpretation? (3). Differentiate between correlation and regression analysis. (4). What is Chi-Square test?

  24. Research Methodology MCQ with Answer Key

    Research Methodology Ph.D Entrance Test (Tamil Nadu) July 2013; Research Methodology Ph.D Entrance Test (Tamil Nadu) July 2014; Research Methodology Ph.D Entrance Test (Tamil Nadu) January 2014; Ph.D Entrance Test in Research Methodology (Tamil Nadu) July 2015; Research Methodology PhD Entrance Test Question Paper (Tamil Nadu) January 2015