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Linguistic Autobiography

I was born in Maywood, IL at Loyola Hospital and I was raised in Westchester, IL. My family's language background is English. However on my father's side I am Polish, yet I have never learned how to speak it or ever heard it from any of my family members on that side. As a baby the first voice I recognized the most was my mothers'. I recognized my own name, so anytime someone called out my name I would pop my head up. Babbling and gibberish came first then around the time I was 1 ?? years old I said my first words, which were mama and couscous (this was my so called version of the word pretzels.)

Being the first born so I was around my parents and my grandparents more than anyone else. My mother always read to me, then once I began learning how to read she would listen to me to make sure I was reading fluently and pronouncing everything correctly. And of course there was the occasional baby talk that I went through as well. The constant look at the little baby, and look how cute you are was a language itself. Being around my grandparents they loved to sit down and conversations with me. So I was able to pick up on their words and comprehend their use of dialect.

Throughout middle school and high school grammar was hammered into the curriculum. Teachers put a strong emphasis on nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and almost everything else that could be categorized into the subject of grammar. I can recall one of my teachers who said Grammar is the backbone of your reading and listening comprehension. I didn't value grammar because I believed as long as you could talk you didn't need it. However I had it all wrong. Without grammar we would all be talking in the wrong tenses, using the incorrect words to describe people and places. Grammar is indeed the back of everything to do with not only with reading and listening but just simple communication.

When I was fully capable of understanding myself in terms of language and dialect I was able to understand the difference between the two. Almost everyone I knew spoke English, however some individuals had different dialects. For example my grandmother on my mom's side is from New York and she has an accent. Including my grandparent's on my dads' side who were from Tennessee. They are all fluent in English but they just sound different based on where they come from which I was able to notice right away.

When I entered high school was when I was faced with linguistic prejudice. For a majority of my classes we had essays, socratic seminars, group discussions, and class presentations: Some teachers were so surprised that I spoke properly and sounded intelligent and turned the remarks into compliments. However I was offended because it was perceived that I didn't have the ability to speak and present myself in such a high manor. Your looks shouldn't depict whether or not you can speak properly or sound intelligent. To add I do believe I am linguistically secure because I have strong confidence in the use of my own language.

I've been speaking English for years and I've grown to have a vast variety of vocabulary. Having linguistic security has a strong impact on my linguistic behavior because it makes it easier to speak and to understand language in the context of text. The only thing I can say dislike about linguistics is the process of learning another language. I strongly disliked taking Mandarin in high school during my sophomore year. It was nothing against the language it was just a complex subject. Not only did you have to know the characters, but the writing system which was Pinyin (Latin form) and the pronunciation was which a Beijing dialect.

Overall my relationship to language has changed in a way, however it is still progressing. As I advance in college there is no doubt it will get stronger. But as of now my relationship to language open and is ready for improvements to gain more knowledge.

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The power of language: How words shape people, culture

Speaking, writing and reading are integral to everyday life, where language is the primary tool for expression and communication. Studying how people use language – what words and phrases they unconsciously choose and combine – can help us better understand ourselves and why we behave the way we do.

Linguistics scholars seek to determine what is unique and universal about the language we use, how it is acquired and the ways it changes over time. They consider language as a cultural, social and psychological phenomenon.

“Understanding why and how languages differ tells about the range of what is human,” said Dan Jurafsky , the Jackson Eli Reynolds Professor in Humanities and chair of the Department of Linguistics in the School of Humanities and Sciences at Stanford . “Discovering what’s universal about languages can help us understand the core of our humanity.”

The stories below represent some of the ways linguists have investigated many aspects of language, including its semantics and syntax, phonetics and phonology, and its social, psychological and computational aspects.

Understanding stereotypes

Stanford linguists and psychologists study how language is interpreted by people. Even the slightest differences in language use can correspond with biased beliefs of the speakers, according to research.

One study showed that a relatively harmless sentence, such as “girls are as good as boys at math,” can subtly perpetuate sexist stereotypes. Because of the statement’s grammatical structure, it implies that being good at math is more common or natural for boys than girls, the researchers said.

Language can play a big role in how we and others perceive the world, and linguists work to discover what words and phrases can influence us, unknowingly.

Girl solving math problem

How well-meaning statements can spread stereotypes unintentionally

New Stanford research shows that sentences that frame one gender as the standard for the other can unintentionally perpetuate biases.

Human silhouette

Algorithms reveal changes in stereotypes

New Stanford research shows that, over the past century, linguistic changes in gender and ethnic stereotypes correlated with major social movements and demographic changes in the U.S. Census data.

Katherine Hilton

Exploring what an interruption is in conversation

Stanford doctoral candidate Katherine Hilton found that people perceive interruptions in conversation differently, and those perceptions differ depending on the listener’s own conversational style as well as gender.

Policeman with body-worn videocamera (body-cam)

Cops speak less respectfully to black community members

Professors Jennifer Eberhardt and Dan Jurafsky, along with other Stanford researchers, detected racial disparities in police officers’ speech after analyzing more than 100 hours of body camera footage from Oakland Police.

How other languages inform our own

People speak roughly 7,000 languages worldwide. Although there is a lot in common among languages, each one is unique, both in its structure and in the way it reflects the culture of the people who speak it.

Jurafsky said it’s important to study languages other than our own and how they develop over time because it can help scholars understand what lies at the foundation of humans’ unique way of communicating with one another.

“All this research can help us discover what it means to be human,” Jurafsky said.

linguistic background essay

Stanford PhD student documents indigenous language of Papua New Guinea

Fifth-year PhD student Kate Lindsey recently returned to the United States after a year of documenting an obscure language indigenous to the South Pacific nation.

dice marked with letters of the alphabet

Students explore Esperanto across Europe

In a research project spanning eight countries, two Stanford students search for Esperanto, a constructed language, against the backdrop of European populism.

linguistic background essay

Chris Manning: How computers are learning to understand language​

A computer scientist discusses the evolution of computational linguistics and where it’s headed next.

Map showing frequency of the use of the Spanish pronoun 'vos' as opposed to 'tú' in Latin America

Stanford research explores novel perspectives on the evolution of Spanish

Using digital tools and literature to explore the evolution of the Spanish language, Stanford researcher Cuauhtémoc García-García reveals a new historical perspective on linguistic changes in Latin America and Spain.

Language as a lens into behavior

Linguists analyze how certain speech patterns correspond to particular behaviors, including how language can impact people’s buying decisions or influence their social media use.

For example, in one research paper, a group of Stanford researchers examined the differences in how Republicans and Democrats express themselves online to better understand how a polarization of beliefs can occur on social media.

“We live in a very polarized time,” Jurafsky said. “Understanding what different groups of people say and why is the first step in determining how we can help bring people together.”

linguistic background essay

Analyzing the tweets of Republicans and Democrats

New research by Dora Demszky and colleagues examined how Republicans and Democrats express themselves online in an attempt to understand how polarization of beliefs occurs on social media.

Examining bilingual behavior of children at Texas preschool

A Stanford senior studied a group of bilingual children at a Spanish immersion preschool in Texas to understand how they distinguished between their two languages.

Linguistics professor Dan Jurafsky in his office

Predicting sales of online products from advertising language

Stanford linguist Dan Jurafsky and colleagues have found that products in Japan sell better if their advertising includes polite language and words that invoke cultural traditions or authority.

linguistic background essay

Language can help the elderly cope with the challenges of aging, says Stanford professor

By examining conversations of elderly Japanese women, linguist Yoshiko Matsumoto uncovers language techniques that help people move past traumatic events and regain a sense of normalcy.

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How does language shape the way we think, linguistics and its main categories, made-to-order essay as fast as you need it.

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Using Linguistics to Understand The Importance of Dialect and Its Connection to Language

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The Importance of Grammar

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Connection Between Language and Self-concept

Semantics as the field of linguistics, my passion of french language and linguistics, the power of language: analysis of rodriguez’s private and public language, tan’s mother tongue and cisneros’s offering to the power of language, factors that govern the acquisition of language, analysis of english and urdu clause, the eight parts of speech in english language, david foster wallace and his perspective on american life in connection to authority, a study on the tactics of linguistic phenomenon, emerging technology to address language barriers in urban areas, theoretical perspectives on plural morphology, a rhetorical analysis: linguistic power dynamics in oleanna, understanding language: acquisition and loss, the comparison of grammars in noam chomsky's syntactic structures theory, relations between the translators and linguists, noam chomsky and his theory of language acquisition device, language online by david barton and carmen lee: impact of the internet on the learning of language, application of neuroscience in the english learning class, a report on the french language, overview of chomsky and bloom's linguistic theories, relevant topics.

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linguistic background essay

Assessment 3: Reflective Essay Incorporating the learnings from...

Assessment 3: Reflective Essay Incorporating the learnings from this subject, a reflective essay on: 1. Social work practice in a multicultural world of crisis and change 2. Reflect on how your positionality may impact your social work practice with people from a ethnic, cultural or linguistic background different from yours 3. How will you open yourself to the worldview of diverse people you meet during your future role as a social worker? In writing this assignment you may use the first person if you wish (e.g. "I think . . .", "My experience of . . .") etc. Minimum Number of References:-Use at least three references from the reading list in your reflective essay. Word Limit Requirements: -

Answer & Explanation

Social Work Reflection

(1) Social work is a profession that aims to address social issues and promote social justice, especially for marginalized and oppressed populations (Powers & Engstrom, 2020). In a multicultural world of crisis and change, social workers must be equipped with knowledge and skills to work effectively with individuals, families, and communities from diverse backgrounds.

One of the key learnings from this subject is the importance of cultural competence in social work practice. Cultural competence refers to the ability to understand, respect, and respond appropriately to cultural differences. Social workers need to be aware of their own cultural biases and values and how they might influence their interactions with clients (Powers & Engstrom, 2020). They also need to be willing to learn about different cultures, including their beliefs, practices, and worldviews.

Another important aspect of social work practice in a multicultural world is understanding how social, economic, and political factors contribute to social inequalities and oppression. Social workers must be able to identify the root causes of these issues and advocate for change at the individual, community, and policy levels.

Social workers must also be able to work collaboratively with other professionals, including those from diverse backgrounds, to provide the best possible services to clients. This involves developing strong communication and interpersonal skills, as well as the ability to work effectively in teams.

Finally, social workers must be able to adapt to the changing needs of clients and communities in a world of crisis and change. This may involve developing new strategies and approaches to address emerging social issues, as well as being flexible and adaptable in the face of unexpected challenges.

(2) Positionality refers to the unique social, cultural, and historical context from which individuals view and experience the world. This context includes aspects such as gender, race, ethnicity, language, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and age (Kourgiantakis & Lee, 2020). It shapes how individuals perceive and interact with others and influences their values, beliefs, and assumptions.

In social work practice, an individual's positionality can impact their relationships with clients from different cultural or linguistic backgrounds. For example, if a social worker comes from a dominant culture, they may have unconscious biases and assumptions about people from different cultures or linguistic backgrounds. This can affect the way they perceive, interact, and provide services to clients.

It is essential for social workers to be aware of their positionality and how it may impact their practice. This includes acknowledging any biases and assumptions they may have and being open to learning about different cultures and languages (Kourgiantakis & Lee, 2020). Social workers should also be willing to seek out and listen to the perspectives and experiences of people from diverse backgrounds.

Being aware of one's positionality can help social workers recognize power imbalances and work towards building more equal and respectful relationships with clients (Kourgiantakis & Lee, 2020). It can also enable them to provide culturally sensitive and appropriate services that are tailored to the needs of the client.

In conclusion, social workers must be mindful of their positionality and how it may impact their practice with clients from different ethnic, cultural or linguistic backgrounds. By acknowledging their biases and assumptions, and being open to learning and listening, social workers can build strong relationships and provide effective services to clients from diverse backgrounds.

(3) In my role as a social worker, I understand that it is essential to open myself up to the worldviews of the diverse individuals and communities I will be working with. Doing so will enable me to build relationships based on mutual respect and trust, which will ultimately facilitate the provision of effective and culturally appropriate services.

To open myself up to the worldviews of diverse people, I will first examine my own values, beliefs, and biases. This will involve reflecting on my personal experiences, cultural background, and social identities to identify any preconceived notions or assumptions that may influence my interactions with clients (Gates et al., 2021).

I will also make an effort to learn about different cultures and worldviews through reading, attending cultural events, and participating in cultural awareness training. This will help me to gain a deeper understanding of the perspectives and experiences of the individuals and communities I will be working with.

In my interactions with clients, I will approach them with an open and non-judgmental attitude. I will actively listen to their stories, experiences, and perspectives without imposing my own values or assumptions on them. I will also ask questions to clarify any misunderstandings and seek feedback to ensure that I am understanding their worldview accurately.

Furthermore, I will be sensitive to the language and communication styles of my clients. This includes being aware of any language barriers and providing interpretation services or translated materials as needed  (Gates et al., 2021). I will also be mindful of the nonverbal cues and gestures that may have different meanings in different cultures.

In conclusion, opening oneself up to the worldviews of diverse people requires self-reflection, education, and an open-minded attitude. As a social worker, I am committed to building strong relationships with clients from different backgrounds and using their unique perspectives and experiences to inform and enhance my practice.

Approach to solving the question:

Detailed explanation:

Key references:

Powers, M. C., & Engstrom, S. (2020). Radical self-care for social workers in the global climate crisis. Social Work, 65(1), 29-37.

Kourgiantakis, T., & Lee, E. (2020). <? covid19?> Social work practice education and training during the pandemic: Disruptions and discoveries. International Social Work, 63(6), 761-765.

Gates, T. G., Ross, D., Bennett, B., & Jonathan, K. (2021). Teaching mental health and well-being online in a crisis: Fostering love and self-compassion in clinical social work education. Clinical Social Work Journal, 1-13.

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Linguistic Repertoire: Language Identity and Culture Essay

A linguistic repertoire is a set of various linguistic identities, which one person can use in different situations (Finegan 547). It could be said that it helps a speaker show his/her full potential in communications and express his/her thoughts and ideas openly on various occasions. This essay describes my own identities and codes, which are used to present them. Moreover, this paper provides information on how a transition between these identities occurs in different contexts. Lastly, the analysis of the behavior is performed by using the theory of social construction and autoethnography.

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Speaking of my own identities, I should start with my cultural background. Cultural identity and mentality are vital elements of a particular language formation and vice versa (Sheela 1). I have been living in China for twenty years. However, now I am studying in Canada in English. This fact helps me to improve my communication skills in a foreign language. Consequently, I bilingual, it allows me to have multiple identities, codes, and registries.

Speaking of Chinese identities, I speak standard Chinese and some dialects such as Mandarin Chinese. In China, I use standard Chinese dialect to interact with other people. As for Mandarin Chinese, I usually utilize this dialect while communicating with the older family members. However, it has to be mentioned that sometimes I use a mixture of traditional Chinese and the dialect, as it increases the effectiveness of communication. Moreover, while I am talking to my friends, I use an individual register in this context. In this case, it is a mixture of slang, traditional language, and some English words such as ‘okay’ and ‘cool’.

As for my English identities, I am using academic English during my studies and spoken English when I am communicating with my peers. Additionally, during meetings with my Chinese friends, we use a particular register. In this case, it combines English words and Chinese structure and the flow of the speech, it can be named Chinglish. For example, we often use words ‘hey’, ‘wow’, ‘nice’, and ‘okay’.

It could be said that I do not experience difficulties while changing from one model to another. However, if I am writing an essay and communicating with my Chinese friend at the same time, I will start using a majority of English words while having a conversation or making some mistakes in spelling due to the lack of concentration. However, usually, I do not have trouble in changing languages, identities, and registers quickly, as I can adapt rapidly to the new situation.

It has to be mentioned that it is easier for me to change my registers in the Chinese language, as it is my mother tongue. I do not experience difficulties distinguishing between social situations and rarely make code related mistakes. In English, these errors might occur due to a lack of proficiency and confidence.

However, it is important to analyze the behavior with the help of the social construction theory and autoethnography. Autoethnography is chosen as a primary method, as it provides the insides of the culture and explores the researcher’s personal experience related to cultural understanding and identity (Fong and Chuang 71).

It could be said that I, as a Chinese speaker, has multiple dialects due to Chinese social norms and customs. Furthermore, older people are considered as the most respected and wise members of society (O’Neill 20). It could be said that it is a cultural significance to respect and cherish traditions and values. It is the primary reason for me speaking dialects with my grandparents.

Speaking of social construction, it could be said that an object is socially constructed if it is “dependent on contingent values of our social selves” (Boghossian 6). Language dialects and registers cannot exist apart from society and cannot be generated and created without social contact. In construction theory, knowledge is formed by the interactions between different members of the community (Andrews 40).

In the case presented above, the consistency of the culture with the society could be discovered. As the presence of Chinese and English registers occurred due to the necessity to establish relationships with other participants of collaboration. Moreover, as the contributors belong to different social groups and classes, new adaptations of the common language have to be introduced to meet the quality perceptions of each party. Furthermore, the presence of hierarchy is a vital aspect of society. In this case, one of the examples is using the Chinese dialect to show respect to the elderly. As for English, the utilization of academic English indicates a priority of the study institution and a student’s respect for traditional academic English.

In conclusion, it could be said that there is a strong connection between language identity and culture. Moreover, the interdependence between these two phenomena was discovered in this essay. Additionally, understanding the presence of linguistic registers helps a speaker see a plethora of language forms. The analysis of the language patterns and registers revealed a strong dependence of language on the cultural norms and traditions. Social construction and autoethnography were used to evaluate the findings and show the subjectivity of the language registers. Social construction discovered an impossibility of communication to exist apart from society.

Works Cited

Andrews, Tom. “What is Social Constructionism?” Grounded Theory Review 11.1 (2012): 39-46. Print.

Boghossian, Paul 2001. “What is Social Construction?” The Times Literary Supplement . 2001: 6-8. Print.

Finegan, Edward. Language: Its structure and use . Stamford: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print.

Fong, Mary and Rueyling Chuang. Communicating Ethic and Cultural Identity . Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2004. Print.

O’Neill, Patricia. Caring for the Older Adult: A Health Promotion Perspective . Philadelphia: Saunders, 2002. Print.

Sheela, Samula. “Language Influence over Culture.” Review of Research 3.7 (2014): 1-3. Print.

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IvyPanda. (2021, April 20). Linguistic Repertoire: Language Identity and Culture.

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Introduction Sociology is done mostly from the positivist perspective, where there is a growing practice of interpretive research. In anthropology, most data collection is done by interpretivist approach, in which fieldworkers who go out, listen and watch, take notes, and bring all the data home. We discussed and understood the methods used in sociology, as well as the methods of cultural anthropology, and how they differ in terms of their approach and process. These methods are all utilized by sociologists and anthropologists to further understand the roots of social sciences.

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RE; MY VIEW ON BILINGUAL/ELL EDUCATION Bilingual education entails teaching academic content in two different languages. One of which is a native and a learned language. The two languages are taught in variance to each other and, in accordance, with the model of the program.

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  • Published: 12 April 2023

Remodeling effects of linguistic features on L2 writing quality of two genres

  • Xiaopeng Zhang   ORCID: 1 &
  • Wenwen Li 2  

Reading and Writing ( 2023 ) Cite this article

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This study modeled the effects of essay length and language features on the rated quality of second language (L2) expository and argumentative essays composed by Chinese university students. Latent variables were writing quality captured by essay scores, and lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity and cohesion, each of which was measured by different linguistic features in the essays. Results showed that, (i) essay length, sophisticated words (i.e., words eliciting longer lexical decision times, and used in academic texts), complex nominals and coordinate phrases could account for approximately 45% of the variance in the scores of argumentative essays, and (ii) essay length, sophisticated words (i.e., academic words, words used in restricted context, and words that have fewer orthographic neighbors), complex nominals, coordinate phrases and word type-token ratio could explain approximately 49% of the variance in the scores of expository essays. Such findings indicate that, although differing in genre, raters tended to give higher scores to the essays of two genres that contained more sophisticated words, complex phrases, and distinct types of words.

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linguistic background essay

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This study was supported by the National Social Science Foundation of China (GRANT NUMBER: 20BYY084).

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Linguistic Autobiography

My family is currently living in America and before we moved to U.S.A, we lived in Germany which is our home country.  When we came to U.S.A twenty years ago, we faced communication problems because most of our family members could not speak the English language. Since we were unable to speak English, my siblings and I faced myriad challenges and we could not even socialize with people in the neighbor hood. Our parents were able to speak English and they always helped us in interpreting some things.

In order for us to cope with the social and cultural conditions in America, we had to learn English as soon as possible. My parents enrolled me in one of the American grammar schools. It is from this school that I developed the interest of learning English as my second language. After learning a few skills in English, I joined one the elementary schools in California. Coping with education system in this school was initially very challenging to me. This is because I had only learned a few concepts in the English language and I could not understand the most of the concepts that were taught in class.

I found participating in class even more challenging since my colleagues could laugh at me whenever I made some mistakes. I took this challenge positively and I kept on consulting my instructors and fellow students on how to answer questions correctly in English. Unlike other foreign students who avoided socializing with native students, I forged good relationships with them. This helped me to learn very quickly and after the end of the first semester I was able to speak and write fairly good English. My interest in learning English continued as I continued with my studies.

When I joined high school I was now able to speak good English just like other native students. This motivated me to learn more about English. While in high school, I spend most of my free time studying English grammar and its usage. When I graduated from high school got very good grades in English. I then applied for a scholarship at California State University, and I luckily secured a scholarship to pursue a course in teaching English.

I pursued my linguistics course for four years and during this program I learnt a lot about the process of learning and teaching English as a second language. One of the key things I learnt was the teaching approaches that could be applied in teaching a second language to foreign individuals. These skills became very important to me when I went for my attachment to teach foreign students English. During my three months attachment, I was able to transform many students negative attitude toward learning English as a second language. I used my personal experience to encourage and teach them how to write and speak English.

Social, emotional and linguistic factors always influence the capacity of an individual to learn a second language. The social environment within which a person operates will definitely influence his ability to learn a new language. For example, the learning environment in America encouraged me to learn English. This is because there was no other language used for teaching hence I had to learn English in order to cope with my studies. I also had to socialize with my friends and this could only happen if I new how to speak English.

Emotional factors also influence the ability to learn a new language especially when an individual feels that the second language, English, is more superior to his first language. People who are learning new languages should be given enough psychological support (Lightbown, 2006). This can be done through encouraging them to continue learning the new language (Brown, 2007). They should also be given enough time to learn new skills. “Krashen’s theory of language acquisition states that adults develop competences in second language acquisition by using language for real communication” (Vanpattern, 2006). The input hypothesis of the theory states that “humans acquire language in only one way – by understanding messages or by receiving comprehensible input” (Ellis, 2008).

Cultural diversity is important in a classroom environment because it enables learners to share their social and cultural experiences. This enables learners to acquire more information because they can learn from their colleagues who come from different cultural backgrounds. By accepting each others cultural background, learners can have a better understanding of each other, hence they can learn peacefully. Cultural diversity might however negatively affect learning especially in a situation whereby some learners feel that their culture is more superior. This might make them look down upon some of their colleagues.

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  20. Remodeling effects of linguistic features on L2 writing ...

    This study modeled the effects of essay length and language features on the rated quality of second language (L2) expository and argumentative essays composed by Chinese university students. Latent variables were writing quality captured by essay scores, and lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity and cohesion, each of which was measured by different linguistic features in the essays ...

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