What is the Internet of Things?

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Does your house have a smart thermostat? Or do you wear a fitness tracker to help you stay physically active? If you do, you are part of the Internet of Things, or IoT. It’s become embedded in our lives, as well as in the way organizations operate.

IoT uses a variety of technologies to connect the digital and physical worlds. Physical objects are embedded with sensors—which can monitor things like temperature or motion, or really any change in environment—and actuators—which receive signals from sensors and then do something in response to those changes. The sensors and actuators communicate via wired (for example, Ethernet) or wireless (for example, WiFi, cellular) networks with computing systems that can monitor or manage the health and actions of connected objects and machines.

The physical objects being monitored don’t have to be manufactured—they can include objects in nature, as well as people and animals. While some organizations might view IoT more expansively, our definition excludes systems in which all the embedded sensors are used just to receive intentional human input, such as smartphone apps, which receive data input primarily through a touchscreen, or other networked computer software, in which the sensors consist of a standard keyboard and mouse.

The constant connectivity that IoT enables, combined with data and analytics, provides new opportunities for companies to innovate products and services, as well as to increase the efficiency of operations. Indeed, IoT has emerged  as one of the most significant trends in the digital transformation of business and the economy since the 2010s.

What are some IoT applications?

Looking at IoT applications, which are sometimes described as use cases, can help ground the discussion about what IoT is. Broadly, IoT applications occur in one of nine settings .

  • Human health. Devices can be attached to or inserted inside the human body, including wearable or ingestible devices that monitor or maintain health and wellness , assist in managing diseases such as diabetes, and more.
  • Home. Homeowners can install devices such as home voice assistants, automated vacuums , or security systems.
  • Retail environments. Devices can be installed in stores , banks, restaurants, and arenas to facilitate self-checkout, extend in-store offers, or help optimize inventory.
  • Offices. IoT applications in offices could entail energy management  or security for buildings.
  • Standardized production environments. In such settings, including manufacturing plants , hospitals, or farms, IoT applications often aim to gain operating efficiencies or optimize equipment use and inventory.
  • Custom production environments. In customized settings like those in mining, construction, or oil and gas exploration and production, IoT applications might be used in predictive maintenance  or health and safety efforts .
  • Vehicles. IoT can help with condition-based maintenance, usage-based design, or presales analytics for cars and trucks , ships, airplanes, and trains.
  • Cities. IoT applications can be used for adaptive traffic control, smart meters, environmental monitoring, or managing resources .
  • Outside. In urban environments or other outdoor settings, such as railroad tracks, autonomous vehicles, or flight navigation, IoT applications could involve real-time routing, connected navigation, or shipment tracking.

Other real-world examples abound . IoT solutions are being used in myriad settings: in refrigerators, to help restaurants optimize their food-compliance processes; in fields, to track livestock; in offices, to track how many and how often meeting rooms are used; and beyond.

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What is the economic impact of iot.

The potential value of IoT is large and growing. By 2030, we estimate it could amount to up to $12.5 trillion globally . That includes the value captured by consumers and customers of IoT products and services.

The potential economic value of IoT differs based on settings and usages, with factory settings and human health applications representing outsize shares of this total. Factory settings could generate $1.4 trillion to $3.3 trillion by 2030, or just over a quarter of the total value potential. IoT economic impact in human health settings could reach around 14 percent of the total estimated value.

Another way of looking at IoT’s value is to explore use-case clusters  (similar uses adapted to different settings). Some of the most common use cases account for a sizable share of IoT’s potential economic value:

  • operations optimization, which is basically making the various day-to-day management of assets and people more efficient (41 percent)
  • health (15 percent)
  • human productivity (15 percent)
  • condition-based maintenance (12 percent)

Other clusters include sales enablement, energy management, autonomous vehicles (the fastest-growing cluster), and safety and security.

What are IoT platforms?

To get value from IoT, it helps to have a platform  to create and manage applications, to run analytics, and to store and secure your data. Essentially, these platforms do a lot of things in the background to make life easier and less expensive for developers, managers, and users—in much the same way as an operating system for a laptop. They handle issues like connecting and extracting data from many different endpoints, which might be in inconvenient locations with spotty connectivity.

If you are trying to choose an IoT platform, you’ll need a good understanding of your company’s IoT strategy. Here are five characteristics to consider when evaluating IoT platforms :

  • Applications environment. Here, you might examine questions like: Can the platform develop, test, and maintain multiple applications? Can it connect easily to the applications your company already uses, for example, for enterprise resource planning?
  • Data management. When weighing this element, it’s helpful to understand if the platform can structure and join multiple unfamiliar data sets, for example.
  • Ownership of cloud infrastructure. Does the infrastructure provider own and operate its own data centers, or which public cloud provider does it use? (See “ What is cloud computing? ” for even more on this topic.)
  • Security. What commercial-grade authentication, encryption, and monitoring capability does the platform have, and are they distinctive?
  • Edge processing and control. Here, you could examine whether the platform can do edge analytics, without first bringing data into the cloud, or whether it can be easily configured to control local assets without human intervention.

What should I know about IoT security?

The billions of IoT devices in use have naturally created new vulnerabilities for companies. As more “things” get connected, the number of ways to attack them mushrooms. Pre-IoT, a large corporate network might have needed to account for 50,000 to 500,000 endpoints being vulnerable to attack, while the IoT may involve a network with millions or tens of millions of these endpoints. Promoting cybersecurity , therefore, is crucial in the IoT era.

It’s important to address customer privacy concerns  vis-à-vis connected devices. But managing IoT cybersecurity  is also about protecting critical equipment, such as pacemakers or entire manufacturing plants—which, if attacked, could put your customers’ health or your company’s total production capability at risk.

Six recommendations or actions could help CEOs and other leaders tackling IoT cybersecurity:

  • understand what IoT security will mean for your industry and business model
  • set clear roles and responsibilities for IoT security in your supply chain
  • hold strategic conversations with regulators and collaborate with other industry players
  • view cybersecurity as a priority for the entire product life cycle, and develop skills to achieve it
  • transform mindsets and skills rigorously
  • create a point-of-contact system for external security researchers and implement a postbreach response plan

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What is IIoT?

The Industrial Internet of Things , or IIoT, is among the advanced manufacturing technologies collectively referred to is Industry 4.0 , or the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

What are some benefits of IIoT? It can drastically reduce downtime, open up new business models, and improve customer experience—and it can also make organizations more resilient. In the COVID-19 era, for example, digital management tools and constant connectivity allowed some companies to react to market changes swiftly and efficiently by quickly adjusting production capacity and simultaneously supporting remote operations.

Companies using IIoT for digital transformation in manufacturing can follow seven guideposts to align their business, organization, and technology spheres and help leaders successfully position their organizations to reap the full benefits from IIoT:

  • identify and prioritize use cases
  • focus on plant rollout and enablement
  • Organization
  • keep an eye on change and performance management
  • build capabilities and embrace new ways of working
  • attend to IIoT and data infrastructure, with a focus on core platform design, including IT/OT (information technology/operational technology) cybersecurity
  • choose an IIoT platform given the cloud imperative in manufacturing
  • watch the tech ecosystem

What do I need to know about Internet of Things B2B uses?

Internet of Things B2B solutions account for the majority of economic value created from IoT to date. In B2B settings, for example, marrying IoT and AI can improve the predictive-maintenance capabilities of machines, while also empowering service providers to watch the health of their assets in real time, proactively addressing issues before a bigger breakdown occurs.

B2C applications have grown faster than expected, particularly given the adoption of home-automation solutions. However, through 2030, B2B applications are projected to nonetheless account for 62 to 65 percent of total IoT value .

What dynamics could affect IoT adoption?

When it comes to getting more value from IoT, there are tailwinds as well as headwinds that will affect IoT adoption.

Three factors could accelerate the adoption of and impact from IoT solutions:

  • The perceived value proposition. Customers see value in IoT, and the way it enables digital transformation and sustainability efforts—as evidenced by the $1.6 trillion in economic value generated from IoT solutions in 2020.
  • Technology. Affordable technology, which enables IoT deployments at scale, exists for the vast majority of IoT applications. And progress in hardware can be coupled with developments in analytics, AI, and machine learning, which can enable more granular insights and faster decision making.
  • Networks. These are the backbone of IoT, and higher-performing 4G and 5G networks are now available to more people.

Conversely, a variety of factors could constrain adoption. These include the need for change management (capturing value at scale will require collaboration across functions to encourage new behaviors), interoperability issues, and installation challenges, as well as concerns about cybersecurity  and individual privacy.

If your organization is just getting started, it can be helpful to consider what could accelerate enterprise IoT journeys . An interview with Wienke Giezeman, a serial tech entrepreneur and initiator of The Things Network, offers insight on what can drive action: “We’ve seen this in the industry again and again—you cannot solve IoT problems with money. It’s so tempting to try to solve these problems with cash, but really, it’s the creativity and pushing for simplicity that leads to the solution, which shouldn’t be so complicated.”

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Is there value in scaling IoT efforts?

To really see the benefits of IoT, companies must embrace the technology at scale, instead of making one-off efforts. If your organization is adopting IoT, here are seven useful actions for scaling IoT :

  • decide who owns IoT in the organization
  • design for scale from the start
  • don’t dip your toe in the water—deploying multiple use cases can be a forcing mechanism in transforming operating models, workflows, and processes
  • invest in technical talent
  • change the entire organization, not just the IT function
  • push for interoperability
  • proactively shape your environment by building and controlling IoT ecosystems

For more in-depth exploration of these topics, see McKinsey’s Insights on the Internet of Things . Learn more about IoT consulting —and check out IoT-related job opportunities if you’re interested in working at McKinsey.

Articles referenced include:

  • “ IoT comes of age ,” March 7, 2022, Michael Chui  and Mark Collins
  • “ IoT value set to accelerate through 2030: Where and how to capture it ,” November 9, 2021, Michael Chui , Mark Collins , and Mark Patel
  • “ A manufacturer’s guide to scaling Industrial IoT ,” February 5, 2021, Andreas Behrendt , Enno de Boer , Tarek Kasah, Bodo Koerber , Niko Mohr , and Gérard Richter  
  • “ Industry 4.0 adoption with the right focus ,” October21, 2021, Matteo Mancini , Gustavo Marteletti , Alpesh Patel , Laura Requeno , and Tingfeng Ye
  • “ From defense to offense: Digital B2B services in the next normal ,” August 28, 2020, Guy Benjamin, Markus Forsgren , and Nicolas Guzman

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What is cloud computing?

What is the Internet of Things?

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The Internet of Things is a key part of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Image:  Unsplash/HalGatewood.com

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Stay up to date:, emerging technologies.

  • From fitness trackers to smart heating systems, the Internet of Things (IoT) describes the growing network of internet-enabled devices.
  • It's also enabling smart cities and, in future, driverless cars.
  • Along with other emerging technologies such as AI, the IoT is part of the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
  • COVID-19 has accelerated the use of IoT technologies, but questions around governance remain.

From soil moisture sensors being used to optimize farmer's yields, to thermostats and thermometers, the Internet of Things (IoT) is transforming the way we live and work.

Billions of networked 'smart' physical objects around the world, on city streets, in homes and hospitals, are constantly collecting and sharing data across the internet, giving them a level of digital intelligence and autonomy.

Around a quarter of businesses were using IoT technologies in 2019, according to McKinsey, up from 13% in 2014.

And already, there are more connected devices than people in the world, according to the World Economic Forum's State of the Connected World report, and it is predicted that by 2025, 41.6 billion devices will be capturing data on how we live, work, move through our cities and operate and maintain the machines on which we depend.

The digital transformation that is taking place due to emerging technologies, including robotics, the IoT and artificial intelligence, is known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution - and COVID-19 has accelerated the use of these technologies.

IoT connections growth rate.

The World Economic Forum was the first to draw the world’s attention to the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the current period of unprecedented change driven by rapid technological advances. Policies, norms and regulations have not been able to keep up with the pace of innovation, creating a growing need to fill this gap.

The Forum established the Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Network in 2017 to ensure that new and emerging technologies will help—not harm—humanity in the future. Headquartered in San Francisco, the network launched centres in China, India and Japan in 2018 and is rapidly establishing locally-run Affiliate Centres in many countries around the world.

The global network is working closely with partners from government, business, academia and civil society to co-design and pilot agile frameworks for governing new and emerging technologies, including artificial intelligence (AI) , autonomous vehicles , blockchain , data policy , digital trade , drones , internet of things (IoT) , precision medicine and environmental innovations .

Learn more about the groundbreaking work that the Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Network is doing to prepare us for the future.

Want to help us shape the Fourth Industrial Revolution? Contact us to find out how you can become a member or partner.

A brief history of the IoT

The concept of adding sensors and intelligence to physical objects was first discussed in the 1980s, when some university students decided to modify a Coca-Cola vending machine to track its contents remotely. But the technology was bulky and progress was limited.

The term ‘Internet of Things’ was coined in 1999 by the computer scientist Kevin Ashton. While working at Procter & Gamble, Ashton proposed putting radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips on products to track them through a supply chain.

He reportedly worked the then-buzzword ‘internet’ into his proposal to get the executives’ attention. And the phrase stuck.

Over the next decade, public interest in IoT technology began to take off, as more and more connected devices came to market.

In 2000, LG announced the first smart refrigerator, in 2007 the first iPhone was launched and by 2008, the number of connected devices exceeded the number of people on the planet.

In 2009, Google started testing driverless cars and in 2011, Google's Nest smart thermostat hit the market, which allowed remote control of central heating.

Everyday uses

Connected devices fall into three domains: consumer IoT, such as wearables, enterprise IoT, which includes smart factories and precision agriculture, and public spaces IoT, such as waste management.

Businesses use IoT to optimize their supply chains, manage inventory and improve customer experience, while smart consumer devices such as the Amazon Echo speaker, are now ubiquitous in homes due to the prevalence of low-cost and low-power sensors.

Cities have been deploying IoT technology for more than a decade - to streamline everything from water meter readings to traffic flow.

"In New York City, for example, every single building (so more than 817,000) was retrofitted with a wireless water meter, starting back in 2008, which replaced the manual system where you had to walk up to a meter read the numbers and generate bills that way," says Jeff Merritt, the World Economic Forum's head of IoT and Urban Transformation.

"Many cities now leverage license plate readers, traffic counters, red light cameras, radiation sensors and surveillance cameras to manage day-to-day operations."

a diagram of the Internet of Things

In medicine, the IoT can help improve healthcare through real-time remote patient monitoring, robotic surgery and devices such as smart inhalers.

In the past 12 months, the role of the IoT in the COVID-19 pandemic has been invaluable.

"IoT applications such as connected thermal cameras, contact tracing devices and health-monitoring wearables are providing critical data needed to help fight the disease, while temperature sensors and parcel tracking will help ensure that sensitive COVID-19 vaccines are distributed safely," according to the Forum's State of the Connected World report.

Beyond healthcare, IoT has helped make COVID disrupted supply chains more resilient, automated activities in warehouses and on factory floors to help promote social distancing and provided safe remote access to industrial machines.

The future of IoT

The range of potential IoT applications is " limited only by the human imagination " - and many of these applications can benefit the planet, as well as its people.

A 2018 analysis of more than 640 IoT deployments, led by the World Economic Forum in collaboration with research firm IoT Analytics, showed that 84% of existing IoT deployments address, or have the power to advance, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals.

These include promoting more efficient use of natural resources, building better, fairer “smart cities”, and developing clean, affordable energy alternatives.

IoT smart roads that connect with self-driving cars could improve driver safety and optimize traffic flow, potentially reducing the average commute time by 30 minutes . Emergency responder times could also be cut significantly.

Real-time crime mapping and predictive policing tools could also help prevent crime. McKinsey estimates that using data to deploy scarce resources more effectively could save 300 lives a year in a city with the population and profile of Rio de Janeiro.

Weighing the risks

But for all the benefits, IoT technologies can also be misused and risks include security and privacy issues, cybercrime, surveillance at work, home or in public spaces and control of mobility and expression.

Key differences between IoT and traditional digital systems in safety and security.

The Forum's State of the Connected World report identifies a 'governance gap' that needs to be closed between the potential risks and society’s efforts to safeguard against them through laws, industry standards and self-governance approaches.

"Effective technology governance mitigates risks and reduces the potential harms to society while also helping to maximize the technology’s positive impacts."

Industry leaders will come together from April 6-7 for the World Economic Forum's Global Technology Governance Summit , which is dedicated to ensuring the responsible design and deployment of emerging technologies through public-private collaboration.

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World Economic Forum articles may be republished in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License, and in accordance with our Terms of Use.

The views expressed in this article are those of the author alone and not the World Economic Forum.

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  • Survey Paper
  • Open access
  • Published: 09 December 2019

Internet of Things is a revolutionary approach for future technology enhancement: a review

  • Sachin Kumar   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-3949-0302 1 ,
  • Prayag Tiwari 2 &
  • Mikhail Zymbler 1  

Journal of Big Data volume  6 , Article number:  111 ( 2019 ) Cite this article

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Internet of Things (IoT) is a new paradigm that has changed the traditional way of living into a high tech life style. Smart city, smart homes, pollution control, energy saving, smart transportation, smart industries are such transformations due to IoT. A lot of crucial research studies and investigations have been done in order to enhance the technology through IoT. However, there are still a lot of challenges and issues that need to be addressed to achieve the full potential of IoT. These challenges and issues must be considered from various aspects of IoT such as applications, challenges, enabling technologies, social and environmental impacts etc. The main goal of this review article is to provide a detailed discussion from both technological and social perspective. The article discusses different challenges and key issues of IoT, architecture and important application domains. Also, the article bring into light the existing literature and illustrated their contribution in different aspects of IoT. Moreover, the importance of big data and its analysis with respect to IoT has been discussed. This article would help the readers and researcher to understand the IoT and its applicability to the real world.


The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging paradigm that enables the communication between electronic devices and sensors through the internet in order to facilitate our lives. IoT use smart devices and internet to provide innovative solutions to various challenges and issues related to various business, governmental and public/private industries across the world [ 1 ]. IoT is progressively becoming an important aspect of our life that can be sensed everywhere around us. In whole, IoT is an innovation that puts together extensive variety of smart systems, frameworks and intelligent devices and sensors (Fig.  1 ). Moreover, it takes advantage of quantum and nanotechnology in terms of storage, sensing and processing speed which were not conceivable beforehand [ 2 ]. Extensive research studies have been done and available in terms of scientific articles, press reports both on internet and in the form of printed materials to illustrate the potential effectiveness and applicability of IoT transformations. It could be utilized as a preparatory work before making novel innovative business plans while considering the security, assurance and interoperability.

figure 1

General architecture of IoT

A great transformation can be observed in our daily routine life along with the increasing involvement of IoT devices and technology. One such development of IoT is the concept of Smart Home Systems (SHS) and appliances that consist of internet based devices, automation system for homes and reliable energy management system [ 3 ]. Besides, another important achievement of IoT is Smart Health Sensing system (SHSS). SHSS incorporates small intelligent equipment and devices to support the health of the human being. These devices can be used both indoors and outdoors to check and monitor the different health issues and fitness level or the amount of calories burned in the fitness center etc. Also, it is being used to monitor the critical health conditions in the hospitals and trauma centers as well. Hence, it has changed the entire scenario of the medical domain by facilitating it with high technology and smart devices [ 4 , 5 ]. Moreover, IoT developers and researchers are actively involved to uplift the life style of the disabled and senior age group people. IoT has shown a drastic performance in this area and has provided a new direction for the normal life of such people. As these devices and equipment are very cost effective in terms of development cost and easily available within a normal price range, hence most of the people are availing them [ 6 ]. Thanks to IoT, as they can live a normal life. Another important aspect of our life is transportation. IoT has brought up some new advancements to make it more efficient, comfortable and reliable. Intelligent sensors, drone devices are now controlling the traffic at different signalized intersections across major cities. In addition, vehicles are being launched in markets with pre-installed sensing devices that are able to sense the upcoming heavy traffic congestions on the map and may suggest you another route with low traffic congestion [ 7 ]. Therefore IoT has a lot to serve in various aspects of life and technology. We may conclude that IoT has a lot of scope both in terms of technology enhancement and facilitate the humankind.

IoT has also shown its importance and potential in the economic and industrial growth of a developing region. Also, in trade and stock exchange market, it is being considered as a revolutionary step. However, security of data and information is an important concern and highly desirable, which is a major challenging issue to deal with [ 5 ]. Internet being a largest source of security threats and cyber-attacks has opened the various doors for hackers and thus made the data and information insecure. However, IoT is committed to provide the best possible solutions to deal with security issues of data and information. Hence, the most important concern of IoT in trade and economy is security. Therefore, the development of a secure path for collaboration between social networks and privacy concerns is a hot topic in IoT and IoT developers are working hard for this.

The remaining part of the article is organized as follows: “ Literature survey ” section will provide state of art on important studies that addressed various challenges and issues in IoT. “ IoT architecture and technologies ” section discussed the IoT functional blocks, architecture in detail. In “ Major key issues and challenges of IoT ” section, important key issues and challenges of IoT is discussed. “ Major IoT applications ” section provides emerging application domains of IoT. In “ Importance of big data analytics in IoT ” section, the role and importance of big data and its analysis is discussed. Finally, the article concluded in “ Conclusions ” section.

Literature survey

IoT has a multidisciplinary vision to provide its benefit to several domains such as environmental, industrial, public/private, medical, transportation etc. Different researchers have explained the IoT differently with respect to specific interests and aspects. The potential and power of IoT can be seen in several application domains. Figure  2 illustrates few of the application domains of IoTs potentials.

figure 2

Some of the potential application domains of IoT

Various important IoT projects have taken charge over the market in last few years. Some of the important IoT projects that have captured most of the market are shown in Fig.  3 . In Fig.  3 , a global distribution of these IoT projects is shown among American, European and Asia/Pacific region. It can be seen that American continent are contributing more in the health care and smart supply chain projects whereas contribution of European continent is more in the smart city projects [ 8 ].

figure 3

Global distribution of IoT projects among America (USA, South America and Canada), Europe and APAC (Asia and Pacific region) [ 8 ]

Figure  4 , illustrates the global market share of IoT projects worldwide [ 8 ]. It is evident that industry, smart city, smart energy and smart vehicle based IoT projects have a big market share in comparison to others.

figure 4

Global share of IoT projects across the world [ 8 ]

Smart city is one of the trendy application areas of IoT that incorporates smart homes as well. Smart home consists of IoT enabled home appliances, air-conditioning/heating system, television, audio/video streaming devices, and security systems which are communicating with each other in order to provide best comfort, security and reduced energy consumption. All this communication takes place through IoT based central control unit using Internet. The concept of smart city gained popularity in the last decade and attracted a lot of research activities [ 9 ]. The smart home business economy is about to cross the 100 billion dollars by 2022 [ 10 ]. Smart home does not only provide the in-house comfort but also benefits the house owner in cost cutting in several aspects i.e. low energy consumption will results in comparatively lower electricity bill. Besides smart homes, another category that comes within smart city is smart vehicles. Modern cars are equipped with intelligent devices and sensors that control most of the components from the headlights of the car to the engine [ 11 ]. The IoT is committed towards developing a new smart car systems that incorporates wireless communication between car-to-car and car-to-driver to ensure predictive maintenance with comfortable and safe driving experience [ 12 ].

Khajenasiri et al. [ 10 ] performed a survey on the IoT solutions for smart energy control to benefit the smart city applications. They stated that at present IoT has been deployed in very few application areas to serve the technology and people. The scope of IoT is very wide and in near future IoT is able to capture almost all application areas. They mentioned that energy saving is one of the important part of the society and IoT can assist in developing a smart energy control system that will save both energy and money. They described an IoT architecture with respect to smart city concept. The authors also discussed that one of the challenging task in achieving this is the immaturity of IoT hardware and software. They suggested that these issues must be resolved to ensure a reliable, efficient and user friendly IoT system.

Alavi et al. [ 13 ] addressed the urbanization issue in the cities. The movement of people from rural to urban atmosphere resulting in growing population of the cities. Therefore, there is a need to provide smart solutions for mobility, energy, healthcare and infrastructure. Smart city is one of the important application areas for IoT developers. It explores several issues such as traffic management, air quality management, public safety solutions, smart parking, smart lightning and smart waste collection (Fig.  5 ). They mentioned that IoT is working hard to tackle these challenging issues. The need for improved smart city infrastructure with growing urbanization has opened the doors for entrepreneurs in the field of smart city technologies. The authors concluded that IoT enabled technology is very important for the development of sustainable smart cities.

figure 5

Potential IoT application areas for smart cities

Another important issue of IoT that requires attention and a lot of research is security and privacy. Weber [ 14 ] focused on these issues and suggested that a private organization availing IoT must incorporate data authentication, access control, resilience to attacks and client privacy into their business activities that would be an additional advantage. Weber suggested that in order to define global security and privacy issues, IoT developers must take into account the geographical limitations of the different countries. A generic framework needs to be designed to fit the global needs in terms of privacy and security. It is highly recommended to investigate and recognize the issues and challenges in privacy and security before developing the full fledge working IoT framework.

Later, Heer et al. [ 15 ] came up with a security issue in IP based IoT system. They mentioned that internet is backbone for the communication among devices that takes place in an IoT system. Therefore, security issues in IP based IoT systems are an important concern. In addition, security architecture should be designed considering the life cycle and capabilities of any object in the IoT system. It also includes the involvement of the trusted third party and the security protocols. The security architecture with scalability potential to serve the small-scale to large-scale things in IoT is highly desirable. The study pointed out that IoT gave rise to a new way of communication among several things across the network therefore traditional end to end internet protocol are not able to provide required support to this communication. Therefore, new protocols must be designed considering the translations at the gateways to ensure end-to-end security. Moreover, all the layers responsible for communication has their own security issues and requirements. Therefore, satisfying the requirements for one particular layers will leave the system into a vulnerable state and security should be ensured for all the layers.

Authentication and access control is another issue in IoT that needs promising solutions to strengthen the security. Liu et al. [ 16 ] brought up a solution to handle authentication and access control. Authentication is very important to verify the communicating parties to prevent the loss of confidential information. Liu et al. [ 16 ] provided an authentication scheme based on Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem and verified it on different security threats i.e. eavesdropping, man-in-the-middle attack, key control and replay attack. They claimed that there proposed schemes are able to provide better authentication and access control in IoT based communication. Later, Kothmayr et al. [ 17 ] proposed a two-way authentication scheme based of datagram transport layer security (DTLS) for IoT. The attackers over the internet are always active to steal the secured information. The proposed approach are able to provide message security, integrity, authenticity and confidentiality, memory overhead and end-to-end latency in the IoT based communication network.

Li et al. [ 18 ] proposed a dynamic approach for data centric IoT applications with respect to cloud platforms. The need of an appropriate device, software configuration and infrastructure requires efficient solutions to support massive amount of IoT applications that are running on cloud platforms. IoT developers and researchers are actively engaged in developing solutions considering both massive platforms and heterogeneous nature of IoT objects and devices. Olivier et al. [ 19 ] explained the concept of software defined networking (SDN) based architecture that performs well even if a well-defined architecture is not available. They proposed that SDN based security architecture is more flexible and efficient for IoT.

Luk et al. [ 20 ] stated that the main task of a secure sensor network (SSN) is to provide data privacy, protection from replay attacks and authentication. They discussed two popular SSN services namely TinySec [ 21 ] and ZigBee [ 22 ]. They mentioned that although both the SSN services are efficient and reliable, however, ZigBee is comparatively provides higher security but consumes high energy whereas TinySec consumes low energy but not as highly secured as ZigBee. They proposed another architecture MiniSec to support high security and low energy consumption and demonstrated its performance for the Telos platform. Yan et al. [ 23 ] stated that trust management is an important issue in IoT. Trust management helps people to understand and trust IoT services and applications without worrying about uncertainty issues and risks [ 24 ]. They investigated different issues in trust management and discussed its importance with respect to IoT developers and users.

Noura et al. [ 25 ] stated the importance of interoperability in IoT as it allows integration of devices, services from different heterogeneous platforms to provide the efficient and reliable service. Several other studies focused on the importance of interoperability and discussed several challenges that interoperability issue is facing in IoT [ 26 , 27 , 28 ]. Kim et al. [ 29 ] addressed the issue of climate change and proposed an IoT based ecological monitoring system. They mentioned that existing approaches are time consuming and required a lot of human intervention. Also, a routine visit is required to collect the information from the sensors installed at the site under investigation. Also, some information remained missing which leads to not highly accurate analysis. Therefore, IoT based framework is able to solve this problem and can provide high accuracy in analysis and prediction. Later, Wang et al. [ 30 ] shows their concern for domestic waste water treatment. They discussed several deficiencies in the process of waste water treatment and dynamic monitoring system and suggested effective solutions based on IoT. They stated that IoT can be very effective in the waste water treatment and process monitoring.

Agriculture is one of the important domain around the world. Agriculture depends on several factors i.e. geographical, ecological etc. Qiu et al. [ 31 ] stated that technology that is being used for ecosystem control is immature with low intelligence level. They mentioned that it could be a good application area for IoT developers and researchers.

Qiu et al. [ 31 ] proposed an intelligent monitoring platform framework for facility agriculture ecosystem based on IoT that consists of four layer mechanism to manage the agriculture ecosystem. Each layer is responsible for specific task and together the framework is able to achieve a better ecosystem with reduced human intervention.

Another important concern around the world is climate change due to global warming. Fang et al. [ 32 ] introduced an integrated information system (IIS) that integrates IoT, geo-informatics, cloud computing, global positioning system (GPS), geographical information system (GIS) and e-science in order to provide an effective environmental monitoring and control system. They mentioned that the proposed IIS provides improved data collection, analysis and decision making for climate control. Air pollution is another important concern worldwide. Various tools and techniques are available to air quality measures and control. Cheng et al. [ 33 ] proposed AirCloud which is a cloud based air quality and monitoring system. They deployed AirCloud and evaluated its performance using 5 months data for the continuous duration of 2 months.

Temglit et al. [ 34 ] considered Quality of Service (QoS) as an important challenge and a complex task in evaluation and selection of IoT devices, protocols and services. QoS is very important criteria to attract and gain trust of users towards IoT services and devices. They came up with an interesting distributed QoS selection approach. This approach was based on distributed constraint optimization problem and multi-agent paradigm. Further, the approach was evaluated based on several experiments under realistic distributed environments. Another important aspect of IoT is its applicability to the environmental and agriculture standards. Talavera et al. [ 35 ] focused in this direction and presented the fundamental efforts of IoT for agro-industrial and environmental aspects in a survey study. They mentioned that the efforts of IoT in these areas are noticeable. IoT is strengthening the current technology and benefiting the farmers and society. Jara et al. [ 36 ] discussed the importance of IoT based monitoring of patients health. They suggested that IoT devices and sensors with the help of internet can assist health monitoring of patients. They also proposed a framework and protocol to achieve their objective. Table 1 provides a summary of the important studies and the direction of research with a comparison of studies on certain evaluation parameters.

IoT architecture and technologies

The IoT architecture consists of five important layers that defines all the functionalities of IoT systems. These layers are perception layer, network layer, middleware layer, application layer, business layer. At the bottom of IoT architecture, perception layer exists that consists of physical devices i.e. sensors, RFID chips, barcodes etc. and other physical objects connected in IoT network. These devices collects information in order to deliver it to the network layer. Network layer works as a transmission medium to deliver the information from perception layer to the information processing system. This transmission of information may use any wired/wireless medium along with 3G/4G, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth etc. Next level layer is known as middleware layer. The main task of this layer is to process the information received from the network layer and make decisions based on the results achieved from ubiquitous computing. Next, this processed information is used by application layer for global device management. On the top of the architecture, there is a business layer which control the overall IoT system, its applications and services. The business layer visualizes the information and statistics received from the application layer and further used this knowledge to plan future targets and strategies. Furthermore, the IoT architectures can be modified according to the need and application domain [ 19 , 20 , 37 ]. Besides layered framework, IoT system consists of several functional blocks that supports various IoT activities such as sensing mechanism, authentication and identification, control and management [ 38 ]. Figure  6 illustrates such functional blocks of IoT architecture.

figure 6

A generic function module of IoT system

There are several important functional blocks responsible for I/O operations, connectivity issues, processing, audio/video monitoring and storage management. All these functional block together incorporates an efficient IoT system which are important for optimum performance. Although, there are several reference architectures proposed with the technical specifications, but these are still far from the standard architecture that is suitable for global IoT [ 39 ]. Therefore, a suitable architecture is still needsvk to be designed that could satisfy the global IoT needs. The generic working structure of IoT system is shown in Fig.  7 . Figure  7 shows a dependency of IoT on particular application parameters. IoT gateways have an important role in IoT communication as it allows connectivity between IoT servers and IoT devices related to several applications [ 40 ].

figure 7

Working structure of IoT

Scalability, modularity, interoperability and openness are the key design issues for an efficient IoT architecture in a heterogenous environment. The IoT architecture must be designed with an objective to fulfil the requirements of cross domain interactions, multi-system integration with the potential of simple and scalable management functionalities, big data analytics and storage, and user friendly applications. Also, the architecture should be able to scaleup the functionality and add some intelligence and automation among the IoT devices in the system.

Moreover, increasing amount of massive data being generated through the communication between IoT sensors and devices is a new challenge. Therefore, an efficient architecture is required to deal with massive amount of streaming data in IoT system. Two popular IoT system architectures are cloud and fog/edge computing that supports with the handling, monitoring and analysis of huge amount of data in IoT systems. Therefore, a modern IoT architecture can be defined as a 4 stage architecture as shown in Fig.  8 .

figure 8

Four stage IoT architecture to deal with massive data

In stage 1 of the architecture, sensors and actuators plays an important role. Real world is comprised of environment, humans, animals, electronic gadgets, smart vehicles, and buildings etc. Sensors detect the signals and data flow from these real world entities and transforms into data which could further be used for analysis. Moreover, actuators is able to intervene the reality i.e. to control the temperature of the room, to slow down the vehicle speed, to turn off the music and light etc. Therefore, stage 1 assist in collecting data from real world which could be useful for further analysis. Stage 2 is responsible to collaborate with sensors and actuators along with gateways and data acquisition systems. In this stage, massive amount of data generated in stage 1 is aggregated and optimized in a structured way suitable for processing. Once the massive amount of data is aggregated and structured then it is ready to be passed to stage 3 which is edge computing. Edge computing can be defined as an open architecture in distributed fashion which allows use of IoT technologies and massive computing power from different locations worldwide. It is very powerful approach for streaming data processing and thus suitable for IoT systems. In stage 3, edge computing technologies deals with massive amount of data and provides various functionalities such as visualization, integration of data from other sources, analysis using machine learning methods etc. The last stage comprises of several important activities such as in depth processing and analysis, sending feedback to improve the precision and accuracy of the entire system. Everything at this stage will be performed on cloud server or data centre. Big data framework such as Hadoop and Spark may be utilized to handle this large streaming data and machine learning approaches can be used to develop better prediction models which could help in a more accurate and reliable IoT system to meet the demand of present time.

Major key issues and challenges of IoT

The involvement of IoT based systems in all aspects of human lives and various technologies involved in data transfer between embedded devices made it complex and gave rise to several issues and challenges. These issues are also a challenge for the IoT developers in the advanced smart tech society. As technology is growing, challenges and need for advanced IoT system is also growing. Therefore, IoT developers need to think of new issues arising and should provide solutions for them.

Security and privacy issues

One of the most important and challenging issues in the IoT is the security and privacy due to several threats, cyber attacks, risks and vulnerabilities [ 41 ]. The issues that give rise to device level privacy are insufficient authorization and authentication, insecure software, firmware, web interface and poor transport layer encryption [ 42 ]. Security and privacy issues are very important parameters to develop confidence in IoT Systems with respect to various aspects [ 43 ]. Security mechanisms must be embedded at every layer of IoT architecture to prevent security threats and attacks [ 23 ]. Several protocols are developed and efficiently deployed on every layer of communication channel to ensure the security and privacy in IoT based systems [ 44 , 45 ]. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) are one of the cryptographic protocols that are implemented between transport and application layer to provide security solutions in various IoT systems [ 44 ]. However, some IoT applications require different methods to ensure the security in communication between IoT devices. Besides this, if communication takes place using wireless technologies within the IoT system, it becomes more vulnerable to security risks. Therefore, certain methods should be deployed to detect malicious actions and for self healing or recovery. Privacy on the other hand is another important concern which allows users to feel secure and comfortable while using IoT solutions. Therefore, it is required to maintain the authorization and authentication over a secure network to establish the communication between trusted parties [ 46 ]. Another issue is the different privacy policies for different objects communicating within the IoT system. Therefore, each object should be able to verify the privacy policies of other objects in IoT system before transmitting the data.

Interoperability/standard issues

Interoperability is the feasibility to exchange the information among different IoT devices and systems. This exchange of information does not rely on the deployed software and hardware. The interoperability issue arises due to the heterogeneous nature of different technology and solutions used for IoT development. The four interoperability levels are technical, semantic, syntactic and organizational [ 47 ]. Various functionalities are being provided by IoT systems to improve the interoperability that ensures communication between different objects in a heterogeneous environment. Additionally, it is possible to merge different IoT platforms based on their functionalities to provide various solutions for IoT users [ 48 ]. Considering interoperability an important issue, researchers approved several solutions that are also know as interoperability handling approaches [ 49 ]. These solutions could be adapaters/gateways based, virtual networks/overlay based, service oriented architecture based etc. Although interoperability handling approaches ease some pressure on IoT systems but there are still certain challenges remain with interoperability that could be a scope for future studies [ 25 ].

Ethics, law and regulatory rights

Another issue for IoT developers is the ethics, law and regulatory rights. There are certain rules and regulations to maintain the standard, moral values and to prevent the people from violating them. Ethics and law are very similar term with the only difference is that ethics are standards that people believes and laws are certain restrictions decided by the government. However, both ethics and laws are designed to maintain the standard, quality and prevent people from illegal use. With the development of IoT, several real life problems are solved but it has also given rise to critical ethical and legal challenges [ 50 ]. Data security, privacy protection, trust and safety, data usability are some of those challenges. It has also been observed that majority of IoT users are supporting government norms and regulations with respect to data protection, privacy and safety due to the lack of trust in IoT devices. Therefore, this issue must be taken into consideration to maintain and improve the trust among people for the use of IoT devices and systems.

Scalability, availability and reliability

A system is scalable if it is possible to add new services, equipments and devices without degrading its performance. The main issue with IoT is to support a large number of devices with different memory, processing, storage power and bandwidth [ 28 ]. Another important issue that must be taken into consideration is the availability. Scalability and availability both should be deployed together in the layered framework of IoT. A great example of scalability is cloud based IoT systems which provide sufficient support to scale the IoT network by adding up new devices, storage and processing power as required.

However, this global distributed IoT network gives rise to a new research paradigm to develop a smooth IoT framework that satisfy global needs [ 51 ]. Another key challenge is the availability of resources to the authentic objects regardless of their location and time of the requirement. In a distributed fashion, several small IoT networks are timely attached to the global IoT platforms to utilize their resources and services. Therefore, availability is an important concern [ 52 ]. Due to the use of different data transmission channels i.e. satellite communication, some services and availability of resources may be interrupted. Therefore, an independent and reliable data transmission channel is required for uninterrupted availability of resources and services.

Quality of Service (QoS)

Quality of Service (QoS) is another important factor for IoT. QoS can be defined as a measure to evaluate the quality, efficiency and performance of IoT devices, systems and architecture [ 34 ]. The important and required QoS metrics for IoT applications are reliability, cost, energy consumption, security, availability and service time [ 53 ]. A smarter IoT ecosystem must fulfill the requirements of QoS standards. Also, to ensure the reliability of any IoT service and device, its QoS metrics must be defined first. Further, users may also be able to specifiy their needs and requirements accordingly. Several approaches can be deployed for QoS assessment, however as mentioned by White et al. [ 54 ] there is a trade-off between quality factors and approaches. Therefore, good quality models must be deployed to overcome this trade-off. There are certain good quality models available in literature such as ISO/IEC25010 [ 55 ] and OASIS-WSQM [ 56 ] which can be used to evaluate the approaches used for QoS assessment. These models provides a wide range of quality factors that is quite sufficient for QoS assessment for IoT services. Table  2 summarizes the different studies with respect to IoT key challenges and issues discussed above.

Major IoT applications

Emerging economy, environmental and health-care.

IoT is completely devoted to provide emerging public and financial benefits and development to the society and people. This includes a wide range of public facilities i.e. economic development, water quality maintenance, well-being, industrialization etc. Overall, IoT is working hard to accomplish the social, health and economic goals of United Nations advancement step. Environmental sustainability is another important concern. IoT developers must be concerned about environmental impact of the IoT systems and devices to overcome the negative impact [ 48 ]. Energy consumption by IoT devices is one of the challenges related to environmental impact. Energy consumption is increasing at a high rate due to internet enabled services and edge cutting devices. This area needs research for the development of high quality materials in order to create new IoT devices with lower energy consumption rate. Also, green technologies can be adopted to create efficient energy efficient devices for future use. It is not only environmental friendly but also advantageous for human health. Researchers and engineers are engaged in developing highly efficient IoT devices to monitor several health issues such as diabetes, obesity or depression [ 57 ]. Several issues related to environment, energy and healthcare are considered by several studies.

Smart city, transport and vehicles

IoT is transforming the traditional civil structure of the society into high tech structure with the concept of smart city, smart home and smart vehicles and transport. Rapid improvements are being done with the help of supporting technologies such as machine learning, natural language processing to understand the need and use of technology at home [ 58 ]. Various technologies such as cloud server technology, wireless sensor networks that must be used with IoT servers to provide an efficient smart city. Another important issue is to think about environmental aspect of smart city. Therefore, energy efficient technologies and Green technologies should also be considered for the design and planning of smart city infrastructure. Further, smart devices which are being incorporated into newly launched vehicles are able to detect traffic congestions on the road and thus can suggest an optimum alternate route to the driver. This can help to lower down the congestion in the city. Furthermore, smart devices with optimum cost should be designed to be incorporated in all range vehicles to monitor the activity of engine. IoT is also very effective in maintaining the vehicle’s health. Self driving cars have the potential to communicate with other self driving vehicles by the means of intelligent sensors. This would make the traffic flow smoother than human-driven cars who used to drive in a stop and go manner. This procedure will take time to be implemented all over the world. Till the time, IoT devices can help by sensing traffic congestion ahead and can take appropriate actions. Therefore, a transport manufacturing company should incorporate IoT devices into their manufactured vehicles to provide its advantage to the society.

Agriculture and industry automation

The world’s growing population is estimated to reach approximate 10 billion by 2050. Agriculture plays an important role in our lives. In order to feed such a massive population, we need to advance the current agriculture approaches. Therefore, there is a need to combine agriculture with technology so that the production can be improved in an efficient way. Greenhouse technology is one of the possible approaches in this direction. It provides a way to control the environmental parameters in order to improve the production. However, manual control of this technology is less effective, need manual efforts and cost, and results in energy loss and less production. With the advancement of IoT, smart devices and sensors makes it easier to control the climate inside the chamber and monitor the process which results in energy saving and improved production (Fig.  9 ). Automatization of industries is another advantage of IoT. IoT has been providing game changing solutions for factory digitalization, inventory management, quality control, logistics and supply chain optimization and management.

figure 9

A working structure of IoT system in agriculture production

Importance of big data analytics in IoT

An IoT system comprises of a huge number of devices and sensors that communicates with each other. With the extensive growth and expansion of IoT network, the number of these sensors and devices are increasing rapidly. These devices communicate with each other and transfer a massive amount of data over internet. This data is very huge and streaming every second and thus qualified to be called as big data. Continuous expansion of IoT based networks gives rise to complex issue such as management and collection of data, storage and processing and analytics. IoT big data framework for smart buildings is very useful to deal with several issues of smart buildings such as managing oxygen level, to measure the smoke/hazardous gases and luminosity [ 59 ]. Such framework is capable to collect the data from the sensors installed in the buildings and performs data analytics for decision making. Moreover, industrial production can be improved using an IoT based cyber physical system that is equipped with an information analysis and knowledge acquisition techniques [ 60 ]. Traffic congestion is an important issue with smart cities. The real time traffic information can be collected through IoT devices and sensors installed in traffic signals and this information can be analyzed in an IoT based traffic management system [ 61 ]. In healthcare analysis, the IoT sensors used with patients generate a lot of information about the health condition of patients every second. This large amount of information needs to be integrated at one database and must be processed in real time to take quick decision with high accuracy and big data technology is the best solution for this job [ 62 ]. IoT along with big data analytics can also help to transform the traditional approaches used in manufacturing industries into the modern one [ 63 ]. The sensing devices generates information which can be analyzed using big data approaches and may help in various decision making tasks. Furthermore, use of cloud computing and analytics can benefit the energy development and conservation with reduced cost and customer satisfaction [ 64 ]. IoT devices generate a huge amount of streaming data which needs to be stored effectively and needs further analysis for decision making in real time. Deep learning is very effective to deal with such a large information and can provide results with high accuracy [ 65 ]. Therefore, IoT, Big data analytics and Deep learning together is very important to develop a high tech society.


Recent advancements in IoT have drawn attention of researchers and developers worldwide. IoT developers and researchers are working together to extend the technology on large scale and to benefit the society to the highest possible level. However, improvements are possible only if we consider the various issues and shortcomings in the present technical approaches. In this survey article, we presented several issues and challenges that IoT developer must take into account to develop an improved model. Also, important application areas of IoT is also discussed where IoT developers and researchers are engaged. As IoT is not only providing services but also generates a huge amount of data. Hence, the importance of big data analytics is also discussed which can provide accurate decisions that could be utilized to develop an improved IoT system.

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.


Internet of Things

Quality of Service

Web of Things

Cloud of Things

Smart Home System

Smart Health Sensing System

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This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation (government order 2.7905.2017/8.9).

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Kumar, S., Tiwari, P. & Zymbler, M. Internet of Things is a revolutionary approach for future technology enhancement: a review. J Big Data 6 , 111 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40537-019-0268-2

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64 Internet of Things Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best internet of things topic ideas & essay examples, ⭐ good research topics about internet of things, 🎓 simple & easy internet of things essay titles.

  • Railway IT Systems: Internet of Things As a result of the above-mentioned cohesion between the actions of the railway operators, the inspection of the existing assets can be carried out continuously as opposed to the intermittent approach adopted previously2 In addition […]
  • Internet of Things Security in Smart Cities Among the goals of hackers in attacks on the critical IoT of smart cities, there is the intentional organization of accidents or power outages, theft of personal information of users, interception of control of devices […] We will write a custom essay specifically for you by our professional experts 808 writers online Learn More
  • The Internet of Things: Securing Embedded Code The purpose of this paper is to review some of the concerns presented in an article dedicated to embedded coding security, titled “The Internet of Things Is Wildly Insecure And Often Unpatchable,” and provide potential […]
  • Internet of Things Security: Denial-of-Service Attacks Further, since the general notion of IoT was discussed, it is possible to move on to the discussion of the structure of IoT.
  • The Internet of Things: Technical Description Arguably, the best example that would help to acquire the understanding of the IoT’s practical importance is that the technology of “smart houses” is based upon the use of the Internet of Things.
  • The Internet of Things: A Brief Research One of the best real-life examples of a company that successfully adopted the IoT and made the best use of it is DHL.
  • Internet of Things in a Work of an Urban Planning Specialist Due to the fact that urban planning ultimately targets the experiences of urban dwellers, the internet of things and is vital to consider for a city designer.
  • Application Specific Internet of Things by Ang & Seng The purpose of this work is to prepare the summary of the article devoted to discussing the phenomenon of the IoT.
  • The Internet of Things in the Clinical Segment On the other hand, the reduction in the cost of internet access and the increase in available bandwidth has made the mass adoption of the tiny-networked computers that make up the IoT possible.
  • Security Measures for Internet of Things Devices A federated architecture can also enhance security by overcoming the security risk posed by the heterogeneity of IoT devices and protocols.
  • Food4all Firm’s Smart Sensors and the Internet of Things This report analyses how Food4all can integrate IoT and smart sensor technology in the preparation, storage, packaging, and delivery of food parcels to ensure the safety and quality of their products.
  • BOK Matrix Summary of Internet of Things The objective of this paper is to discuss and understand how the internet of things has its application in transportation and logistics management.
  • Warehouse Logistics: The Use of Internet of Things The goal of this review is to analyze various methods of warehouse logistics optimization in the context of IoT implementation. One example of this is the use of sensors to monitor the activities in the […]
  • Discussion of Internet of Things Internet of Things implies connecting devices into a chain and allowing them to collect and analyze information. IoT systems operate in real-time and usually consist of some “smart” devices and cloud platforms.
  • Application of the Internet of Things (IoT) in the Healthcare Industry The Internet of Things is one of the most innovative concepts implemented in diverse spheres of production, technology, sales, communication, and medicine.
  • Internet of Things Security Issues The creation of intelligent devices provoked further development in this area, which led to the emergence of the Internet of things.
  • Internet of Things for Home: Benefits and Challenges The IoT can be characterized as the unification of the virtual and real worlds with the help of many devices and sensors connected to the same network and providing interaction between machines and people.
  • Machine Learning for Internet of Things Devices Hussain et al.justify the use of ML for IoT by pointing out the vast amount of data that IoT gathers. Other recent papers, such as the one by Diedrichs et al, focus on the more […]
  • Security Attacks on the Internet of Things As such, a network layer attack is a process that aims to disrupt these network components within the IoT space. A code injection attack is defined as a process that aims to deposit malicious executable […]
  • Internet of Things and Key Security Requirements The authentication component involves the IoT system’s ability to verify users’ and devices’ identities before guaranteeing access to information from individual devices or the right to operate such devices remotely in group tasks.
  • Internet of Things Solution of Petco Moreover, the authorization of each of the employees and a clear automated distribution of powers for them is conveniently supported with the help of IoT.
  • Aspects of the Internet of Things Thus, it is essential to explore the implications for people and companies caused by the convergence of IoT, cloud computing, mobile computing, and electronic business.
  • The Internet of Things (IoT) Security The security of iOS devices is ensured primarily by maintaining the integrity of the code, verifying the authenticity of users and devices, and assigning ownership rights to users.
  • Internet of Things in Agriculture According to Chalimov, farmers can control such indicators as soil contamination, the proportion of harmful substances in the air, the level of water pollution, and many other characteristics that are crucial to address timely.
  • Principles for Building an Internet of Things Business
  • Internet of Things in Smart Retail: GPS and RFID Technologies
  • The Smart Grid as the Internet of Things Application for Energy Management
  • Economic and Policy Implications of the Internet of Things as a Market for Services
  • Cloud Internet of Things: Optimizing Energy Consumption
  • Semantics for the Internet of Things: Early Progress and Back to the Future
  • Benefits of the Internet of Things for the Construction Industry: Cost-Saving, Time Reduction, and Increase in Productivity
  • Healthcare and Consumer Electronics Industries as the Next Phase of Growth in the Internet of Things Market
  • Customer Satisfaction in the Era of the Internet of Things: A Chinese E-retailers’ Perspective
  • Configuring the Smart IOT Network Within Packet Tracer
  • Ethical Social and Legal Issues of Internet of Things: Privacy, Physical Safety, and Informed Consent
  • Connected and Smart Cars and Internet of Things
  • Government Regulation on Internet of Things: The US Privacy Act of 1974
  • The Importance of the Internet of Things in Smart Schools
  • Augmented Reality and Internet of Things: The Hottest Topics of Our Era
  • Internet of Things and Intentional Obsolescence of Devices
  • The Industrial Internet Of Things Changes Business Models In Different Manufacturing Industries
  • Fourth Industrial Revolution: How the Internet of Things Influenceson Industrial Business Relationships
  • A Comparative Study of LTE Based M M Communication Technologies for Internet of Things
  • The Internet of Things: Evolution or Revolution
  • Security on the Internet of Things: Poor Access Control and Lack of Regular Patches
  • The Internet of Things: Wireless Network of Uniquely Identifiable Connected Devices
  • Connection Between Automatic Garbage Collector Based on Internet of Things
  • Vehicle Anti-theft Tracking System, Based on Internet of Things: All-Round Active Service
  • Cisco Systems the Internet of Things: Change Everything
  • The Effects of the Internet of Things on the Field of Project Management
  • The Power of Blockchain Paired With the Internet of Things
  • History of the Internet of Things: From Coca-Cola Vending Machines to Smart Home
  • Internet of Things and Agriculture: Technology Use Cases for Smart Farming
  • A Sneak Peek on the Trending Era of the Internet of Things
  • Public Health Technology Boom: Internet of Things for Healthcare
  • Standards and Standards Organizations for the Internet of Things
  • The Core Building Blocks of an Internet of Things: Sensors, Processors, Gateways, and Applications
  • Teleoperated Robot Controlling Interface: an Internet Of Things Based Approach
  • Ocean of Things: An Internet of Things Across Large Ocean Areas
  • Forthcoming Impact of the Internet of Things: Object-Generated Content and Knowledge Sharing
  • Solutions to “Basket of Remotes” for Internet of Things: Problems With Protocols
  • Toward the G System the Dynamic Context-Aware Internet of Things for Advanced Society
  • Identifying Vulnerability and Risk Vectors for Internet of Things
  • Internet of Things: Adoption Barriers
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Essay on Internet of Things

Students are often asked to write an essay on Internet of Things in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Internet of Things

Introduction to iot.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of physical objects, such as cars, home appliances, and other items, embedded with sensors and software to connect and exchange data over the internet.

How IoT Works

IoT works by allowing objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across network infrastructure. This promotes improved efficiency and accuracy, and economic benefit.

IoT in Everyday Life

In everyday life, IoT can be found in things like smart homes where appliances are connected to the internet, or wearable fitness devices that track health data.

IoT is revolutionizing our world by making our lives more connected, efficient, and informed.

250 Words Essay on Internet of Things


The Internet of Things (IoT) is a paradigm shift that connects physical objects to the internet, allowing them to communicate with each other and with humans. This revolutionary technology has the potential to reshape our world, creating a seamless integration between the physical and digital realms.

The Concept of IoT

IoT devices, embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies, gather and exchange data, enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of information flow. These devices range from everyday household items like refrigerators and thermostats to industrial machinery. IoT is a cornerstone of smart homes, cities, healthcare, transportation, and more, transforming the way we live and work.

Benefits and Challenges

IoT offers numerous benefits such as improved efficiency, convenience, and decision-making. However, it also presents challenges, particularly concerning security and privacy. The vast amount of data generated by IoT devices can be exploited if not properly secured, raising significant privacy concerns.

The Future of IoT

The future of IoT is promising, with advancements in artificial intelligence and machine learning expected to further enhance its capabilities. However, for IoT to reach its full potential, it is crucial to address its challenges and develop robust security measures. In conclusion, IoT is not just a technological trend but a significant driver of the fourth industrial revolution, reshaping our lives and societies in profound ways.

500 Words Essay on Internet of Things

Introduction to the internet of things.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a revolutionary concept that has transformed the digital landscape. It refers to the network of physical devices, vehicles, appliances, and other objects embedded with sensors, software, and network connectivity, which allows these objects to connect and exchange data.

The Mechanism of IoT

IoT works through a simple yet effective process. Each IoT device is embedded with a sensor that collects data from the environment. This data is then sent over the internet to a specific destination, usually a cloud-based application, for processing. The processed information is used to make informed decisions, either manually or automatically. The core technologies driving IoT include embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, automation technologies, and computer networking.

Applications of IoT

IoT has a wide range of applications across various sectors. In healthcare, IoT devices like wearable fitness trackers monitor health metrics in real-time, providing valuable data for both individuals and healthcare providers. In agriculture, IoT-based smart farming systems can monitor crop fields, providing farmers with real-time analytics to enhance yield.

Smart homes, another popular application of IoT, use devices such as smart thermostats and automated lighting systems to improve energy efficiency and convenience. In industrial settings, IoT facilitates predictive maintenance, energy optimization, and improved operational efficiency.

Potential and Future of IoT

The potential for IoT is immense. As per Gartner’s prediction, there will be 25 billion connected devices by 2021, indicating a significant growth in IoT applications. The future of IoT lies in its convergence with other technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML). AI and ML can enhance the capabilities of IoT devices by enabling them to learn from the data they collect and make intelligent decisions.

Challenges and Concerns

Despite its promising potential, IoT also presents several challenges. The most significant among these is security. With billions of devices connected to the internet, the risk of cyber-attacks is high. Ensuring data privacy is another concern, as IoT devices collect vast amounts of personal data.

Interoperability is another challenge. With numerous manufacturers producing IoT devices, ensuring these devices can communicate effectively with each other is crucial. Lastly, the issue of data overload needs to be addressed. With billions of devices generating data, managing, storing, and processing this data is a significant challenge.

The Internet of Things represents a significant shift in how we interact with technology. It offers immense potential for enhancing productivity, efficiency, and convenience across various sectors. However, it also presents challenges that need to be addressed to fully realize its potential. As we continue to innovate and advance, the IoT will undoubtedly play a pivotal role in shaping our digital future.

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The Near Future of The Internet of Things (iot)

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essay internet of things

person standing in front of a screen with connection points to other devices

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a network of physical devices, vehicles, appliances and other physical objects that are embedded with sensors, software and network connectivity that allows them to collect and share data. These devices — also known as “smart objects” — can range from simple “smart home” devices like smart thermostats, to wearables like smartwatches and RFID-enabled clothing, to complex industrial machinery and transportation systems. Technologists are even envisioning entire “smart cities” predicated on IoT technologies.

IoT enables these smart devices to communicate with each other and with other internet-enabled devices, like smartphones and gateways, creating a vast network of interconnected devices that can exchange data and perform a variety of tasks autonomously. This can include everything from monitoring environmental conditions in farms, to managing traffic patterns with smart cars and other smart automotive devices, to controlling machines and processes in factories, to tracking inventory and shipments in warehouses.

The potential applications of IoT are vast and varied, and its impact is already being felt across a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, transportation, healthcare and agriculture. As the number of internet-connected devices continues to grow, IoT is likely to play an increasingly important role in shaping our world and transforming the way we live, work and interact with each other.

In an enterprise context, IoT devices are used to monitor a wide range of parameters such as temperature, humidity, air quality, energy consumption and machine performance. This data can be analyzed in real time to identify patterns, trends and anomalies that can help businesses optimize their operations and improve their bottom line.

Explore IBM Maximo to learn how IoT data, analytics and AI can help streamline your asset operations.

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IoT is important for business for several reasons. Here are the core benefits of IoT:

By using IoT devices to automate and optimize processes, businesses can improve efficiency and productivity. For example, IoT sensors can be used to monitor equipment performance and detect or even resolve potential issues before they cause downtime, reducing maintenance costs and improving uptime.

IoT devices generate vast amounts of data that can be used to make better-informed business decisions and new business models. By analyzing this data, businesses can gain insights into customer behavior, market trends and operational performance, allowing them to make more informed decisions about strategy, product development and resource allocation.

By reducing manual processes and automating repetitive tasks, IoT can help businesses reduce costs and improve profitability. For example, IoT devices can be used to monitor energy usage and optimize consumption, reducing energy costs and improving sustainability.

By using IoT technology to gather data about customer behavior, businesses can create more personalized and engaging experiences for their customers. For example, retailers can use IoT sensors to track customer movements in stores and deliver personalized offers based on their behavior.

Several technologies come together to make IoT possible.

  • Sensors and actuators: Sensors are devices that can detect changes in the environment, such as temperature, humidity, light, motion or pressure. Actuators are devices that can cause physical changes in the environment, such as opening or closing a valve or turning on a motor. These devices are at the heart of IoT, as they allow machines and devices to interact with the physical world. Automation is possible when sensors and actuators work to resolve issues without human intervention.
  • Connectivity technologies: To transmit IoT data from sensors and actuators to the cloud, IoT devices need to be connected to the internet. There are several connectivity technologies used in IoT, including Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cellular, Zigbee and LoRaWAN.
  • Cloud computing: The cloud is where the vast amounts of data generated by IoT devices are stored, processed and analyzed. Cloud computing platforms provide the infrastructure and tools needed to store and analyze this data, as well as to build and deploy IoT applications.
  • Big data analytics: To make sense of the vast amounts of data generated by IoT devices, businesses need to use advanced analytics tools to extract insights and identify patterns. These tools can include machine learning algorithms, data visualization tools and predictive analytics models.
  • Security and privacy technologies: As IoT deployments become more widespread, IoT security and privacy become increasingly important. Technologies such as encryption , access controls and intrusion detection systems are used to protect IoT devices and the data they generate from cyber threats.

In the healthcare industry, IoT devices can be used to monitor patients remotely and collect real-time data on their vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation. This sensor data can be analyzed to detect patterns and identify potential health issues before they become more serious. IoT devices can also be used to track medical equipment, manage inventory and monitor medication compliance.

Industrial IoT devices can be used in manufacturing to monitor machine performance, detect equipment failures and optimize production processes. For example, sensors can be used to monitor the temperature and humidity in an manufacturing facility, ensuring that conditions are optimal for the production of sensitive products. IoT devices can also be used to track inventory, manage supply chains and monitor the quality of finished products. Industrial IoT is such an expansive new technology space, that it is sometimes referred to by its own abbreviation: IIoT (Industrial IoT).

In the retail industry, IoT devices can be used to track customer behavior, monitor inventory levels and optimize store layouts. For example, sensors can be used to track foot traffic in a store and analyze customer behavior, allowing retailers to optimize product placement and improve the customer experience. IoT devices can also be used to monitor supply chains, track shipments and manage inventory levels.

IoT devices can be used in agriculture to monitor soil conditions, weather patterns and crop growth. For example, sensors can be used to measure the moisture content of soil, ensuring that crops are irrigated at the optimal time. IoT devices can also be used to monitor livestock health, track equipment and manage supply chains. Low-power or solar-powered devices can often be used with minimal oversight in remote locations.

In the transportation industry, IoT devices can be used to monitor vehicle performance, optimize routes and track shipments. For example, sensors can be used to monitor the fuel efficiency of connected cars, reducing fuel costs and improving sustainability. IoT devices can also be used to monitor the condition of cargo, ensuring that it arrives at its destination in optimal condition.

IoT offers many benefits, but it also poses several risks and challenges. Here are some of the most significant ones:

Security and privacy risks: As IoT devices become more widespread, security and privacy become increasingly important. Many IoT devices are vulnerable to hackers and other cyber threats, which can compromise the security and privacy of sensitive data. IoT devices can also collect vast amounts of personal data, raising concerns about privacy and data protection.

Interoperability issues: IoT devices from different manufacturers often use different standards and protocols, making it difficult for them to perform what’s called “machine to machine” communication. This can lead to interoperability issues and create silos of data that are difficult to integrate and analyze.

Data overload: IoT devices generate vast amounts of data, which can overwhelm businesses that are not prepared to handle it. Analyzing this data and extracting meaningful insights can be a significant challenge, especially for businesses that lack the necessary analytics tools and expertise.

Cost and complexity: Implementing an IoT system can be costly and complex, requiring significant investments in hardware, software and infrastructure. Managing and maintaining an IoT system can also be challenging, requiring specialized skills and expertise.

Regulatory and legal challenges: As IoT devices become more widespread, regulatory and legal challenges are emerging. Businesses need to comply with various data protection, privacy and cybersecurity regulations, which can vary from country to country.

Managing IoT devices can be a complex and challenging task, but there are several best practices that businesses can follow to ensure that their IoT devices are secure, reliable and optimized for performance. Here are some tips for managing IoT devices:

Plan your IoT strategy: Before deploying any IoT devices, businesses should have a clear understanding of their objectives, use cases and desired outcomes. This can help them choose the right devices, IoT platforms and technologies, and ensure that their IoT strategy is aligned with their business goals.

Choose secure IoT products: Security is a critical consideration for IoT solutions, as they can be vulnerable to cyber attacks. Businesses should choose devices that are designed with security in mind and implement appropriate security systems, such as encryption, authentication and access controls.

Monitor and maintain devices: IoT devices need to be monitored and maintained regularly to ensure that they are performing optimally and are not vulnerable to security threats. This can involve monitoring device health and performance, updating firmware and software and conducting regular security audits and predictive maintenance.

Manage data effectively: IoT devices generate vast amounts of real-world data, which can be challenging to manage and analyze. Businesses should have a clear data management strategy in place, including data storage, analysis and visualization, to ensure that they can extract meaningful insights from the data generated by their IoT devices.

Build an ecosystem: IoT devices are often part of a larger ecosystem that includes other devices, platforms and technologies. Businesses should have a clear understanding of this ecosystem and ensure that their IoT devices can integrate effectively with other systems and technologies.

The future of IoT is promising, with many exciting developments for businesses on the horizon. Here are some of the trends and predictions for the future of IoT:

Growth: The number of IoT devices is expected to continue growing rapidly, with estimates suggesting that there will be tens of billion IoT devices in use over the next few years. This growth will be driven by increased adoption across industries, as well as the development of new use cases and applications.

Edge computing: Edge computing is becoming increasingly important for IoT, as it allows data to be processed and analyzed closer to the source of the data, rather than in a centralized data center. This can improve response times, reduce latency and reduce the amount of data that needs to be transferred over IoT networks.

Artificial intelligence and machine learning: AI and machine learning are becoming increasingly important for IoT, as they can be used to analyze vast amounts of data generated by IoT devices and extract meaningful insights. This can help businesses make more informed decisions and optimize their operations.

Blockchain: Blockchain technology is being explored as a way to improve security and privacy in IoT. Blockchain can be used to create secure, decentralized networks for IoT devices, which can minimize data security vulnerabilities.

Sustainability: Sustainability is becoming an increasingly important consideration for IoT, as businesses look for ways to reduce their environmental impact. IoT can be used to optimize energy usage, reduce waste and improve sustainability across a range of industries.

The future of IoT is exciting, with many new developments and innovations on the horizon, with providers of devices offering attractive pricing, as the cost of IoT device production declines. As the number of IoT devices continues to grow, businesses will need to be prepared to adapt to new technologies and embrace new use cases and applications. Those that are able to do so will be well-positioned to reap the benefits of this transformative technology.

Intelligent asset management, monitoring, predictive maintenance and reliability in a single platform.

Enhance your application performance monitoring to provide the context you need to resolve incidents faster.

Compose and extend apps that take advantage of data and analytics from your connected devices and sensors.

This brewery used AI technology from IBM to improve their processes and minimize waste.

By applying Watson IoT to their manufacturing shops, L’Oreal was able to maximize flexibility, agility and product quality.

Powered by AI and IoT data, connected and intelligent assets can optimize performance, adapt to changing circumstances, and help ensure continuity.

The IoT journey has evolved over the last several years.; let's look at the four steps every organization needs to master to truly realize value from their IoT efforts.

This blog explores why data management is key to a viable IoT strategy, and how you can take the first steps in managing the data tidal wave.

Developers who want to make the most of the opportunities of IoT should foster skills across a range of key topic areas.

Unlock the full potential of your enterprise assets by using IBM Maximo Application Suite to unify maintenance, inspection and reliability systems into one platform. It’s an integrated cloud-based solution that harnesses the power of AI, IoT, and advanced analytics to maximize asset performance, extend asset lifecycles, minimize operational costs and reduce downtime.

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Introduction to Internet of Things (IoT) – Set 1

IoT stands for Internet of Things. It refers to the interconnectedness of physical devices, such as appliances and vehicles, that are embedded with software, sensors, and connectivity which enables these objects to connect and exchange data. This technology allows for the collection and sharing of data from a vast network of devices, creating opportunities for more efficient and automated systems.

Internet of Things (IoT) is the networking of physical objects that contain electronics embedded within their architecture in order to communicate and sense interactions amongst each other or with respect to the external environment. In the upcoming years, IoT-based technology will offer advanced levels of services and practically change the way people lead their daily lives. Advancements in medicine, power, gene therapies, agriculture, smart cities, and smart homes are just a few of the categorical examples where IoT is strongly established. 

IOT is a system of interrelated things, computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals, or people that are provided with unique identifiers. And the ability to transfer the data over a network requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

History of IOT

  • 1982- Vending machine
  • 1990-Toaster
  • 1999-IOT(Kevin Ashton)
  • 2000-LG Smart Fridge
  • 2004-Smart Watch
  • 2007-Smart i phone
  • 2009-Car Testing
  • 2011-Smart TV
  • 2013-Google Lens
  • 2015-Tesla autopilot

Four Key Components of IOT

  • Device or sensor
  • Connectivity
  • Data processing

IoT is network of interconnected computing devices which are embedded in everyday objects, enabling them to send and receive data.

Over 9 billion ‘Things’ (physical objects) are currently connected to the Internet, as of now. In the near future, this number is expected to rise to a whopping 20 billion. 

Main Components Used in IoT

  • Low-power embedded systems: Less battery consumption, high performance are the inverse factors that play a significant role during the design of electronic systems. 
  • Sensors: Sensors are the major part of any IoT application. It is a physical device that measures and detects certain physical quantities and converts it into signal which can be provided as an input to processing or control unit for analysis purpose.

Different types of Sensors

  • Temperature Sensors
  • Image Sensors
  • Gyro Sensors
  • Obstacle Sensors
  • MQ-02/05 Gas Sensor
  • Ultrasonic Distance Sensor
  • Control Units: It is a unit of small computer on a single integrated circuit containing microprocessor or processing core, memory and programmable input/output devices/peripherals. It is responsible for major processing work of IoT devices and all logical operations are carried out here.
  • Cloud computing: Data collected through IoT devices is massive, and this data has to be stored on a reliable storage server. This is where cloud computing comes into play. The data is processed and learned, giving more room for us to discover where things like electrical faults/errors are within the system. 
  • Availability of big data: We know that IoT relies heavily on sensors, especially in real-time. As these electronic devices spread throughout every field, their usage is going to trigger a massive flux of big data. 
  • Networking connection: In order to communicate, internet connectivity is a must, where each physical object is represented by an IP address. However, there are only a limited number of addresses available according to the IP naming. Due to the growing number of devices, this naming system will not be feasible anymore. Therefore, researchers are looking for another alternative naming system to represent each physical object.

Ways of Building IOT

There are two ways of building IoT:

  • Form a separate internet work including only physical objects. 
  • Make the Internet ever more expansive, but this requires hard-core technologies such as rigorous cloud computing and rapid big data storage (expensive).

In the near future, IoT will become broader and more complex in terms of scope. It will change the world in terms of 

“anytime, anyplace, anything in connectivity.”

IoT Enablers

  • RFIDs: uses radio waves in order to electronically track the tags attached to each physical object.
  • Sensors: devices that are able to detect changes in an environment (ex: motion detectors).
  • Nanotechnology: as the name suggests, these are tiny devices with dimensions usually less than a hundred nanometers.
  • Smart networks: (ex: mesh topology). 

Working with IoT Devices

  • Collect and Transmit Data : For this purpose sensors are widely used they are used as per requirements in different application areas.
  • Actuate device based on triggers produced by sensors or processing devices: If certain conditions are satisfied or according to user’s requirements if certain trigger is activated then which action to perform that is shown by Actuator devices. 
  • Receive Information: From network devices, users or devices can take certain information also for their analysis and processing purposes .
  • Communication Assistance: Communication assistance is the phenomenon of communication between 2 networks or communication between 2 or more IoT devices of same or different networks. This can be achieved by different communication protocols like: MQTT, Constrained Application Protocol, ZigBee, FTP, HTTP etc.

Working of IoTac

Working of IoTac

Characteristics of IoT

  • Massively scalable and efficient
  • IP-based addressing will no longer be suitable in the upcoming future.
  • An abundance of physical objects is present that do not use IP, so IoT is made possible.
  • Devices typically consume less power. When not in use, they should be automatically programmed to sleep.
  • A device that is connected to another device right now may not be connected in another instant of time.
  • Intermittent connectivity – IoT devices aren’t always connected. In order to save bandwidth and battery consumption, devices will be powered off periodically when not in use. Otherwise, connections might turn unreliable and thus prove to be inefficient.

Desired Quality of any IoT Application


It is the basic first requirement in any IoT infrastructure. Connectivity should be guaranteed from any devices on any network then only devices in a network can communicate with each other.


There can be diversity in IoT enabled devices like different hardware and software configuration or different network topologies or connections, but they should connect and interact with each other despite so much heterogeneity.

Dynamic in Nature

IoT devices should dynamically adapt themselves to the changing surroundings like different situations and different prefaces.

Self-adapting and self configuring technology

For example, surveillance camera. It should be flexible to work in different weather conditions and different light situations (morning, afternoon, or night).


Just data collection is not enough in IoT, extraction of knowledge from the generated data is very important. For example, sensors generate data, but that data will only be useful if it is interpreted properly. So intelligence is one of the key characteristics in IoT. Because data interpretation is the major part in any IoT application because without data processing we can’t make any insights from data. Hence, big data is also one of the most enabling technologies in IoT field.


The number of elements (devices) connected to IoT zones is increasing day by day. Therefore, an IoT setup should be capable of handling the expansion. It can be either expand capability in terms of processing power, storage, etc. as vertical scaling or horizontal scaling by multiplying with easy cloning.

Each IoT device has a unique identity (e.g., an IP address). This identity is helpful in communication, tracking and to know status of the things. If there is no identification then it will directly affect security and safety of any system because without discrimination we can’t identify with whom one network is connected or with whom we have to communicate. So there should be clear and appropriate discrimination technology available between IoT networks and devices.

Sensitive personal details of a user might be compromised when the devices are connected to the Internet. So data security is a major challenge. This could cause a loss to the user. Equipment in the huge IoT network may also be at risk. Therefore, equipment safety is also critical.


It should be hybrid, supporting different manufacturer’s products to function in the IoT network.

As a quick note, IoT incorporates trillions of sensors, billions of smart systems, and millions of applications. 

Application Domains

IoT is currently found in four different popular domains: 

Modern Applications

  • Smart Grids and energy saving
  • Smart cities
  • Smart homes/Home automation
  • Earthquake detection
  • Radiation detection/hazardous gas detection
  • Smartphone detection
  • Water flow monitoring
  • Traffic monitoring
  • Smart door lock protection system
  • Robots and Drones
  • Healthcare and Hospitals, Telemedicine applications
  • Biochip Transponders (For animals in farms)
  • Heart monitoring implants (Example Pacemaker, ECG real time tracking)
  • Agriculture

Advantages of IoT

  • Improved efficiency and automation of tasks.
  • Increased convenience and accessibility of information.
  • Better monitoring and control of devices and systems.
  • Greater ability to gather and analyze data.
  • Improved decision-making.
  • Cost savings.

Disadvantages of IoT

  • Security concerns and potential for hacking or data breaches.
  • Privacy issues related to the collection and use of personal data.
  • Dependence on technology and potential for system failures.
  • Limited standardization and interoperability among devices.
  • Complexity and increased maintenance requirements.
  • High initial investment costs.
  • Limited battery life on some devices.
  • Concerns about job displacement due to automation.
  • Limited regulation and legal framework for IoT, which can lead to confusion and uncertainty.

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History of Internet of Things

How it works

“Over 20 years ago a few professors at MIT began describing the Internet of Things (IoT) which is a world where interconnected Internet-enabled devices or “”things”” have the ability to collect and share data without human intervention.” (Baltzan, pg. 3) To give a clearer explanation of what the Internet of Things actually is, we can describe it as a giant system that lets people all over the world interact with each other, as well as share and receive data on just about any topic that you could imagine. It is actually quite amazing if you think about the things that the Internet of Things can actually do. From talking and even seeing family and friends who are in a different country, to your yoga mat telling you how many calories burned among other information, the Internet of Things is a truly remarkable entity. There are many ways that consumers, alongside businesses can benefit from IoT, as well as things that have not even been thought of yet, all of which are and will be extremely beneficial and important for our future.

Consumers can benefit from the Internet of Things in many ways. They are able to purchase items and objects that the Internet of Things has created, as well as improve their daily life by using those things. There is an article on entrepreneur.com by Puneet Mehta that is titled “”8 Ways the ‘Internet of Things’ Will Impact Your Everyday Life.”” As the title suggests, it lists eight different ways that IoT will impact consumers lives, those being tuning your car, monitoring your health, energy consumption, driving and traffic jams, grocery lists, our morning alarm, monitoring your baby, and what’s on your body. A few of these are more helpful and/or important than others, such as monitoring your health and monitoring your baby. The article says, about monitoring your health, that there may be prescription bottles that will actually notify your care physician when they are running low. Doctors may also keep tabs on how often their patients are taking their medicine which will be helpful in many, many ways. The article also says, about monitoring your baby, “”through their smartphones, parents will monitor their baby’s breathing temperature and activity. Babies will don connected onesies that will send an alert when there is anything abnormal.”” (Mehta, web.) This would be extremely helpful in keeping babies safe and healthy, by notifying their caregivers of problems that they may not show symptoms of, or simply problems that are just easily missed. The article says that this is also possible with pets.

Businesses can also benefit from the Internet of Things. IoT can easily improve small business’s by making simple daily tasks easier, as well as help bigger businesses in the same way, as well as providing them with things that their customers may want to purchase. Salesforce.com gives us five ways that the IoT may make marketing smarter. These five ways are, “”Easy Exchange of Sales Data, Smarter CRM: Instantaneous Customer Analysis, Devices That Know They’re Dying, Predictive Social Media, and Imagining a 100% CTR (Click Through Rate)”” (salesforce.com) This same website says, “”When Facebook and Twitter first hit the scene several years ago, most marketers were less-that convinced that these new “”social media”” sites would be worth targeting. We all know how well that turned out. Today, 74% of brand marketers report that they see a noticeable increase in web traffic after investing a mere 6 hours a week in social media marketing efforts.”” (salesforce.com) This short paragraph is enough to show someone the incredible advance that the Internet of Things is making on technology as well as on mankind. It is also just a small part of how the Internet of Things is affecting business’s today. One particular business that has been impacted in a positive way by the internet of things is AT&T. They have a section on their website titled “”IoT Products and Solutions: Find what fits your business needs””. Then, listed under this caption is a tab for Networks, Platforms, Professional Services, Asset Management, Vehicle Solutions, Smart Cities, Internet of Medical Things, Global IoT, and IoT for Good. Under each of these tabs there are even more links to click on that will bring you even farther into the Internet of Things within the AT&T business. One that someone may find particularly interesting is the Internet of Medical Things. AT&T describes it as, “”Transform healthcare to human care with AT&T IoT Solutions. Innovations in connected health help people live better lives, improve the operational side of healthcare, and are beginning to impact clinical applications and telehealth at a higher rate.”” (AT&T, Internet of Medical Things)

If 50 years ago, someone said that mankind would come up with a device that would let you talk to someone who is thousands of miles away, let alone see that person, everyone would think that they were crazy. So just think about the crazy, unpredictable things that may be invented a short 50 years from now. “”The Internet of Things is reaching further into our daily lives by combining data from sensors in wearable devices and equipment with analytic programs to help improve the performance of individuals by gaining insights that were traditionally impossible to detect.”” (Baltzan, 3) As one could gain from this passage, the Internet of Things will be extremely important for our future because of all of the things that it can and will be able to help us with. This includes but is not limited to letting us know about illnesses, giving us real time information on health and fitness data such as calories burned, calories taken, weight lost, and muscle gained. There is no telling what else the Internet of Things will have in store for the future, and it seems as though it will be interesting as well as intriguing to see where it takes us.

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Essay on Internet of Things (IoT)

Essay on IoT Internet Of Things

There are different devices that are present around us and help in making our work easier. Some of them can be operated manually by us while some work by internet. The advent of the internet in the world has totally transformed our life. Earlier before the invention of the internet and its several applications, everything was done manually by us. This required excessive effort and was a time taking process. Nowadays, the scenario has totally changed and the internet is involved in everything that we do at present. Either it is shopping, traveling, entertainment, education, etc. In this way, the internet has become an integral part of our everyday life. It is the Internet of things that enables us to do different work without any type of human interference.

Short and Long Essay on Internet of things (IoT) in English

I think we all are aware of the term Internet of Things but might feel difficulty in writing about this topic. I have provided a long elaborated essay on this topic that will help the students in getting the details of this topic. I hope that this might be useful for the students of class 1-12th in getting an idea of writing essays, assignments and projects on this topic.

10 Lines Essay on IoT (100 – 120 Words)

1) IoT or Internet of Things refers to the ability of devices to share data using the Internet.

2) The IoT devices are embedded with sensors, chips and various other tools.

3) The IoT concept also makes use of Artificial Intelligence.

4) IoT devices save the precious time of humans and make our life comfortable.

5) The emergence of IoT devices reduces the workload of humans.

6) Today the concept of IoT is used in various sectors.

7) Kevin Ashton is considered as the father of IoT.

8) Smart watches, smart home appliances, Alexa, Siri, etc are the examples of IoT devices.

9) IoT devices are easily prone to security threats like hacking.

10) However, fixing errors in the devices would be a challenging task.

Short Essay on IoT (200 – 250 Words)

Today, we are dealing with smart technologies for yielding smart results. It will be much better and easier if we are accompanied by smart things. This need is well fulfilled by the emergence of IoT. Internet of Things is the ability of physical things to communicate with each other using sensors and chips via the internet. The motive of IoT is to make devices work smartly without human interference.

The idea of connecting things is not a new concept. Researchers have shown many related applications earlier. But the actual idea of making devices to communicate through the internet emerged during the 1980s to 1990s. Finally, in 1999, this technology got its name from Kevin Ashton as the “Internet of Things”. Till then, the applications of IoT are flooding the market.

Smart devices like smart watches, smart speakers, smart healthcare systems, smart home appliances, smart traffic management systems, etc are some examples of the Internet of Things. IoT is responsible for giving us luxurious life full of comfort. However, there are some limitations with IoT like compatibility. Only compatible devices are allowed to share data using IoT. While sharing data on a network, no one can give you a guarantee regarding the data. Therefore, privacy and security could again be an issue.

1800 Words Long Essay- IoT : Reducing Workload and Time


Technology is playing a major role in our lives. The advent of different types of technologies has changed the way of our living and working. The discovery of computers and the internet has brought a revolutionary change in the world. People at present mostly depend upon the internet and computer to perform their maximum tasks. Not only it has changed our lifestyle but also made it comfortable. Internet of things is also an aspect of the internet. We will discuss this technology, its history, application, and future scope in the essay provided below.

What is meant by the Internet of Things (IoT)?

IoT refers to the collection of different types of daily life appliances and gadgets used in different sectors that are broadening the aspect of the internet. The connectivity with the internet enables these devices to share and receive data with different objects. Internet of things simply means the network of devices that are able to share and receive data and information with other devices via using the internet.

The things or objects in the Internet of Things above are well equipped with sensors, software, and machine learning techniques. The use of such objects reduces human interference in doing any of the work. The advent of IoT has totally changed the life of human beings by reducing their workload and time. The advancing technology day by day is giving rise to different smart objects thereby improving the standard of living of human beings.

An Account on Concept of IoT

How interesting it is that the devices are able to communicate with each other or human beings? This is all possible because of advancements in internet technology and the development of smart devices.

  • The emergence of the concept of the integration of smart devices stated as ‘Internet of Things’ came into existence in the year 1982.
  • A Coca-Cola vending machine at Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania was the first smart appliance that was termed as ARPANET device.
  • The word ‘Internet of Things’ for first time was used by Peter T. Lewis in his speech in the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation held in Washington D.C. in the year 1985.
  • The Phrase ‘Internet of Things’ was first time used by Kevin Ashton in the year 1999 and thus he is regarded as the father of IoT.
  • It was emphasized by Kevin Ashton that every device needs short-range mobile transceivers embedded in it so that it can establish communication with human beings and other devices.
  • Several other important works and improvements in this field have taken place in successive years and the percentage of people using this concept has also increased as the years passed by.

IoT Architecture

The objects in Internet of Things have a definite constitution of technologies that enables them to work efficiently by using internet connection. These devices are architecture that is a combination of several technologies. The technologies that are embedded in IoT are enlisted below:

  • Different Types of Sensors- IoT devices have sensors embedded in them so that these devices can sense whatever is happening in the environment. It is working in the same way as the human sense organs are working. The connection of sensors with the internet helps it to collect information from the surroundings.
  • Internet Connection- An internet connection is a must to enable the sensors in the devices to connect it with other devices so that the sending and receiving of data becomes convenient.
  • Several Computing Devices- These devices help in making the process of data collection, analyzing, and sending more easily.
  • Machine Learning and Analytics Devices- The use of machine learning and advanced analytics by the Internet of things make this process more efficient. It helps the devices to collect maximum data in very less time.
  • Artificial Intelligence- Artificial intelligence and machine learning help the devices to develop connectivity with other devices in the IoT network in a smarter way. In another way, we can state that it smoothen the process and helps in reducing human interferences in performing any kind of task. Example: Alexa, Siri, etc.

Need of IoT

The developments of a range of technologies have enhanced the lifestyle of human beings. Isn’t it true? Digitalization is taking place in India and the world at a very fast pace. Thus in order to be in the pace with the digital world, the network of smart devices is very essential. It is a technology that helps in establishing a good interaction between the different devices among themselves and also with human beings.

Moreover, the emergence of devices embedded with sensors and advanced technologies reduces the workload of human beings. It helps in finishing different tasks in less time along with developing coordination with the activities taking place in the surroundings. The development of the network of these smart devices is not only useful in household works but also aid in commercial sector tasks. Thus, IoT in the 21st century has become an essential requirement in different sectors all around the world.

Advantages and Disadvantages of IoT

IoT which stands for Internet of Things helps in enabling the smart devices to interact with each other by sharing the data. There are several benefits with the emergence of this technology but there are also some drawbacks associated with it. Several advantages and disadvantages of IoT have been enlisted below.

  • The IoT devices help in establishing interaction between the devices connected with each other through the internet.
  • The sensor embedded in the smart devices makes it capable of collecting and accessing different information at any time.
  • The collected data can be analyzed and further brought into action or shared with other devices in very less time. This reduces the effort and time taken in doing the same work by people manually.


  • There are many devices connected with each other in IoT and thus sharing of different information takes place. The probability of hacking some important information increases in such processes.
  • The enterprises concerned with different businesses can acquire information from several devices connected to the IoT networks. It is difficult for them to collect and manage data from a large number of IoT devices.
  • Every smart device does not have compatibility for connecting with other devices as there is no international standard of IoT.

IoT Doing Wonders

The invention of devices embedded with sensors and smart software has widened their application in different sectors. These devices not only form an integral part of household works but also play a major in different sectors like industrial, manufacturing, healthcare, agriculture, etc.

  • IoT in Manufacturing Sector- The manufacturing and industrial sector has benefitted a lot as the IoT devices help in monitoring the working of all the machines. The machines are connected with each other so that they can develop good communication and can be controlled easily. The quality of the products can also be checked at regular intervals by using these smart devices. Therefore, it can be stated that the development of such smart technologies is helping in increasing the performance of machines, fostering production, and boosting up the customer experience.
  • IoT in Healthcare- IoT devices is of great importance in the healthcare sector. It gives rise to connected devices like wearable’s that help the doctors to monitor different activities of the patients. These devices can also be used by people to monitor their health regularly. Thus, it can be stated that the use of these advanced technologies has improved the diagnosis and treatment procedure by making it more precise.
  • IoT in Transportation- The introduction of GPS and sensors in the devices has reduced the difficulty of locating the exact locations. This reduces the effort and time wastage of transportation companies in searching the locations. They can deliver the products more efficiently with any kind of delay. Thus, IoT devices help in cutting down the cost as the monitoring, tracking of the vehicles and locations can be managed easily by using smart devices. Moreover, it also enhances the customer experience.
  • IoT in Household works- The use of smart appliances in the home enables us to carry our household work with great ease. The working of these devices can also be controlled remotely by using computers and smart phones.
  • IoT in Agriculture- The use of IoT in agriculture is very benefitting for the growth and production of different crops. The smart devices help in collecting the data from the surroundings and further after analyzing the same the action can be taken. The soil parameters can be easily detected by using devices having inbuilt sensors. These devices can easily access the condition and suggest the type of crop that can be grown easily with good yield in the future.

There are several sectors that are benefitted with the advent of the network of smart devices. We can notice these devices everywhere around us. They now have become an integral part of our life. The presence of these devices has made our lives more comfortable.

Future of IoT

There are different types of new innovations taking place in different regions of the world every now and then. Internet of Things (IoT) is also one such invention. It has gained surplus attention of the world and is now being used in different sectors.

The need of the internet is very essential nowadays. Internet, sensors, and advanced technologies have made normal devices turn into smart devices. The integration of these smart devices is referred to as the Internet of Things. There are more than 4 billion smart devices installed in the world at present. The numbers will increase to double in the coming years. It is because the use of the internet in the coming years will more profuse. The large network of smart devices will help in getting vast data in a spark of seconds. This in turn will foster the businesses; increase the product variety, efficiency in the delivery of products, etc. The Internet of things has a good potential in the future but a few challenges need to be addressed to make it a successful technology in the future.

The Internet of things has widened the aspect of internet. This has become the most discussed topic at present. These smart devices influence our life in our travel, shopping, lifestyle, health, daily works, etc. The Internet if things are not only restricted to the household objects but they have their wide applications in different sectors. In this way Internet of Things is having a positive impact on the society.

Yet there are some challenges but efficient working in this direction will reduce the drawbacks in the coming future and make it a technology with great potential. This long essay contains the elaborated details about the Internet of Things. I think that this essay in simple words would have been helpful to all the students and readers in knowing about this most discussed concept of present. I hope that you all will love reading this essay.

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FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions on Internet of Things

Ans. IoT Device is one that has integrated sensor and software and can connect with each other for sharing of data using internet.

Ans. The phrase ‘Internet of Things’ was coined by Kevin Ashton in the year 1999.

Ans. The status data also called as raw data is utilized by IoT.

Ans. The wireless communication protocols like Bluetooth, Zigbee, Wifi, Thread, etc are commonly used in IoT.

Ans. RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification System that enables devices to detect other devices in IoT.

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Essay On Internet for Students and Children

500+ words essay on internet.

We live in the age of the internet. Also, it has become an important part of our life that we can’t live without it. Besides, the internet is an invention of high-end science and modern technology . Apart from that, we are connected to internet 24×7. Also, we can send big and small messages and information faster than ever. In this essay on the Internet, we are going to discuss various things related to the internet.

Essay On Internet

Reach of Internet

It is very difficult to estimate the area that the internet cover. Also, every second million people remain connected to it with any problem or issue. Apart from that, just like all the things the internet also has some good and bad effect on the life of people. So the first thing which we have to do is learn about the good and bad effect of the internet.

Good effects of the internet mean all those things that the internet make possible. Also, these things make our life easier and safer.

Bad effects of the internet mean all those things that we can no longer do because of the internet. Also, these things cause trouble for oneself and others too.

You can access in any corner of the world. Also, it is very easy to use and manage. In today’s world, we cannot imagine our life without it.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Uses Of Internet

From the time it first came into existence until now the internet has completed a long journey. Also, during this journey, the internet has adopted many things and became more user-friendly and interactive. Besides, every big and small things are available on internet and article or material that you require can be obtainable from internet.

essay internet of things

Tim Berners-Lee can be called one of the main father of internet as he invented/discovered the WWW (World Wide Web) which is used on every website. Also, there are millions of pages and website on the internet that it will take you years to go through all of them.

The Internet can be used to do different things like you can learn, teach, research, write, share, receive, e-mail , explore, and surf the internet.

Read Essay on Technology here

Convenience Due To Internet

Because of internet, our lives have become more convenient as compared to the times when we don’t have internet. Earlier, we have to stand in queues to send mails (letters), for withdrawing or depositing money, to book tickets, etc. but after the dawn of the internet, all these things become quite easy. Also, we do not have to waste our precious time standing in queues.

Also, the internet has contributed a lot to the environment as much of the offices (government and private), school and colleges have become digital that saves countless paper.

Although, there is no doubt that the internet had made our life easier and convenient but we can’t leave the fact that it has caused many bigger problems in the past. And with the speed, we are becoming addict to it a day in will come when it will become our basic necessity.

{ “@context”: “https://schema.org”, “@type”: “FAQPage”, “mainEntity”: [ { “@type”: “Question”, “name”: “What are the limitation of internet?”, “acceptedAnswer”: { “@type”: “Answer”, “text”: “Although internet can help you with anything but there are certain limitation to it. First of it does not have a physical appearance. Secondly, it does not have emotions and thirdly, it can’t send you to a place where you can’t go (physically).” } }, { “@type”: “Question”, “name”: “What is the ideal age for using internet?”, “acceptedAnswer”: { “@type”: “Answer”, “text”: “Nowadays everybody from small kids to adult is internet addicts. So it is difficult to decide an ideal age for using internet. However, according to researches using internet from an early age can cause problems in the child so internet usage of small children should be controlled or banned.” } } ] }

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