The PhD Proofreaders

How To Structure A PhD Thesis

Nov 21, 2019

How To Structure A PhD Thesis

Introduction

Universities and supervisors often assume that PhD students know how to structure their PhD theses. But often this assumption is false, which can cause considerable headache and uncertainty.  It can also waste a lot of time and money as you engage in a process of trial and error working out what goes where.

If you go to your university’s library, you’ll find whole shelves of   books on how to structure or write your PhD . Many of these are great, and I highly recommend you check them out, but here I want to present to you a thesis structure 101 lesson.

I’ve read those books,   proofread hundreds of PhDs   and   coached   dozens of students and want to take what I know and run you through a basic introduction to structuring your PhD   thesis .

In what follows, I’ll talk you through the basic outline of a typical thesis. This mirrors and expands upon the   PhD Writing Template   I’ve created. If you haven’t already downloaded it, you can find it   here .  

Now, I want to make an important observation: what I present below is an outline of the   typical   thesis. Yours may differ, whether considerably or just a little. That’s fine. The purpose is to give you an overarching summary so that when you do approach the books and guides that exist, you’ve already got a basic understanding of what goes where and why.

So, in what follows, I’ll walk you through each of the main sections and talk about what the purpose of each is, offer some tips for planning and writing them, and show you how they relate to one another.

At the end, I’ll tell you about an   email based course   I’ve put together that will teach you how to plan, structure and write your thesis. It goes into a lot more detail than I’ve presented here, so check it out if you’d like to learn more. 

How to Structure an Abstract

Your abstract should be a short summary at the beginning of the thesis that sums up the research, summarises the separate sections of the thesis and outlines the contribution.

Above all, your PhD abstract should answer the question: ‘So what?’ In other words, what is the contribution of your thesis to the field?

  • What is the reason for writing the thesis?
  • What are the current approaches and gaps in the literature?
  • What are your research question(s) and aims?
  • Which methodology have you used?
  • What are the main findings?
  • What are the main conclusions and implications?

One thing that should be obvious is that you can’t write your abstract until the study itself has been written. It’ll typically be the last thing you write (alongside the acknowledgements).

The tricky thing about writing a great PhD abstract is that you haven’t got much space to answer the six questions above. There are a few things to consider though that will help to elevate your writing and make your abstract as efficient as possible:

  • Give a good first impression by writing in short clear sentences.
  • Don’t repeat the title in the abstract.
  • Don’t cite references.
  • Use keywords from the document.
  • Respect the word limit.
  • Don’t be vague – the abstract should be a self-contained summary of the research, so don’t introduce ambiguous words or complex terms.
  • Focus on just four or five essential points, concepts, or findings. Don’t, for example, try to explain your entire theoretical framework.
  • Edit it carefully. Make sure every word is relevant (you haven’t got room for wasted words) and that each sentence has maximum impact.
  • Avoid lengthy background information.
  • Don’t mention anything that isn’t discussed in the thesis.
  • Avoid overstatements.
  • Don’t spin your findings, contribution or significance to make your research sound grander or more influential that it actually is.

How to Structure an Introduction

The introduction serves three purposes:

  • Establish your territory.
  • Establish and justify your niche.
  • Explain the significance of your research.

The reader should be able to understand the whole thesis just by reading the introduction. It should tell them all they need to know about:

  • What your thesis is about
  • Why it is important
  • How it was conducted
  • How it is laid out

How to Structure a Literature Review

Imagine you’re making a new model of mobile phone. You’d need to look at old models to see how other people are designing them (and so you know how yours will differ) and to see how they are made. You’ll need to look for their flaws, and get an idea of where they can be improved.

That’s because you can’t make something new if you don’t know what the old one looks like.

The literature review is the same. You use it to make the case for your research by surveying the work that’s already been done in your discipline (and sometimes beyond). It’s a bit like a family tree. You use it to trace the lineage of your study. Putting it in its place.

A literature review has three objectives:

  • Summarise what has already been discussed in your field, both to demonstrate that you understand your field and to show how your study relates to it.
  • Highlight gaps, problems or shortcomings in existing research to show the original contribution that your thesis makes.
  • Identify important studies, theories, methods or theoretical frameworks that can be applied in your research.
  • Pick a broad topic
  • Find the way in
  • Who’s saying what and when
  • Narrow down the field
  • Narrow does the sources
  • Think about questions that haven’t been asked
  • Write early, write quickly and write relevantly

doctoral thesis rudiment

Your PhD Thesis. On one page.

Use our free PhD Structure Template to quickly visualise every element of your thesis.

How to Structure a Theory Framework Chapter

The theory framework is the scaffolding upon which your thesis is built. When you’re done writing your theory framework chapter or section, your reader should be able to answer these questions:

  • What theoretical concepts are used in the research? What hypotheses, if any, are you using?
  • Why have you chosen this theory?
  • What are the implications of using this theory?
  • How does the theory relate to the existing literature, your problem statement and your epistemological and ontological positions? How has this theory has been applied by others in similar contexts? What can you learn from them and how do you differ?
  • How do you apply the theory and measure the concepts (with reference to the literature review/problem statement)?
  • What is the relationship between the various elements and concepts within the model? Can you depict this visually?

That means that a theory framework can take different forms: 

It can state the theoretical assumptions underpinning the study.

  • It can connect the empirical data to existing knowledge.
  • It can allow you to come up with propositions, concepts or hypotheses that you can use to answer ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions.

Broadly speaking, a theory framework can be used to either derive certain testable assumptions or as a way of making sense of your data. In both cases, it structures your data collection by focusing your attention on a small subset of concepts.

You can, therefore, think of it as a toolbox. In your literature review, you outlined the problem that needs ‘fixing’. The theory framework is a toolbox stuffed full of concepts, variables, or hypotheses (your tools) that you’ll then use to address the problem and do the fixing.

You can find an   extended guide on creating your theory framework . Check it out if you’re still struggling.

When you discuss theory, you are seeking to provide a background examination of what other researchers think about a phenomenon and how they have conceptualised it. You should discuss the relevance of particular theoretical approaches for your study, and you should take care to consider the dominant theoretical schools in your field. This shows the examiner you have understood the state of the art.

But, you should do so critically, and question the suitability of any theories that exist or that you are creating to your particular study. That means that you should discuss previous applications of theory in order to discuss what implications they have for your own research.

The reason you do this is that your discipline likely has accepted and ’tried and tested’ ways of doing things. In many cases, this is an advantage, because it can serve as inspiration for your choice of concepts, hypotheses or variables, and can influence your choice of methods.

In other cases, it may be that the existing theory is ill-equipped to account for your particular phenomenon. In either case, you need to demonstrate a good understanding of what that theory is discussing, both to demonstrate your skills as a researcher and scholar, but also to justify your own theoretical and methodological position. 

How to Structure a Methods Chapter

The job of a methods chapter is:

  • To summarise, explain and recount how you answered your research questions and to explain how this relates to the methods used by other scholars in similar contexts and similar studies
  • To discuss – in detail – the techniques you used to collect the data used to answer your research questions 
  • To discuss why the techniques are relevant to the study’s aims and objectives
  • To explain how you used them

Your reader should be able to answer the following questions when they’re done reading it:

  • What did you did do to achieve the research aims?
  • Why did you choose this particular approach over others?
  • How does it relate to your epistemological and ontological positions?
  • What tools did you use to collect data and why? What are the implications?
  • When did you collect data, and from whom?
  • What tools have you used to analyze the data and why? What are the implications? Are there ethical considerations to take into account?

How to Structure an Empirical Chapter

  • What are the results of your investigations?  
  • How do the findings relate to previous studies?  
  • Was there anything surprising or that didn’t work out as planned?  
  • Are there any themes or categories that emerge from the data?   
  • Have you explained to the reader why you have reached particular conclusions?
  • Have you explained the results?

Having your PhD proofread will save you time and money

Our top-rated PhD proofreaders check your writing, formatting, references and readability. The goal? To make sure your research is written and presented in the most compelling manner possible. 

That way, you’ll have complete peace of mind prior to submission and save yourself months of costly revisions. 

How to Structure a Discussion Chapter 

The discussion chapter is the place in which you discuss your empirics. Many people find it the hardest chapter, primarily because it’s the stage at which you start to flex your academic muscles and speak like a doctor. It is here that you start to push the boundaries of knowledge.

That’s a hard thing to do, largely because you’ve probably never had to do it before. All through your masters and undergraduate work you’ve learnt what other people have found. Now you’re finding out things that no-one else knows.

The difference between a discussion and an empirical chapter is subtle, but I’ve written   a detailed guide   that will clear up any confusion you’ve got.

How to Structure a Conclusion

The job of the conclusion is to:

  • Fully and clearly articulate the answer to your research questions
  • Discuss how the research is related to your aims and objectives
  • Explain the significance of the work
  • Outline its shortcomings
  • Suggest avenues for future research

It is not the place to introduce new ideas and concepts, or to present new findings.

Your job is to reflect back on your original aims and intentions and discuss them in terms of your findings and new expertise.

Three things to do in a conclusion:

  • Own your research by speaking with authority! You’ve earned the right to do that by the time you reach your conclusion 
  • See the thesis and not the detail. Drive home the contribution that the thesis has made. Whatever it is, you need to shout about it. Loudly. Like an expert.
  • Each chapter is a piece of the puzzle and only when they are all slotted together do you have an entire thesis. That means that a great conclusion is one that shows that the thesis is bigger than the sum of its individual chapters. 
  • By the time the reader has finished reading the conclusion, they should be able to answer the following questions:
  • Have you briefly recapped the research questions and objectives?
  • Have you provided a brief recount of the answer to those questions?
  • Have you clearly discussed the significance and implications of those findings?
  • Have you discussed the contribution that the study has made?
  • Do the claims you are making align with the content of the results and discussion chapters?

Wrapping Up 

There’s clearly a lot more that can be said about how to structure each of these sections. Go to your university library and you’ll find dozens of books on how to write a PhD. Google it and you’ll find thousands of posts. It’s hard to know where to start.

That’s why  I’ve put together an  email based course on How To Write Your Thesis . Over twelve emails you’ll get detailed chapter guides that expand on the above, a ton of templates, checklist and worksheets, and lots of curated videos and external resources to really cement your learning. By the end, you’ll understand what goes where and why and would have saved yourself a bunch of time and energy sifting through all those books and posts.

That way, you can write more, worry less and graduate sooner.

To sign up,   click here . 

Hello, Doctor…

Sounds good, doesn’t it?  Be able to call yourself Doctor sooner with our five-star rated How to Write A PhD email-course. Learn everything your supervisor should have taught you about planning and completing a PhD.

Now half price. Join hundreds of other students and become a better thesis writer, or your money back. 

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26 comments.

Abdullahi

This is seriously and absolutely helpful but some terminologies used may not be understood by most beginners in research methodology. Beginners would better understand the use of chapter1, etc. Thank you.

Dr. Max Lempriere

Thanks for the useful feedback. Enjoy the rest of your day.

Lallé M. ZOUBA

Wonderful…. It is really practical to have such tips… Many thanks….

You’re welcome!

Ahmed aldhafeeri

Well done Max, very informative post.

Great. Thanks for the kind words.

Dean -

Cheers Max! Sent it on to many friends starting the journey

Great. Thanks Dean!

Maureen

Hi Dr Lumpriere,

Thanks for creating this website, it is really helpful to situate oneself – I am really new to this. In your experience, how many hours does one (roughly. – of course depending on the scope of the project) have to dedicate to a PhD weekly on average?

Thanks again, Maureen

Hi Maureen – it really depends on so many factors, including how much familiarity you already have with research and how quickly you want to finish. It’s hard to say! I devoted around 3/4 of full time to mine per week – so roughly 30 hours. But then I had never conducted research before, didn’t have any caregiving responsibilities, and wanted to complete quickly.

Felix

Thanks a lot for dedicating your time and effort to helping those who are still struggling with writing up their PhD!

Best, Felix

You’re welcome Felix.

Adebayo Adeleye

Good job. Thanks for the information here.

You’re welcome! Glad you found it useful.

Eric

This is great, I am impressed by the guideline. I shall consult these steps as I work on my Thesis for my PhD.

Iram

Thanks for this information keep it up.

Carlo Butera

Very interesting and useful job!

Stephen Ubah

Well done Dr Max. Quite helpful, thanks

Adebanjo Babawale

I am really grateful for this tip. God bless the writer in Jesus’ name

Iyua Mbah

Thank you for this guide.

Salin Gurung

Thank you very much for the information. It’s very useful.

Marta

This article is insanely helpful. Especially the questions that should be answered in each part. Even though I was aware of most of it, seeing it all put together so neatly helps a lot. Thank you!

Wow. Such great praise. Thanks!

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How to write a Doctoral Thesis

Prof. HR Ahmad, Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. E-mail: [email protected]

Note: * Ahmad HR. In: Medical Writing. Eds. SA Jawaid, MH Jafary & SJ Zuberi. PMJA, 1997 Ed II: 133-142.

PATIENT care and teaching are rather well established components of our medical career. However, with the passage of time a third component has started to influence our medical culture, namely research. 1 - 4 How to accept this challenge is a question. 5 Indeed, teaching and research form a dialectic unit, meaning that teaching without a research component is like a soup without salt. It is a well-established fact that the research activity of an institution is directly proportional to the number of qualified and committed PhD candidates. An inspiring infrastructure, laboratory facilities and libraries are pre-requisites for a research culture to grow. 6 - 8 This forms the basis of a generation cycle for an institution, so that research activity and its culture continues to grow from one generation to the next. The main objective of doctoral work in biomedical sciences is to develop a galaxy of scientist physicians and surgeons possessing high degree of humility, selflessness and ethical superiority. Such a programme will add a scholastic dimension to the clinical faculty.

Education in how to write a doctoral thesis or dissertation should be a part of the postgraduate curriculum, parallel to the laboratory work and Journal Club activities during the PhD studies and/or residency levels. 9 , 10 The overall structure of a doctoral thesis is internationally standardized. However, it varies in style and quality, depending upon how original the work is, and how much the author has understood the work. Therefore a thorough discussion with supervisor, colleagues and assistance from other authors through correspondence can be useful sources for consultation.

The choice of a topic for a doctoral thesis is a crucial step. It should be determined by scanning the literature whether the topic is original or similar work has already been done even a hundred years ago. It is the responsibility of both the supervisor and the PhD candidate to sort out this problem by continuous use of internet and a library. 11 The work leading to the PhD degree can originate from research in following spheres: 12

  • b) Methodology
  • c) Diagnostic
  • d) Therapeutic and Management
  • e) Epidemiology

The availability of internationally standardized methods, as well as research committed supervisors can enable physicians and surgeons to do PhD work in both basic and clinical health sciences. The importance of research in basic health sciences cannot be overemphasized. It is rather the base of the applied sciences. There are many instances where the elucidation of a mechanism involved in a process awaits the development of an adequate methodology. 13 In such a scenario; a new method is like a new eye. Research activity in the field of (a) and (b) illuminates the research directions for (c) (d) and (e). It is worth noting that sometimes important basic questions can come from (e) and stimulate research activity in the domain of basic health sciences. 14 , 15

Types of Doctoral Thesis

TYPE-I: Book Form: a classical style. The blueprint of this form is shown in Table-I .

Type-I: The Classical Book Form

TYPE-II: Cumulative Doctoral thesis: A modem but quite useful practice.

INTRODUCTION

A book containing the pearls of a PhD work has standardized divisions and formats, where the number of pages should be weighted in terms of content rather than container. The book includes summary, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusions, references and acknowledgements.

Two exercises are mandatory before starting a PhD programme:

  • Literature survey using a regular library hours and internet surfing
  • Familiarization with the hands-on-experience of methodology involved in the work
  • The importance of a continuous literature survey using library, internet and direct correspondence with authors across the globe in the same field cannot be over-emphasized. The main goal of this exercise is to pinpoint the unresolved problem in the literature. An attempt to solve this problem now becomes the topic of the PhD thesis. All the relevant references should be collected, and carefully preserved in the form of a card system arranged alphabetically according to themes and authors. The introduction of the thesis should be styled like a review article with a critical analysis of the work of authors in the literature. The aims of the present PhD work can then also be addressed in the form of questions. The objectives would then deal with how to achieve the aims of the proposed study.

MATERIALS / SUBJECTS AND METHODS

Now comes the most crucial and functional part of the doctoral work, the materials/subjects and methods section. This part can be considered as the motor of the PhD work. The reliability, sensitivity and specificity of the motor must be checked before embarking on a long journey. Controlling the controls is the best guide for a precise and authentic work. Usually materials and methods contain components such as a description of the species involved, their number, age, weight and anthropometric parameters, types of surgical procedures and anesthesia if applied, and a detailed description of methodology. Continuous or point measurements should be thoroughly described. However, a dynamic method should always be preferred to static one.

The experimental protocol should be designed after a small pilot study, which is especially advisable in research on human subjects. A detailed and well-thought experimental protocol forms the basis of conditions under which the results would be obtained. Any deviation from the experimental protocol will affect the outcome, and the interpretation of results. It may be noted that great discoveries are usually accidental and without a protocol, based merely on careful observation! However, for the sake of a publication, a protocol has to be designed after the discovery. After having described the different phases of the experimental protocol with the help of a schematic diagram e.g., showing variables, time period and interventions, the selection of a statistical method should be discussed. Negative results should not be disregarded because they represent the boundary conditions of positive results. Sometimes the negative results are the real results.

It is usual practice that most PhD candidates start writing the methodological components first. This is followed by writing the results. The pre-requisites for writing results are that all figures, tables, schematic diagrams of methods and a working model should be ready. They should be designed in such a way that the information content of each figure should, when projected as a frame be visually clear to audience viewing it from a distance of about fifty feet. It is often observed that the presenters themselves have difficulty in deciphering a frame of the Power-Point being projected in a conference.

The results of a doctoral thesis should be treated like a bride. The flow of writing results becomes easier if all figures and tables are well prepared. This promotes the train of thoughts required to analyze the data in a quantitative fashion. The golden rule of writing results of a thesis is to describe what the figure shows. No explanation is required. One should avoid writing anything which is not there in a figure. Before writing one should observe each diagram for some time and make a list of observations in the form of key words. The more one has understood the information content of a figure; the better will be the fluency of writing. The interruption of the flow in writing most often indicates that an author has not understood the results. Discussion with colleagues or reference to the literature is the only remedy, and it functions sometimes like a caesarean procedure.

Statistical methods are good devices to test the degree of authenticity and precision of results if appropriately applied. The application of statistical technique in human studies poses difficulties because of large standard deviations. Outliers must be discussed, if they are excluded for the sake of statistical significance. Large standard deviations can be minimized by increasing the number of observations. If a regression analysis is not weighted, it gives faulty information. The correlation coefficient value can change from 0.7 to 0.4 if the regression analysis is weighted using Fisher’s test. The dissection of effect from artifact should be analysed in such a way that the signal to noise ratio of a parameter should be considered. A competent statistician should always be consulted in order to avoid the danger of distortion of results.

The legend of a figure should be well written. It contains a title, a brief description of variables and interventions, the main effect and a concluding remark conveying the original message. The writing of PhD work is further eased by a well maintained collection of data in the form of log book, original recordings, analyzed references with summaries and compiling the virgin data of the study on master plan sheet to understand the original signals before submitting to the procedures of statistics. The original data belong to the laboratory of an institution where it came into being and should be preserved for 5-7 years in the archive for the sake of brevity.

This is the liveliest part of a thesis. Its main goal is to defend the work by staging a constructive debate with the literature. The golden rule of this written debate should be that a rigid explanation looks backward and a design looks forward. The object is to derive a model out of a jig-saw puzzle of information. It should be designed in such a way that the results of the present study and those of authors from the literature can be better discussed and interpreted. Agreement and disagreement can be better resolved if one considers under what experimental conditions the results were obtained by the various authors. It means that the boundary conditions for each result should be carefully analyzed and compared.

The discussion can be divided into the following parts:

  • criticism of material/subjects and methods
  • a list of important observations of the present study
  • interpretation and comparison of results of other authors using a literature table
  • design of a model
  • claim of an original research work
  • The criticism of the methodological procedure enables a candidate to demonstrate how precisely the research work has been carried out. The interpretation of results depends critically on the strict experimental protocol and methods. For example, an epidemiological work is a study of a population. However, if the population sampling is done regularly at a specific location; the question arises as to how a result derived from a localized place can be applied to the whole population.
  • After having discussed at length the strong and weak points of material/subjects and methods, one should list in a telegraphic design the most important observations of the present study. This may form a good agenda to initiate interpretation, argument, reasoning and comparison with results of other authors. The outcome of this constructive debate should permit the design of a working model in the form of a block diagram. All statements should be very carefully referenced. The ratio of agreement and disagreement should indicate the ability of the author to reconcile conflicting data in an objective and quantitative way. Attempts should be made to design a solution out of the given quantum of information. It is also well known that most of the processes of human physiology can only be understood if their time course is known. The dynamic aspect of interpretation of results is therefore more powerful and superior to the static one. 16 Therefore a continuous record of variables should be preferred and sought to reveal the secrets hidden in the kinetics.
  • Finally, the discussion should conclude how far the study was successful in answering the questions being posed at the end of the introduction part. Usually a doctoral thesis raises more questions than it answers. In this way research does not come to a standstill and does become a life time engagement for a committed scientist. Also it is important to note that all scientific theses should be quantifiable and falsifiable, otherwise they lose the spirit and fragrance of a scientific research.
  • The author’s claim of original work is finally decided by the critical review of his research work by the literature and the number of times being cited. It can be easily read by a high rate of a citation index of a publication and invitation. When a methodological research clicks, one becomes a star overnight.

Type-II: CUMULATIVE DOCTORAL THESES

Another way of writing a doctoral work is a cumulative type of thesis. 11 It consists of a few original publications in refereed journals of repute. It is supplemented by a concise summary about the research work. This type of thesis is usually practiced in Sweden, Germany and other countries. It has the advantage of being doubly refereed by the journals and the faculty of health sciences. Additionally, papers are published during a doctoral work. A declaration has to be given to the faculty of science about the sharing of research work in publications, provided there are co-authors. The weightage should be in favour of the PhD candidate, so that the thesis can ethically be better defended before the team of august research faculty.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

A critical review of this manuscript by Dr. Roger Sutton, Dr. Khalid Khan, Dr. Bukhtiar Shah and Dr. Satwat Hashmi is gratefully acknowledged.

Dedicated to the memory of Mr. Azim Kidwai for his exemplary academic commitment and devotion to the science journalism in Pakistan.

School of Graduate Studies

Student guidelines for the doctoral thesis, doctoral thesis.

Your doctoral thesis is the culmination of your investment in advanced studies and rigorous research in your field of study. It is the pinnacle of your doctoral program, and the most far-reaching undertaking in your studies. Although the thesis is indisputably significant, it is also important to remember that the doctoral thesis is just one of many steps along your career path and should therefore be well-defined and manageable. 

At the University of Toronto, the term ‘thesis’ is generally used to refer to the culminating project for either a Master’s or a doctoral degree. At other institutions and in other countries, the term ‘dissertation’ is more commonly used at the doctoral level. This document uses the term ‘thesis’ to refer to a doctoral thesis, but your supervisor or department may prefer the term ‘dissertation’. 

Doctoral thesis writers have often written a Master’s thesis (or a Major Research Paper) earlier in their careers. A doctoral thesis will have elements in common with those projects while also needing to offer a higher degree of originality and a broader scope. 

The doctoral thesis has been historically written as a unified work, similar in form to a scholarly monograph; this traditional format remains the norm in some disciplines. In other disciplines, the traditional thesis has been replaced by a publication-based thesis in which a series of scholarly publications on the same research problem are combined into a coherent whole. Today, there is a growing acceptance of more flexible formats and structures that aim to enhance professional practice or that include creative scholarly artefacts such as film, audio, visual, and graphic representations. There is also growing recognition of the need to welcome Indigenous forms of knowledge building and dissemination. Regardless of format or structure, all doctoral theses must meet the fundamental requirements of demonstrating academic rigour and making a distinct contribution to the knowledge in your field.

The decision about the structure and format of the student’s doctoral thesis should be made by the supervisor and the supervisory committee members and be informed by the practices in the specific discipline and the student’s academic and professional goals. In some fields, the decision about structure and format is relatively easy to make while in others the decision requires careful consideration from all involved parties.

The following guidelines have been designed to help you and your supervisory committee by identifying the required academic criteria of the doctoral thesis and by describing the various available formats and structures.

Key Criteria of the Doctoral Thesis 

Regardless of the format of the doctoral thesis, certain criteria must be met. For your thesis to be acceptable, you must do the following:

  • Demonstrate how your research makes an original contribution by advancing knowledge in your field
  • Show a thorough familiarity with the field and an ability to critically analyze the relevant literature
  • Display a mastery of research methods and their application
  • Offer a complete and systematic account of your scholarly work
  • Present the results and analysis of your original research
  • Document your sources and support your claims 
  • Locate your work within the broader field or discipline
  • Write in a style that respects the norms of academic and scholarly communication 

Most doctoral writers understand that their thesis will need to meet these criteria without necessarily understanding  how  they will do so. A central element of writing a thesis is coming to understand how to write an extended text that meets these criteria. With guidance—from your committee, from your peers, from institutional writing support—and with your own growing expertise as a writer, these criteria will ultimately help you to understand when you have met your thesis writing goals.

Formats of the Doctoral Thesis 

Traditional thesis.

The traditional, or monograph-style, thesis format reflects the original conception of a thesis as a “book” presenting the candidate’s research project. The traditional format is organized as a single narrative describing the research problem, the context of the research, the methods used, the findings, and the conclusions. The organization of a traditional thesis is generally organic. If the thesis deals with experimental research, it may be structured with an introductory chapter, a literature review chapter, a method chapter, some number of findings chapters, and a discussion/concluding chapter. If the thesis is based on non-experimental research, the form is likely to be determined by the exigencies of the particular topic. After doctoral studies are complete, a traditional thesis will often be revised into a scholarly monograph or a number of research articles, but the form in which it is presented for the final oral exam is not itself intended for publication. This style of thesis remains the norm in the Humanities and in many Social Science disciplines.

Publication-Based Thesis

The publication-based thesis (PBT), also referred to as the manuscript or article-based thesis, is a coherent work consisting of a number of scholarly publications focusing on the same research problem. The PBT, which takes many forms, generally includes an introductory section, the publishable manuscripts, and a cumulative discussion or conclusion chapter. To promote coherence, the introduction and cumulative concluding chapters clearly explain how these separate manuscripts fit together into a unified body of research. The opening and closing chapters—which act as bookends to the publishable articles—are integral to the purpose of these theses. In these sections, the writer will set out the broad contours of the problem and its significance, review the relevant literature and contextualizing material, and draw the ultimate conclusions about the implications of the whole research project.  As the PBT is a relatively new type of thesis structure designed to meet different professional demands, its form is necessarily different in different contexts. For instance, in some fields, the articles may appear in the thesis in their precise published form; in others, the articles may need to be adapted to better serve the needs of the full thesis. You and your committee will need to establish a clear understanding from the outset about the internal structuring of the PBT. 

Although departmental requirements and norms may vary, below are some general guidelines that may be helpful for those writing PBTs.  

  • The number of articles required for inclusion is usually three, although the number depends on the articles’ scope, scientific quality and significance, and publishing forum, as well as the author’s independent contribution to any co-authored articles included in the thesis. 
  • Publication of manuscripts, or acceptance for publication by a peer-reviewed journal, does not guarantee that the thesis will be found acceptable for the degree sought. 
  • Published-based theses may include published, in press or in review manuscripts or articles that have not yet been submitted for publication. Normally, the thesis and examination committees must deem the articles as publishable if the articles are not published at the time of defence.  
  • In some departments, the publication-based thesis includes each individual manuscript in a form that is identical to the published/submitted version, including the reference list.  In other departments, students are permitted or required to adapt the articles into a form more suitable for inclusion in the thesis. Please check with your department about the expectations. 
  • Publication-based theses can include co-authored publications and, in such cases, a detailed statement on individual student contributions to each article must be clearly articulated. Students are strongly recommended (and, in some units, required) to have their contributions approved by the authors of the articles in question.
  • No two student theses will be allowed to be identical.
  • In the case of multiple-authored articles, the expectation is that the thesis writer will be the first or co-first author. In rare cases, a supervisor may decide that a paper can be included when the thesis writer is not a first author, provided that their contribution to the paper is substantial. In all cases, the parts of the PBT that are not written for publication (the Introduction, Discussion, Conclusions and Future Recommendations chapters) must be entirely the work of the thesis writer.

Multimodal Thesis 

All doctoral theses must contain a written component; however, other elements may be included in addition to the written text. Some examples of other elements that may be included with the written text are films or videos, electronically interactive word/image-based texts, poems, novels or sections of a novel, play scripts, short stories, documentation of performances, or pieces of art. In multimodal theses, the creative element should be integrated into the theoretical context in order to show explicitly how the thesis, as a whole, leads to new insights and contributions. In all other respects, the thesis must conform to the same standards required for all doctoral theses. It should make an original contribution to knowledge, demonstrate appropriate research methods and training, and be worthy of publication in whole or in part.

Portfolio Thesis

The portfolio thesis is a form of thesis in which a certain amount of publishing will “equal” a thesis, without requiring a separate text to be written. This type of thesis is also known as a stapler thesis or a Ph.D. by publication, a name that highlights the absence of an actual thesis. This form of thesis is currently rare at the University of Toronto.

Professional Doctoral Thesis in Practice  

At the University of Toronto, the professional doctoral thesis in practice includes the identification and investigation of a problem in practice, the application of theory, research and policy analysis to the problem of practice, translating research into practice, and a proposed plan for action to address the problem of practice. The professional doctoral thesis in practice is expected to have meaningful generative impact on practice and policy.

Ontario Council of Academic Vice-Presidents’ (OCAV) Doctoral Degree Expectations for Doctoral Students in Ontario

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Dissertations / Theses on the topic 'Rudiment'

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Rosengren, Erik. "Effekten av seriell och blockindelad övning vid inlärning av rudiment för trumspel." Thesis, Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för konstnärliga studier, 2016. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42679.

Gillespie, Laura. "Studies on the formation and migration of the pronephric rudiment in the Mexican axolotl." Thesis, University of Ottawa (Canada), 1985. http://hdl.handle.net/10393/4902.

Suginami(Murashima), Akiko. "Rudiment incisors survive and erupt as supernumerary teeth as a result of USAG-1, abrogation." Kyoto University, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/2433/124232.

Lorino, Jr Jeffrey. "They Actively Serve Who Stand and Wait: The Rudiment of Faithful Obedience Rousing Patient Activity in Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes." OpenSIUC, 2010. https://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/theses/389.

Gonçalves, Guilherme Casas. "Rudimentos de mecânica, ações hamiltoneanas e aplicação momento." Universidade de São Paulo, 2015. http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/45/45131/tde-15072015-105721/.

Salgado, Benigno Fernandez. "The rudiments of Galician : an examination of early twentieth-century Galician linguistic texts (1913-1936)." Thesis, University of Oxford, 1996. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.320886.

Kaniak, Vanessa. "AS MEDIDAS DE PROTEÇÃO FORNECIDAS PELO GOVERNO BRASILEIRO NO COMBATE AO TRABALHO DEGRADANTE EXISTENTE NAS CARVOARIAS COM MÉTODO DE PRODUÇÃO RUDIMENTAR." UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL DE PONTA GROSSA, 2015. http://tede2.uepg.br/jspui/handle/prefix/219.

Paulsson, Ola. "Fokuserat Spel : Hur koncentrationen visar sig under rudimentär övning för slagverk." Thesis, Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för musik, pedagogik och samhälle, 2019. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:kmh:diva-2912.

Bello, Baños Kenya. "De l’alphabétisation des mexicains : les premiers rudiments et les usages de la lecture et de l’écriture à Mexico." Paris, EHESS, 2014. http://www.theses.fr/2014EHES0059.

Klint, Ludvig. "Trummor på gitarr : Ett sätt för låtskrivaren att slå sig fram?" Thesis, Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för musik och bild (MB), 2016. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-53849.

Nogueira, Fernanda Mayara. "Morfologia do rudimento seminal e da parede do ovário de espécies do complexo nidularioide e sua importância taxonômica em Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae)." reponame:Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da UFRGS, 2014. http://hdl.handle.net/10183/131676.

Guimarães, Marcos Denilson. "Por que ensinar desenho no curso primário? Um estudo sobre as suas finalidades (1829-1950)." reponame:Repositório Institucional da UFSC, 2017. https://repositorio.ufsc.br/xmlui/handle/123456789/180323.

Lima, Ricardo Pereira Santos. "Uma análise conceitual da relação entre psique e corpo em Agostinho : os rudimentos do problema mente-corpo." Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 2015. https://repositorio.ufu.br/handle/123456789/15598.

Debom, Camila Riegel. "O aprendizado da astronomia e das ciências afins com a mediação da observação rudimentar e da imagem astronômica." reponame:Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações da UFRGS, 2010. http://hdl.handle.net/10183/26491.

Pedersoli, Giseli Donizete. "Morfologia, desenvolvimento e aspectos da flor em espécies de Urticaceae Juss." Universidade de São Paulo, 2017. http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/59/59139/tde-08012018-143400/.

Costa, Patrícia Kurtz da. "ASPECTOS DA ONTOGENIA, GINOSPOROGÊNESE E GINOGAMETOGÊNESE EM Dasyphyllum brasiliense (Spreng.) Cabrera E Schlechtendalia luzulaefolia Less. (BARNADESIOIDEAE-ASTERACEAE)." Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 2014. http://repositorio.ufsm.br/handle/1/4881.

Oliveira, Marcus Aldenisson de. "A Aritmética Escolar e o Método Intuitivo: Um novo saber para o curso primário (1870 – 1920)." reponame:Repositório Institucional da UFSC, 2017. https://repositorio.ufsc.br/xmlui/handle/123456789/178956.

Williams, Matthew Thomas. "The styles of percussionist Bob Becker| Combining and peforming disparate eastern and western musical traditions from Indian tabla and rudimental snare drumming to ragtime." Thesis, California State University, Long Beach, 2013. http://pqdtopen.proquest.com/#viewpdf?dispub=1523326.

Percussionist Bob Becker is known as an eclectic composer and performer of classical western and world musical styles performed through a wide range of percussive genres. Originally trained to be a classical marimba player and orchestral percussionist, Becker turned his attention to playing music from classical Indian and Ghanaian traditions, as well as the American ragtime xylophone music of George Hamilton Green early in his career during the 1970s. This paper explores Becker's musical training, eclectic and disparate performance repertoire, and his novel and philosophical approaches to composition within three distinct musical traditions: rudimental snare drumming, Hindustani tabla drumming, and ragtime xylophone.

Penariol, Camila Politi. "Elaboração, aplicação e avaliação de uma programação para o ensino informatizado, a futuros professores, de relações condicionais envolvidas na leitura inicial/rudimentar, por meio do procedimento de MTS." Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 2011. https://repositorio.ufscar.br/handle/ufscar/6024.

SANTOS, Paula Perin dos. "Memórias literárias: uma proposta de ensino de escrita sob a perspectiva de Calkins." Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 2015. http://dspace.sti.ufcg.edu.br:8080/jspui/handle/riufcg/216.

Pánek, Martin. "Víceúčelový dům." Master's thesis, Vysoké učení technické v Brně. Fakulta stavební, 2014. http://www.nusl.cz/ntk/nusl-226543.

Mc, Inerney Timothy. "'The Better Sort' : ideas of Race and of Nobility in Eighteenth-Century Great Britain and Ireland." Thesis, Paris 3, 2014. http://www.theses.fr/2014PA030124/document.

Lochovská, Kateřina. "Úloha rudimentárních struktur v odontogenezi." Doctoral thesis, 2017. http://www.nusl.cz/ntk/nusl-371275.

Rothová, Michaela. "Proliferace a dynamika tkání během vývoje zubů a jim pribuzných patrových lišt." Doctoral thesis, 2011. http://www.nusl.cz/ntk/nusl-311561.

Fang, Yuan. "Production and Formative Evaluation of a Blended Website-Supported Course on the Rudiments of Music." Thesis, 2011. http://spectrum.library.concordia.ca/7264/1/Fang_MA_S2011.pdf.

Martins, Carlos António Costa. "Direitos de personalidade da pessoa coletiva e da pessoa rudimentar (ente despersonalizado)." Master's thesis, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/10316/90427.

Banze, Irene Maria Lousada. "O ensino colonial em Moçambique: as missões religiosas no sul de Moçambique como instituições de habilitação para africanos (1911-1975)." Doctoral thesis, 2019. http://hdl.handle.net/10071/21678.

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doctoral thesis rudiment

Submitting your PhD dissertation

Practical information on submitting your dissertation

The Beadle’s office

You must submit 2  copies of your thesis and appended propositions to the beadle’s office for the attention of the Doctorate Board no later than  three weeks before the date of your doctoral defence .

Delivery during office hours or send: Bureau Pedel, Rapenburg 73, 2311 GJ Leiden.

PhD Regulations

By decision of the Doctorate Board every PhD candidate at Leiden University is obliged to deliver four  copies of his/her dissertation to the library. He/she also submits the dissertation in digital form to the library for the benefit of the Institutional Repository (IR) of the University. For relevant changes see  PhD Regulations Leiden University .

Candidates are required to fill in both forms below.

  • Dissertation Description & Upload Fill out the form with a short summary and metadata of your dissertation. Also, use this form to upload  PDFs of the dissertation, dissertation cover and propositions . If the dissertation contains published articles please fill in the DOIs. In the form you are asked for keywords. If there exists a generally accepted keyword list within your subject it's best to choose keywords from that list. If there's no such list, consult your promotor or mentor. Avoid words that are used in your dissertation's title, and words which have multiple explanations.  
  • Appendix B (Licence Agreement, to be filled out and signed digitally and/or printed out and signed ). By signing the licence you grant Leiden University the non-exclusive right to post your dissertation in the digital archive, making it available Open Access worldwide. The university will clearly indicate the author or owner of the publication, and will not make any changes other than allowed by this licence. On this appendix you can also indicate which parts of your thesis should be put under embargo.

Send one  completed and signed copy  of Appendix B, together with  four copies  of your dissertation, to the following address:  University Libraries Leiden - MDA  Van Steenis Building  Einsteinweg 2 2333 CC Leiden 

Compensation for printing costs

PhD candidates receive a financial compensation of €500,-  for the printing costs of the dissertation. This compensation is paid by the UBL after receiving four printed copies of the dissertation, a digital copy of the dissertation and the signed license for the non-exclusive publication of the dissertation in digital form.

File types should be PDF. In most cases candidates will already have a PDF-file that is used for printing purposes. Word files can be turned into PDF by choosing File -> Save as Adobe PDF.  Please submit your dissertation as one single PDF. In case one or more chapters are embargoed please indicate so on Appendix B. Further editing is done by our metadata specialists. Also submit the DOI's from chapters that have already been published as articles. The cover and propositions can be submitted separately.  When you would like to store your research data please contact the data management experts at the Centre for Digital Scholarship .

When you only have files in Word (or other file formats), or have questions on the procedure please contact us by  e-mail  or call us at (071) 527 1525.

It is possible to request an embargo of 6, 12, 18, or 24 months for parts of the thesis in those cases where this is necessary because of arrangements with a publisher or for future publications. This embargo period can be stated in the licence. Doctoral candidates are required to check for themselves if and for how long the embargoes need to be set. In case the embargo period is insufficient, this can be extended within reason by the library as stated in the Ph.D. regulations. Please contact the library in case you need an extension.

Although a thesis might be placed under embargo, a candidate is still obliged to submit his/her disseration. Dissertations under embargo are archived for the long term, but not made available full text. However, the abstract and bibliographical information will be made available.

Publishing at your own website or a publisher

Candidates can publish the pdf of their dissertation on their own website. It is easier though, to put the repository-url of your dissertation on your website instead of the pdf. This url is permanent and will therefore remain unaltered.

If you have already published (articles from) your dissertation through a publisher, or are planning to do so, and also want your dissertation published in Open Access, approval depends on the type of licence you and your publisher have signed. In most cases you will have kept the right to submit your article / dissertation in an institutional repository or most publishers will grant you this right. In these cases you will have no problem submitting your dissertation. Note that some publishers can object to submitting a publisher's pdf. A new pdf will then have to be made. If your licence does not mention submitting your publication to an institutional repository, you may be able to find information about their Open Access policy on the publisher's website. Finally, you can write to the publisher to request permission to submit your publication to the repository. Most publishers are obliging in these cases. An up to date overview of publishers and their policies regarding copyright and online archiving in institutional repositories can be found on  Sherpa Romeo Publisher copyright policies & self-archiving .

If you have any questions on the procedure please contact us by  e-mail , or call us at (071) 527 1525.

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Maria Vivero receives SPLC-CRS best PhD thesis award

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Maria Vivero receiving her award

Maria Vivero (right) receiving her award.

Dr. Maria Vivero-Lopez, a Ramón Areces postdoctoral fellow working under the supervision of Prof. Morgan Alexander, has just received a Best PhD Thesis Award during the XV Spanish-Portuguese conference on controlled drug delivery that took place in Lisbon, Portugal on 14-16 February 2024.

The award was granted by the Spanish-Portuguese Local Chapter of the Controlled Release Society (SPLC-CRS) after a careful review process. The CRS is the world’s leading society for the quickly expanding and evolving field of delivery science and technology. This recognition rewards doctoral theses that demonstrate a high level of training of the researcher in the drug delivery field and that have given rise to scientific results published in high-impact indexed journals.

The award-winning PhD thesis “Prophylaxis and topical treatment of infections associated to hearing aids and contact lenses” was carried out under the supervision of Professors Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo and Angel Concheiro at the University of Santiago de Compostela. The project dealt with the development of new techniques to load active substances into medical devices. Specifically, Maria explored different approaches to provide hearing aids and contact lenses with the capacity to load and sustainably release substances capable of preventing biofilm formation or addressing already established infections. The work was developed from a multidisciplinary perspective in collaboration with the University College of London (UK), the Instituto Superior Técnico of Lisbon (Portugal) and the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain).

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08.09 practice essay twelve

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For Filipino domestic workers, being “part of the family” can be a blessing and a curse

Sharing a meal.

Antipolo, Philippines

At age 12, Fidelina Geraldez, now 49, was already working at her uncle’s store, poultry farm, and piggery. She said working for relatives is common in her hometown of Cebu, a province in Visayas island.

Utang na loob —or “debt of gratitude”—is a value that runs deep in Philippine society. It is a currency held in higher regard than monetary payment, even in poor communities. It is the driving force behind the hospitality Filipinos are known for and the reason why many are ready to lend a helping hand for nothing in return. They take comfort in the hope that the favor will be returned in the future.

Utang na loob has normalized the practice of working as a maid for one’s family members, recently highlighted by Alex Tizon’s controversial essay in the Atlantic , My Family’s Slave.  Like Eudocia Pulido, or “Lola,” who served Tizon’s family for more than 50 years and received nothing in return, many Filipinos work as helpers for wealthier relatives. Some volunteer their services in exchange for education, shelter, food, or a small allowance, while others are forced into service by their parents or the employers themselves.

But this gratitude is also easily abused. While there are many people who are fair and aid poorer relatives while treating them as equals, some take advantage of the situation and see them as free labor. Many find it difficult to raise demands out of fear of seeming ungrateful.

Even when there is a typhoon you have to work

Geraldez does not like talking to big crowds. “I only like sharing stories with people one on one. When it comes to talking to a lot of people, you can’t rely on me. I tremble.”

But her fear was not obvious when she stood in front of 16 female domestic workers one recent afternoon in a hotel conference room in Antipolo, a city in the outskirts of Manila, to participate in a workshop about how to organize.

Geraldez is the vice president for internal affairs for the labor union United Domestic Workers of the Philippines (United), the first domestic-workers’ union in the country. That day, she led a discussion about how much each member is willing to pay for organizational dues, and during a post-lunch sharing session, Geraldez opened up to a group of five other women about working for family. 

“Relatives are stingy when it comes to wages… They will curse at you. You will feel like you are their property,” she said. The other women all nodded their heads in agreement. “If it were not for United, I would not have the inner strength to talk to people,” added Geraldez.

united domestic workers of the philippines workshop

When she is not at United events, most of Geraldez’s days are spent working on multiple jobs. She cooks and sells packed lunches, works in a factory, and takes care of her cousin’s for-rent condominium units in Manila.

This cousin sporadically pays her about $80 to prepare units for new tenants, clean rooms, and run errands like pay the electric bill. She said her cousin is good to her but often takes her husband’s side even when he has unreasonable demands. “The man gives no consideration when giving orders. Even when there is a typhoon, he will make an excuse so you can go [to work],” Geraldez said. Whenever she confronts her cousin’s husband about being paid late or requests for additional transportation allowance, he talks his way out of paying her.

Member of the United Domestic Workers of the Philippines after a workshop in Antipolo, Philippines

When they are not related to you, they have more qualms about giving orders

One of the most common challenges domestic workers face is long working hours coupled with low pay. Right now, in the Philippines, minimum wage for domestic workers is  $30-$50 (pdf) per month; the per capita GDP comes to about $240 a month. 

According to Himaya Montenegro, a program coordinator for the  Labor Education and Research Network’s  domestic helpers program, the workers’ goal isn’t to achieve equal payment with office workers but to simply increase the minimum wage to around $81 to $91 per month. She understands that most employers don’t have high salaries either, but said they should be giving the required benefits like a small pension, home financing funds and health insurance.

Again, if stay-in workers save on the expenses of rent, food, and transportation, it also means they are working longer hours than usual. According to the International Labour Office (pdf), one in five Philippine domestic workers labors for 11 hours or more a day, but the share rises to one in three for live-in female workers. And relatives can be worse about this than other employers.

“Because when they are not related to you, they have qualms about giving you orders… but your relatives, they will abuse your services because they know where you came from, they know who you are,” said Evelyn Magtibay, 44.

Magtibay worked as an all-around helper for her second cousin for 9 years. When she started in 1990, she was paid $5 every month with no benefits. Like Geraldez, her cousin was amicable and not directly cruel to her; the abuse came from his wife’s relatives. She said they would force her to do their laundry and other household chores, even though working for them was not part of the job she agreed to do. “They were jealous of me because of our relationship. Of course: we are related. When my boss is not there, they are mean to me,” Magtibay said. Today, Magtibay runs her own business but still works part-time as a live-out helper. 

Honorary family member

A Filipino domestic worker's t-shirt with domestic workers rights

Sitting next to Magtibay was 57-year-old Lyn Signo. She is the second of 19 children and as the eldest girl, she had no choice but to take on the role of caretaker. She is from Aklan, a province in Visayas. Big families are common in rural parts of the Philippines where there is little to do, no electricity, and many people are not educated on family planning. 

“I told them, ‘If you don’t stop [having children], I will run away and drop out of school,” Signo said. She left her hometown at 12 years old in the early 1970s after growing tired of attending to her siblings.

Her voice relaxed when she looked back on the first family she worked for and stayed with for at least 20 years. She attended the same public school as one of her employer’s children and felt like she fit right in. “They did not let me go to school if I was not properly dressed. They would reach out to me and say ‘Change. Here, I have a lot of clothes,’ you know, those things. It was like we were siblings,” Signo said.

Still, as good as Signo’s experience was, she was still a working minor, with a monthly salary of about two dollars back then. Now she continues to look after the same family—but as a live-out worker.

Even at its best, being “part of the family” is not all it is cracked up to be, said Montenegro, the labor activist. “When you are treated as a relative, when they say you are related, that’s where the struggle lies.”

The family you make

The women of United are a close bunch. They are familiar with each other’s stories and have met some of each other’s employers. Some women even brought their children along for the trip to Antipolo.

“Sometimes, we meet up with each other to relieve our stress. Sometimes [we relieve stress] in school. It’s like that’s where our weariness lessens,” said the president of United, 38-year-old Novelita Palisoc.

The organization started to form in 2012 and quickly grew through word of mouth. Members encouraged fellow domestic helpers in the area where they lived or worked and once a neighborhood gathered a substantial amount of people, they formed a new chapter. In 2015, it officially became the first domestic worker union in the Philippines, and now has 24 chapters.

Palisoc said domestic workers today are more empowered and are more vocal about their concerns. “Domestic workers today are smarter. They don’t accept a 3,000 [peso salary, about $60] anymore,” she said. They have also learned to bring up their rights like a weekly day off and a written contract.

But, as important as the pay is, money is not always the main priority for women, union president Palisoc said: “I would rather work somewhere with little pay but I am treated as a person.”

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AP English Literature and Composition

 AP English Literature and Composition

Course Features:

  • Recommended Grade Level: 9-12
  • Course Credits: 1
  • Course Price: $299.00

Course Overview:

Read and analyze imaginative literature from various periods and disciplines while sharpening your understanding of how a work's style, figurative language, theme, and other literary elements contribute to its meaning and cultural significance. This course fulfills one required English credit for high school graduation.

Note: This course is not designed for ELL (English Language Learners) students. ELL students may enroll in this course ONLY if they have adequate mentor support at their home school and are able to fulfill all course requirements.

Required Materials:

Segment One

Disillusionment:

  • Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller
  • Interpreter of Maladies by Jhumpa Lahiri
  • **Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad

Love and Hate:

  • **Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontё

Segment Two

  • The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck

More Than One Way:

  • **Hamlet by William Shakespeare

Note: All works have merit for the AP English student; texts may have mature subject matter or contain adult language or situations. If this is a concern for you or your family, we recommend researching the novel choice to determine what is appropriate.

Module 01: Disillusionment

  • 01.00 Disillusionment: Checklist
  • 01.01 Course Overview
  • 01.02 The Power of Literature
  • 01.03 Perspective and Voice
  • 01.04 The Free Response
  • 01.05 The American Theater
  • 01.06 The Disillusionment of Character
  • 01.07 Literature Through the Lenses
  • 01.08 Start at the Beginning
  • 01.09 Disillusionment: Discussion-Based Assessment
  • 01.10 Practice Essay One

Module 02: The Struggle

  • 02.00 The Struggle: Checklist
  • 02.01 The Struggle is Real
  • 02.02 Romanticism and the Ancient Mariner
  • 02.03 Multiple Choice: Prose and Poetry
  • 02.04 People and Places
  • 02.05 Storyteller and Structure
  • 02.06 Frankenstein and Rime
  • 02.07 Practice Essay Two
  • 02.08 Evaluate Evidence
  • 02.09 The Struggle: Discussion-Based Assessment
  • 02.10 Practice Essay Three

Module 03: Journey

  • 03.00 Journey: Checklist
  • 03.01 Multiple Choice: Read Stems First
  • 03.02 Practice Essay Four
  • 03.03 The Nature of Humanity
  • 03.04 Symbols, Motifs, and Themes
  • 03.05 The Research Paper
  • 03.06 Building Your Paper
  • 03.07 Developing Commentary
  • 03.08 Using MLA Format
  • 03.09 Journey: Discussion-Based Assessment
  • 03.10 Research Paper Final Draft

Module 04: Love and Hate

  • 04.00 Love and Hate: Checklist
  • 04.01 Practice Essay Five
  • 04.02 Experience the Heights
  • 04.03 Not Another Love Poem
  • 04.04 The Pieces and Parts of a Poem
  • 04.05 Establishing a Line of Reasoning
  • 04.06 Multiple Choice: Predict the Answer
  • 04.07 Who Could Tell Such a Story?
  • 04.08 Ways of Viewing Wuthering Heights
  • 04.09 Love and Hate: Discussion-Based Assessment
  • 04.10 Segment One Exam

Module 05: Family

  • 05.00 Family: Checklist
  • 05.01 Multiple Choice: Find the Focus
  • 05.02 How Can Grapes Be Wrathful?
  • 05.03 Family Influence
  • 05.04 Structurally Sound
  • 05.05 Practice Essay Six
  • 05.06 Analyze, Evaluate, and Apply
  • 05.07 Details and Patterns
  • 05.08 Through a Child's Eyes
  • 05.09 Practice Essay Seven
  • 05.10 The Grapes of Wrath: Analysis
  • 05.11 Family: Discussion-Based Assessment

Module 06: More Than One Way

  • 06.00 More Than One Way: Checklist
  • 06.01 Multiple Choice: Eliminate Answer Choices
  • 06.02 Queen, Prince, or Groundling?
  • 06.03 To Laugh or Not to Laugh
  • 06.04 To Be or Not to Be
  • 06.05 Evaluate and Implement: Poetry
  • 06.06 Practice Essay Eight
  • 06.07 Love Song or Not
  • 06.08 More Than One Way: Discussion-Based Assessment
  • 06.09 Practice Essay Nine

Module 07: Discovery

  • 07.00 Discovery: Checklist
  • 07.01 Awakening as Discovery
  • 07.02 Discovery Through Strategy
  • 07.03 Practice Essay Ten
  • 07.04 Multiple Choice: Putting It All Together
  • 07.05 Natural Discoveries
  • 07.06 Discover for Yourself
  • 07.07 Crushing Discoveries
  • 07.08 Evaluate and Implement: Literary Argument
  • 07.09 Discovery: Discussion-Based Assessment
  • 07.10 Practice Essay Eleven

Module 08: The Irony

  • 08.00 The Irony: Checklist
  • 08.01 Multiple Choice: Practice
  • 08.02 The Irony of Survival
  • 08.03 The Irony of Revenge
  • 08.04 The Irony of Appearances
  • 08.05 The Irony of Truth
  • 08.06 The Irony of Madness
  • 08.07 The Irony of the End
  • 08.08 Evaluate and Implement: Prose
  • 08.09 Practice Essay Twelve
  • 08.10 The Irony: Discussion-Based Assessment

Module 09: Review and Exam

  • 09.00 Review and Exam: Checklist
  • 09.01 Exam Review Part 1
  • 09.02 Exam Review Part 2
  • 09.03 Exam Review Part 3
  • 09.04 Segment Two Exam

February 2024 Newsletter

2022 Three Minute Thesis (3MT) competition in Tink Ballroom

Three Minute Thesis (3MT)

Join us for the third annual  Three Minute Thesis (3MT™) competition  at Case Western Reserve University on Friday, February 16, from 12:40 to 3:15pm EST in the Tinkham Veale University Center Ballroom!

Developed by the University of Queensland and now held at over 900 institutions across more than 80 countries, 3MT celebrates the exciting research conducted by graduate students around the world. 3MT challenges students to explain their research and its importance in a way a general audience would understand in just three minutes with the aid of one single slide. The top-rated presenters will receive prizes and be celebrated at the 2023 Graduate Awards Ceremony in May. The first place winner will go on to represent CWRU and compete at the Midwest Association of Graduate Schools Regional Competition in March.

This year's keynote speaker for the 3MT competition will be John Gonzalez, the ever engaging Communications and Social Media Manager at Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District. Attendees will receive a boxed lunch. Snacks and drinks will be available later in the afternoon. We ask that no eating take place during the competition presentations.

Learn more about  3MT at CWRU . Register on CampusGroups to  attend in-person  or  watch the livestream  from anywhere in the world.

PhD Graduates lined up on Main Quad before Commencement Convocation 2017

Commencement - May 17, 2024

The School of Graduate Studies Diploma Ceremony will be on Friday, May 17 at 2:00pm EDT. All graduating students are also invited to a University-wide Convocation on Wednesday, May 15. More details on Commencement 2024 will be posted in the coming weeks but you can review  additional information here .

Don't forget to register to attend the Commencement ceremonies! Registration will begin Friday, March 1 and end on Sunday, March 31. Even if you have already applied for graduation in SIS but you  must also  register to participate in Commencement; applying to graduate and registering for Commencement are  two entirely separate processes . When you register, you will be able to enter a preferred name and phonetic spelling and record your pronunciation.

Also, you can get  assistance ordering regalia  at doctoral fittings (March 5 and 15) or the Grad Fair (March 28-29).

Final Oral Defense

Doctoral candidates must submit the  Notification for Scheduling the Final Oral Exam  to Graduate Studies  at least three weeks prior  to the scheduled defense date. If you intend to graduate in May, you should pay careful attention to  submission deadlines  and plan accordingly. Dissertation defenses are to be held in-person. If special circumstances exist, students can petition Grad Studies for exceptions. See our  Graduation page  for more details.

Spring Break March 11-15

Students in the School of Graduate Studies receive a five-day break from classes and class activities corresponding to Spring Break in the undergraduate calendar, March 11 to 15. Please note that this exemption applies only to classes and class activities; faculty may still require students to perform research activities during these breaks.

As a reminder if you do stay on campus over the break, please confirm access availability as some buildings and services (KSL, gyms, shuttles, dining, etc) may have altered hours.

Clocktower at Biomedical Research Building (BRB)

Daylight Saving Time Begins in March

Daylight Saving Time (DST) for the United States will begin overnight Sunday, March 10. Before going to bed that Saturday night, make sure move forward one hour any clocks that do not automatically update so you're on time for any appointments the following week!

Incomplete (I) Grades from Fall 2023?

If you received an Incomplete ( I ) grade in the fall semester, you have until the date specified by your instructor -  but no later than the 11th week of class (Friday, March 29)  - to submit all outstanding work in order to have a final grade posted. If the Incomplete is not resolved by this date, the I grade will be converted to an F.  See our Incomplete Policy in the Bulletin  for more details.

Anti-Plagiarism Tools

Graduate students, postdoctoral scholars, and faculty should use  iThenticate  plagiarism detection software to ensure work is properly cited when writing theses and dissertations, preparing manuscripts for publication, and submitting proposals for research funding. iThenticate is freely available to the CWRU community at the University's Software Center. See here for  more information and how to download iThenticate .The University has also integrated  Turnitin , a digital plagiarism detection tool, into Canvas to help ensure student academic writing submissions are free of unintentional or intentional plagiarism. See here for  more information on Turnitin .

Verify Your Final Exams

Mark your calendars for final exams! Take a moment to verify your final exam dates and times with your syllabi and your professors. Make sure all of your travel plans for summer are  after  your final exams. Exams will not be rescheduled due to travel conflicts.

Resources & Opportunities

Selection of student winners of 2018 Graduate Awards

Nominate Students for Grad Studies Awards!

Nominations are now open for the 2024 Graduate Student Awards!

Faculty and academic departments with programs in the School of Graduate Studies are encouraged to nominate outstanding students for several prestigious awards to be honored at our ceremony on Wednesday, May 1. Some nominations can be submitted by students and community members. See  our submission page  for more details on each award including student eligibility, who is permitted to nominate, and what documentation is needed.

Send questions to  [email protected] . The deadline to submit nominations is Wednesday, March 20.

Submit Notification of Department Awards

Departments that sponsor awards for their students are encouraged to  submit notifications  to Grad Studies so we may include these winners in our ceremony on Wednesday, May 1. Any student in a program managed by the School of Graduate Studies who has received an award in the 2023-2024 academic year should be included so please send your notifications!

Send questions to  [email protected] . The deadline to submit notification of department awards is Wednesday, March 20.

Students Outside on Campus

Spoken English Sessions

  • Culture and Communication: February 16, 23, March 1, 4:25-5:15pm
  • Idioms and Expressions: March 29, April 5, 12, and 19, 4:25-5:15pm
  • SELP Workshops : Most Fridays 3:20-4:10pm
  • SELP English Conversation Hours Practice : Fridays 2:15-3:05pm
  • SELP Tutoring Program : one-on-one tutoring for grad students and postdocs

Register for the seminars and workshops on CampusGroups ; no registration needed for conversation hours. Most sessions are in Tomlinson 239. Graduate students can book tutoring sessions through Tutortrac . Postdocs can contact Eric Moore , the Director of Spoken English Language Programs (SELP).

CWRU Biophysics Day

In celebration of Biophysics Week (March 18-22), our Office of Postdoctoral Affairs invites the campus to Biophysics Day on Wednesday, March 20 at the Wolstein Research Building. See more and register on CampusGroups . Want to sign up to give a Flash Talk' Register by Sunday, March 3 and indicate your interest.

Additional Awards

  • Diversity Achievement Awards : February 16
  • Daniel Lewis Ravin, MD Award : March 7
  • Dr. Dorothy Pijan Student Leadership Awards : March 1
  • Timothy Calhoun Memorial Prize for Poetry : March 15
  • Eva L. Pancoast Memorial Fellowship : March 22

For new content almost ever day of interest to grad students - including other news on campus, important resources, upcoming events, and random fun stuff - please follow us on our social media platforms. Search for  @cwrusgs  on both  Facebook  and  Twitter  or click these links!

Snow covering the Arts Shield outside Yost Hall

  • Ninja Drummist YouTube Video Channel
  • Ninja Drummist FaceBook Fan Page
  • Ninja Drummist on Twitter

Ninja Drummist - Official web site of session drummer and teacher Lewis Partridge. Free Drum Lessons, Drum Rudiments and Other Educational Resources.

The official web site of session drummer and teacher Lewis Partridge.

  • Free Video Drum Lessons and Tuition
  • Private Drum Lessons and Tuition (Luton, Dunstable, Houghton Regis, Bedford and Bedfordshire)
  • Webcam Drum Lessons
  • Educational Drumming Resources
  • Instructional Drum Videos
  • My Drum Videos
  • Recommended Drumming Videos
  • Instructional Drum Books
  • Recommended Drum Books
  • The Drum Rudiment Encyclopedia
  • Beginner's Guide to Drum Rudiments
  • Drum Roll Guide
  • PAS Rudiments
  • Hybrid Rudiments
  • Other Rudiments
  • Hand Technique Exercises
  • Foot Technique Exercises
  • About Lewis Partridge
  • My Up Coming Gigs and Concert Information
  • My Bands and Artists
  • My Drum Equipment
  • My Drumming Heroes and Influences
  • My Drum Practice Log

507 Hybrid Rudiments

This page features an ever growing glossary of Hybrid Rudiments. In order to help you in learning and perfecting these rudiments, I have included easy to read examples, performance tips, free PDF sheet music and video tutorials.

Here are the Hybrid Snare Drum Rudiments:

  • Alternated Cheese Pataflafla
  • Alternated Cheese-Ka
  • Alternated Pataflafla
  • Alternated Pataflaka
  • Alternated Pattyacue
  • Alternated Swiss Tap Drag
  • Alternating Flyz
  • Alternating Four Note Swiss Army Triplet
  • Alternating Hertas
  • Alternating Hertas (with Same Hand Accents)
  • Alternating Hertas (with Upbeat Accents)
  • Alternating One Handed Tap Drag
  • Alternating Pattys
  • Alternating Single Stroke Five
  • Alternating Single Stroke Five (with Upbeat Accents)
  • Alternating Single Stroke Four
  • Alternating Single Stroke Nine
  • Alternating Single Stroke Seven
  • Alternating Single Stroke Six
  • Alternating Single Stroke Three
  • Alternating Swiss Army Triplet
  • Alternating Swiss Flam Drag
  • Backward-Eggbeaters
  • Beater Paradiddle
  • Berger Lesson 25
  • Book Report
  • Book Report (variations)
  • Book Report (with Extra Credit)
  • Brille Stroke
  • Buguda Chickens
  • Buzzadiddle
  • Chatachichi
  • Cheese 3-2-1
  • Cheese Accent
  • Cheese Back Flip
  • Cheese Berger
  • Cheese Chain
  • Cheese Chatachichi
  • Cheese Chutichuhs
  • Cheese Chutra-Cheese
  • Cheese Doctoral Thesis
  • Cheese Double Paradiddle
  • Cheese Double Paradiddle-diddle
  • Cheese Double Parafladdle-diddle
  • Cheese Dragateenth
  • Cheese Drags
  • Cheese Five Chatachichi
  • Cheese Five Stroke Paradiddle
  • Cheese Flama Chuck
  • Cheese Flama Chucka Diddle
  • Cheese Flama-Diddly
  • Cheese Flamacue Swiss
  • Cheese Flamalet
  • Cheese Flammed Zigiddy Bops
  • Cheese Fubars
  • Cheese Inverted Threes
  • Cheese Para-pa-diddle
  • Cheese Paradiddle
  • Cheese Paradiddle-diddle
  • Cheese Paradiddle-diddle-a
  • Cheese Paradiddle-diddle-diddle
  • Cheese Paradiddle-Flafla
  • Cheese Parafladdle-diddle-diddle
  • Cheese Pataflafla
  • Cheese Quickity Klotz
  • Cheese Quickity Klotz (kicked up a notch)
  • Cheese Ripits
  • Cheese Roll
  • Cheese Shirley Murphy
  • Cheese Swiss Double Paradiddle
  • Cheese Swiss Triple Paradiddle
  • Cheese Triple Paradiddle
  • Cheese Triplet Pataflafla
  • Cheese Zigiddy Bops
  • Cheese-Single
  • Cheesea Flamacue-Diddle
  • Cheeseacue Drag
  • Cheeseacue Five
  • Cheeseafladdle
  • Cheeseasingle
  • Cheesed Deviled Eggs
  • Cheesy Pancakes
  • Chewbacca-Diddle
  • Chinese Fives
  • Chuck Cheese
  • Chumbly Bumkinsteen
  • Churruckitahs
  • Chut-Cheese
  • Chutra-Cheese
  • Crazy Harry
  • Delayed Dragadiddle
  • Deviled Eggs
  • Diddle Egg Five
  • Diddle Herta
  • Diddle-Flafla
  • Displaced Flamacue
  • Displaced Flamacue (with Diddle on Three)
  • Displaced Flamacue (with Diddles on One and Three)
  • Doctor Rion
  • Doctoral Thesis
  • Double Accented Single Flam Drag
  • Double Dragadiddle
  • Double Flam Drag
  • Double Flam Drag Diddle
  • Double Flam Drag Diddle-diddle
  • Double Flam Drag Triple Paradiddle
  • Double Flam-Flam Paradiddle
  • Double Flamacue
  • Double Flammed Mill
  • Double Flammed Swiss Army Triplet
  • Double Para Flamadiddle
  • Double Para Swiss Flam Drags
  • Double Paradiddle Flamacue
  • Double Paradiddle Flamacue (with Flam on Five)
  • Double Paradiddle-diddle
  • Double Paradiddle-diddle Nine Stroke Roll
  • Double Parafladdle-diddle
  • Double Ratamaflam
  • Drag Double Paradiddle
  • Drag Paradiddle-diddle
  • Drag Triple Paradiddle
  • Dragateenth
  • Elmer Fudd-diddle
  • Five Stroke Diddle Herta
  • Five Stroke Dragadiddle
  • Five Stroke Flamtas
  • Five Stroke Herta
  • Five Stroke Paradiddle
  • Five Stroke Paradiddle Herta
  • Five Stroke Paradiddle Rudy-Mental
  • Flaflam Drag
  • Flam Accent 2
  • Flam Accent Drag
  • Flam Accent Roll
  • Flam Beaters
  • Flam Change Ups
  • Flam Cheese Paradiddle
  • Flam Devils
  • Flam Double Paradiddle
  • Flam Double Paradiddle-diddle
  • Flam Double Paradiddle-diddle Nine Stroke Roll
  • Flam Double Parafladdle-diddle
  • Flam Drag Chatachichi
  • Flam Drag Chutichuhs
  • Flam Drag Double Paradiddle
  • Flam Drag Double Paradiddle-diddle
  • Flam Drag Double Parafladdle-diddle
  • Flam Drag Five Stroke Paradiddle
  • Flam Drag Flafla
  • Flam Drag Flamadiddle
  • Flam Drag Flamafladdle
  • Flam Drag Paradiddle
  • Flam Drag Paradiddle-diddle
  • Flam Drag Parafladdle
  • Flam Drag Pataflafla-diddle
  • Flam Drag Quickity Klotz
  • Flam Drag Single
  • Flam Drag Triple Paradiddle
  • Flam Drag-a-poo
  • Flam Dragadiddle-diddle
  • Flam Eight Stroke Roll
  • Flam Eleven Stroke Roll
  • Flam Eleven Triple Paradiddle
  • Flam Fifteen Stroke Roll
  • Flam Five Double Drag Diddle
  • Flam Five Double Paradiddle
  • Flam Five Double Paradiddle-diddle
  • Flam Five Double Parafladdle-diddle
  • Flam Five Drag Diddle
  • Flam Five Drag Diddle-diddle
  • Flam Five Drag Paradiddle
  • Flam Five Flafla
  • Flam Five Paradiddle
  • Flam Five Paradiddle-diddle
  • Flam Five Patty
  • Flam Five Quickity Klotz
  • Flam Five Single
  • Flam Five Superdiddle
  • Flam Five Tapafladdle
  • Flam Five Triple Paradiddle
  • Flam Flamalet
  • Flam Four Stroke Roll
  • Flam Fourteen Stroke Roll
  • Flam Hertas
  • Flam Invention 1
  • Flam Jiggers
  • Flam Mill Drag
  • Flam Muppets
  • Flam Nine Double Paradiddle
  • Flam Nine Double Paradiddle-diddle
  • Flam Nine Stroke Roll
  • Flam Nine Triple Paradiddle
  • Flam Paradiddle (variations)
  • Flam Paradiddle Five
  • Flam Paradiddle-diddle-a
  • Flam Paradiddle-diddle-diddle
  • Flam Parafladdle-diddle
  • Flam Parafladdle-diddle-diddle
  • Flam Puguda
  • Flam Seven Double Paradiddle
  • Flam Seven Double Paradiddle-diddle
  • Flam Seven Stroke Roll
  • Flam Seven Triple Paradiddle
  • Flam Seven-Ups
  • Flam Seventeen Stroke Roll
  • Flam Six Stroke Roll
  • Flam Sixteen Stroke Roll
  • Flam Stutters
  • Flam Tap Double Paradiddle
  • Flam Tap Paradiddle
  • Flam Tap Paradiddle-diddle
  • Flam Tap Triple Paradiddle
  • Flam Ten Stroke Roll
  • Flam Thirteen Stroke Roll
  • Flam Thirteen Triple Paradiddle
  • Flam Triple Paradiddle
  • Flam Triple Stroke Roll
  • Flam Twelve Stroke Roll
  • Flam Upbeat Diddles
  • Flam Upbeat Five
  • Flam-a-Flam
  • Flam-Flam Flamadiddle
  • Flam-Flam Tap
  • Flam-Four Flams
  • Flam-Single
  • Flam-Single (with Cheese on One)
  • Flam-Single (with Cheese on Three)
  • Flama Chuck
  • Flama Chucka Diddle
  • Flama Diddle Diddle
  • Flama Flamacue-Diddle
  • Flama Flive-a-Tap
  • Flama Swiss Army Triplet
  • Flama-Diddly
  • Flama-Flama-Flam Flam
  • Flama-Flama-Flam Tap
  • Flama-Singles
  • Flama-Tap-Flafla
  • Flamacue a cue
  • Flamacue a Diddle
  • Flamacue a Flafla
  • Flamacue Drag
  • Flamacue Five
  • Flamacue Swiss
  • Flamacue-Diddle
  • Flamadiddle Flam-Flam
  • Flamasingle
  • Flamill Drags
  • Flammed 3-2-1
  • Flammed Alternated Swiss Tap Drag
  • Flammed Alternating Single Stroke Four
  • Flammed Alternating Single Stroke Nine
  • Flammed Alternating Single Stroke Seven
  • Flammed Alternating Single Stroke Six
  • Flammed Alternating Single Stroke Three
  • Flammed Backward-Eggbeaters
  • Flammed Chinese Fives
  • Flammed Double Mill
  • Flammed Doubles
  • Flammed Eggbeaters
  • Flammed Five Stroke Paradiddle
  • Flammed Lesson 25
  • Flammed Para-pa-diddle
  • Flammed Ravioli
  • Flammed Ripits
  • Flammed Shirley Murphy
  • Flammed Single Ratamacue
  • Flammed Single Stroke Four
  • Flammed Single Stroke Nine
  • Flammed Single Stroke Seven
  • Flammed Single Stroke Six
  • Flammed Single Stroke Three
  • Flammed Swiss Tap Drag
  • Flammed Triplets
  • Flammed Zigiddy Bops
  • Flamtaplets
  • Flim-Swiss Triplet
  • Flive-a-Flam
  • Flive-Flafla-Tap
  • Four Flam-Flam-Flamadiddle
  • Four Note Swiss Army Triplet
  • Four Stroke Cheese Fubars
  • Four Stroke Flamaruff
  • Four Stroke Fubars
  • Four Stroke Ruff Double Paradiddle
  • Four Stroke Ruff Double Ratamacue
  • Four Stroke Ruff Inverted Paradiddle
  • Four Stroke Ruff Paradiddle
  • Four Stroke Ruff Reverse Paradiddle
  • Four Stroke Ruff Single Ratamacue
  • Four Stroke Ruff Triple Paradiddle
  • Four Stroke Ruff Triple Ratamacue
  • Four Stroke Ruffadiddle-diddle
  • Four Stroke Ruffadiddle-Tap
  • French Flams
  • Fubars Fives
  • Funky Cheese
  • Funky Cheese Inverts
  • Ghost Flams
  • Grilled Cheese
  • Hertas (with Same Hand Accents)
  • Hertas (with Upbeat Accents)
  • Hulka Helicopter
  • Invert Cheese Patty
  • Invert Flam Fours
  • Invert Patty
  • Inverted Book Report
  • Inverted Cheese
  • Inverted Cheese Flam Tap
  • Inverted Cheese Flama Chuck
  • Inverted Cheese Flama-Diddly
  • Inverted Cheese Paradiddle-diddle
  • Inverted Double Paradiddle-diddle
  • Inverted Dragadiddle
  • Inverted Flam Double Paradiddle-diddle
  • Inverted Flam Drag
  • Inverted Flam Drag-a-poo
  • Inverted Flam Parafladdle-diddle
  • Inverted Flam Tap Paradiddle-diddle
  • Inverted Flama Chuck
  • Inverted Flama-Diddly
  • Inverted Flama-Singles
  • Inverted Flamacue Drag
  • Inverted Inverts
  • Inverted Paradiddle Patty
  • Inverted Parafladdle-diddle
  • Inverted Swiss Grinders
  • Inverted Tap Flam Seven
  • Inverted Threes
  • Inverted Triple Stroke Roll
  • Malf Accent
  • Malf Paradiddle
  • Nice n Easy
  • Octadiddle-tron
  • Odd 3 Even 3
  • One Handed Five
  • One Handed Flam Drag
  • One Handed Flam Five
  • One Handed Tap Drag
  • Para Flam-Flam
  • Para Flamadiddle
  • Para-pa-diddle
  • Paradiddle (with Cheese on Four)
  • Paradiddle Diddle Herta
  • Paradiddle Five
  • Paradiddle Flamtas
  • Paradiddle Herta
  • Paradiddle-diddle-a
  • Paradiddle-diddle-diddle
  • Paradiddle-Flafla
  • Parafladdle
  • Parafladdle-diddle
  • Parafladdle-diddle-diddle
  • Patty Flam Tap
  • Patty Flamacue Five
  • Patty Invert
  • Patty Seven
  • Pattya Diddle
  • Pattya Flam Tap
  • Pattya Invert
  • Poly Flam Drag
  • Quickity Klotz
  • Quickity Klotz (kicked up a notch)
  • Ratama Swiss Cheese
  • Ratamaswiss
  • Reverse Book Report
  • Reverse Cheese Paradiddle
  • Reverse Dragadiddle
  • Reverse Five
  • Reverse Flam Paradiddle
  • Reverse Paradiddle-Flafla
  • Reverse Shirley Murphy
  • Rudy-Mental
  • Same Hand Chatachichi
  • Same Hand Cheese Paradiddle
  • Same Hand Five Stroke Herta
  • Same Hand Flam Accent
  • Same Hand Flam Paradiddle
  • Same Hand Flam-Flam
  • Same Hand Paradiddle
  • Same Hand Reverse Paradiddle
  • Same Hand Single Flammed Mill
  • Shirley Murphy
  • Side Cheeseadiddle
  • Side Flamadiddle
  • Single Backs
  • Single Flam Drag
  • Single Stroke Five (with Upbeat Accents)
  • Single Stroke Five-a-Flam
  • Single Stroke Flam Five
  • Slurred Drag
  • Slurred Eleven Stroke Roll
  • Slurred Fifteen Stroke Roll
  • Slurred Five Stroke Roll
  • Slurred Four Stroke Roll
  • Slurred Fourteen Stroke Roll
  • Slurred Nine Stroke Roll
  • Slurred Seven Stroke Roll
  • Slurred Seventeen Stroke Roll
  • Slurred Six Stroke Roll
  • Slurred Sixteen Stroke Roll
  • Slurred Ten Stroke Roll
  • Slurred Thirteen Stroke Roll
  • Slurred Twelve Stroke Roll
  • Swiss Cheese
  • Swiss Double Paradiddle
  • Swiss Flam Drag Flam Tap
  • Swiss Grinders
  • Swiss Tap Drag
  • Swiss Triple Paradiddle
  • Swiss Tu-Chada
  • Swissadiddle
  • Tap Flam Seven
  • Three Stroke Ruff Double Paradiddle
  • Three Stroke Ruff Inverted Paradiddle
  • Three Stroke Ruff Paradiddle
  • Three Stroke Ruff Reverse Paradiddle
  • Three Stroke Ruff Triple Paradiddle
  • Three Stroke Ruffadiddle-diddle
  • Three Stroke Ruffadiddle-Tap
  • Threesome Flam Combo
  • Tri-Octaddiddle
  • Triple Dragadiddle
  • Triple Flam Drag Diddle
  • Triple Flam-Flam Paradiddle
  • Triple Flammed Swiss Army Triplets
  • Triple Herta
  • Triple Para Swiss Flam Drags
  • Triple Ratamaflam
  • Triple Stroke Tap Drag
  • Triple-acue
  • Triplet Pataflafla
  • Tu-Cha-Chada
  • Upbeat Diddles
  • Upbeat Five Stroke Roll
  • Walt-Diddles
  • Zigiddy Bops

More About Hybrid Rudiments

Hybrid Rudiments are the result of combining two or more rudiments to create a new rudimental pattern, though this is not always the case. For example, the Flam Paradiddle is technically a Hybrid Rudiment (even though it is included in standardized lists such as the 40 PAS Rudiments etc) as it combines a Flam with a Paradiddle. They are especially common in drumlines and drum corps. As there are an infinite number of ways to produce new patterns and add variations to those patterns, there is no end to the number of possible hybrid combinations.

These are very advanced combinations so you will need to have a good understanding of technique and basic rudiments first (see 40 PAS Rudiments ) with lots of practice for best results. Also, rudiments often have strange names but expect some very strange ones for Hybrid Rudiments! (Rudiments are usually named after their sound.)

While many Drum Kit players recognize the importance of developing a good rudimental vocabulary, very few kit drummers seem to be aware of the huge amount of Hybrid Rudiment possibilities. Snare drummers have been developing rudimental patterns for hundreds of years and much of our musical vocabulary on the kit is comprised of rudiments. I've always felt that it is a shame for kit drummers to be aware of only half of this vocabulary. I know many drummers who have never heard of Hybrid Rudiments and I feel it's time we changed that. Just think of the crazy beats and fills we could create with such complicated sticking patterns!

I hope this section will inspire other kit drummers to check out Hybrid Rudiments and develop their drumming vocabulary further. It's time we took full advantage of the centuries of development snare drummers have given to providing us with such a wealth of rudiments, patterns and techniques.

I have attempted to use the most common names for these hybrid combinations but there are many variations on the names and playing styles for each hybrid.

Official Hybrid Rudiments

Here are the rudiments, featured in standardized lists such as the 40 PAS Rudiments etc, that are technically considered to be Hybrid Rudiments:

  • Flam Tap - A Double Stroke Roll combined with Flams.
  • Flam Paradiddle - A Paradiddle combined with Flams.
  • Single Flammed Mill - A Reverse Paradiddle combined with Flams.
  • Flam Paradiddle-diddle - A Paradiddle-diddle combined with Flams.
  • Flam Drag - A Flam combined with a Drag.
  • Single Dragadiddle - A Paradiddle combined with a Drag.
  • Drag Paradiddle 1 - A Paradiddle combined with a Drag.
  • Drag Paradiddle 2 - A Paradiddle combined with a Drag.
  • Single Ratamacue - A Single Stroke Four combined with a Drag.
  • Double Ratamacue - A Single Stroke Four combined with two Drags.
  • Triple Ratamacue - A Single Stroke Four combined with three Drags.

Calling all Drummers, Teachers and Educators!

If you know of any Hybrid Rudiments that are not listed in this glossary or notice any errors or duplicates in my pages, please contact me and help me to keep this educational resource complete and up to date.

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