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How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

In this citation guide, you will learn how to reference and cite an undergraduate thesis, master’s thesis, or doctoral dissertation. This guide will also review the differences between a thesis or dissertation that is published and one that has remained unpublished. The guidelines below come from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020a), pages 333 and 334. Please note that the association is not affiliated with this guide.

Alternatively, you can visit EasyBib.com for helpful citation tools to cite your thesis or dissertation .

Guide Overview

Citing an unpublished thesis or dissertation, citing a published dissertation or thesis from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation: reference overview, what you need.

Since unpublished theses can usually only be sourced in print form from a university library, the correct citation structure includes the university name where the publisher element usually goes.

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case [Unpublished degree type thesis or dissertation]. Name of institution.

Ames, J. H., & Doughty, L. H. (1911). The proposed plans for the Iowa State College athletic field including the design of a reinforced concrete grandstand and wall [Unpublished bachelor’s thesis]. Iowa State University.

In-text citation example:

  • Parenthetical :  (Ames & Doughty, 1911)
  • Narrative :  Ames & Doughty (1911)

If a thesis or dissertation has been published and is found on a database, then follow the structure below. It’s similar to the format for an unpublished dissertation/thesis, but with a few differences:

  • The institution is presented in brackets after the title
  • The archive or database name is included

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case (Publication or Document No.) [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Database name.

Examples 1:

Knight, K. A. (2011). Media epidemics: Viral structures in literature and new media (Accession No. 2013420395) [Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Example dissertation-thesis

Trotman, J.B. (2018). New insights into the biochemistry and cell biology of RNA recapping (Document No. osu1523896565730483) [Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center.

In the example given above, the dissertation is presented with a Document Number (Document No.). Sometimes called a database number or publication number, this is the identifier that is used by the database’s indexing system. If the database you are using provides you with such a number, then include it directly after the work’s title in parentheses.

If you are interested in learning more about how to handle works that were accessed via academic research databases, see Section 9.3 of the Publication Manual.

In-text citation examples :

  • Parenthetical citation : (Trotman, 2018)
  • Narrative citation : Trotman (2018)

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year Published). Title in sentence case [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Name of archive or collection. URL

Kim, O. (2019). Soviet tableau: cinema and history under late socialism [Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh]. Institutional Repository at the University of Pittsburgh. https://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/37669/7/Olga%20Kim%20Final%20ETD.pdf

Stiles, T. W. (2001). Doing science: Teachers’ authentic experiences at the Lone Star Dinosaur Field Institute [Master’s thesis, Texas A&M University]. OAKTrust. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2001-THESIS-S745

It is important to note that not every thesis or dissertation published online will be associated with a specific archive or collection. If the work is published on a private website, provide only the URL as the source element.

In-text citation examples:

  • Parenthetical citation : (Kim, 2019)
  • Narrative citation : Kim (2019)
  • Parenthetical citation : (Stiles, 2001)
  • Narrative citation : Stiles (2001)

dissertation and thesis Citations for APA 7

We hope that the information provided here will serve as an effective guide for your research. If you’re looking for even more citation info, visit EasyBib.com for a comprehensive collection of educational materials covering multiple source types.

If you’re citing a variety of different sources, consider taking the EasyBib citation generator for a spin. It can help you cite easily and offers citation forms for several different kinds of sources.

To start things off, let’s take a look at the different types of literature that are classified under Chapter 10.6 of the Publication Manual :

  • Undergraduate thesis
  • Master’s thesis
  • Doctoral dissertation

You will need to know which type you are citing. You’ll also need to know if it is published or unpublished .

When you decide to cite a dissertation or thesis, you’ll need to look for the following information to use in your citation:

  • Author’s last name, and first and middle initials
  • Year published
  • Title of thesis or dissertation
  • If it is unpublished
  • Publication or document number (if applicable; for published work)
  • Degree type (bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral)
  • Thesis or dissertation
  • Name of institution awarding degree
  • DOI (https://doi.org/xxxxx) or URL (if applicable)

Since theses and dissertations are directly linked to educational degrees, it is necessary to list the name of the associated institution; i.e., the college, university, or school that is awarding the associated degree.

To get an idea of the proper form, take a look at the examples below. There are three outlined scenarios:

  • Unpublished thesis or dissertation
  • Published thesis or dissertation from a database
  • Thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database

American Psychological Association. (2020a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

American Psychological Association. (2020b). Style-Grammar-Guidelines. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/basic-principles/parenthetical-versus-narrative

Published August 10, 2012. Updated March 24, 2020.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.

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To cite a published thesis in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, publication year, title of the thesis, institute name, archive name, and URL (uniform resource locator). The templates for an in-text citation and reference list entry of a thesis, along with examples, are given below:

In-text citation template and example:

Use the author surname and the publication year in the in-text citation.

Author Surname (Publication Year)

Cartmel (2007)

Parenthetical:

(Author Surname, Publication Year)

(Cartmel, 2007)

Reference list entry template and example:

The title of the thesis is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose the thesis and the institute awarding the degree inside brackets following the publication year. Then add the name of the database followed by the URL.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the thesis [Master’s thesis, Institute Name]. Name of the Database. URL

Cartmel, J. (2007). Outside school hours care and schools [Master’s thesis, Queensland University of Technology]. EPrints. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/17810/1/Jennifer_Cartmel_Thesis.pdf

To cite an unpublished dissertation in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, year, title of the dissertation, and institute name. The templates for in-text citation and reference list entry of an online thesis, along with examples, are given below:

Author Surname (Year)

Averill (2009)

(Author Surname, Year)

(Averill, 2009)

The title of the dissertation is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose “Unpublished doctoral dissertation” inside brackets following the year. Then add the name of the institution awarding the degree.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of the Institute.

Averill, R. (2009). Teacher–student relationships in diverse New Zealand year 10 mathematics classrooms: Teacher care [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Victoria University of Wellington.

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Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed).  https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Formatting:

  • Italicize the title
  • Identify whether source is doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title

See Ch. 10 pp. 313-352 of APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules

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Citing Dissertations & Theses in APA Format

Dissertations & Theses

Dissertations and theses are formatted the same way in APA 7th edition. Theses are generally the culminating work for a master's or undergraduate degree and dissertations are often original research completed by doctoral students. Here are examples of a dissertation & a thesis, and how they would be formatted: 

Examples: 

Dissertation found in Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global: 

Reference:  

Banks, B. (2020). Addressing institutional racism in healthcare: A case study (Publication No. 28154307) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global. 

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):  

(Banks, 2020).

In-Text Citation (Direct Quote):

(Banks, 2020, p. 157).

Master's thesis from a University scholarship database: 

Sears, L. B. (2017). The public voice and sustainable food systems: Community engagement in food action plans [Unpublished master's thesis]. University of Kansas.  https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/26899  

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Sears, 2017). 

(Sears, 2017, p. 24). 

Carrie Forbes, MLS

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Pages Referenced

Citation information has been adapted from the APA Manual (7th Edition). Please refer to page 333 of the APA Manual (7th Edition) for more information.

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Format for dissertations and theses

Dissertations and theses database.

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Author last name, first initial. (Year).  Title of dissertation/thesis  (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, University]. Database. URL

  • Author:  List the last name, followed by the first initial (and second initial). See  Authors  for more information.
  • Year:  List the year between parentheses, followed by a period.
  • Title of dissertation/thesis:  In italics. Capitalize the first word of the title, subtitle, and proper nouns.
  • Publication number: Can be found in Dissertations and Theses database, listed in the item record as “Dissertation/thesis number.”
  • Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis:  List whether it is a dissertation or a thesis.
  • University:  List the university associated with the dissertation/thesis.
  • Database:  List database the dissertation/thesis was found in, if found in a database.
  • URL:  List URL if found on the free Web rather than in a database.

See specific examples below.

Dissertations:

Pecore, J. T. (2004). Sounding the spirit of Cambodia: The living tradition of Khmer music and dance-drama in a Washington, DC community  (Publication No. 3114720) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. 

Master's Theses:

Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resitance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons from the Milgram experiment   (Publication No. 10289373) [Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin - Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

APA calls for the citation to include a unique identifying number for the dissertation, labeling it “Publication No.” That number can be found in Dissertations and Theses database, listed in the item record as “Dissertation/thesis number.”

Karamanos, X. (2020). The influence of professional development models on student mathematics performance in New Jersey public elementary schools [Doctoral dissertation, Seton Hall University]. Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs). https://scholarship.shu.edu/dissertations/2732

Bordo, V. C. (2011). Making a case for the use of foreign language in the educational activities of nonprofit arts organizations [Master's thesis, University of Akron]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center. http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=akron1311135640

Caprette, C. L. (2005). Conquering the cold shudder: The origin and evolution of snake eyes  [Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University].

Angelova, A. N. (2004). Data pruning  [Master's thesis, California Institute of Technology].

See  Publication Manual , 10.6.

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Last Updated on: 3rd June 2022, 04:25 am

The specific guidelines for how to cite a dissertation in APA style depend on a few factors. We’ll go over those below. However, no matter the specifics of the citation, the title of the dissertation is always written the same way.

The dissertation’s title should be written in sentence case and in italics. The first word of the title should be capitalized, and all other words should be in lower case, except for proper nouns.

With that in mind, let’s dive into the specifics of how to cite a dissertation in APA.

How to Cite a Dissertation in APA

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In Text Citation

The guidelines for how to cite a dissertation in APA are the same for writing an in-text citation, paraphrase, and quotation; only the format for the reference list differs.  

(Name of Author, year)

(Stanford, 2016)

Horace Mann developed the common school, which was a free, non-sectarian, public institution (Stanford, 2016).  

According to Stanford (2016), “the common school was the best educational institution to help Americans achieve moral and socioeconomic uplift” (p. 46). 

Reference List

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P ublished Dissertations

Published dissertations and theses are on databases, such as Pro-Quest Dissertations and Theses Globa, a university archive, or a website.

Author’s last name, initial of first name. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication number). [Type of dissertation or thesis, Academic Institution]. Name of database.

Howard, B. (2017). The new media and literary structures . (Publication No. 1076483) [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s Thesis, University of Virginia]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Unpublished Dissertations

Unpublished dissertations and theses are usually only available in print form. 

Author’s last name, initial of first name. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Unpublished doctoral or master’s thesis). Academic Institution.

Stanford, C. (2016). Horace Mann (1796–1859) and nineteenth-century educational reform . (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University. 

Note: For dissertations and theses published or unpublished in countries other than the United States, you have to provide the location.  

Howard, B. (2017). The new media and literary structures . (Publication No. 1076483) [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s Thesis, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Dissertation From an Academic Institution’s Online Archive

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There is only one difference in the guidelines for how to cite a dissertation from an online archive or repository and other ones. The name of the institution’s repository or archive and link needs to be provided. It should be written at the end of the other publication information.

In-text citation

Template (Name of Author, year) 

Example (Howard, 2017)

Paraphrase Literary structure is the arrangement of text elements, written in a way that ensures the author’s meaning is conveyed (Howard, 2017).  

Quotation  According to Howard (2016), “technological advances have resulted in a change in the paradigm regarding literature structures” (p. 46). 

Howard, B. (2017). The new media and literary structures . (Publication No. 1076483) [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s Thesis, University of Virginia]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. University of Virginia Archives. https://uovarchives.net/10389/11814

How to Cite a Dissertation Published Online (Not in a Database)

The guidelines for how to cite a dissertation or thesis published online are similar to those of published and unpublished ones, except for the format in the reference list.  

Reference list

Author’s last name, initial of first name. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication number). [Type of dissertation or thesis, Academic Institution]. URL.

Howard, B. (2017). The new media and literary structures . (Publication No. 1076483) [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s Thesis, University of Virginia]. https://uv.edu/Howard /10288/

Note: You can find more information about how to cite a dissertation or thesis in APA 7th editionon pages 333-334.

How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style: Final Thoughts

Citing a dissertation is relatively simple. As long as you adhere to the rules above, you should have no problem generating the correct citations.

If you need of assistance with APA style, feel free to take a look at our Dissertation Editing services.

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APA 7th Edition Citation Guide

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This citation guide is based on The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association  (7th ed., 2020). The contents are accurate to the best of our knowledge.

Content in this guide was copied with permission from Bethel University (TN) Library .

cite dissertation in text apa

In-Text Citations

How to Use This Guide

Citations in APA style include two parts: (1) in-text citations, which are connected to (2) reference list citations.

This guide will help you create in-text citations that correlate with the corresponding reference list citations. Please see Reference Examples  for more details on the reference list.

Note: All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper except for Personal Communications and similar unrecoverable sources.

Handling In-Text Citations

When mentioning the author in the text of your sentence, provide the author's last name, immediately followed by the date in parentheses.

When not mentioning the author in the text of your sentence, provide the author and date at the end of the sentence in parentheses.

When quoting or paraphrasing a specific detail, include the page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

When writing your paper, you have two basic choices to make when presenting a source to the reader:

  • You can choose to refer to a work in general.
  • You can specifically quote or paraphrase the words and content of that source.

You can also choose to mention the author in the text of your sentences or you can choose to omit the author's name.

For additional examples, please visit the In-Text Citations: Author/Authors page on Purdue Online Writing Lab.

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Use the following template or our APA Citation Generator to cite a dissertation. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator .

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Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.

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Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.

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The in-text citation for a dissertation in APA style is similar to citing a journal or a report. The type of publication (book, journal, report, thesis, etc.) is not an essential element in in-text citations in APA. APA recommends using only the authors’ names and the year in in-text citations.

The dissertation can be published or unpublished. In any case, include the year, which can be the date of publication if the dissertation is published, or the date the degree was awarded if the dissertation is unpublished.

Therefore, to in-text cite a dissertation in APA style, write the author’s name or the authors’ names of the dissertation and the year. You need not add the details of the university awarding the degree in in-text citations.

The in-text citation for a dissertation written by a single author will appear this way:

Narrative: Author’s Surname (Year)

Parenthetical: (Author’s Surname, Year)

Narrative: Blakley (1999)

Parenthetical: (Blakley, 1999)

The format for a reference list entry for a dissertation in APA style depends on whether you’re citing an unpublished or published dissertation.

For an unpublished dissertation, include the author’s last name and first initial(s), the publication date, the dissertation title, the format details in brackets, and the name of the institution awarding the degree.

Author’s Surname, F. M. (Year). Title of the dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Awarding Institution.

Yee, E. (2005). The time course of lexical activation during spoken word recognition: Evidence from unimpaired and aphasic individuals [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Brown University.

For a published dissertation, include the author’s last name and first initial(s), the publication date, the dissertation title, the format details and awarding institution in brackets, the database/archive holding the work, and if applicable, the DOI or URL.

Author’s Surname, F. M. (Year). Title of the dissertation [Doctoral dissertation, Awarding Institution]. Archive/Database Name. DOI or URL

Yee, E. (2005). The time course of lexical activation during spoken word recognition: Evidence from unimpaired and aphasic individuals [Doctoral dissertation, Brown University]. PubMed. https://doi.org/10.1124.92452

  • The title of the dissertation is given in italics.
  • The location of the university is not required.

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Author/Date Citation Method

APA publications use the author/date in text citation system to briefly identify sources to readers.  Each in-text citation is listed alphabetically in the reference list.  All in-text citations referenced in the body of work musr appear in the reference list and vice versa.

The author-date method includes the author's surname and the the publication year.  Do not include suffixes such as Jr., Esq., etc.

(Jones, 2009)

The author/date method is also used with direct quotes.  Another component is added in this format:

(Jones, 2009, p.19)

When multiple pages are referenced, use pp.

(Jones, 2009, pp.19-21)

Variations of author/date within a sentence

Here are some examples of how the author/date citation method are formatted within different parts of a sentence. Please note the author, publication date, and study are entirely fictional (see APA, p.174).

Beginning of a sentence:

Jones (2009) completed a study on the effects of dark chocolate on heart disease.

Middle of a sentence:

In 2009, Jones's study on the effects of dark chocolate and heart disease revealed...

End of a sentence:

The study revealed that participants who ate dark chocolate bars every day did not develop heart disease (Jones, 2009).

Citing a specific part of source (chapter, tables, figures, or equations)

When citing a particular part of a source, it is important to indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation.  Remember to always give page numbers for direct quotations (see APA, section 6.19, p. 179). 

Correct abbreviations continue to be used (see APA, sections 4.22 - 4.30).

(National Chocolate Lovers Association, 2007, p.17)

(Jones, 2009, Chapter 8)

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is great because it allows you to use your own words and your own voice.  It demonstrates that you truly understand what the author is saying. Word of caution: Avoid changing the author's meaning and/or plagiarizing the author.  Looking up certain words within the thesaurus is not paraphrasing.  It is also important to cite the author while paraphrasing.

Here is an example of paraphrasing:

Original citation:

"With rates of childhood obesity climbing over the last decade, some parents and policy-makers have thought to consider whether the availability of endless soda and junk food in school vending machines might be contributing to the problem—and if banning those foods in schools might help solve it" (Price, 2012).

Paraphrase:

Price discusses the possibility that the availability of unhealthy, sugary snacks and drinks in school vending machines has contributed to the rising epidemic of obesity in children.  In an effort to eliminate the source of the problem, some of have proposed implementing a ban (2012).

Direct Quotes: the Short and Long

Direct quotations are sometimes necessary to truly convey the author's meaning to the reader.  When directly quoting an author(s),  (a) the quote must be relevant to your argument, (b) it needs to smoothly transition between what comes first and move to what comes later, (c), it must fit logically and make grammatical sense, and (d) it should be no longer than absolutely necessary.

When reproducing an author's word directly, it is extremely important to quote and cite.  Direct quotations with citation prevents plagiarism and gives the author credit for his/her work. The parenthetical cite should always contain the author's surname, the publication year of the work, and the page citation or paragraph number (for nonpaginated material).

Direct quotations can vary in length.  Quotes fewer than 40 words should be incorporated into the text of the paragraph.  Quotes comprised of 40 or more words, need to be formatted in block quotes.  (see APA, section 6.03, pp.170 - 173; and APA Style Blog , "How to Cite Direct Quotations" or APA Style Blog , "You Can Quote Me on This").

Short, direct quotes (less than 40 words):

Author and quote separated

Bell and Shank (2007) identify that "[a]t least one survey identified library instruction as the type of collaboration mentioned most frequently by librarians" (p.67).

Article retrieved online (see APA, section 6.05, p.171-172)

Price (2012) notes "[t]he results aren't huge, but apparently these laws have a real—and positive—effect on students' health" (para.4).

Author and quote together

"Design is designed in many ways.  By one definition it is the conscious examination of objects and processes to determine how they can be made better" (Bell & Shank, 2007, p. 23).

" The books, sold in the United States, share a piece of a foreign culture, while profits are put back into the country the story came from" (Anthony, 2012, para. 2).

Long, block quotes (40 words or more):

Formatting rules:

• Indent the block quote five spaces or half an inch. • Do not use quotation marks. • Double space the quote unless your school has a rule about single spacing block quotes. • Do not include any additional lines or spaces before or after the block quote. • Notice that in block quotes, the period goes before the parentheses, not after.

Michelli (2007) uses the coffee chain, Starbucks, as example on how to become extraordinary.  He discusses in detail various principles he discovered during his research on the renowned company.  One of the principles focuses on "making it your own."  He writes,

Like most companies, Starbucks has wrestled with ways to invite its partners to fully engage their passions and talents everyday in every interaction at wor.  Simultaneously, the leadership has to ensure that individual partners' differences are blending into a generally uniform experience for customers.  Finding a balance between these two important, yet somtimes divergent, leadership responsibilities can be awkward.  Yet through its principle of Make It Your Own, Starbucks has succeeded in creating a unique model that encourages partners at all levels to pour their creative energy and dedication into everything they do. (p. 20)

This principle does not only apply to businesses; it can be part of anyone's personal beliefs.

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How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation In APA

How to cite a thesis in APA

If you’re writing a dissertation or APA thesis, here’s a guide on how to cite a thesis or dissertation in APA. APA reference dissertation carries major points and will bring down your overall grade if done wrong. Moreover, plagiarism is a serious offense in academia, and APA citing a dissertation wrong is synonymous with plagiarism.

This article talks about citing a thesis APA, including how to cite a thesis paper and other related topics. So, keep reading if you want to know how to APA cite a dissertation.

  • How to Cite a Thesis

How to Cite a Dissertation Source with No Author APA

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  • Dissertation APA Citation Example

APA Style Thesis: How to Cite a Master’s Thesis Quote In-Text

Conclusion: how to cite ph.d. thesis, how to cite a thesis – secondary sources for apa citation of dissertation.

A secondary source is a source quoted within another source; APA cites thesis requires citing such sparingly. For example, you cite dissertation APA sparingly when the original work is unavailable, out of print, or only available in a foreign language. As much as possible, find the primary source and cite directly rather than the secondary source to APA cite a dissertation. We will talk more about APA citation for the dissertation later in the article.

As far as APA dissertation citation goes, determining authorship requires asking who is responsible for the content. Sometimes the author isn’t one person or persons but an entity, including companies, governments, associations, and agencies; the entity is the author. When you don’t see an author, use the first few words from the title used by your source for APA citing dissertation, unless it specifically says “Anonymous.”

When citing a thesis, you use block quotes when using the author’s exact words, which are forty or more words. The rules to APA cite a dissertation include:

  • Indenting the blockquote half an inch or five spaces from the left margin;
  • No quotation marks;
  • Double spacing for quotes unless otherwise instructed;
  • No additional spaces or lines before or after the blockquote;
  • The period in block quotes goes before the parenthesis, not after;

In paraphrases, you’re using your words; this method is usually preferable to direct quotes because you wrote with your style. However, you must be careful not to change the sentence’s meaning, and you still need to acknowledge where you got the idea. The APA cite dissertation should include a parenthetical citation to do that.

When citing paraphrased information in a  dissertation  citation using APA format, you must include the author and date. You may also include the page number; it’s recommended but not required. The page number format in the APA format dissertation depends on if the information is on a range of pages or just a single page. Knowing how to cite thesis APA and write a thesis bibliography is vital to the paper’s success.

If you’re citing dissertation APA for multiple sources where the author has multiple publications published in the same year, the in-text citations should be identical. APA style requires you to include as many names as needed before using “et al.” to distinguish the sources. An example of an APA citation thesis is: Smith, A. A., Lieth, B. B., Gilbert, B. B., Schmidt, D. D. (2019)

For a Ph.D. dissertation citation APA or thesis citation, provide the full name of the university, not its brand name or abbreviation. Below is a sample of how to cite a Ph.D.:

Author, B. B. (date).  Title of doctoral dissertation  (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Institution’s name, location.

If the  master’s thesis  is published and available from an archive, database, or an online platform, cite it in the APA thesis format below:

  • Last name and initials of authors with the last name preceded by “&.” For twenty-one or more authors, write the first nineteen names, an ellipsis (…), and the last author’s name;
  • Write the APA dissertation publication year in brackets and add a full stop;
  • Write the title of the master’s thesis; capitalize only the first letter of the first word and the proper nouns;
  • Write the thesis’s publication or identification number, if available;
  • Provide the name of the higher institution awarding the degree;
  • Provide the name of the platform, archive, or database holding the thesis; omit the URL if you got the thesis on a database.

The 7th edition of the APA referencing dissertation is as follows:

For Unpublished Dissertations: Author, A. A., (year).  Dissertation title: Unpublished doctoral dissertation (use sentence case) . Name of degree-awarding institution.
For Published Dissertations: Author, A. A. (year).  Dissertation title: Doctoral dissertation, degree-awarding institution name (use sentence case). Database or archive name. URL

Dissertation APA Citation Example: APA Citation of a Dissertation

Below is an example of a citation a dissertation APA gets from an institutional database:

Andrea, V. O. (2004).  Perceptions of networked nonprofit organizations: creating an instrument for defining and measuring the behavior  (doctoral dissertation). https://www.lucknowlink.edu/

Direct quotations are verbatim reproductions from another author’s original work. APA thesis format citation requires that you paraphrase when possible; the thesis APA format depends on the quotation length. The APA citation dissertation will include the author, year, and page numbers. APA thesis citation requires formatting direct quotations into short quotations for fewer than forty words and blocks for more.

With this guide on how to cite a dissertation APA and how to cite a thesis in APA, you can correctly cite your paper. Knowing how to cite a thesis or cite a dissertation is just as important as writing the paper right. You can cite a dissertation APA using the information in this guide.

However, if all of these seem like difficult tasks, you can hire our professional writing services to help you. We have a team of experts who understand this citation and are ready to help you.

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In-text citation

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  • Other styles AGLC4 APA 7th Chicago 17th (A) Notes Chicago 17th (B) Author-Date Harvard MLA 9th Vancouver
  • Referencing home

The APA 7th style uses in-text citations when referring to or quoting people’s work. The essential elements of an in-text citation are the author surname/s and year.

Two types of in-text citations

1. author prominent format.

Use this format if you want to emphasise the author. Their name becomes part of your sentence.

Jones (2018) concluded that the treatment was effective in 74% of cases.

Author prominent citations are also referred to as parenthetical citations.

2. Information prominent format

Use this format if you want to emphasise the information. It cites the author’s name, typically at the end of a sentence.

...as evidenced by a recent Australian study of the treatment's effectiveness (Jones, 2018).

Information prominent citations are also referred to as narrative citations.

The following examples show how to form in-text citations according to number of authors and other considerations.

Surname, Year

Hawkins (2020) reported that the results of the study were inconclusive.

. . . the results of the study were inconclusive (Hawkins, 2020).

Two authors

Both surnames in the order listed on the publication and the year.

For author prominent citations, use “and” between the author names.

For information prominent citations, & between the author names.

Bovey and Hede (2013) argue that . . .

. . . is a significant factor (Bovey & Hede, 2013).

Three or more authors

Cite the first author followed by et al. and year

Robbins et al. (2017) note that leadership empathy and good communication are key to negotiating successful organisational change.

They may be required to work harder now there are … perform the same tasks (Robbins et al., 2017).

Different authors, same surname

When two or more authors have the same surname, add their initials to distinguish between them

P. R. Smith (1945) adopted a unique approach . . . . . . later in the text . . . This idea was first advanced by S. Smith (1935).

Research conducted by W.O. Brown and Jones (1985) was influenced by the work of S.A. Brown and Smith (1961).

The corresponding information prominent citations would be:

(P.R. Smith, 1945)

(S. Smith, 1935)

(W.O. Brown & Jones, 1985)

(S.A. Brown & Smith, 1961)

Multiple authors, ambiguous citations

Distinguish identical multiple-author citations with the same year by adding an additional surname, followed by a comma and et al.

Instead of just Brown et al. (1998), add additional author surnames to distinguish between separate works that Brown co-authored that year:

Brown, Shimamura, et al. (1998)

Brown, Taylor, et al. (1998).

The corresponding information prominent citations would be (Brown, Shimamura, et al., 1998), and (Brown, Taylor, et al., 1998).

  • For further guidance see the APA Style website - Citing multiple works…

Same author, two or more works

Author surname, then years separated by a commas, in chronological order.

Reimer (2017, 2018, 2019) considered this phenomenon across various studies . . .

. . . this phenomenon was considered across various studies (Reimer, 2017, 2018, 2019).

Same author, multiple works and same year

Assign a suffix of a, b, c, d, etc. after the year, according to alphabetical listing by title in the reference list.

Stairs (1992b) examined . . . . . . later in the text . . . According to Stairs (1992a) . . .

. . . was recently considered (Stairs, 1992b) . . . . . . later in the text . . . . . . the results were inconclusive (Stairs, 1992a).

  • For multiple references by the same author with no date, after n.d. add a hyphen and then the suffix e.g. (Dreshcke n.d.-b)

Multiple works from various authors

You may want to cite works from various authors to more strongly support a particular point you are making.

List each work alphabetically by surname in alphabetical order, separated by semicolons.

. . . as proposed by various researchers (Adams et al., 2020; Green, 2019; Hall & Clark, 2021).

Green (2019), Adams et al. (2020), and Hall and Clark (2021) analysed . . .

  • In the author prominent citation there is no requirement to order the citations alphabetically

If the author is identified as 'Anonymous'

Use 'Anonymous' as the surname.

Anonymous (2019)

(Anonymous, 2019)

Unknown author

Give the first few words of the title. If the title is from an article or a chapter, use double quotation marks. If the title is from a periodical, book brochure, or report, then use italics.

. . . the worst election loss in the party's history ("This is the end," 1968).

Corporate or group author

If the organisation has a recognisable abbreviation

First listing: Organisation name [Abbreviation], Year Subsequent: Abbreviation, Year

Where the organisation abbreviation is not widely known

Use the name in full every time

Census data gives valuable insights into... (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2021).

Australia's next census will be held on 10th August 2021 (ABS, 2021).

Author quoted directly

Occasionally it may be necessary to include in your work a quotation from an author.

Always include a page number when you have to cite directly from a source.

If no page numbers are available (e.g. in a website), include a paragraph number.

Use accepted abbreviations like p. for page and para. for paragraph

Gittins (2006) suggests that "the key to understanding microeconomics is to realise that its overwhelming focus is on the role of price" (p. 18).

Weston (1988) stated "the darkest days were still ahead" (p. 45).

A patient is in pain when they tell you and "it is important to believe the patient so as to build a trusting relationship" (Phipps et al., 1983, p.45).

Personal communications

Private letters, e-mail and conversations require only an in-text citation, which includes the date of the communication (Month DD, YYYY).

Personal communications are not included in reference lists, as they are not accessible to others.

R. Smith (personal communication, January 28, 2020) . . .

. . . (R. Smith, personal communication, January 28, 2020)

Author referred to in a secondary source

The original author is cited together with the secondary author.

Only do this when the original is unavailable and only include what you have actually read.

Farrow (1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988) . . .

Ward and Decan (1988) cited Farrow (1968) as finding . . .

. . . (Farrow, 1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988).

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Scribbr APA Citation Generator

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APA 6th & 7th edition

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Reference list finished? Export to Word with perfect indentation and spacing set up for you.

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Organize the reference list the way you want: from A to Z, new to old, or grouped by source type.

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Stay organized by creating a separate reference list for each of your assignments.

Choose between Times New Roman, Arial, Calibri, and more options to match your style.

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Explanatory tips help you get the details right to ensure accurate citations.

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Missing information

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APA 7th edition publication manual

How to create APA citations

APA Style is widely used by students, researchers, and professionals in the social and behavioral sciences. Scribbr’s free citation generator automatically generates accurate references and in-text citations.

This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020).

  • Cite a webpage
  • Cite a book
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APA in-text citations

APA in-text citations include the author’s last name, publication date, and, if relevant, a locator such as a page number or timestamp. For example, (Smith, 2021, p. 170) . See it as a shorter version of the entry in the reference list .

You should include in-text citations every time you’re quoting or paraphrasing someone else’s ideas or words. In doing so, you give credit to the original author and avoid plagiarism .

Parenthetical vs. narrative citation

The in-text citation can take two forms: parenthetical and narrative. Both types are generated automatically when citing a source with Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator.

  • Parenthetical citation: According to new research … (Smith, 2020) .
  • Narrative citation: Smith (2020) notes that …

Multiple authors and corporate authors

The in-text citation changes slightly when a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author. Pay attention to punctuation and the use of the ampersand (&) symbol.

When the author, publication date or locator is unknown, take the steps outlined below.

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APA references

APA references generally include information about the author , publication date , title , and source . Depending on the type of source, you may have to include extra information that helps your reader locate the source.

It is not uncommon for certain information to be unknown or missing, especially with sources found online. In these cases, the reference is slightly adjusted.

Formatting the APA reference page

APA reference page (7th edition)

On the first line of the page, write the section label “References” (in bold and centered). On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order .

Apply these formatting guidelines to the APA reference page:

  • Double spacing (within and between references)
  • Hanging indent of ½ inch
  • Legible font (e.g. Times New Roman 12 or Arial 11)
  • Page number in the top right header

Which sources to include

On the reference page, you only include sources that you have cited in the text (with an in-text citation ). You should not include references to personal communications that your reader can’t access (e.g. emails, phone conversations or private online material).

In addition to the APA Citation Generator, Scribbr provides many more tools and resources that help millions of students and academics every month.

  • Citation Generator : Generate flawless citations in APA, MLA , and Harvard style .
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  • Free plagiarism checker : Detect plagiarism with unparalleled accuracy with Scribbr’s free plagiarism checker.
  • AI Proofreader : Upload and improve unlimited documents and earn higher grades on your assignments. Try it for free!
  • Paraphrasing tool: Avoid accidental plagiarism and make your text sound better.
  • Grammar checker : Eliminate pesky spelling and grammar mistakes.
  • Summarizer: Read more in less time. Distill lengthy and complex texts down to their key points.
  • AI detector: Find out if your text was written with ChatGPT or any other AI writing tool. ChatGPT 2 & ChatGPT 3 supported.
  • Proofreading services : Have a professional editor (or team of editors) improve your writing so you can submit your paper with pride and confidence. Scribbr offers admission essay editing , paper editing , and academic editing .
  • Guides and videos : Explore hundreds of articles, bite-sized videos, time-saving templates, and handy checklists that guide you through the process of research, writing, and citation.

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In-text citations

In-text citation examples, personal communications.

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A parenthetical citation includes the last name(s) of the author(s) followed by a comma and the page number(s). The parenthetical citation can be at the end of a sentence or may be in the middle of a sentence if needed to be clear on what is being cited.

A company should always do what is right regardless of the consequences, but doing the right thing tends to result in the best outcomes (Dunn, 2016).

Because doing the right thing is always the best choice (Dunn, 2016), corporate leaders must carefully develop a strong ethical compass.

A narrative citation is used when the author’s name is part of the text. In these cases, the author’s name does not need to be repeated in the parenthetical reference.

Dunn (2016) asserts the view that though a company should do what is right regardless of the potential consequences, ethical actions often produce the best possible outcomes for all (p. 22).

For more on in-text citations of a paraphrase, see opens new window https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/paraphrasing

When quoting a source directly, page numbers are used to indicate the location of the quoted text. Though page numbers are not required for a paraphrase, it may be helpful to include page numbers to indicate the location of the paraphrased text. If the source has no page numbers, other location indicators, such as paragraph or section numbers may be used.

“Fundraising is an art and a science” (Garry, 2017, p. 99).

It is hard to predict how donors will respond to an appeal, but in time fundraisers learn to trust their intuition regarding the best approach (Garry, 2017, p. 99).

For more on citing quotations, See opens new window https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/quotations

Personal communications are sources that can not be recovered or accessed by the reader because they are not published. This includes emails, texts, conversations (in person, by phone or video conference, etc.), online chats, interviews, classroom lectures, memos, letters, etc. If the information is not available from any recoverable (published) source, it can be cited as a personal communication. Because the reader can not access the information in personal communications, they will not be included in the reference list, but cited in the text only.

In an interview, Benjamin Colby (personal communication, July 25, 2015) mentioned . . . .

A. J. Montoya (personal communication, February 4, 2020) emailed detailed financials to the research team . . . .

In a lecture on November 1, 2021, to a BUS 326 class, Dr. Dash said . . . .

More information is available on the APA Style website .

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APA (American Psychological Association) Style is most commonly used in the  social and behavioral sciences.

  • APA General Format The guidelines for paper format apply to both student assignments and manuscripts being submitted for publication to a journal. If you are using APA Style to create another kind of work (e.g., a website, conference poster, or PowerPoint presentation), you may need to format your work differently in order to optimize its presentation, for example, by using different line spacing and font sizes. Follow the guidelines of your institution or publisher to adapt APA Style formatting guidelines as needed.
  • In-text Citations In scholarly writing, it is essential to acknowledge how others contributed to your work. By following the principles of proper citation, writers ensure that readers understand their contribution in the context of the existing literature—how they are building on, critically examining, or otherwise engaging the work that has come before.
  • Reference List Check each reference carefully against the original publication to ensure information is accurate and complete. Accurately prepared references help establish your credibility as a careful researcher and writer. Consistency in reference formatting allows readers to focus on the content of your reference list, discerning both the types of works you consulted and the important reference elements (who, when, what, and where) with ease. When you present each reference in a consistent fashion, readers do not need to spend time determining how you organized the information. And when searching the literature yourself, you also save time and effort when reading reference lists in the works of others that are written in APA Style.
  • Sample Paper This page contains several sample papers formatted in seventh edition APA Style.
  • DOI Lookup: Crossref Search "Metadata". Crossref makes research outputs easy to find, cite, link, assess, and reuse. We’re a not-for-profit membership organization that exists to make scholarly communications better.
  • Basics of APA Tutorial This tutorial is designed for writers new to APA Style. Learn the basics of seventh edition APA Style, including paper elements, format, and organization; academic writing style; grammar and usage; bias-free language; mechanics of style; tables and figures; in-text citations, paraphrasing, and quotations; and reference list format and order. The Basics of Seventh Edition APA Style tutorial will permanently stay on this site for free.

APA Style from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL)

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Note:  This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style  can be found here .

Important Note: Because the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual heavily emphasizes digital and electronic sources, it does not contain explicit instructions for certain less-common print sources that earlier editions covered. For this reason, some of the examples below have been adapted from the instructions for sources with similar attributes (e.g., the conference proceedings example is derived from the instructions the 7 th edition manual gives for citing edited collections). Every example below that has been adapted in this way is accompanied by a note explaining how it was adapted.

Please also note: While this resource contains many examples of citations for uncommon print sources that we think are helpful, it may not account for every possibility. For even more examples of how to cite uncommon print sources, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Entry in a Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with a Group Author

The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite physical reference works such as dictionaries, thesauruses, or encyclopedias. Therefore, this citation, as well as the one for an individual author of an entry in a reference work, is modeled on that of a chapter in an edited book or anthology, both which are similar in format to reference works.

Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work (edition, page numbers). Publisher name.

Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. (1997). Goat. In Merriam Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10 th ed., pp. 499-500). Merriam-Webster, Incorporated.

Entry in a Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with an Individual Author

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of entry. In F. M. Lastname (ed.), Title of reference work (edition, page numbers). Publisher.

Tatum, S. R. (2009). Spirituality and religion in hip hop literature and culture. In T. L. Stanley (ed.), Encyclopedia of hip hop literature (pp. 250-252). Greenwood.

Work Discussed in a Secondary Source

Provide the source in which the original work was referenced:

Nail, T. (2017). What is an assemblage? SubStance , 46 (1), 21-37. http://sub.uwpress.org/lookup/doi/10.3368/ss.46.1.21

Note: Provide the secondary source in the references list; in the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Deleuze and Guattari’s work is cited in Nail and you did not read the original work, list the Nail reference in the References. In the text, use the following citation: 

Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of the assemblage (as cited in Nail, 2017)….

Dissertation Abstract

The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite dissertation abstracts. Therefore, this citation models that of a journal article, which is similar in format.

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International , Vol., Page.

Angeli, E. L. (2012). Networks of communication in emergency medical services. Dissertation Abstracts International, 74 , 03(E).

Dissertation or Master’s Thesis, Published

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation/Master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database or Archive Name.

Angeli, E. L. (2012). Networks of communication in emergency medical services (Publication No. 3544643) [Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Note: If the dissertation or thesis is not published in a database, include the URL of the site where the document is located.

Dissertation or Master’s Thesis, Unpublished

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis [Unpublished doctoral dissertation/master’s thesis]. Name of Institution Awarding the Degree. 

Samson, J. M. (2016). Human trafficking and globalization [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Federal or State Statute

Name of Act, Public Law No. (Year). URL

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Publ. L. No. 111-148, 124 Stat. 119 (2010).  https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/PLAW-111publ148/pdf/PLAW-111publ148.pdf

Report by a Government Agency or Other Organization

Organization Name. (Year). Title of report. URL

United States Government Accountability Office. (2019). Performance and accountability report: Fiscal year 2019 . https://www.gao.gov/assets/710/702715.pdf

Report by Individual Authors at Government Agency or Other Organization

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of report . Organization Name. URL

Palanker, D., Volk, J., Lucia, K., & Thomas, K. (2018). Mental health parity at risk: Deregulating the individual market and the impact on mental health coverage . National Alliance on Mental Illness. https://www.nami.org/About-NAMI/Publications-Reports/Public-Policy-Reports/Parity-at-Risk/ParityatRisk.pdf  

Conference Proceedings

The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide guidance on citing conference proceedings. Therefore, this citation models that of an edited collection, which is similar in format.

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Eds.). (Year). Title of Proceedings . Publisher. URL (if applicable)

Huang, S., Pierce, R., & Stamey, J. (Eds.). (2006). Proceedings of the 24 th annual ACM international conference on the design of communication . ACM Digital Library. https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1166324&picked=prox

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Biology 152 : APA 7th Edition

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APA (American Psychological Association) Manual

cite dissertation in text apa

In-text citation  is the brief form of the citations appearing in the body of the work. Reference list  is the complete form of the citations appearing at the end of the work.

Useful Links: APA 7th Edition

APA 7th Edition (article, book, website, and in-text citing)

APA 7th Edition  (article, book, book chapter)

APA 7th Edition (other reference examples like YouTube, conference, PowerPoint, )

Scribbr (Reference lists)

Purdue OWL logo

OWL (Online Writing Lab) at Purdue University. Purdue University's OWL is an excellent source to use for any citation style, including APA. Selected links and other helpful information, 

  • APA (7th Edition)
  • SAMPLE Papers
  • In-text Citations
  • Writing & Grammar

Tips for Videos in APA

YouTube References

  • Use the name of the account that uploaded the video as the author.
  • Provide the specific date on which the video was uploaded.
  • Italicize the title of the video.
  • Include the description “[Video]” in square brackets after the title.
  • Provide the site name (YouTube) and URL of the video.

YouTube Channels

  • YouTube channel pages begin on the “Home” tab by default. If you want to cite one of the other tabs (e.g., “Videos,” “Playlists”), use the name of that tab rather than “Home” in the title element of the reference (as in the Walker example).
  • Italicize the title of the channel.
  • Include the description “[YouTube channel]” in square brackets after the title.
  • Provide a retrieval date because the content is designed to change over time and is not archived.

Lecture notes

PowerPoint slides or lecture note references

APA style requires citing handouts and presentation slides in both in-text and reference list citations. Personal lecture notes are considered personal communications and are cited in-text only, omitting the reference list entry.

Note: If you cite more than one work in the same set of brackets in-text, you should follow the order of appearance in the reference list (i.e., alphabetical order, then oldest to newest for works by the same author). Separate each citation with a semi-colon. e.g.,

(1) Multiple works:

(Holmes, 2015; Jones & James, 2017; Smith et al., 2016)

(2) Same author with different years:

(Watson, 2015; 2018)

(3) Same author with multiple works in the same year:

(Lee, 2024a; 2024b)

Examples in-text:

Smith (2019) argues that...

Harris and Cook (2020) have discovered that...

Recent advancements in quantum computing have shown promise for solving complex computational problems more efficiently (Jones & Smith, 2022).

Brown et al. (2024) conducted a study which...

The report ("Title of Source," 2023) puts forward the idea...

Most scientists opt to paraphrase information, rephrasing it in their own words while providing appropriate references. Note that you will still need to reference the author and year of publication but not the page number in your in-text reference. e.g.,

The phenomenon of entanglement enables immediate correlation of properties between particles, irrespective of their spatial separation (Einstein, Podolsky, & Rosen, 1935).

However, when directly quoting from a source, it's crucial to enclose the extracted information in quotation marks and attribute it to the author(s) along with the publication year and page numbers, if available.

(1) You can introduce the quote with a signal phrase containing the author's last name and the publication date in parentheses.

According to Smith (2019), "Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon where the quantum states of two or more objects are intertwined, even if vast distances separate them" (p. 45).

(2) If the author's name isn't integrated into the sentence, place the last name, publication year, and page number in parentheses following the quote.

It has been stated that "Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon where the quantum states of two or more objects are intertwined, even if vast distances separate them" (Smith, 2019, p. 45).

(3) Where there are page ranges.

According to Johnson (2024, pp. 15-16), "Quantum computing represents a paradigm shift in computational capabilities. Its application potential spans across various sectors, promising advancements in cryptography, optimization, and drug discovery."

In-text citations

Reference List Tips

The reference list starts on a new page.

  • Place the word " References ", centered, in bold, at the top of the page.
  • Reference list is arranged in alphabetical order of authors' surnames.
  • Each entry in the reference list has a hanging indent , so that the first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, but all other lines are indented (this is the opposite of the paragraph structure in the body of your essay).
  • If there are two references by the same author , list them in order of publication date with the older one first .
  • APA uses sentence case for all titles except for journal titles.

For example: Smith, J. S. (n.d.)... Peters, K. F. (2016)... Lee, S., & Doyle, M. P. (2022)...

  • If references by the same author(s) have been published in the same year , list them alphabetically by title. Letters 'a', 'b', etc.

For  example: Smith, J. S. (2023a)... Smith, J. S. (2023b)...

Example of a reference list

Barnet, S., Bellanca, P., & Stubbs, M. (2013). A short guide to college writing . Pearson Education.

Caron, T. (2008). Teaching writing as a con-artist: When is a writing problem not? College Teaching, 56 (3), 137-139. https://doi.org/10.3200/CTCH.56.3.137-139

Frogmouth, T. (2018). XX1001: X-ray vision: Week 1 learning plan . LearnJCU. https://learn.jcu.edu.uk/

Hardy, D. (2016). CP1403: Design thinking: Interpretation and define problem [PowerPoint file]. LearnJCU. https://learn.jcu.edu.au/

Queensland Health. (2017, April 9). Managing your asthma symptoms . https://www.health.qld.gov.au/news-alerts/news/managing-asthma-symptoms

The Weekly. (2017, May 10). The Weekly: Housing affordability [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/JFIfqn7WxqE

Walker, A. (n.d.). Playlists [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/user/DjWalkzz/playlists

For more examples, see the libguide  (James Cook University, Australia).

Reference Management Software

Reference management software, also known as citation management or bibliographic management software organizes bibliographic records and generates citations, essential for scholarly research.  EndNote Online (EndNote Web) and Zotero are two examples that collect, organize, and manage your citations.

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IMAGES

  1. APA Citations for a Thesis or Dissertation

    cite dissertation in text apa

  2. How to cite a thesis or dissertation using APA style

    cite dissertation in text apa

  3. APA 7th Edition

    cite dissertation in text apa

  4. APA Citations for a Thesis or Dissertation

    cite dissertation in text apa

  5. 10 Easy Steps: Master How to Cite Article APA in Text

    cite dissertation in text apa

  6. Citing of Six or More Multiple Authors in APA

    cite dissertation in text apa

COMMENTS

  1. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style

    The format for citing someone else's dissertation or thesis in APA Style depends on whether the thesis is available from a database, published somewhere else (e.g. on a university archive or personal website), or unpublished (only available in print form directly from the author or university).

  2. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

    How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA Share to Google Classroom 3.8 ( 62) Citation Generator Source Type Website Search Create manual citation In this citation guide, you will learn how to reference and cite an undergraduate thesis, master's thesis, or doctoral dissertation.

  3. In-Text Citations: The Basics

    When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

  4. APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.)

    Published on November 4, 2020 by Raimo Streefkerk . Revised on September 30, 2022. This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. In-text citations briefly identify the source of information in the body text. They correspond to a full reference entry at the end of your paper.

  5. APA Citations for a Thesis or Dissertation

    To cite a published dissertation in APA 7th edition, you need to include: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Publication number, if available) [Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, Institution]. Publisher. Published APA Dissertation Example Gavinea, D. S. (2010).

  6. Thesis/Dissertation

    Thesis/Dissertation - APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources - Research Guides at University of Southern California Standard Format Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000 Formatting Rules Formatting: Italicize the title

  7. APA Citation Style, 7th Edition: Dissertations & Thesis

    Citing Dissertations & Theses in APA Format Dissertations & Theses Dissertations and theses are formatted the same way in APA 7th edition. Theses are generally the culminating work for a master's or undergraduate degree and dissertations are often original research completed by doctoral students.

  8. Dissertations and Theses

    APA calls for the citation to include a unique identifying number for the dissertation, labeling it "Publication No." That number can be found in Dissertations and Theses database, listed in the item record as "Dissertation/thesis number." Free Web Dissertations: Karamanos, X. (2020).

  9. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA 7

    The guidelines for how to cite a dissertation in APA are the same for writing an in-text citation, paraphrase, and quotation; only the format for the reference list differs. Template (Name of Author, year) Example (Stanford, 2016) Paraphrase

  10. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA

    To cite a dissertation in APA on the References page, follow this formula: Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No. #) [Dissertation type, University].

  11. LibGuides: APA 7th Edition Citation Guide: In-Text Citations

    Citations in APA style include two parts: (1) in-text citations, which are connected to (2) reference list citations. This guide will help you create in-text citations that correlate with the corresponding reference list citations. Please see Reference Examples for more details on the reference list.

  12. Published Dissertation or Thesis References

    This page contains reference examples for published dissertations or theses, which are considered published when they are available from a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global or PDQT Open, an institutional repository, or an archive.

  13. Subject guides: APA 7th: Theses and dissertations

    APA 7th; Theses and dissertations; Search this Guide Search. APA 7th. Getting started. In-text citation ... Go to Getting started > In-text citation to view other examples such as multiple authors ... Format Online. Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis [Type of thesis, Name of institution awarding degree]. Name of archive or site. https ...

  14. Cite a dissertation in APA style

    The in-text citation for a dissertation in APA style is similar to citing a journal or a report. The type of publication (book, journal, report, thesis, etc.) is not an essential element in in-text citations in APA. APA recommends using only the authors' names and the year in in-text citations. The dissertation can be published or unpublished.

  15. Citing In Text

    Direct quotations can vary in length. Quotes fewer than 40 words should be incorporated into the text of the paragraph. Quotes comprised of 40 or more words, need to be formatted in block quotes. (see APA, section 6.03, pp.170 - 173; and APA Style Blog, "How to Cite Direct Quotations" or APA Style Blog, "You Can Quote Me on This").

  16. PDF APA Style Dissertation Guidelines: Formatting Your Dissertation

    In-Text Citations Number of Authors Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation One Author (Author Last Name, Year) Author Last Name (Year) Two Authors (Author 1 & Author 2, Year) Author 1 and Author 2 (Year) Three or More Authors (Author 1 et al., Year) Author 1 et al. (Year) *This table was adapted from the: American Psychological Association.

  17. Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis References

    Cite This Webpage Unpublished dissertation or thesis references. This page contains a reference example for an unpublished dissertation or thesis. If you find the dissertation or thesis in a database or in a repository or archive, follow the published dissertation or thesis format.

  18. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA Style

    Citing a published thesis or dissertation rules, structure, and examples. In basic terms, the rules of the APA 7th edition for citing something that has been published are not too difficult. Here is the APA reference dissertation template that you should start with: Last Name, X. Y. (Year).

  19. How to Cite a Thesis in APA

    Full Citation Rules. Citing a thesis in APA on the References page follows the format for citing a dissertation. Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No. #) [Dissertation type, University]. Database.

  20. Guide On How To Cite a Thesis Or Dissertation In APA

    Back to blog How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation In APA If you're writing a dissertation or APA thesis, here's a guide on how to cite a thesis or dissertation in APA. APA reference dissertation carries major points and will bring down your overall grade if done wrong.

  21. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    Guidelines on writing an APA style paper In-Text Citations Resources on using in-text citations in APA style The Basics General guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay Author/Authors How to refer to authors in-text, including single and multiple authors, unknown authors, organizations, etc. Reference List

  22. In-text citation

    In-text citation. The APA 7th style uses in-text citations when referring to or quoting people's work. The essential elements of an in-text citation are the author surname/s and year. Two types of in-text citations 1. Author prominent format. Use this format if you want to emphasise the author. Their name becomes part of your sentence.

  23. Free APA Citation Generator

    Start citing Citation Generator features you'll love Autocite Search for your source by title, URL, DOI, ISBN, and more to retrieve the relevant information automatically. APA 6th & 7th edition Scribbr's Citation Generator supports both APA 6 and APA 7 (as well as MLA and Harvard ). No matter what edition you're using, we've got you covered!

  24. In-text citations

    Guide to citations according to APA 7th edition with examples of business source citations. Reference Citation Formats. In-text citations. In-text citation examples. Articles from Journals, Magazines and Newspapers. Bible. Dictionary or Encyclopedia. Social Media and Blogs. Web pages.

  25. APA 7th

    APA General Format The guidelines for paper format apply to both student assignments and manuscripts being submitted for publication to a journal. If you are using APA Style to create another kind of work (e.g., a website, conference poster, or PowerPoint presentation), you may need to format your work differently in order to optimize its presentation, for example, by using different line ...

  26. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style

    The format for citing someone else's dissertation or thesis in APA Style depends on whether the thesis is available from a database, published somewhere else (e.g. on a university archive or personal website), or unpublished (only available in print form directly from the author or university).

  27. Reference List: Other Print Sources

    Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here. Important Note: Because the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual heavily emphasizes digital and electronic sources, it does not contain explicit instructions for certain less-common print sources that ...

  28. APA 7th Edition

    The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. (2020) is the authority used by writers in the social sciences and some natural sciences. Copies are available at the Library's Research Center (Library North 1) and Circulation desk for limited-time checkout (Library South 1). In-text citation is the brief form of the ...