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Introduction, methodology.

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Child labor and health: a systematic literature review of the impacts of child labor on child’s health in low- and middle-income countries

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Abdalla Ibrahim, Salma M Abdalla, Mohammed Jafer, Jihad Abdelgadir, Nanne de Vries, Child labor and health: a systematic literature review of the impacts of child labor on child’s health in low- and middle-income countries, Journal of Public Health , Volume 41, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages 18–26, https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdy018

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To summarize current evidence on the impacts of child labor on physical and mental health.

We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect for studies that included participants aged 18 years or less, conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and reported quantitative data. Two independent reviewers conducted data extraction and assessment of study quality.

A total of 25 studies were identified, the majority of which were cross-sectional. Child labor was found to be associated with a number of adverse health outcomes, including but not limited to poor growth, malnutrition, higher incidence of infectious and system-specific diseases, behavioral and emotional disorders, and decreased coping efficacy. Quality of included studies was rated as fair to good.

Child labor remains a major public health concern in LMICs, being associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes. Current efforts against child labor need to be revisited, at least in LMICs. Further studies following a longitudinal design, and using common methods to assess the health impact of child labor in different country contexts would inform policy making.

For decades, child labor has been an important global issue associated with inadequate educational opportunities, poverty and gender inequality. 1 Not all types of work carried out by children are considered child labor. Engagement of children or adolescents in work with no influence on their health and schooling is usually regarded positive. The International Labor Organization (ILO) describes child labor as ‘work that deprives children of their childhood, potential and dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development’. 2 This definition includes types of work that are mentally, physically, socially or morally harmful to children; or disrupts schooling.

The topic gained scientific attention with the industrial revolution. Research conducted in the UK, because of adverse outcomes in children, resulted in acts for child labor in 18 02. 3 Many countries followed the UK, in recognition of the associated health risks. The ILO took its first stance in 1973 by setting the minimum age for work. 4 Nevertheless, the ILO and other international organizations that target the issue failed to achieve goals. Child labor was part of the Millennium Development Goals, adopted by 191 nations in 20 00 5 to be achieved by 2015. Subsequently, child labor was included in the Sustainable Development Goals, 6 which explicitly calls for eradication of child labor by 2030.

Despite the reported decline in child labor from 1995 to 2000, it remains a major concern. In 2016, it was estimated that ~150 million children under the age of 14 are engaged in labor worldwide, with most of them working under circumstances that denies them a playful childhood and jeopardize their health. 7 Most working children are 11–14 years, but around 60 million are 5–11 years old. 7 There are no exact numbers of the distribution of child labor globally; however, available statistics show that 96% of child workers are in Africa, Asia and Latin America. 1

Research into the impacts of child labor suggests several associations between child labor and adverse health outcomes. Parker 1 reported that child labor is associated with certain exposures like silica in industries, and HIV infection in prostitution. Additionally, as child labor is associated with maternal illiteracy and poverty, children who work are more susceptible to malnutrition, 1 which predisposes them to various diseases.

A meta-analysis on the topic was published in 20 07. 8 However, authors reported only an association of child labor with higher mortality and morbidity than in the general population, without reporting individual outcome specific effects. 8 Another meta-analysis investigated the effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child labor, on health. They reported that ACEs are risk factors for many adverse health outcomes. 9

To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review that attempts to summarize current evidence on the impacts of child labor on both physical and mental health, based on specific outcomes. We review the most recent evidence on the health impacts of child labor in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) according to the World Bank classification. We provide an informative summary of current studies of the impacts of child labor, and reflect upon the progress of anti-child labor policies and laws.

Search strategy

We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect databases. Search was restricted to publications from year 1997 onwards. Only studies written in English were considered. Our search algorithm was [(‘child labor’ OR ‘child labor’ OR ‘working children’ OR ‘occupational health’ OR ‘Adolescent work’ OR ‘working adolescents’) AND (Health OR medical)]. The first third of the algorithm was assigned to titles/abstracts to ensure relevance of the studies retrieved, while the rest of the terms were not. On PubMed, we added […AND (poverty OR ‘low income’ OR ‘developing countries’)] to increase the specificity of results; otherwise, the search results were ~60 times more, with the majority of studies being irrelevant.

Study selection

Studies that met the following criteria were considered eligible: sample age 18 years or less; study was conducted in LMICs; and quantitative data was reported.

Two authors reviewed the titles obtained, a.o. to exclude studies related to ‘medical child labor’ as in childbirth. Abstracts of papers retained were reviewed, and subsequently full studies were assessed for inclusion criteria. Two authors assessed the quality of studies using Downs and Black tool for quality assessment. 10 The tool includes 27 items, yet not all items fit every study. In such cases, we used only relevant items. Total score was the number of items positively evaluated. Studies were ranked accordingly (poor, fair, good) (Table 1 ).

Characteristics of studies included

* The quality is based on the percentage of Downs and Black 10 tool, < 50% = poor, 50–75% = fair, > 75% = good.

** BMI, body mass index.

*** HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus.

Data extraction and management

Two authors extracted the data using a standardized data extraction form. It included focus of study (i.e. physical and/or mental health), exposure (type of child labor), country of study, age group, gender, study design, reported measures (independent variables) and outcome measures (Table 1 ). The extraction form was piloted to ensure standardization of data collection. A third author then reviewed extracted data. Disagreements were solved by discussion.

Search results

A flow diagram (Fig. 1 ) shows the studies selection process. We retrieved 1050 studies on PubMed and 833 studies on Science Direct, with no duplicates in the search results. We also retrieved 23 studies through screening of the references, following the screening by title of retrieved studies. By reviewing title and abstract, 1879 studies were excluded. After full assessment of the remaining studies, 25 were included.

Study selection process.

Study selection process.

Characteristics of included studies

Among the included studies ten documented only prevalence estimates of physical diseases, six documented mental and psychosocial health including abuse, and nine reported the prevalence of both mental and physical health impacts (Table 1 ). In total, 24 studies were conducted in one country; one study included data from the Living Standard Measurement Study of 83 LMIC. 8

In total, 12 studies compared outcomes between working children and a control group (Table 1 ). Concerning physical health, many studies reported the prevalence of general symptoms (fever, cough and stunting) or diseases (malnutrition, anemia and infectious diseases). Alternatively, some studies documented prevalence of illnesses or symptoms hypothesized to be associated with child labor (Table 1 ). The majority of studies focusing on physical health conducted clinical examination or collected blood samples.

Concerning mental and psychosocial health, the outcomes documented included abuse with its different forms, coping efficacy, emotional disturbances, mood and anxiety disorders. The outcomes were measured based on self-reporting and using validated measures, for example, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), in local languages.

The majority of studies were ranked as of ‘good quality’, with seven ranked ‘fair’ and one ranked ‘poor’ (Table 1 ). The majority of them also had mixed-gender samples, with only one study restricted to females. 24 In addition, valid measures were used in most studies (Table 1 ). Most studies did not examine the differences between genders.

Child labor and physical health

Fifteen studies examined physical health effects of child labor, including nutritional status, physical growth, work-related illnesses/symptoms, musculoskeletal pain, HIV infection, systematic symptoms, infectious diseases, tuberculosis and eyestrain. Eight studies measured physical health effects through clinical examination or blood samples, in addition to self-reported questionnaires. All studies in which a comparison group was used reported higher prevalence of physical diseases in the working children group.

Two studies were concerned with physical growth and development. A study conducted in Pakistan, 11 reported that child labor is associated with wasting, stunting and chronic malnutrition. A similar study conducted in India compared physical growth and genital development between working and non-working children and reported that child labor is associated with lower BMI, shorter stature and delayed genital development in working boys, while no significant differences were found among females. 12

Concerning work-related illnesses and injuries, a study conducted in Bangladesh reported that there is a statistically significant positive association between child labor and the probability to report any injury or illness, tiredness/exhaustion, body injury and other health problems. Number of hours worked and the probability of reporting injury and illness were positively correlated. Younger children were more likely to suffer from backaches and other health problems (infection, burns and lung diseases), while probability of reporting tiredness/exhaustion was greater in the oldest age group. Furthermore, the frequency of reporting any injury or illness increases with the number of hours worked, with significant variation across employment sectors. 13 A study in Iran reported that industrial workrooms were the most common place for injury (58.2%). Falling from heights or in horizontal surface was the most common mechanism of injury (44%). None of the patients was using a preventive device at the time of injury. Cuts (49.6%) were the most commonly reported injuries. 14

Other studies that investigated the prevalence of general symptoms in working children in Pakistan, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Indonesia reported that child labor is negatively associated with health. 15 – 19 Watery eyes, chronic cough and diarrhea were common findings, in addition to history of a major injury (permanent loss of an organ, hearing loss, bone fractures, permanent disability). 20 One study, conducted in India reported that working children suffered from anemia, gastrointestinal tract infections, vitamin deficiencies, respiratory tract infections, skin diseases and high prevalence of malnutrition. 21 Another study—of poor quality—in India reported that child labor was associated with higher incidence of infectious diseases compared to non-working children. 22

Only a few studies focused on specific diseases. A study in Brazil compared the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain between working and non-working children. Authors reported that the prevalence of pain in the neck, knee, wrist or hands, and upper back exceeded 15%. Workers in manufacturing had a significantly increased risk for musculoskeletal pain and back pain, while child workers in domestic services had 17% more musculoskeletal pain and 23% more back pain than non-workers. Awkward posture and heavy physical work were associated with musculoskeletal pain, while monotonous work, awkward posture and noise were associated with back pain. 23 A study in Nicaragua, which focused on children working in agriculture, reported that child labor in agriculture poses a serious threat to children’s health; specifically, acute pesticides poisoning. 24

A study conducted in India reported that the prevalence of eyestrain in child laborers was 25.9%, which was significantly more than the 12.4% prevalence in a comparison group. Prevalence was higher in boys and those who work more than 4 h daily. 25 Another study conducted in India documented that the difference between working and non-working children in the same area in respiratory morbidities (TB, hilar gland enlargement/calcification) was statistically significant. 26

A study in Iran explored the prevalence of viral infections (HIV, HCV and HBV) in working children. 27 The study reported that the prevalence among working street children was much higher than in general population. The 4.5% of children were HIV positive, 1.7% were hepatitis B positive and 2.6% hepatitis C positive. The likelihood of being HIV positive among working children of Tehran was increased by factors like having experience in trading sex, having parents who used drugs or parents infected with HCV.

Lastly, one study was a meta-analysis conducted on data of working children in 83 LMIC documented that child labor is significantly and positively related to adolescent mortality, to a population’s nutrition level, and to the presence of infectious diseases. 8

Child labor and mental health

Overall, all studies included, except one, 28 reported that child labor is associated with higher prevalence of mental and/or behavioral disorders. In addition, all studies concluded that child labor is associated with one or more forms of abuse.

A study conducted in Jordan reported a significant difference in the level of coping efficacy and psychosocial health between working non-schooled children, working school children and non-working school children. Non-working school children had a better performance on the SDQ scale. Coping efficacy of working non-schooled children was lower than that of the other groups. 29

A study conducted in Pakistan reported that the prevalence of behavioral problems among working children was 9.8%. Peer problems were most prevalent, followed by problems of conduct. 30 A study from Ethiopia 31 reported that emotional and behavioral disorders are more common among working children. However, another study in Ethiopia 28 reported a lower prevalence of mental/behavioral disorders in child laborers compared to non-working children. The stark difference between these two studies could be due to the explanation provided by Alem et al. , i.e. that their findings could have been tampered by selection bias or healthy worker effect.

A study concerned with child abuse in Bangladesh reported that the prevalence of abuse and child exploitation was widespread. Boys were more exposed. Physical assault was higher towards younger children while other types were higher towards older ones. 32 A similar study conducted in Turkey documented that 62.5% of the child laborers were subjected to abuse at their workplaces; 21.8% physical, 53.6% emotional and 25.2% sexual, 100% were subjected to physical neglect and 28.7% were subjected to emotional neglect. 33

One study focused on sexual assault among working females in Nigeria. They reported that the sexual assault rate was 77.7%. In 38.6% of assault cases, the assailant was a customer. Girls who were younger than 12 years, had no formal education, worked for more than 8 h/day, or had two or more jobs were more likely to experience sexual assault. 34

Main findings of this study

Through a comprehensive systematic review, we conclude that child labor continues to be a major public health challenge. Child labor continues to be negatively associated with the physical and psychological health of children involved. Although no cause–effect relation can be established, as all studies included are cross-sectional, studies documented higher prevalence of different health issues in working children compared to control groups or general population.

This reflects a failure of policies not only to eliminate child labor, but also to make it safer. Although there is a decline in the number of working children, the quality of life of those still engaged in child labor seems to remain low.

Children engaged in labor have poor health status, which could be precipitated or aggravated by labor. Malnutrition and poor growth were reported to be highly prevalent among working children. On top of malnutrition, the nature of labor has its effects on child’s health. Most of the studies adjusted for the daily working hours. Long working hours have been associated with poorer physical outcomes. 18 , 19 , 25 , 26 , 35 It was also reported that the likelihood of being sexually abused increased with increasing working hours. 34 The different types and sectors of labor were found to be associated with different health outcomes as well. 13 , 18 , 24 However, comparing between the different types of labor was not possible due to lack of data.

The majority of studies concluded that child labor is associated with higher prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders, as shown in the results. School attendance, family income and status, daily working hours and likelihood of abuse, in its different forms, were found to be associated with the mental health outcomes in working children. These findings are consistent with previous studies and research frameworks. 36

Child labor subjects children to abuse, whether verbally, physically or sexually which ultimately results in psychological disturbances and behavioral disorders. Moreover, peers and colleagues at work can affect the behavior of children, for example, smoking or drugs. The effects of child labor on psychological health can be long lasting and devastating to the future of children involved.

What is already known on this topic

Previous reviews have described different adverse health impacts of child labor. However, there were no previous attempts to review the collective health impacts of child labor. Working children are subjected to different risk factors, and the impacts of child labor are usually not limited to one illness. Initial evidence of these impacts was published in the 1920s. Since then, an increasing number of studies have used similar methods to assess the health impacts of child labor. Additionally, most of the studies are confined to a single country.

What this study adds

To our knowledge, this is the first review that provides a comprehensive summary of both the physical and mental health impacts of child labor. Working children are subjected to higher levels of physical and mental stress compared to non-working children and adults performing the same type of work. Unfortunately, the results show that these children are at risk of developing short and long-term health complications, physically or mentally.

Though previous systematic reviews conducted on the topic in 19 97 1 and 20 07 8 reported outcomes in different measures, our findings reflect similar severity of the health impacts of child labor. This should be alarming to organizations that set child labor as a target. We have not reviewed the policies targeting child labor here, yet our findings show that regardless of policies in place, further action is needed.

Most of the current literature about child labor follow a cross-sectional design, which although can reflect the health status of working children, it cannot establish cause–effect associations. This in turn affects strategies and policies that target child labor.

In addition, comparing the impacts of different labor types in different countries will provide useful information on how to proceed. Further research following a common approach in assessing child labor impacts in different countries is needed.

Limitations of this study

First, we acknowledge that all systematic reviews are subject to publication bias. Moreover, the databases used might introduce bias as most of the studies indexed by them are from industrialized countries. However, these databases were used for their known quality and to allow reproduction of the data. Finally, despite our recognition of the added value of meta-analytic methods, it was not possible to conduct one due to lack of a common definition for child labor, differences in inclusion and exclusion criteria, different measurements and different outcome measures. Nevertheless, to minimize bias, we employed rigorous search methods including an extensive and comprehensive search, and data extraction by two independent reviewers.

Compliance with ethical standards

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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  • developing countries
  • mental health
  • child labor

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  • v.27(1); Jan-Jun 2018

Challenges and perspectives of child labor

Amir radfar.

College of Graduate Health Studies, A.T. Still University, Mesa, Arizona, USA

Seyed Ahmad Ahmadi Asgharzadeh

1 Faculty of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran

Fernando Quesada

2 Department of Medicine, Universidad de El Salvador, San Salvador, El Salvador

Irina Filip

3 Department of Psychiatry, Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA

Child labor is one of the oldest problems in our society and still an ongoing issue. During the time, child labor evolved from working in agriculture or small handicraft workshops to being forced into work in factories in the urban setting as a result of the industrial revolution. Children were very profitable assets since their pay was very low, were less likely to strike, and were easy to be manipulated. Socioeconomic disparities and lack of access to education are among others contributing to the child labor. Religious and cultural beliefs can be misguiding and concealing in delineating the limits of child labor. Child labor prevents physical, intellectual, and emotional development of children. To date, there is no international agreement to fully enforced child labor. This public health issue demands a multidisciplinary approach from the education of children and their families to development of comprehensive child labor laws and regulations.


Child labor is an old problem well rooted in human history. Children were exploited to various extents during different periods of time. The problem was common in poor and developing countries. In the 1800's, child labor was part of economic life and industrial growth. Children less than 14 years old worked in agriculture, factories, mining, and as street vendors.[ 1 ] Children from poor families were expected to participate to the family income, and sometimes they worked in dangerous conditions in 12-hour shifts.[ 1 ]

In the 1900's, in England, more than a quarter of poor families lost their children to diseases and death, endangering their extra financial support.[ 1 ] Boys worked in glass factories in high heat in three shifts because the furnaces were kept fired all the time to increase productivity, while girls were forced into prostitution. In 1910, it was estimated that more than two million children in the United States were working.[ 1 ]

With the increase of education, economy, and the emergence of labor laws, child labor decreased. However, child labor is still a widespread problem in many parts of the world in developed and developing countries. With the development of agriculture, children were again forced to be employed mostly by the families rather than factories. The main cause of child labor is the lack of schools and poverty.[ 2 ]

Per International Labor Organization (ILO, 2002), in the world, there are 211 million children laborers, 73 million under 10 years of age, 126 million children work in the worst forms of child labor, and more than 8 million are kept as slaves for domestic work, in trafficking, armed conflict, prostitution, and pornography. More than 20,000 children die yearly due to work-related accidents. Nearly, one-third of the world's children work in Africa.[ 3 ] Countries such as India have made efforts to tackle the worst forms of child labor. Despite this, 56.4% of children aged 5–14 work in agriculture and 33.1% work in industry.[ 4 ] Indian children are forced into labor to pay family debt. They work sometimes in hazardous environments, being forced into commercial sexual exploitation, human trafficking, or forcibly recruited or kidnapped to be part of terrorist groups.[ 4 ]

Child labor is morally and ethically unacceptable. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) was the first international body that signed in 1989 the Convention on the Rights of the Children. It is for the first time in history when children are seen as humans with rights rather than economic assets of their parents. Child labor was defined as labor that harms the health of the children and deprives them of education rights. This law does not exclude children that work for their families.


Child labor has many facets from the ethical point of view. Autonomy, beneficence, justice, nonmaleficence, privacy, and veracity are endangered during child labor.[ 5 ] Utilitarianists would support the idea of child labor as long as they are the sole providers for the family and without their income, the family would not survive and as long as the labor is voluntarily provided. The ends justify the means. Forced child labor is unethical because it is against the autonomy of the children. The consent of the working child is mostly manipulated by the parents. To give consent, a child needs to understand the situation, the consequences, and voluntarily agree to work. Children of young age, who have a less than fully competent capacity, can assent to an action by getting involved in the decision-making process. Children fall easy victims to unfair job conditions, and they do not have the power to stand-up against mistreatments.[ 6 ] The maleficence of this act has long-term physical, psychological, behavioral, and societal consequences. Even if they are lacking the competency of making informed decisions, they are considered individuals with autonomy that should be protected and safeguarded.[ 6 ]

Child labor is more common in developing countries where more than 90% of children live.[ 3 ] Child labor in developing countries affects 211 million children.[ 3 ] The continent with the highest child employment rate is Asia with 61%, followed by Africa and Latin America. Nearly 41% of the children in Africa are below 14 years old, followed by Asia with 22% and Latin America 17%.[ 3 ] India has made progress in reducing the child labor. However, more than 4 million children in India between 5 and 14 years old work more than 6 hours a day, while about 2 million children aged 5–14 work 3–6 months in a year.[ 4 ]


Cultural beliefs have an important role in encouraging child labor. In developing countries, people believe that work has a constructive effect on character building and increases skill development in children. There is a tradition in these families, where children follow the parents' footsteps and learn the job from an early age. Some cultural beliefs may contribute to the misguided concept that a girl's education is not as important as a boy's education, and therefore, girls are pushed into child labor as providers of domestic services.[ 7 ] In India, not putting a child to work means the family would not make enough income to sustain their living. Sociocultural aspects such as the cast system, discrimination, and cultural biases against girls contribute to child labor.[ 4 ]


It is generally accepted that parents have the fundamental right to educate and raise their children. Parents almost always try to act in the child's best interest at the best of their knowledge and beliefs. In doing so, they are reasonably motivated by their intellectual growth, social development, and at times by spiritual salvation. Oftentimes, parents seek guidance in religion to shape the upbringing of their children and to enhance their progress. Hard work is among others, an important religious value to instill from a young age.

Krolikowski found that Christian children were the least likely to work, while Muslim children, children with no religion, and children affiliated with a traditional African religion were more likely to work than Christians.[ 8 ] The 40% higher incidence of child labor among Indian Muslims compared with Indian Hindus is due perhaps to the impoverishment of Muslim community.[ 4 ] Amish people's life is also regulated by religious values. They believe that work and faith bring people closer to God.[ 9 ] Amish children are initiated from childhood into apprenticeship to learn the trade, and beyond eighth grade, they have to provide like an adult for the community. Education of children beyond eighth grade is considered a threat to the community values. The U. S. labor laws forbid children less than 16 years of age to work in hazardous places such as sawmill or woodworking. However, in 2004 an exception was made by the United States Department of Labor, who approved an amendment that allows Amish children between 14 and 18 years old to work.[ 10 ]


Child labor is rooted in poverty, income insecurity, social injustice, lack of public services, and lack of political will.[ 7 ] Working children are deprived from a proper physical and mental development. The millennium development goals (MDGs), issued in 2001 to implement the Millennium Declaration, set up commitments for poverty reduction, education, and women's empowerment. Persistence of poverty is the major cause of labor. However, child labor also causes poverty because it deprives the children from education and from a normal physical and mental development hampering a prosperous life as adults. The first MDG in addressing poverty is the elimination of child labor.[ 11 ]

The International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC) was created by ILO in 1992 to progressively eliminate child labor. The priority addresses the worst forms of child labor such as slavery, prostitution, drug trafficking, and recruitment of children in armed conflicts.[ 12 ] IPEC is working with stakeholders from many countries to increase strengths and promote the fight against child labor. IPEC engage with multiple organizations, international and governmental bodies, community-based organizations, religious groups, private plural form businesses, children and their families.

Policy reform was promoted through country-based programs. The capacity building of institutions has been increased to better understand the obstacles and increase the ability of obtaining sustainable measures. These measures were meant to decrease child labor and bring children back in schools. In all these processes, statistical data were collected at the worldwide level, methodologies were set in place, and guidelines were created.

The Child Labor Platform was created as a business-led initiative by ILO in 2012, to identify the obstacles of the implementation of ILO conventions at the community level and to come up with solutions. This platform is a win-win situation for all parties involved: stakeholders as well children and their families. This platform offers training, research, and specialized tools to member companies, so they can carry out activities against child labor. Eliminating child labor is part of the corporates' social responsibility in line with their values and is what the society expects from them. This platform provides information how to get involved and how to find businesses that work collaboratively with the communities to solve the problem. Training and knowledge is a real value added for companies.[ 12 ] The Indian Government implemented a national project deemed to assist population to eradicate child labor, and set in place enforcements of criminal and labor law.[ 4 ]


Despite all these international and national measures against child labor, there are arguments in favor of child labor. Some argue that poor families would be even poorer without the supplemental financial contribution of children. Lack of money will deprive them of the basic needs of food and shelter which will decrease their survival rate. In addition, an increase in poverty would make children even more susceptible to exploitation.

The supporters of these ideas argue that the benefit of creating a safe workplace and allowing children to work is helpful in certain situations. They also emphasize that child work is not child labor as long as it does not interfere with schooling and children have safe workplace conditions with a limited number of hours per day.[ 13 ]


The stakeholders most directly affected are the children and their families. Children are working at the expense of their education and normal mental development. Education is important not only for the intellectual development but also for the empowerment and acquisition of new skills for adult life. The health of children is endangered by work in hazardous conditions, abuse, exhaustion, malnutrition, or exposure to toxic materials. The psychological harm leads to behavioral problems later on in life.[ 14 ]

Despite the implementation of laws and measurements at the international level, child labor still persists, and it is caused by the same factors as 100 years ago. There is a need to address poverty and access to education. To date, there is no international agreement to define child labor. Every country has different laws and regulations regarding the minimum age for starting working based on the type of labor. The lack of international consensus on child labor makes the limits of child labor very unclear.[ 15 ]

Therefore, it is mandatory to create international policies that adopt a holistic approach to free quality education for all children, including labor children from poor families. Education should be continued beyond the primary school level and should be done in a formal setting. Studies show that nonformal education is a necessary but not a sufficient prerequisite for permanently withdrawing children from work.[ 15 ] The public educational system should be expanded to accommodate laborer children who still do not have access to school. More schools should be built, more teachers should be trained, and more educational materials should be available. A special attention should be given to children living in exceptional geographical conditions and mobility should be provided at the cost of the community. Children who dropped out of school should receive adequate guidance and support, and a smooth reentry should be facilitated. The development of schools in the rural areas would decrease the load of children in urban schools. This will allow parents to accommodate children's needs without having to migrate in big cities.

Another phenomenon that should be addressed is the social exclusion. Children engaged in the worst forms of child labor come from the lowest strata of the society. International Labor Organization launched a project on Indigen and tribal people, who are the most targeted by social exclusion. This project promotes their rights and encourages building capacity among their community.[ 15 ] Proper enforcement of child labor policies and the focus on education can break the cycle of poverty that drives the children into labor.

Child labor is a public health issue with negative outcomes that demands special attention. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to tackle child labor issues. Per ILO, poverty is a major single cause behind child labor. Lack of affordable schools and affordable education is another major factor to force children to work. Certain cultural beliefs rationalize this practice and encourage child labor as character building and skill development for children. Some cultural traditions encourage child labor as footsteps to their parents' jobs. Socioeconomic disparities, poor governance, and poor implementation of international agreements are among major causes of child labor. Macroeconomic factors also encourage child labor by the growth of low pay informal economy. Child labor prevents the normal well-being including physical, intellectual, and emotional psychosocial development of children. This public health issue cannot be eliminated by only enforcement of child labor laws and regulations. Any comprehensive policies should engulf a holistic approach on the education of children and their families, investment in early childhood development programs, establishing public education task forces in rural areas, implementing policies with focus on increasing adult wages, and discouraging consumers to buy products made by forced child labor. As such, ethical practice requires protection of all rights of children and protective policies and procedures which support the provisions of ILO's standards.

Financial support and sponsorship

Conflicts of interest.

There are no conflicts of interest.


The authors wish to thank the University Writing Center at A.T. Still University for assistance with this manuscript.

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Assessment of the impact of child labour on children educational achivment

Profile image of Worku Dibu

ABSTRACT Child labour is an important aspect of social and economic reality that surrounds us although it is sometimes unnoticed. It is the severe problem of the world in general and the sub-Saharan countries like Ethiopia in particular in which children are considered an asset and means to improve livelihood of their family at the expense of their education. The attempt towards the elimination of child labor in Ethiopia is still lagging compare to the rest world. This in turn is affecting adversely the accumulation of human capital. Thus, the researcherwas intended to assess the impact of Child Labour on Children’s Educational Achievement in Ganta Afeshum Woredaand give the possible solution to overcome this problem. To realize this objective, the researcher employed qualitative approach and used in depth interview, FGD, key informant interview, personal observation data collection instruments and employed descriptive research and purposive sampling technique. The researcher analyzed the finding qualitatively through interpretation, description and summarization of the data. As the finding of the study indicates child labour is sever in rural area than urban area and also girls are more exposed for child labour than boys, children are involved in domestic and non-domestic productive activities. The attitude of communities toward child labour is also positive; they consider children as valuable asset for contributing family income. The views of households on working children arise commonly from their poor knowledge about the issue and is directed by traditional outlooks of uprooting ‘milk teeth’, that is seen as a shift from childhood to adulthood. As the finding indicates, Child labour has an impact on children’s educational achievement by making them: repeated the class, absenteeism from class, drop out, make very tired, shortage of times for study and reducing the chance to access education, beside this, as the finding indicate attitude of the communities, employers, poverty coupled with limited access to credit, health and family size as well as the abusive practices are thechallenges that hamper eliminating of child labour. Finally, as the finding indicate the local administratorstrategy of employing one sector, one children and work with NGOs, private sector and public sectors paly significant role via improving the future childhood of children, however,the involvement kebele administrator in tackling the problem is at low level, their understanding about child labour and implementing the existing legislation are poor though there are adequate law pertinent to children. Key words: Child Labour, Educational Achievement, Children

Related Papers

Child labour is the serious problems of the world in general and the sub-Saharan countries like Ethiopia in particular in which children are considered as asset and means to improve their livelihoods. This resulted low human capital accumulation by making children out of schooling. Child work, and the need for earnings, is almost certainly a key factor in children not accessing school and achievement good result. Thus, the researchers were intended to assess the impact of Child Labour on Children’s Educational Achievement in Ganta Afeshum Woreda. To realize this objective, the researchers employed qualitative approach and used in depth interview, FGD, key informant interview, personal observation data collection instruments and employed descriptive research and purpose sampling technique. At the end, the researchers analyzed the finding qualitatively through interpretation, description and summarization of the data.

child labor essay pdf

Deng Gatluak Riek

Nurlign Birhan


Pastoralists are among the marginalized groups of society who live in a marginalized environment and whose livelihood is exposed to the vagaries of climate and harsh environmental conditions. This study explores into impediments of pastoral children's participation into schooling and education with particular emphasis on the primary school of selected Woreda, Afar Zone. To achieve this purpose, a qualitative research method was employed. Participants of the study were selected by employing purposive sampling mainly on the basis of their roles related to schooling. Seven members of parent teacher associations, 20 teachers, 4 school principals, 14 education experts and officials, a total of 45 respondents took part in the study. Data were collected through the use of different instruments: Strutted interview, focus group discussion, and document review and observation checklist. The data obtained through these data collection instruments were analysed thematically. The steps involved were organizing and preparing data for analysis, reading through all data, coding, generating a description of the settings and people and identifying categories or themes for analysis, representing descriptions and themes in the qualitative narrative and interpretation. The study identified several cultural and economic barriers such as early marriage, lack of interest for modern education, parental level of education, mobility, child labor, poverty and finance. The results also showed that existence of both supply and demand side constraints. Problem of funding, inability to attract and retain qualified teaching staff, poorly equipped schools and community perception of modern education as a threat to pastoralist way of life were the major supply related shortcomings. The demand side limitations were identified as dispersed settlement patterns, demand for child labour, bride-price and peer pressure. Mandatory seasonal mobility, frequent conflicts and conflict induced displacement were cited as the most pronounced disenabling features.Drought and harsh weather were the driving forces of mobility. Competition over water sources and pastureland coupled with border dispute and cattle raid were identified as the long standing causes of armed conflict which in turn result in school activity disruption. Thus, based on the findings, recommendation is made to planners and policymakers so as to alleviate the observed shortcomings. Improving quality of school facilities, sensitization campaign on the benefits of education, blended mode of delivery, peace dialogue to arrest recurring conflicts, self-proof of schools about their worthiness to the local community and rethinking of teacher incentive mechanisms are some of the important propositions made in view to avert the long standing legacy of educational under representation of the Afar pastoralist communities in Ethiopia.

Eshetu Fekadu

Abstract: As is the case with other developing countries of the world, child labor is also a problem in Ethiopia. Child labor is mainly caused by poverty and the socio-cultural perspectives of society, where inhabitants require the labor of their children for household tasks and agricultural activities than sending them to school. The study was conducted to assess the general situation of child labor exploitation and children’s participation in primary education in selected primary schools at Debub Omo Zone and thereby to recommend mechanisms to alleviate the problem. This study has used both primary and secondary data sources. The methods used to collect primary data include: in depth-interview, focus group discussion, and observation. Informants were selected by purposive and available sampling techniques based on variables: age, sex, religion, education, occupation and marital status and a total of 58 informants participated in the study. Findings of the study revealed that child labor became a major problem in the study area, where it is closely associated with poverty and socio-cultural viewpoint of the society, which value children as an economic asset of their families. As a result of this, children were forced to drop their schooling or not got the chance to go to school. As the study reveals, children were expected to perform both domestic activities (such as cooking, fetching water and fire wood, caring siblings and washing) and productive activities (like cultivating, planting, weeding, harvesting, and keeping cattle and goats). The finding also indicates that child labor affects the physical, social, emotional, educational and health conditions of the working child. Therefore, it needs collaborative effort of all governmental, non-governmental and family’s effort in the fight against child labor, so as to ensure children’s school participation. Keywords: Child labor, Exploitation, Participation, Debube Omo, Zone.

Dursa Aliyi

Daniel Agena

mesay tekle

mustafe muhumed

MA thesis in educational leadership and management at jigjiga university of Ethiopia


Shoko Yamada

Getachew Demie

Berhanu Kuma

Bosha Bombe

Tone Sommerfelt , Henriette Lunde

Dawit Soge Soto

Bahre Gebru

Environment and Development Economics

Sosina Bezu

Mulatu Lerra

Wondimu Tegegne(PhD) B Geshera

Anetneh Ethiopia

Berhanu Kuma , Teshome Desta , mesfine sodd , Andualem Ufo , Abrham Taddele , Ashenafi Selassie

Emebet Mulugeta

sata shiferaw

Dr. Serawit H Melkato

Dakmara Georgescu

Fitsum Aregawi

Putting Children First: new frontiers in the fight against child poverty in Africa.

Elizabeth Ngutuku

Rakeb Aberra , Fasil Mulatu Gessesse

Temesgen Thomas , Birhanie A L E M U Kebede

Hashutaw Wolebo

Michael W. Thomas

jibril babayo

Mikiyas Defabachew


Ashenafi Tirfie

Solomon Kebede


Mehari Worku

Abdu Ahmedin

Shefan Ze Axum

Tariku Tadesse

Bisrat Kassahun

furio rosati


Kristen Cheney

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Essay on Child Labor

Child labor refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives them of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially, or morally dangerous and harmful. This essay delves into the causes, effects, and possible solutions to eradicate child labor, aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding of the issue for students participating in essay writing competitions.

Child Labor

Child labor is a global phenomenon affecting millions of children worldwide. Despite numerous laws against it, child labor continues to persist, undermining children’s rights and exposing them to various forms of exploitation. The roots of child labor are deep and multifaceted, ranging from economic and social to cultural factors.

Causes of Child Labor

  • Poverty : The most significant driver of child labor is poverty. Families struggling to meet basic needs may depend on the income generated by their children. In such scenarios, children are often compelled to work to contribute to the family’s survival.
  • Lack of Access to Quality Education : In areas where education is either inaccessible or unaffordable, children are more likely to enter the workforce at a young age. The absence of educational opportunities leaves children with few alternatives to labor.
  • Cultural Factors : In some cultures, child labor is considered a norm where children are expected to contribute to the family’s work from an early age. This cultural acceptance perpetuates the cycle of child labor.
  • High Demand for Cheap Labor : Industries that rely on low-skilled labor often exploit children as a source of cheap labor. Children are less likely to demand higher wages or better working conditions, making them attractive to unscrupulous employers.
  • Limited Enforcement of Labor Laws : In many regions, labor laws that prohibit child labor are poorly enforced. This lack of enforcement encourages employers to continue exploiting child labor without fear of legal repercussions.
  • Armed Conflicts and Disasters : In regions affected by war, natural disasters, or civil unrest, the breakdown of social and economic structures can lead to an increase in child labor. Children may be recruited by armed forces or forced into labor to survive.
  • Trafficking and Exploitation : Children are particularly vulnerable to trafficking and exploitation. Traffickers often deceive parents with promises of education or better opportunities for their children, only to force them into labor or prostitution.
  • Agricultural Dependence : In rural areas where economies are heavily dependent on agriculture, children often work alongside their families on farms. Seasonal employment peaks can lead to increased demand for child labor.
  • Urbanization and Migration : Urbanization and migration can exacerbate child labor, as displaced families in urban areas may rely on their children to work. Children in migrant families are particularly vulnerable to exploitation due to their unstable living conditions and lack of access to education.

Effects of Child Labor

Health issues.

Child laborers are often exposed to hazardous conditions, leading to serious health problems. Working in mines, factories, or agriculture exposes children to toxic substances, extreme temperatures, and physically demanding tasks, resulting in chronic illnesses or injuries.

Educational Deprivation

Child labor severely limits a child’s access to education. Juggling work and school is challenging, and many children drop out of school to work full-time, significantly diminishing their future prospects.

Psychological Impact

The burden of work at a young age can have profound psychological effects on children. They may experience depression, stress, and a sense of helplessness, impacting their overall mental and emotional development.

Solutions to Eradicate Child Labor

Strengthening laws and enforcement.

While most countries have laws against child labor, enforcement is often weak. Strengthening legislation and its enforcement can deter employers from exploiting child labor. Penalties for those violating child labor laws must be severe enough to act as a deterrent.

Improving Access to Education

Ensuring that all children have access to free, quality education is crucial in combating child labor. Educational programs must be relevant and accessible, especially to marginalized communities. Additionally, offering financial incentives to families can encourage them to keep their children in school.

Economic Support and Social Security

Providing families with economic support and social security can reduce the need for children to work. Initiatives like cash transfers, food security programs, and employment schemes for adults can help alleviate poverty and reduce reliance on children’s earnings.

Awareness and Advocacy

Raising awareness about the harmful effects of child labor and advocating for children’s rights can lead to societal change. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the media, and educational institutions play a crucial role in sensitizing communities and policymakers about the importance of eradicating child labor.

International Cooperation

Child labor is a global issue that requires international cooperation. Sharing best practices, resources, and support can help countries develop effective strategies to eliminate child labor. International organizations like the United Nations and the International Labour Organization play a pivotal role in coordinating these efforts.

In Conclusion , Child labor is a complex issue rooted in poverty, lack of education, and cultural norms. Its eradication requires a multifaceted approach that includes strengthening laws and enforcement, improving access to education, providing economic support to families, raising awareness, and fostering international cooperation. By addressing the root causes of child labor and implementing comprehensive solutions, we can protect children’s rights, ensure their well-being, and pave the way for a brighter future where every child has the opportunity to learn, grow, and achieve their potential. Eradicating child labor is not only a moral imperative but also a crucial step towards achieving social justice and economic development for all.

child labor essay pdf

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  • Child Labour Essay


What is Child Labour?

Child Labour means the employment of children in any kind of work that hampers their physical and mental development, deprives them of their basic educational and recreational requirements. A large number of children are compelled to work in various hazardous and non-hazardous activities such as in the agriculture sector, glass factories, carpet industry, brass industries, matchbox factories, and as domestic help. It is a blot on our society and speaks immensely about the inability of our society to provide a congenial environment for the growth and development of children. 

Childhood is considered to be the best time of one’s life but unfortunately, this does not hold true for some children who struggle to make both ends meet during their childhood years. According to the Child Labour project and 2011 census, 10.2 million children are engaged in child labour in India, out of which 4.5 million are girls. 

Earlier, children helped their parents in basic chores in agriculture such as sowing, reaping, harvesting, taking care of the cattle, etc. However, with the growth of the industries and urbanization, the issue of child labour has increased. Children at a very tender age are employed for various inappropriate activities and they are forced to make hazardous stuff using their nimble fingers. They are employed in the garment factories, leather, jewellery, and sericulture industries. 

Contributing Factors of Increasing Child Labour

There are a number of factors that contribute to the rise of this peril. 

Poverty plays a major role in the issues of child labour. In poor families, children are considered to be an extra earning hand. These families believe that every child is a bread-earner and so they have more children. As these children grow up, they are expected to share their parents’ responsibilities. 

Illiteracy is an important factor that contributes to this problem. The illiterate parents think that education is a burden because they need to invest more in comparison to the returns that they get in the form of earnings from their children. Child labourers are exposed to unhygienic conditions, late working hours, and different enormities, which have a direct effect on their cognitive development. The tender and immature minds of the children are not able to cope with such situations leading to emotional and physical distress. 

Unethical employers also prefer child labourers to adults because they canextract more work from them and pay a lesser amount of wage. Bonded child labour is the cruellest act of child labour. In this type of child labour, the children are made to work to pay off a loan or a debt of the family. Bonded labour has also led to the trafficking of these impoverished children from rural to urban areas in order to work as domestic help or in small production houses or just to lead the life of street beggars. 

Role of the Government

The government has a very important role to play in the eradication of child labour. As poverty is the major cause of child labour in our country, the government should give assurance to provide the basic amenities to the lower strata of our society. There should be an equal distribution of wealth. More work opportunities need to be generated to give fair employment to the poor. The various NGOs across the nation should come forward and provide vocational training to these people in order to jobs or to make them self-employed. 

This lower stratum of our society should understand and believe in the importance of education. The government and the NGOs should reach out to such people to raise awareness and initiate free education for all children between the age group of 6-14 years. The parents must be encouraged to send their children to schools instead of work. 

Educated and affluent citizens can come forward and contribute to the upliftment of this class of society. They should spread the message about the harmful effects of child labour. Schools and colleges can come up with innovative teaching programmes for poor children. Offices and private and government institutions should offer free education to the children of their staff. 

Moreover, awareness of family planning needs to be created among these people. The NGOs and the government must educate them about family planning measures. This will help the family to reduce the burden of feeding too many mouths.

Child Labour is a Crime 

Despite the strict law about child labour being a crime, it is still widely prevalent in India and many other countries worldwide. Greedy and crooked employers also lack awareness of human rights and government policies among the people below poverty. 

Children in certain mining operations and industries are a cheap source of labour, and the employers get away with it because of corruption in the bureaucracy. Sometimes low-income families may also ignore basic human rights and send their children to earn extra money. It is a systemic problem that needs to be solved by addressing issues at many levels. 

However, to protect young children from such exploitation, the Indian government has come up with a set of punishments. Any person who hires a child younger than 14, or a child between the ages of 14 and 18 in a dangerous job, they are liable to be imprisoned for a term of 6 months-2 years and/or a monetary penalty ranging between Rs.20,000 and Rs.80,000.

Eradicating Child Labour 

Eradication of child labour will require support from multiple aspects of society. The government programs and government agents can only go so far with their efforts. Sometimes, poor and uneducated families would be reluctant to let go of their familiar ways even when better opportunities are provided.

That’s when normal citizens and volunteers need to step up for support. NGOs supported by well-meaning citizens will have to ensure that the government policies are strictly enforced, and all forms of corruption are brought to light.  

Education drives and workshops for the poor section of the economy need to help raise awareness. Parents need to understand the long-term benefits of education for their children. It can help in developing the quality of life and the potential to rise out of poverty.

The harmful consequences of child labour mentally and physically on the children need to be taught in the workshops. Government petitions can also encourage schooling for younger children by offering nutritious meals and other benefits. 

Education about family planning is also critical in helping to control the population. When low-income families have more children, they are also inclined to send them for work to help float the household. Having fewer children means that they are valued, and parents focus on providing for their nourishment, education, and long-term well-being. 

Having fewer kids also makes them precious, and parents will not send them to hazardous working environments in fear of permanent injury or death. The government should introduce incentives for families with one or two children to encourage poorer families to have fewer children and reap the benefits while providing a good life.

Government Policies

The Indian Government enacted many laws to protect child rights, namely the Child and Adolescent Labour Act, 1986, the Factories Act, 1948, the Mines Act, 1952, the Bonded Labour System Abolition Act, and the Juvenile Justice Act, 2000. 

As per the Child Labour Act (Prohibition and Regulation), 1986, children under the age of fourteen years old could not be employed in hazardous occupations. This act also attempts to regulate working conditions in the jobs that it permits and emphasizes health and safety standards. 

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 mandates free and compulsory education to all children between the age group of 6 to 14 years old. 

A nation full of poverty-ridden children cannot make progress. It should be the collective responsibility of society and the government to provide these impoverished children with a healthy and conducive environment, which will help them to develop their innate capabilities and their skills effectively.


FAQs on Child Labour Essay

Q1. What do you understand by Child Labour?

Child Labour means the employment of children in any kind of work that impedes their physical and mental development, deprives them of their basic educational and recreational requirements.

Q2. What factors lead to Child Labour?

Poverty, illiteracy, no family control lead to Child Labour. Even the growth of industrialization and urbanization play a major role in the Child Labour. The exploitation of poor people by unethical employers on account of failing to pay their loans or debts, lead to child labour.

Q3. What measures should be taken to eradicate Child Labour?

The government, NGOs should raise awareness about family control measures among the weaker section of the society. The government should provide free amenities and education to children between the age group of 6-14 years. The government should generate more employment opportunities for them. The schools and colleges can come up with innovative teaching programs for them.

Q4. Which policy has banned the employment of Children?

 The Child and Adolescent Labour Act, 1986 has banned the employment of children under the age of 14 years.

Q5. What are the causes of child labour? 

Child labour is mainly caused by poverty in families from the underprivileged section of the economy. Poor and uneducated parents send children to work under unsupervised and often dangerous conditions. They do not realise the damage it causes for children in the long run. Child labour is also caused by the exploitation of poor people by crooked employers. The problem is also fueled by corruption at the bureaucratic level, which ignores worker and human rights violations.

Q6. How to prevent child labour? 

Child labour can be prevented by education programs supported by the government and also NGOs. Volunteers have educated low-income families about the dangers of child labour and the benefits of education. Government laws should be reformed and enforced more rigorously to punish people who employ underage children.

Q7. What are the types of child labour?

There are mainly four types of child labour: 

Domestic child labourers:   These are children (mostly girls) who wealthy families employ to do the household chores.

Industrial child labourers:   Children are made to work in factories, mines, plantations, or small-scale industries. 

Debt Bondage:   Some children are forced to work as debt labourers to clear the inherited debts of their families. 

Child Trafficking:   Child trafficking is when orphaned or kidnapped children are sold for money. They are exploited the most without regard for their well-being. 

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Plan, Prepare & Make the Best Career Choices

Child Labour Essay

Many children are forced to labour in a variety of dangerous and non-hazardous occupations, including agriculture, glass manufacturing, the carpet and brass industries, matchbox manufacturing, and household labour. Here are some sample essays on child labour.

  • 100 Words Essay On Child Labour

Child labour is defined as the employment of children for any type of work that interferes with their physical and mental growth and denies them access to the fundamental educational and recreational needs. A child is generally regarded as old enough to work when they are fifteen years old or older. Children under this age limit are not permitted to engage in any sort of forced employment. Because child labour denies children the chance to experience a normal upbringing, receive a quality education, and appreciate their physical and emotional wellbeing. Although it is prohibited in certain nations, it has still not been totally abolished.

200 Words Essay On Child Labour

500 words essay on child labour.

Child Labour Essay

Children are preferred for employment in many unorganised small industries because they are less demanding and easier to handle. Sometimes the children's own families force them into child labour because they lack the funds or are unable to provide for them.

These kids frequently live in poor, unsanitary circumstances with little access to school or medical care. These kids are also forced to live in seclusion and aren't permitted to play, engage socially, or make friends. Such a toxic workplace is difficult for kids and frequently contributes to mental illnesses like depression. These kids frequently use drugs and other substances, which worsens their physical and mental health.

Why Is Child Labour Prohibited?

The employment of children in a manner that denies them the chance to enjoy childhood, receive an education, or experience personal growth is known as child labour. There are many strong laws against child labour, and many nations, like India, have standards of imprisonment and fines if a person or organisation is found to be engaging in child labour.

Even while there are rules in place to prevent child labour, we still need to enforce them. Children are compelled to work as children owing to poverty and to help support their families.

Child labourers are either trafficked from their home countries or originate from destitute backgrounds. They are fully at the power of their employers and have no protection.

Causes Of Child Labour

Here are some reasons that lead to child labour:

Poverty | Child labour is a problem that is greatly influenced by poverty. Children in low-income households are viewed as an additional source of income. These kids are expected to help out with their parents' duties when they get older.

Illiteracy | One significant component that fuels this issue is illiteracy. Because they must invest more than they receive in return in the form of wages from their children, the illiterate parents view education as a burden. Children who work as labourers are subjected to unsanitary circumstances, late hours, and other hardships that have an immediate impact on their cognitive development.

Bonded Labour | Unethical businesses like using children as labourers over adults since they can get more work done from them and pay them less per hour. Children are forced to work in this sort of child labour in order to pay off a family loan or obligation. Due to bonded labour, poor children have also been trafficked from rural to urban areas to work as domestic help, in tiny manufacturing houses, or simply to live as street beggars.

How To Protect Children From Child Labour?

Multiple facets of society will be required to support efforts to abolish child labour. The effectiveness of government initiatives and its personnel is limited. Therefore, we ought to come together and channelize our efforts in the right direction to stop child labour. Here are some of the ways to stop child labour–

Notice | Be cautious when eating at a neighbouring restaurant or shopping at a neighbourhood market. Inform local authorities or call CHILDLINE 1098 if you see any children working as child labourers.

Know The Law | The first step in preventing child labour is to understand the constitution's role in child protection. Knowing the laws gives you the knowledge you need to combat the threat and alert those who use child labour.

Educate And Aware | Child labour may be avoided by educating others about its negative impacts, especially business leaders and employers. Discuss with them how child labour affects children's physical and emotional health, and tell them what the laws and punishments are.

Conversation With Parents | If you are aware of a parent in your area who is forcing his or her child to work as a youngster, speak with that parent and explain the dangers that child labour poses to the future of their offspring and highlight how education and skill building may protect their child's future.

Enrolment In Schools | In your community, you may establish a setting that encourages learning for street kids. You may assist disadvantaged youngsters in learning and self-education by raising money to create libraries and community learning centres in your area. Additionally, you may help the parents enrol their kids in school.

A country cannot advance if its children are living in abject poverty. To stop the exploitation and employment of children in certain industries, it is essential to identify these sectors and create the required legislation and laws. This should be society's and the government's shared duty.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

  • Construction
  • Entertainment
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  • Information Technology

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Water Manager

A career as water manager needs to provide clean water, preventing flood damage, and disposing of sewage and other wastes. He or she also repairs and maintains structures that control the flow of water, such as reservoirs, sea defense walls, and pumping stations. In addition to these, the Manager has other responsibilities related to water resource management.

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 

Operations Manager

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.


An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Fund Manager

Are you searching for a fund manager job description? A fund manager is a stock market professional hired by a mutual fund company to manage the funds’ portfolio of numerous clients and oversee their trading activities. In an investment company, multiple managers oversee the clients’ money and make their respective decisions. 

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.

Landscape Architect

Having a landscape architecture career, you are involved in site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, stormwater management, suitable design, and construction specification. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in New York introduced the title “landscape architect”. The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) proclaims that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". Therefore, individuals who opt for a career as a landscape architect are those who are educated and experienced in landscape architecture. Students need to pursue various landscape architecture degrees, such as  M.Des , M.Plan to become landscape architects. If you have more questions regarding a career as a landscape architect or how to become a landscape architect then you can read the article to get your doubts cleared. 

An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

Urban Planner

Urban Planning careers revolve around the idea of developing a plan to use the land optimally, without affecting the environment. Urban planning jobs are offered to those candidates who are skilled in making the right use of land to distribute the growing population, to create various communities. 

Urban planning careers come with the opportunity to make changes to the existing cities and towns. They identify various community needs and make short and long-term plans accordingly.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Speech Therapist


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.


The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

Dental Surgeon

A Dental Surgeon is a professional who possesses specialisation in advanced dental procedures and aesthetics. Dental surgeon duties and responsibilities may include fitting dental prosthetics such as crowns, caps, bridges, veneers, dentures and implants following apicoectomy and other surgical procedures.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.


Multimedia specialist.

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Advertising Manager

Advertising managers consult with the financial department to plan a marketing strategy schedule and cost estimates. We often see advertisements that attract us a lot, not every advertisement is just to promote a business but some of them provide a social message as well. There was an advertisement for a washing machine brand that implies a story that even a man can do household activities. And of course, how could we even forget those jingles which we often sing while working?


Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

Social Media Manager

A career as social media manager involves implementing the company’s or brand’s marketing plan across all social media channels. Social media managers help in building or improving a brand’s or a company’s website traffic, build brand awareness, create and implement marketing and brand strategy. Social media managers are key to important social communication as well.

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager

A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

Procurement Manager

The procurement Manager is also known as  Purchasing Manager. The role of the Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. A Procurement Manager is involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness. 


A career as a merchandiser requires one to promote specific products and services of one or different brands, to increase the in-house sales of the store. Merchandising job focuses on enticing the customers to enter the store and hence increasing their chances of buying a product. Although the buyer is the one who selects the lines, it all depends on the merchandiser on how much money a buyer will spend, how many lines will be purchased, and what will be the quantity of those lines. In a career as merchandiser, one is required to closely work with the display staff in order to decide in what way a product would be displayed so that sales can be maximised. In small brands or local retail stores, a merchandiser is responsible for both merchandising and buying. 

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Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

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Essay on Child Labour for Students and Children

500+ words essay on child labour.

Child labour is a term you might have heard about in news or movies. It refers to a crime where children are forced to work from a very early age. It is like expecting kids to perform responsibilities like working and fending for themselves. There are certain policies which have put restrictions and limitations on children working.

Essay on Child Labour

The average age for a child to be appropriate to work is considered fifteen years and more. Children falling below this age limit won’t be allowed to indulge in any type of work forcefully. Why is that so? Because child labour takes away the kids opportunity of having a normal childhood, a proper education , and physical and mental well-being. In some countries, it is illegal but still, it’s a far way from being completely eradicated.

Causes of Child Labour

Child Labour happens due to a number of reasons. While some of the reasons may be common in some countries, there are some reasons which are specific in particular areas and regions. When we look at what is causing child labour, we will be able to fight it better.

Firstly, it happens in countries that have a lot of poverty and unemployment . When the families won’t have enough earning, they put the children of the family to work so they can have enough money to survive. Similarly, if the adults of the family are unemployed, the younger ones have to work in their place.

child labor essay pdf

Moreover, when people do not have access to the education they will ultimately put their children to work. The uneducated only care about a short term result which is why they put children to work so they can survive their present.

Furthermore, the money-saving attitude of various industries is a major cause of child labour. They hire children because they pay them lesser for the same work as an adult. As children work more than adults and also at fewer wages, they prefer children. They can easily influence and manipulate them. They only see their profit and this is why they engage children in factories.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Eradication of Child Labour

If we wish to eradicate child labour, we need to formulate some very effective solutions which will save our children. It will also enhance the future of any country dealing with these social issues . To begin with, one can create a number of unions that solely work to prevent child labour. It should help the children indulging in this work and punishing those who make them do it.

Furthermore, we need to keep the parents in the loop so as to teach them the importance of education. If we make education free and the people aware, we will be able to educate more and more children who won’t have to do child labour. Moreover, making people aware of the harmful consequences of child labour is a must.

In addition, family control measures must also be taken. This will reduce the family’s burden so when you have lesser mouths to feed, the parents will be enough to work for them, instead of the children. In fact, every family must be promised a minimum income by the government to survive.

In short, the government and people must come together. Employment opportunities must be given to people in abundance so they can earn their livelihood instead of putting their kids to work. The children are the future of our country; we cannot expect them to maintain the economic conditions of their families instead of having a normal childhood.

{ “@context”: “https://schema.org”, “@type”: “FAQPage”, “mainEntity”: [{ “@type”: “Question”, “name”: “What causes child labour?”, “acceptedAnswer”: { “@type”: “Answer”, “text”: “Child Labour is caused by many factors. The most important one is poverty and illiteracy. When people barely make ends meet, they put their children to work so they can have food two times a day.”} }, { “@type”: “Question”, “name”: “How can we prevent child labour?”, “acceptedAnswer”: { “@type”: “Answer”, “text”:”Strict measures can prevent child labour. Unions should be made to monitor the activities of child labour. Education must be made free to enroll more and more kids in school. We must also abolish child trafficking completely to save the children.”} }] }

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  1. child labour essays

    child labor essay pdf

  2. Essay on Child Labour for Students and Children (2023)

    child labor essay pdf

  3. Essay on Child Labour for Students and Children (2023)

    child labor essay pdf

  4. Child Labor: negative impacts on the society Free Essay Example

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  5. Child Labour Essay in English for Students

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  6. Child Labor Essay Example

    child labor essay pdf


  1. Capturing the Harsh Reality: Child Labor Injuries (1908-1924)


  1. (PDF) Child Labour

    Is child labour an economic phenomenon born out of poverty, inefficient credit markets, and lack of education (see Jafarey and Lahiri (2001) for an excellent discussion of Child Labour) and the...

  2. (PDF) Child Labour: A Review of Recent Theory and ...

    1386-1388. Basu, K. and Zarghamee, H. (2009) Is product boycott a good idea for controlling child labor? A theoretical Basu, K., Das, S. and Dutta, B. (2010) Child labor and household...

  3. PDF CHILD LABOR http://www.nber.org/papers/w12926 NATIONAL BUREAU OF

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  4. (PDF) human rights issues of child labour

    UN Department of Public Information, 15 (3), 14-16. Augendra Bhukuth. Ballet Jerome. United States Department of Labor. PDF | On Aug 9, 2018, Isaac Eshun published human rights issues of child ...

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    A Comprehensive Approach to Labor Policy. 1 Jamie Gordon will graduate from Duke University in May 2008 with an A.B. in Political Science and a minor in Economics. She can be contacted at [email protected]. Many thanks to Dr. Lori Leachman for her guidance and support with this paper. Abstract.

  6. PDF What Is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence

    include child work as a possible explanation. 3 This paper, therefore, provides an indication of whether child work variables should be included in such studies. The possible importance of reduced learning achievement is well recog-nized as one of the major harmful effects of child work, and this has been

  7. PDF Ending child labour by 2025

    Target 8.7 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals calls for an end to child labour in all its forms by . 2025. Yet simply maintaining the current rate of progress would leave . 121 million children still engaged in child labour by this critical target date. How can the world community get firmly on track toward eliminating child labour?

  8. PDF The Determinants of Child Labor: Theory and Evidence

    could enter the labor force, compulsory education, and the public provision of educational services. Nevertheless, there are many distinct parallels between child labor today and the experience with child labor in the west two centuries ago. We conclude section V with an attempt to draw some lessons from the historical experience.

  9. PDF Child labour and Education For All: an issue paper

    child labour poses to achieving Education For All. The section looks firstly at the effects of child labour on children's ability to enter and survive in the school system, and secondly at the effect of child labour on children's ability to derive educational benefit from schooling once in the system. Obviously, the two issues are closely

  10. PDF Child Labour

    than offset the impact of COVID-19 on child labour, returning us to progress on the issue. Other key results from the 2020 global estimates include: • Involvement in child labour is higher for boys than girls at all ages. Among all boys, 11.2 per cent are in child labour compared to 7.8 per cent of all girls. In absolute numbers, boys in child

  11. Essays on the Causes and Consequences of Child Labor

    child labor as harming vulnerable members of society by exposing them to dangerous and exploitative work. Child labor might also harm children because work interferes with the child's ability to attend school 1 This results is derived from a theory developed by Basu and Van (1998) which involves both a luxury and substitution axiom.

  12. (PDF) ESSAY REVIEW: Child Labor and Education: New Perspectives and

    Child Labour and Education For All: An Issue Paper 2000 • furio rosati Download Free PDF View PDF 'Why education matters: breaking cycles of child labour in the past and the present' for World Against Child Labour Day Merridee Bailey

  13. Child labor and health: a systematic literature review of the impacts

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  14. (PDF) Reviewing child labour and its worst forms: Contemporary

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    Child labor is an old problem well rooted in human history. Children were exploited to various extents during different periods of time. The problem was common in poor and developing countries. In the 1800's, child labor was part of economic life and industrial growth.

  16. Lesson Plan Child Labor in America

    Library of Congress Classroom Materials at the Library of Congress Child Labor in America. Evaluation. Children have always worked, often exploited and under less than healthy conditions. Industrialization, the Great Depression and the vast influx of poor immigrants in the 19th and 20th centuries, made it easy to justify the work of young ...

  17. (PDF) Assessment of the impact of child labour on children educational

    ABSTRACT Child labour is an important aspect of social and economic reality that surrounds us although it is sometimes unnoticed. It is the severe problem of the world in general and the sub-Saharan countries like Ethiopia in particular in which children are considered an asset and means to improve livelihood of their family at the expense of their education.

  18. Essay on Child Labor [Edit & Download], Pdf

    Essay on Child Labor [Edit & Download], Pdf Essay on Child Labor Child labor refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives them of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially, or morally dangerous and harmful.

  19. Child Labour Essay for Students in English

    Download PDF NCERT Solutions CBSE CBSE Study Material Textbook Solutions CBSE Notes What is Child Labour? Child Labour means the employment of children in any kind of work that hampers their physical and mental development, deprives them of their basic educational and recreational requirements.

  20. Child Labour Essay in English

    100 Words Essay On Child Labour. Child labour is defined as the employment of children for any type of work that interferes with their physical and mental growth and denies them access to the fundamental educational and recreational needs. A child is generally regarded as old enough to work when they are fifteen years old or older.

  21. (PDF) Child labour: Causes, consequences and policies to tackle it

    This paper reviews child labour trends, and the literature on its causes and consequences. It also discusses policies to combat child labour based on the lessons of the available evidence.

  22. Essay on Child Labour for Students and Children

    Child labour is a term you might have heard about in news or movies. It refers to a crime where children are forced to work from a very early age. It is like expecting kids to perform responsibilities like working and fending for themselves. There are certain policies which have put restrictions and limitations on children working.

  23. Argumentative Essay

    ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY - Read online for free. The document argues that child labor is a harmful practice that should be eradicated for three key reasons: 1) It deprives children of their rights to education, play, and a safe environment. 2) It perpetuates the cycle of poverty and inequality rather than alleviating it. 3) It violates children's fundamental human rights and dignity by subjecting ...