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## What is Hypothesis Testing? Types and Methods

• Soumyaa Rawat
• Jul 23, 2021

## Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is the act of testing a hypothesis or a supposition in relation to a statistical parameter. Analysts implement hypothesis testing in order to test if a hypothesis is plausible or not.

In data science and statistics , hypothesis testing is an important step as it involves the verification of an assumption that could help develop a statistical parameter. For instance, a researcher establishes a hypothesis assuming that the average of all odd numbers is an even number.

In order to find the plausibility of this hypothesis, the researcher will have to test the hypothesis using hypothesis testing methods. Unlike a hypothesis that is ‘supposed’ to stand true on the basis of little or no evidence, hypothesis testing is required to have plausible evidence in order to establish that a statistical hypothesis is true.

Perhaps this is where statistics play an important role. A number of components are involved in this process. But before understanding the process involved in hypothesis testing in research methodology, we shall first understand the types of hypotheses that are involved in the process. Let us get started!

## Types of Hypotheses

In data sampling, different types of hypothesis are involved in finding whether the tested samples test positive for a hypothesis or not. In this segment, we shall discover the different types of hypotheses and understand the role they play in hypothesis testing.

## Alternative Hypothesis

Alternative Hypothesis (H1) or the research hypothesis states that there is a relationship between two variables (where one variable affects the other). The alternative hypothesis is the main driving force for hypothesis testing.

It implies that the two variables are related to each other and the relationship that exists between them is not due to chance or coincidence.

When the process of hypothesis testing is carried out, the alternative hypothesis is the main subject of the testing process. The analyst intends to test the alternative hypothesis and verifies its plausibility.

## Null Hypothesis

The Null Hypothesis (H0) aims to nullify the alternative hypothesis by implying that there exists no relation between two variables in statistics. It states that the effect of one variable on the other is solely due to chance and no empirical cause lies behind it.

The null hypothesis is established alongside the alternative hypothesis and is recognized as important as the latter. In hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis has a major role to play as it influences the testing against the alternative hypothesis.

(Must read: What is ANOVA test? )

## Non-Directional Hypothesis

The Non-directional hypothesis states that the relation between two variables has no direction.

Simply put, it asserts that there exists a relation between two variables, but does not recognize the direction of effect, whether variable A affects variable B or vice versa.

## Directional Hypothesis

The Directional hypothesis, on the other hand, asserts the direction of effect of the relationship that exists between two variables.

Herein, the hypothesis clearly states that variable A affects variable B, or vice versa.

## Statistical Hypothesis

A statistical hypothesis is a hypothesis that can be verified to be plausible on the basis of statistics.

By using data sampling and statistical knowledge, one can determine the plausibility of a statistical hypothesis and find out if it stands true or not.

(Related blog: z-test vs t-test )

## Performing Hypothesis Testing

Now that we have understood the types of hypotheses and the role they play in hypothesis testing, let us now move on to understand the process in a better manner.

In hypothesis testing, a researcher is first required to establish two hypotheses - alternative hypothesis and null hypothesis in order to begin with the procedure.

To establish these two hypotheses, one is required to study data samples, find a plausible pattern among the samples, and pen down a statistical hypothesis that they wish to test.

A random population of samples can be drawn, to begin with hypothesis testing. Among the two hypotheses, alternative and null, only one can be verified to be true. Perhaps the presence of both hypotheses is required to make the process successful.

At the end of the hypothesis testing procedure, either of the hypotheses will be rejected and the other one will be supported. Even though one of the two hypotheses turns out to be true, no hypothesis can ever be verified 100%.

(Read also: Types of data sampling techniques )

Therefore, a hypothesis can only be supported based on the statistical samples and verified data. Here is a step-by-step guide for hypothesis testing.

## Establish the hypotheses

First things first, one is required to establish two hypotheses - alternative and null, that will set the foundation for hypothesis testing.

These hypotheses initiate the testing process that involves the researcher working on data samples in order to either support the alternative hypothesis or the null hypothesis.

## Generate a testing plan

Once the hypotheses have been formulated, it is now time to generate a testing plan. A testing plan or an analysis plan involves the accumulation of data samples, determining which statistic is to be considered and laying out the sample size.

All these factors are very important while one is working on hypothesis testing.

## Analyze data samples

As soon as a testing plan is ready, it is time to move on to the analysis part. Analysis of data samples involves configuring statistical values of samples, drawing them together, and deriving a pattern out of these samples.

While analyzing the data samples, a researcher needs to determine a set of things -

Significance Level - The level of significance in hypothesis testing indicates if a statistical result could have significance if the null hypothesis stands to be true.

Testing Method - The testing method involves a type of sampling-distribution and a test statistic that leads to hypothesis testing. There are a number of testing methods that can assist in the analysis of data samples.

Test statistic - Test statistic is a numerical summary of a data set that can be used to perform hypothesis testing.

P-value - The P-value interpretation is the probability of finding a sample statistic to be as extreme as the test statistic, indicating the plausibility of the null hypothesis.

## Infer the results

The analysis of data samples leads to the inference of results that establishes whether the alternative hypothesis stands true or not. When the P-value is less than the significance level, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis turns out to be plausible.

## Methods of Hypothesis Testing

As we have already looked into different aspects of hypothesis testing, we shall now look into the different methods of hypothesis testing. All in all, there are 2 most common types of hypothesis testing methods. They are as follows -

## Frequentist Hypothesis Testing

The frequentist hypothesis or the traditional approach to hypothesis testing is a hypothesis testing method that aims on making assumptions by considering current data.

The supposed truths and assumptions are based on the current data and a set of 2 hypotheses are formulated. A very popular subtype of the frequentist approach is the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST).

The NHST approach (involving the null and alternative hypothesis) has been one of the most sought-after methods of hypothesis testing in the field of statistics ever since its inception in the mid-1950s.

## Bayesian Hypothesis Testing

A much unconventional and modern method of hypothesis testing, the Bayesian Hypothesis Testing claims to test a particular hypothesis in accordance with the past data samples, known as prior probability, and current data that lead to the plausibility of a hypothesis.

The result obtained indicates the posterior probability of the hypothesis. In this method, the researcher relies on ‘prior probability and posterior probability’ to conduct hypothesis testing on hand.

On the basis of this prior probability, the Bayesian approach tests a hypothesis to be true or false. The Bayes factor, a major component of this method, indicates the likelihood ratio among the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.

The Bayes factor is the indicator of the plausibility of either of the two hypotheses that are established for hypothesis testing.

(Also read - Introduction to Bayesian Statistics )

To conclude, hypothesis testing, a way to verify the plausibility of a supposed assumption can be done through different methods - the Bayesian approach or the Frequentist approach.

Although the Bayesian approach relies on the prior probability of data samples, the frequentist approach assumes without a probability. A number of elements involved in hypothesis testing are - significance level, p-level, test statistic, and method of hypothesis testing.

(Also read: Introduction to probability distributions )

A significant way to determine whether a hypothesis stands true or not is to verify the data samples and identify the plausible hypothesis among the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.

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## Hypothesis Testing – A Complete Guide with Examples

Published by Alvin Nicolas at August 14th, 2021 , Revised On October 26, 2023

In statistics, hypothesis testing is a critical tool. It allows us to make informed decisions about populations based on sample data. Whether you are a researcher trying to prove a scientific point, a marketer analysing A/B test results, or a manufacturer ensuring quality control, hypothesis testing plays a pivotal role. This guide aims to introduce you to the concept and walk you through real-world examples.

## What is a Hypothesis and a Hypothesis Testing?

A hypothesis is considered a belief or assumption that has to be accepted, rejected, proved or disproved. In contrast, a research hypothesis is a research question for a researcher that has to be proven correct or incorrect through investigation.

## What is Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing  is a scientific method used for making a decision and drawing conclusions by using a statistical approach. It is used to suggest new ideas by testing theories to know whether or not the sample data supports research. A research hypothesis is a predictive statement that has to be tested using scientific methods that join an independent variable to a dependent variable.

Example: The academic performance of student A is better than student B

## Characteristics of the Hypothesis to be Tested

A hypothesis should be:

• Clear and precise
• Capable of being tested
• Able to relate to a variable
• Stated in simple terms
• Consistent with known facts
• Limited in scope and specific
• Tested in a limited timeframe
• Explain the facts in detail

## What is a Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis?

A  null hypothesis  is a hypothesis when there is no significant relationship between the dependent and the participants’ independent  variables .

In simple words, it’s a hypothesis that has been put forth but hasn’t been proved as yet. A researcher aims to disprove the theory. The abbreviation “Ho” is used to denote a null hypothesis.

If you want to compare two methods and assume that both methods are equally good, this assumption is considered the null hypothesis.

Example: In an automobile trial, you feel that the new vehicle’s mileage is similar to the previous model of the car, on average. You can write it as: Ho: there is no difference between the mileage of both vehicles. If your findings don’t support your hypothesis and you get opposite results, this outcome will be considered an alternative hypothesis.

If you assume that one method is better than another method, then it’s considered an alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis is the theory that a researcher seeks to prove and is typically denoted by H1 or HA.

If you support a null hypothesis, it means you’re not supporting the alternative hypothesis. Similarly, if you reject a null hypothesis, it means you are recommending the alternative hypothesis.

Example: In an automobile trial, you feel that the new vehicle’s mileage is better than the previous model of the vehicle. You can write it as; Ha: the two vehicles have different mileage. On average/ the fuel consumption of the new vehicle model is better than the previous model.

If a null hypothesis is rejected during the hypothesis test, even if it’s true, then it is considered as a type-I error. On the other hand, if you don’t dismiss a hypothesis, even if it’s false because you could not identify its falseness, it’s considered a type-II error.

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## How to Conduct Hypothesis Testing?

Here is a step-by-step guide on how to conduct hypothesis testing.

## Step 1: State the Null and Alternative Hypothesis

Once you develop a research hypothesis, it’s important to state it is as a Null hypothesis (Ho) and an Alternative hypothesis (Ha) to test it statistically.

A null hypothesis is a preferred choice as it provides the opportunity to test the theory. In contrast, you can accept the alternative hypothesis when the null hypothesis has been rejected.

Example: You want to identify a relationship between obesity of men and women and the modern living style. You develop a hypothesis that women, on average, gain weight quickly compared to men. Then you write it as: Ho: Women, on average, don’t gain weight quickly compared to men. Ha: Women, on average, gain weight quickly compared to men.

## Step 2: Data Collection

Hypothesis testing follows the statistical method, and statistics are all about data. It’s challenging to gather complete information about a specific population you want to study. You need to  gather the data  obtained through a large number of samples from a specific population.

Example: Suppose you want to test the difference in the rate of obesity between men and women. You should include an equal number of men and women in your sample. Then investigate various aspects such as their lifestyle, eating patterns and profession, and any other variables that may influence average weight. You should also determine your study’s scope, whether it applies to a specific group of population or worldwide population. You can use available information from various places, countries, and regions.

## Step 3: Select Appropriate Statistical Test

There are many  types of statistical tests , but we discuss the most two common types below, such as One-sided and two-sided tests.

Note: Your choice of the type of test depends on the purpose of your study

## One-sided Test

In the one-sided test, the values of rejecting a null hypothesis are located in one tail of the probability distribution. The set of values is less or higher than the critical value of the test. It is also called a one-tailed test of significance.

Example: If you want to test that all mangoes in a basket are ripe. You can write it as: Ho: All mangoes in the basket, on average, are ripe. If you find all ripe mangoes in the basket, the null hypothesis you developed will be true.

## Two-sided Test

In the two-sided test, the values of rejecting a null hypothesis are located on both tails of the probability distribution. The set of values is less or higher than the first critical value of the test and higher than the second critical value test. It is also called a two-tailed test of significance.

Example: Nothing can be explicitly said whether all mangoes are ripe in the basket. If you reject the null hypothesis (Ho: All mangoes in the basket, on average, are ripe), then it means all mangoes in the basket are not likely to be ripe. A few mangoes could be raw as well.

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## Step 4: Select the Level of Significance

When you reject a null hypothesis, even if it’s true during a statistical hypothesis, it is considered the  significance level . It is the probability of a type one error. The significance should be as minimum as possible to avoid the type-I error, which is considered severe and should be avoided.

If the significance level is minimum, then it prevents the researchers from false claims.

The significance level is denoted by  P,  and it has given the value of 0.05 (P=0.05)

If the P-Value is less than 0.05, then the difference will be significant. If the P-value is higher than 0.05, then the difference is non-significant.

Example: Suppose you apply a one-sided test to test whether women gain weight quickly compared to men. You get to know about the average weight between men and women and the factors promoting weight gain.

## Step 5: Find out Whether the Null Hypothesis is Rejected or Supported

After conducting a statistical test, you should identify whether your null hypothesis is rejected or accepted based on the test results. It would help if you observed the P-value for this.

Example: If you find the P-value of your test is less than 0.5/5%, then you need to reject your null hypothesis (Ho: Women, on average, don’t gain weight quickly compared to men). On the other hand, if a null hypothesis is rejected, then it means the alternative hypothesis might be true (Ha: Women, on average, gain weight quickly compared to men. If you find your test’s P-value is above 0.5/5%, then it means your null hypothesis is true.

## Step 6: Present the Outcomes of your Study

The final step is to present the  outcomes of your study . You need to ensure whether you have met the objectives of your research or not.

In the discussion section and  conclusion , you can present your findings by using supporting evidence and conclude whether your null hypothesis was rejected or supported.

In the result section, you can summarise your study’s outcomes, including the average difference and P-value of the two groups.

If we talk about the findings, our study your results will be as follows:

Example: In the study of identifying whether women gain weight quickly compared to men, we found the P-value is less than 0.5. Hence, we can reject the null hypothesis (Ho: Women, on average, don’t gain weight quickly than men) and conclude that women may likely gain weight quickly than men.

Did you know in your academic paper you should not mention whether you have accepted or rejected the null hypothesis?

Always remember that you either conclude to reject Ho in favor of Haor   do not reject Ho . It would help if you never rejected  Ha  or even  accept Ha .

Suppose your null hypothesis is rejected in the hypothesis testing. If you conclude  reject Ho in favor of Haor   do not reject Ho,  then it doesn’t mean that the null hypothesis is true. It only means that there is a lack of evidence against Ho in favour of Ha. If your null hypothesis is not true, then the alternative hypothesis is likely to be true.

Example: We found that the P-value is less than 0.5. Hence, we can conclude reject Ho in favour of Ha (Ho: Women, on average, don’t gain weight quickly than men) reject Ho in favour of Ha. However, rejected in favour of Ha means (Ha: women may likely to gain weight quickly than men)

What are the 3 types of hypothesis test.

The 3 types of hypothesis tests are:

• One-Sample Test : Compare sample data to a known population value.
• Two-Sample Test : Compare means between two sample groups.
• ANOVA : Analyze variance among multiple groups to determine significant differences.

## What is a hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a proposed explanation or prediction about a phenomenon, often based on observations. It serves as a starting point for research or experimentation, providing a testable statement that can either be supported or refuted through data and analysis. In essence, it’s an educated guess that drives scientific inquiry.

## What are null hypothesis?

A null hypothesis (often denoted as H0) suggests that there is no effect or difference in a study or experiment. It represents a default position or status quo. Statistical tests evaluate data to determine if there’s enough evidence to reject this null hypothesis.

## What is the probability value?

The probability value, or p-value, is a measure used in statistics to determine the significance of an observed effect. It indicates the probability of obtaining the observed results, or more extreme, if the null hypothesis were true. A small p-value (typically <0.05) suggests evidence against the null hypothesis, warranting its rejection.

## What is p value?

The p-value is a fundamental concept in statistical hypothesis testing. It represents the probability of observing a test statistic as extreme, or more so, than the one calculated from sample data, assuming the null hypothesis is true. A low p-value suggests evidence against the null, possibly justifying its rejection.

## What is a t test?

A t-test is a statistical test used to compare the means of two groups. It determines if observed differences between the groups are statistically significant or if they likely occurred by chance. Commonly applied in research, there are different t-tests, including independent, paired, and one-sample, tailored to various data scenarios.

## When to reject null hypothesis?

Reject the null hypothesis when the test statistic falls into a predefined rejection region or when the p-value is less than the chosen significance level (commonly 0.05). This suggests that the observed data is unlikely under the null hypothesis, indicating evidence for the alternative hypothesis. Always consider the study’s context.

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• How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples

## How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples

Published on May 6, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023.

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection .

## Example: Hypothesis

Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor’s visits.

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

## Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more types of variables .

• An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls.
• A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

If there are any control variables , extraneous variables , or confounding variables , be sure to jot those down as you go to minimize the chances that research bias  will affect your results.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

## Step 1. Ask a question

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

## Step 2. Do some preliminary research

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to ensure that you’re embarking on a relevant topic . This can also help you identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalize more complex constructs.

## Step 3. Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

• The relevant variables
• The specific group being studied
• The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

## 5. Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in  if…then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

## 6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis . The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

• H 0 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has no effect on their final exam scores.
• H 1 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has a positive effect on their final exam scores.

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

• Sampling methods
• Simple random sampling
• Stratified sampling
• Cluster sampling
• Likert scales
• Reproducibility

Statistics

• Null hypothesis
• Statistical power
• Probability distribution
• Effect size
• Poisson distribution

Research bias

• Optimism bias
• Cognitive bias
• Implicit bias
• Hawthorne effect
• Anchoring bias
• Explicit bias

A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

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• Fundamental Analysis

## What Is Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing, sometimes called significance testing, is an act in statistics whereby an analyst tests an assumption regarding a population parameter. The methodology employed by the analyst depends on the nature of the data used and the reason for the analysis.

Hypothesis testing is used to assess the plausibility of a hypothesis by using sample data. Such data may come from a larger population, or from a data-generating process. The word "population" will be used for both of these cases in the following descriptions.

## Key Takeaways

• Hypothesis testing is used to assess the plausibility of a hypothesis by using sample data.
• The test provides evidence concerning the plausibility of the hypothesis, given the data.
• Statistical analysts test a hypothesis by measuring and examining a random sample of the population being analyzed.
• The four steps of hypothesis testing include stating the hypotheses, formulating an analysis plan, analyzing the sample data, and analyzing the result.

## How Hypothesis Testing Works

In hypothesis testing, an  analyst  tests a statistical sample, with the goal of providing evidence on the plausibility of the null hypothesis.

Statistical analysts test a hypothesis by measuring and examining a random sample of the population being analyzed. All analysts use a random population sample to test two different hypotheses: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.

The null hypothesis is usually a hypothesis of equality between population parameters; e.g., a null hypothesis may state that the population mean return is equal to zero. The alternative hypothesis is effectively the opposite of a null hypothesis (e.g., the population mean return is not equal to zero). Thus, they are mutually exclusive , and only one can be true. However, one of the two hypotheses will always be true.

The null hypothesis is a statement about a population parameter, such as the population mean, that is assumed to be true.

## 4 Steps of Hypothesis Testing

All hypotheses are tested using a four-step process:

• The first step is for the analyst to state the hypotheses.
• The second step is to formulate an analysis plan, which outlines how the data will be evaluated.
• The third step is to carry out the plan and analyze the sample data.
• The final step is to analyze the results and either reject the null hypothesis, or state that the null hypothesis is plausible, given the data.

## Real-World Example of Hypothesis Testing

If, for example, a person wants to test that a penny has exactly a 50% chance of landing on heads, the null hypothesis would be that 50% is correct, and the alternative hypothesis would be that 50% is not correct.

Mathematically, the null hypothesis would be represented as Ho: P = 0.5. The alternative hypothesis would be denoted as "Ha" and be identical to the null hypothesis, except with the equal sign struck-through, meaning that it does not equal 50%.

A random sample of 100 coin flips is taken, and the null hypothesis is then tested. If it is found that the 100 coin flips were distributed as 40 heads and 60 tails, the analyst would assume that a penny does not have a 50% chance of landing on heads and would reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

If, on the other hand, there were 48 heads and 52 tails, then it is plausible that the coin could be fair and still produce such a result. In cases such as this where the null hypothesis is "accepted," the analyst states that the difference between the expected results (50 heads and 50 tails) and the observed results (48 heads and 52 tails) is "explainable by chance alone."

Some staticians attribute the first hypothesis tests to satirical writer John Arbuthnot in 1710, who studied male and female births in England after observing that in nearly every year, male births exceeded female births by a slight proportion. Arbuthnot calculated that the probability of this happening by chance was small, and therefore it was due to “divine providence.”

## What is Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing refers to a process used by analysts to assess the plausibility of a hypothesis by using sample data. In hypothesis testing, statisticians formulate two hypotheses: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. A null hypothesis determines there is no difference between two groups or conditions, while the alternative hypothesis determines that there is a difference. Researchers evaluate the statistical significance of the test based on the probability that the null hypothesis is true.

## What are the Four Key Steps Involved in Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing begins with an analyst stating two hypotheses, with only one that can be right. The analyst then formulates an analysis plan, which outlines how the data will be evaluated. Next, they move to the testing phase and analyze the sample data. Finally, the analyst analyzes the results and either rejects the null hypothesis or states that the null hypothesis is plausible, given the data.

## What are the Benefits of Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing helps assess the accuracy of new ideas or theories by testing them against data. This allows researchers to determine whether the evidence supports their hypothesis, helping to avoid false claims and conclusions. Hypothesis testing also provides a framework for decision-making based on data rather than personal opinions or biases. By relying on statistical analysis, hypothesis testing helps to reduce the effects of chance and confounding variables, providing a robust framework for making informed conclusions.

## What are the Limitations of Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing relies exclusively on data and doesn’t provide a comprehensive understanding of the subject being studied. Additionally, the accuracy of the results depends on the quality of the available data and the statistical methods used. Inaccurate data or inappropriate hypothesis formulation may lead to incorrect conclusions or failed tests. Hypothesis testing can also lead to errors, such as analysts either accepting or rejecting a null hypothesis when they shouldn’t have. These errors may result in false conclusions or missed opportunities to identify significant patterns or relationships in the data.

## The Bottom Line

Hypothesis testing refers to a statistical process that helps researchers and/or analysts determine the reliability of a study. By using a well-formulated hypothesis and set of statistical tests, individuals or businesses can make inferences about the population that they are studying and draw conclusions based on the data presented. There are different types of hypothesis testing, each with their own set of rules and procedures. However, all hypothesis testing methods have the same four step process, which includes stating the hypotheses, formulating an analysis plan, analyzing the sample data, and analyzing the result. Hypothesis testing plays a vital part of the scientific process, helping to test assumptions and make better data-based decisions.

Sage. " Introduction to Hypothesis Testing. " Page 4.

Elder Research. " Who Invented the Null Hypothesis? "

Formplus. " Hypothesis Testing: Definition, Uses, Limitations and Examples. "

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## The Craft of Writing a Strong Hypothesis

Writing a hypothesis is one of the essential elements of a scientific research paper. It needs to be to the point, clearly communicating what your research is trying to accomplish. A blurry, drawn-out, or complexly-structured hypothesis can confuse your readers. Or worse, the editor and peer reviewers.

A captivating hypothesis is not too intricate. This blog will take you through the process so that, by the end of it, you have a better idea of how to convey your research paper's intent in just one sentence.

## What is a Hypothesis?

The first step in your scientific endeavor, a hypothesis, is a strong, concise statement that forms the basis of your research. It is not the same as a thesis statement , which is a brief summary of your research paper .

The sole purpose of a hypothesis is to predict your paper's findings, data, and conclusion. It comes from a place of curiosity and intuition . When you write a hypothesis, you're essentially making an educated guess based on scientific prejudices and evidence, which is further proven or disproven through the scientific method.

The reason for undertaking research is to observe a specific phenomenon. A hypothesis, therefore, lays out what the said phenomenon is. And it does so through two variables, an independent and dependent variable.

The independent variable is the cause behind the observation, while the dependent variable is the effect of the cause. A good example of this is “mixing red and blue forms purple.” In this hypothesis, mixing red and blue is the independent variable as you're combining the two colors at your own will. The formation of purple is the dependent variable as, in this case, it is conditional to the independent variable.

## Different Types of Hypotheses‌

Types of hypotheses

Some would stand by the notion that there are only two types of hypotheses: a Null hypothesis and an Alternative hypothesis. While that may have some truth to it, it would be better to fully distinguish the most common forms as these terms come up so often, which might leave you out of context.

Apart from Null and Alternative, there are Complex, Simple, Directional, Non-Directional, Statistical, and Associative and casual hypotheses. They don't necessarily have to be exclusive, as one hypothesis can tick many boxes, but knowing the distinctions between them will make it easier for you to construct your own.

## 1. Null hypothesis

A null hypothesis proposes no relationship between two variables. Denoted by H 0 , it is a negative statement like “Attending physiotherapy sessions does not affect athletes' on-field performance.” Here, the author claims physiotherapy sessions have no effect on on-field performances. Even if there is, it's only a coincidence.

## 2. Alternative hypothesis

Considered to be the opposite of a null hypothesis, an alternative hypothesis is donated as H1 or Ha. It explicitly states that the dependent variable affects the independent variable. A good  alternative hypothesis example is “Attending physiotherapy sessions improves athletes' on-field performance.” or “Water evaporates at 100 °C. ” The alternative hypothesis further branches into directional and non-directional.

• Directional hypothesis: A hypothesis that states the result would be either positive or negative is called directional hypothesis. It accompanies H1 with either the ‘<' or ‘>' sign.
• Non-directional hypothesis: A non-directional hypothesis only claims an effect on the dependent variable. It does not clarify whether the result would be positive or negative. The sign for a non-directional hypothesis is ‘≠.'

## 3. Simple hypothesis

A simple hypothesis is a statement made to reflect the relation between exactly two variables. One independent and one dependent. Consider the example, “Smoking is a prominent cause of lung cancer." The dependent variable, lung cancer, is dependent on the independent variable, smoking.

## 4. Complex hypothesis

In contrast to a simple hypothesis, a complex hypothesis implies the relationship between multiple independent and dependent variables. For instance, “Individuals who eat more fruits tend to have higher immunity, lesser cholesterol, and high metabolism.” The independent variable is eating more fruits, while the dependent variables are higher immunity, lesser cholesterol, and high metabolism.

## 5. Associative and casual hypothesis

Associative and casual hypotheses don't exhibit how many variables there will be. They define the relationship between the variables. In an associative hypothesis, changing any one variable, dependent or independent, affects others. In a casual hypothesis, the independent variable directly affects the dependent.

## 6. Empirical hypothesis

Also referred to as the working hypothesis, an empirical hypothesis claims a theory's validation via experiments and observation. This way, the statement appears justifiable and different from a wild guess.

Say, the hypothesis is “Women who take iron tablets face a lesser risk of anemia than those who take vitamin B12.” This is an example of an empirical hypothesis where the researcher  the statement after assessing a group of women who take iron tablets and charting the findings.

## 7. Statistical hypothesis

The point of a statistical hypothesis is to test an already existing hypothesis by studying a population sample. Hypothesis like “44% of the Indian population belong in the age group of 22-27.” leverage evidence to prove or disprove a particular statement.

## Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis

Writing a hypothesis is essential as it can make or break your research for you. That includes your chances of getting published in a journal. So when you're designing one, keep an eye out for these pointers:

• A research hypothesis has to be simple yet clear to look justifiable enough.
• It has to be testable — your research would be rendered pointless if too far-fetched into reality or limited by technology.
• It has to be precise about the results —what you are trying to do and achieve through it should come out in your hypothesis.
• A research hypothesis should be self-explanatory, leaving no doubt in the reader's mind.
• If you are developing a relational hypothesis, you need to include the variables and establish an appropriate relationship among them.
• A hypothesis must keep and reflect the scope for further investigations and experiments.

## Separating a Hypothesis from a Prediction

Outside of academia, hypothesis and prediction are often used interchangeably. In research writing, this is not only confusing but also incorrect. And although a hypothesis and prediction are guesses at their core, there are many differences between them.

A hypothesis is an educated guess or even a testable prediction validated through research. It aims to analyze the gathered evidence and facts to define a relationship between variables and put forth a logical explanation behind the nature of events.

Predictions are assumptions or expected outcomes made without any backing evidence. They are more fictionally inclined regardless of where they originate from.

For this reason, a hypothesis holds much more weight than a prediction. It sticks to the scientific method rather than pure guesswork. "Planets revolve around the Sun." is an example of a hypothesis as it is previous knowledge and observed trends. Additionally, we can test it through the scientific method.

Whereas "COVID-19 will be eradicated by 2030." is a prediction. Even though it results from past trends, we can't prove or disprove it. So, the only way this gets validated is to wait and watch if COVID-19 cases end by 2030.

## Finally, How to Write a Hypothesis

Quick tips on writing a hypothesis

A hypothesis should instantly address the research question or the problem statement. To do so, you need to ask a question. Understand the constraints of your undertaken research topic and then formulate a simple and topic-centric problem. Only after that can you develop a hypothesis and further test for evidence.

## 2. Carry out a recce

Once you have your research's foundation laid out, it would be best to conduct preliminary research. Go through previous theories, academic papers, data, and experiments before you start curating your research hypothesis. It will give you an idea of your hypothesis's viability or originality.

Making use of references from relevant research papers helps draft a good research hypothesis. SciSpace Discover offers a repository of over 270 million research papers to browse through and gain a deeper understanding of related studies on a particular topic. Additionally, you can use SciSpace Copilot , your AI research assistant, for reading any lengthy research paper and getting a more summarized context of it. A hypothesis can be formed after evaluating many such summarized research papers. Copilot also offers explanations for theories and equations, explains paper in simplified version, allows you to highlight any text in the paper or clip math equations and tables and provides a deeper, clear understanding of what is being said. This can improve the hypothesis by helping you identify potential research gaps.

## 3. Create a 3-dimensional hypothesis

Variables are an essential part of any reasonable hypothesis. So, identify your independent and dependent variable(s) and form a correlation between them. The ideal way to do this is to write the hypothetical assumption in the ‘if-then' form. If you use this form, make sure that you state the predefined relationship between the variables.

In another way, you can choose to present your hypothesis as a comparison between two variables. Here, you must specify the difference you expect to observe in the results.

## 4. Write the first draft

Now that everything is in place, it's time to write your hypothesis. For starters, create the first draft. In this version, write what you expect to find from your research.

Clearly separate your independent and dependent variables and the link between them. Don't fixate on syntax at this stage. The goal is to ensure your hypothesis addresses the issue.

After preparing the first draft of your hypothesis, you need to inspect it thoroughly. It should tick all the boxes, like being concise, straightforward, relevant, and accurate. Your final hypothesis has to be well-structured as well.

Research projects are an exciting and crucial part of being a scholar. And once you have your research question, you need a great hypothesis to begin conducting research. Thus, knowing how to write a hypothesis is very important.

Now that you have a firmer grasp on what a good hypothesis constitutes, the different kinds there are, and what process to follow, you will find it much easier to write your hypothesis, which ultimately helps your research.

Now it's easier than ever to streamline your research workflow with SciSpace Discover . Its integrated, comprehensive end-to-end platform for research allows scholars to easily discover, write and publish their research and fosters collaboration.

It includes everything you need, including a repository of over 270 million research papers across disciplines, SEO-optimized summaries and public profiles to show your expertise and experience.

If you found these tips on writing a research hypothesis useful, head over to our blog on Statistical Hypothesis Testing to learn about the top researchers, papers, and institutions in this domain.

1. what is the definition of hypothesis.

According to the Oxford dictionary, a hypothesis is defined as “An idea or explanation of something that is based on a few known facts, but that has not yet been proved to be true or correct”.

## 2. What is an example of hypothesis?

The hypothesis is a statement that proposes a relationship between two or more variables. An example: "If we increase the number of new users who join our platform by 25%, then we will see an increase in revenue."

## 3. What is an example of null hypothesis?

A null hypothesis is a statement that there is no relationship between two variables. The null hypothesis is written as H0. The null hypothesis states that there is no effect. For example, if you're studying whether or not a particular type of exercise increases strength, your null hypothesis will be "there is no difference in strength between people who exercise and people who don't."

## 4. What are the types of research?

• Fundamental research

• Applied research

• Qualitative research

• Quantitative research

• Mixed research

• Exploratory research

• Longitudinal research

• Cross-sectional research

• Field research

• Laboratory research

• Fixed research

• Flexible research

• Action research

• Policy research

• Classification research

• Comparative research

• Causal research

• Inductive research

• Deductive research

## 5. How to write a hypothesis?

• Your hypothesis should be able to predict the relationship and outcome.

• Avoid wordiness by keeping it simple and brief.

• Your hypothesis should contain observable and testable outcomes.

• Your hypothesis should be relevant to the research question.

## 6. What are the 2 types of hypothesis?

• Null hypotheses are used to test the claim that "there is no difference between two groups of data".

• Alternative hypotheses test the claim that "there is a difference between two data groups".

## 7. Difference between research question and research hypothesis?

A research question is a broad, open-ended question you will try to answer through your research. A hypothesis is a statement based on prior research or theory that you expect to be true due to your study. Example - Research question: What are the factors that influence the adoption of the new technology? Research hypothesis: There is a positive relationship between age, education and income level with the adoption of the new technology.

## 8. What is plural for hypothesis?

The plural of hypothesis is hypotheses. Here's an example of how it would be used in a statement, "Numerous well-considered hypotheses are presented in this part, and they are supported by tables and figures that are well-illustrated."

## 9. What is the red queen hypothesis?

The red queen hypothesis in evolutionary biology states that species must constantly evolve to avoid extinction because if they don't, they will be outcompeted by other species that are evolving. Leigh Van Valen first proposed it in 1973; since then, it has been tested and substantiated many times.

## 10. Who is known as the father of null hypothesis?

The father of the null hypothesis is Sir Ronald Fisher. He published a paper in 1925 that introduced the concept of null hypothesis testing, and he was also the first to use the term itself.

## 11. When to reject null hypothesis?

You need to find a significant difference between your two populations to reject the null hypothesis. You can determine that by running statistical tests such as an independent sample t-test or a dependent sample t-test. You should reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is less than 0.05.

## Hypothesis Testing

When you conduct a piece of quantitative research, you are inevitably attempting to answer a research question or hypothesis that you have set. One method of evaluating this research question is via a process called hypothesis testing , which is sometimes also referred to as significance testing . Since there are many facets to hypothesis testing, we start with the example we refer to throughout this guide.

## An example of a lecturer's dilemma

Two statistics lecturers, Sarah and Mike, think that they use the best method to teach their students. Each lecturer has 50 statistics students who are studying a graduate degree in management. In Sarah's class, students have to attend one lecture and one seminar class every week, whilst in Mike's class students only have to attend one lecture. Sarah thinks that seminars, in addition to lectures, are an important teaching method in statistics, whilst Mike believes that lectures are sufficient by themselves and thinks that students are better off solving problems by themselves in their own time. This is the first year that Sarah has given seminars, but since they take up a lot of her time, she wants to make sure that she is not wasting her time and that seminars improve her students' performance.

## The research hypothesis

The first step in hypothesis testing is to set a research hypothesis. In Sarah and Mike's study, the aim is to examine the effect that two different teaching methods – providing both lectures and seminar classes (Sarah), and providing lectures by themselves (Mike) – had on the performance of Sarah's 50 students and Mike's 50 students. More specifically, they want to determine whether performance is different between the two different teaching methods. Whilst Mike is skeptical about the effectiveness of seminars, Sarah clearly believes that giving seminars in addition to lectures helps her students do better than those in Mike's class. This leads to the following research hypothesis:

Before moving onto the second step of the hypothesis testing process, we need to take you on a brief detour to explain why you need to run hypothesis testing at all. This is explained next.

## Sample to population

If you have measured individuals (or any other type of "object") in a study and want to understand differences (or any other type of effect), you can simply summarize the data you have collected. For example, if Sarah and Mike wanted to know which teaching method was the best, they could simply compare the performance achieved by the two groups of students – the group of students that took lectures and seminar classes, and the group of students that took lectures by themselves – and conclude that the best method was the teaching method which resulted in the highest performance. However, this is generally of only limited appeal because the conclusions could only apply to students in this study. However, if those students were representative of all statistics students on a graduate management degree, the study would have wider appeal.

In statistics terminology, the students in the study are the sample and the larger group they represent (i.e., all statistics students on a graduate management degree) is called the population . Given that the sample of statistics students in the study are representative of a larger population of statistics students, you can use hypothesis testing to understand whether any differences or effects discovered in the study exist in the population. In layman's terms, hypothesis testing is used to establish whether a research hypothesis extends beyond those individuals examined in a single study.

Another example could be taking a sample of 200 breast cancer sufferers in order to test a new drug that is designed to eradicate this type of cancer. As much as you are interested in helping these specific 200 cancer sufferers, your real goal is to establish that the drug works in the population (i.e., all breast cancer sufferers).

As such, by taking a hypothesis testing approach, Sarah and Mike want to generalize their results to a population rather than just the students in their sample. However, in order to use hypothesis testing, you need to re-state your research hypothesis as a null and alternative hypothesis. Before you can do this, it is best to consider the process/structure involved in hypothesis testing and what you are measuring. This structure is presented on the next page .

## Quantitative Research Methods

• Introduction
• Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
• Hypothesis Testing
• Regression and Correlation
• Time Series
• Meta-Analysis
• Mixed Methods
• Get Research Help

## Hypothesis Tests

A hypothesis test is exactly what it sounds like: You make a hypothesis about the parameters of a population, and the test determines whether your hypothesis is consistent with your sample data.

• Hypothesis Testing Penn State University tutorial
• Hypothesis Testing Wolfram MathWorld overview
• Hypothesis Testing Minitab Blog entry
• List of Statistical Tests A list of commonly used hypothesis tests and the circumstances under which they're used.

The p-value of a hypothesis test is the probability that your sample data would have occurred if you hypothesis were not correct. Traditionally, researchers have used a p-value of 0.05 (a 5% probability that your sample data would have occurred if your hypothesis was wrong) as the threshold for declaring that a hypothesis is true. But there is a long history of debate and controversy over p-values and significance levels.

## Nonparametric Tests

Many of the most commonly used hypothesis tests rely on assumptions about your sample data—for instance, that it is continuous, and that its parameters follow a Normal distribution. Nonparametric hypothesis tests don't make any assumptions about the distribution of the data, and many can be used on categorical data.

• Nonparametric Tests at Boston University A lesson covering four common nonparametric tests.
• Nonparametric Tests at Penn State Tutorial covering the theory behind nonparametric tests as well as several commonly used tests.
• << Previous: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
• Next: Regression and Correlation >>
• Last Updated: Aug 18, 2023 11:55 AM
• URL: https://guides.library.duq.edu/quant-methods
• Hypothesis Testing: Definition, Uses, Limitations + Examples

Hypothesis testing is as old as the scientific method and is at the heart of the research process.

Research exists to validate or disprove assumptions about various phenomena. The process of validation involves testing and it is in this context that we will explore hypothesis testing.

## What is a Hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a calculated prediction or assumption about a population parameter based on limited evidence. The whole idea behind hypothesis formulation is testing—this means the researcher subjects his or her calculated assumption to a series of evaluations to know whether they are true or false.

Typically, every research starts with a hypothesis—the investigator makes a claim and experiments to prove that this claim is true or false . For instance, if you predict that students who drink milk before class perform better than those who don’t, then this becomes a hypothesis that can be confirmed or refuted using an experiment.

Read: What is Empirical Research Study? [Examples & Method]

## What are the Types of Hypotheses?

1. simple hypothesis.

Also known as a basic hypothesis, a simple hypothesis suggests that an independent variable is responsible for a corresponding dependent variable. In other words, an occurrence of the independent variable inevitably leads to an occurrence of the dependent variable.

Typically, simple hypotheses are considered as generally true, and they establish a causal relationship between two variables.

Examples of Simple Hypothesis

• Drinking soda and other sugary drinks can cause obesity.
• Smoking cigarettes daily leads to lung cancer.

## 2. Complex Hypothesis

A complex hypothesis is also known as a modal. It accounts for the causal relationship between two independent variables and the resulting dependent variables. This means that the combination of the independent variables leads to the occurrence of the dependent variables .

Examples of Complex Hypotheses

• Adults who do not smoke and drink are less likely to develop liver-related conditions.
• Global warming causes icebergs to melt which in turn causes major changes in weather patterns.

## 3. Null Hypothesis

As the name suggests, a null hypothesis is formed when a researcher suspects that there’s no relationship between the variables in an observation. In this case, the purpose of the research is to approve or disapprove this assumption.

Examples of Null Hypothesis

• This is no significant change in a student’s performance if they drink coffee or tea before classes.
• There’s no significant change in the growth of a plant if one uses distilled water only or vitamin-rich water.
Read: Research Report: Definition, Types + [Writing Guide]

## 4. Alternative Hypothesis

To disapprove a null hypothesis, the researcher has to come up with an opposite assumption—this assumption is known as the alternative hypothesis. This means if the null hypothesis says that A is false, the alternative hypothesis assumes that A is true.

An alternative hypothesis can be directional or non-directional depending on the direction of the difference. A directional alternative hypothesis specifies the direction of the tested relationship, stating that one variable is predicted to be larger or smaller than the null value while a non-directional hypothesis only validates the existence of a difference without stating its direction.

Examples of Alternative Hypotheses

• Starting your day with a cup of tea instead of a cup of coffee can make you more alert in the morning.
• The growth of a plant improves significantly when it receives distilled water instead of vitamin-rich water.

## 5. Logical Hypothesis

Logical hypotheses are some of the most common types of calculated assumptions in systematic investigations. It is an attempt to use your reasoning to connect different pieces in research and build a theory using little evidence. In this case, the researcher uses any data available to him, to form a plausible assumption that can be tested.

Examples of Logical Hypothesis

• Waking up early helps you to have a more productive day.
• Beings from Mars would not be able to breathe the air in the atmosphere of the Earth.

## 6. Empirical Hypothesis

After forming a logical hypothesis, the next step is to create an empirical or working hypothesis. At this stage, your logical hypothesis undergoes systematic testing to prove or disprove the assumption. An empirical hypothesis is subject to several variables that can trigger changes and lead to specific outcomes.

Examples of Empirical Testing

• People who eat more fish run faster than people who eat meat.
• Women taking vitamin E grow hair faster than those taking vitamin K.

## 7. Statistical Hypothesis

When forming a statistical hypothesis, the researcher examines the portion of a population of interest and makes a calculated assumption based on the data from this sample. A statistical hypothesis is most common with systematic investigations involving a large target audience. Here, it’s impossible to collect responses from every member of the population so you have to depend on data from your sample and extrapolate the results to the wider population.

Examples of Statistical Hypothesis

• 45% of students in Louisiana have middle-income parents.
• 80% of the UK’s population gets a divorce because of irreconcilable differences.

## What is Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing is an assessment method that allows researchers to determine the plausibility of a hypothesis. It involves testing an assumption about a specific population parameter to know whether it’s true or false. These population parameters include variance, standard deviation, and median.

Typically, hypothesis testing starts with developing a null hypothesis and then performing several tests that support or reject the null hypothesis. The researcher uses test statistics to compare the association or relationship between two or more variables.

Explore: Research Bias: Definition, Types + Examples

Researchers also use hypothesis testing to calculate the coefficient of variation and determine if the regression relationship and the correlation coefficient are statistically significant.

## How Hypothesis Testing Works

The basis of hypothesis testing is to examine and analyze the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis to know which one is the most plausible assumption. Since both assumptions are mutually exclusive, only one can be true. In other words, the occurrence of a null hypothesis destroys the chances of the alternative coming to life, and vice-versa.

Interesting: 21 Chrome Extensions for Academic Researchers in 2021

## What Are The Stages of Hypothesis Testing?

To successfully confirm or refute an assumption, the researcher goes through five (5) stages of hypothesis testing;

• Determine the null hypothesis
• Specify the alternative hypothesis
• Set the significance level
• Calculate the test statistics and corresponding P-value
• Determine the Null Hypothesis

Like we mentioned earlier, hypothesis testing starts with creating a null hypothesis which stands as an assumption that a certain statement is false or implausible. For example, the null hypothesis (H0) could suggest that different subgroups in the research population react to a variable in the same way.

• Specify the Alternative Hypothesis

Once you know the variables for the null hypothesis, the next step is to determine the alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis counters the null assumption by suggesting the statement or assertion is true. Depending on the purpose of your research, the alternative hypothesis can be one-sided or two-sided.

Using the example we established earlier, the alternative hypothesis may argue that the different sub-groups react differently to the same variable based on several internal and external factors.

• Set the Significance Level

Many researchers create a 5% allowance for accepting the value of an alternative hypothesis, even if the value is untrue. This means that there is a 0.05 chance that one would go with the value of the alternative hypothesis, despite the truth of the null hypothesis.

Something to note here is that the smaller the significance level, the greater the burden of proof needed to reject the null hypothesis and support the alternative hypothesis.

Explore: What is Data Interpretation? + [Types, Method & Tools]
• Calculate the Test Statistics and Corresponding P-Value

Test statistics in hypothesis testing allow you to compare different groups between variables while the p-value accounts for the probability of obtaining sample statistics if your null hypothesis is true. In this case, your test statistics can be the mean, median and similar parameters.

If your p-value is 0.65, for example, then it means that the variable in your hypothesis will happen 65 in100 times by pure chance. Use this formula to determine the p-value for your data:

After conducting a series of tests, you should be able to agree or refute the hypothesis based on feedback and insights from your sample data.

## Applications of Hypothesis Testing in Research

Hypothesis testing isn’t only confined to numbers and calculations; it also has several real-life applications in business, manufacturing, advertising, and medicine.

In a factory or other manufacturing plants, hypothesis testing is an important part of quality and production control before the final products are approved and sent out to the consumer.

During ideation and strategy development, C-level executives use hypothesis testing to evaluate their theories and assumptions before any form of implementation. For example, they could leverage hypothesis testing to determine whether or not some new advertising campaign, marketing technique, etc. causes increased sales.

In addition, hypothesis testing is used during clinical trials to prove the efficacy of a drug or new medical method before its approval for widespread human usage.

## What is an Example of Hypothesis Testing?

An employer claims that her workers are of above-average intelligence. She takes a random sample of 20 of them and gets the following results:

Mean IQ Scores: 110

Standard Deviation: 15

Mean Population IQ: 100

Step 1: Using the value of the mean population IQ, we establish the null hypothesis as 100.

Step 2: State that the alternative hypothesis is greater than 100.

Step 3: State the alpha level as 0.05 or 5%

Step 4: Find the rejection region area (given by your alpha level above) from the z-table. An area of .05 is equal to a z-score of 1.645.

Step 5: Calculate the test statistics using this formula

Z = (110–100) ÷ (15÷√20)

10 ÷ 3.35 = 2.99

If the value of the test statistics is higher than the value of the rejection region, then you should reject the null hypothesis. If it is less, then you cannot reject the null.

In this case, 2.99 > 1.645 so we reject the null.

## Importance/Benefits of Hypothesis Testing

The most significant benefit of hypothesis testing is it allows you to evaluate the strength of your claim or assumption before implementing it in your data set. Also, hypothesis testing is the only valid method to prove that something “is or is not”. Other benefits include:

• Hypothesis testing provides a reliable framework for making any data decisions for your population of interest.
• It helps the researcher to successfully extrapolate data from the sample to the larger population.
• Hypothesis testing allows the researcher to determine whether the data from the sample is statistically significant.
• Hypothesis testing is one of the most important processes for measuring the validity and reliability of outcomes in any systematic investigation.
• It helps to provide links to the underlying theory and specific research questions.

## Criticism and Limitations of Hypothesis Testing

Several limitations of hypothesis testing can affect the quality of data you get from this process. Some of these limitations include:

• The interpretation of a p-value for observation depends on the stopping rule and definition of multiple comparisons. This makes it difficult to calculate since the stopping rule is subject to numerous interpretations, plus “multiple comparisons” are unavoidably ambiguous.
• Conceptual issues often arise in hypothesis testing, especially if the researcher merges Fisher and Neyman-Pearson’s methods which are conceptually distinct.
• In an attempt to focus on the statistical significance of the data, the researcher might ignore the estimation and confirmation by repeated experiments.
• Hypothesis testing can trigger publication bias, especially when it requires statistical significance as a criterion for publication.
• When used to detect whether a difference exists between groups, hypothesis testing can trigger absurd assumptions that affect the reliability of your observation.

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• alternative hypothesis
• alternative vs null hypothesis
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## Hypothesis Testing for Research – Complete Guide With Example

Published 16 October, 2023

Hypothesis testing is a statistical technique used for deciding whether to reject the null hypothesis. Hypothesis testing helps researchers know whether or not they are on the correct path for their research project and can save them from time wasted pursuing wrong leads. Before starting any type of hypothesis test, it is vital that you have an idea of what your variable will be and how to measure it accurately. This post will cover some of the most common types of hypothesis tests and provide examples, as well as discuss what they are designed to test.

## What is a hypothesis in research?

Hypothesis in research is basically a statement that helps you to define the relationship between different types of variables for your study. You can consider the hypothesis as the expectation about the things that can happen during research. The main objective of including hypotheses in research is to get the answer to research questions .

For example, while watering a plant you expect that if you will give more amount of water and sunlight to the plant, it would grow big soon.

## What are the different types of hypothesis?

There are different types of hypothesis but here, we will discuss mainly two types of hypothesis, these are :

Null hypothesis: It is a hypothesis, where you can not expect variations. The null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between the dependent and independent variables. For instance, there is no significant relationship between compensation policy and employee satisfaction. In research null hypothesis is denoted as H0. Alternative hypothesis: In the Alternative hypothesis, variations are expected. This is something that a researcher aims to indirectly verify by stating their assumption, which states that there exists a significant linkage between population parameters. For instance, there is a significant relationship between companies’ compensation policy and employee satisfaction. It denoted as H a  or H 1.

## What is hypothesis testing?

Hypothesis testing is basically a statistical procedure that is researcher performs with the purpose of determining whether there are chances of a specific hypothesis to be true. In simple words, by using the statistics you can tests whether your prediction about the population parameters is correct or not.

Or we can say, Hypothesis testing is a research method that uses statistical tools to prove or disprove a theory. The hypothesis is an idea about what might be true, and the goal of hypothesis testing is to provide evidence for or against that idea.

## What are the uses of hypothesis testing?

• You can use hypothesis testing for making assumptions about the outcome of the hypothesis on sample information that you have gathered from a large population.
• Students can utilize it for analyzing the strong proof which you have collected from the sample.
• Hypothesis testing provides the structure for making various assumptions about the population.

## How to conduct hypothesis testing?

The test procedure or the rule is based upon a test statistic and a rejection region. The process of testing the hypothesis consists of the following steps:

## Step 1 – Specification of hypothesis

It is the first step in hypothesis testing where you need to clearly define the null and alternative hypotheses . While stating the hypothesis you need to make sure that it is mutually exclusive which means that if one statement is true then the other should be false. While defining the variables you need to confirm that the statement representing the relationship between two or more variables.

## Step 2 – Selection of significance level

This is a stage where you need to set the significance level. The significance level (denoted by the Greek letter alpha— a) is generally set at 0.05. This means that there is a 5% chance that you will accept your alternative hypothesis when your null hypothesis is actually true. The smaller the significance level, the greater the burden of proof needed to reject the null hypothesis, or in other words, to support the alternative hypothesis.

## Step 3 – Collection of information

It is a stage where you will require accumulating all the facts about the research topic. The process of making statistical inferences should be done in a way that is designed to test your hypothesis. If you do not design the sampling methods and data collection appropriately, then it will make no sense for you to try drawing conclusions about any population at all!

## Step 4 – Determination of critical values

This is a phase where you need to determine P-value. It is basically a value that the researcher utilizes for determining statistical importance in hypothesis tests. Determination of P-value is important as it will help you in evaluating the extent up to which the hypothesis statement given by you is true. It will also help you in analyzing the extent up to which the facts which you have gathered are compatible with the null hypothesis.

There are basically two types of P-value these are :

• High: High P-value indicates that the facts which you have collected are highly compatible with the null hypothesis.
• Low: It is the P-value that represents that the information which the researcher has to accumulate is not at all compatible with the null hypothesis .

Comparison of critical value and making a judgment: Here, you need to make a comparison between P values, and on the basis of the same you need to make a decision.

## Step 5 – Drawing a conclusion

With the conclusion stage, we either accept or reject the null hypothesis. The decision is based on computed values of the test statistics and whether it lies in the acceptance region or rejection region respectively. If the computed value of the test statistic falls in the acceptance region (it means the computed value is less than the critical value), the null hypothesis is accepted. On the contrary, if the computed value of the test statistic is greater than the critical value, the computed value of the statistic falls in the rejection region, and the null hypothesis is rejected.

## Hypothesis Testing Example

A manager in pipe manufacturing needs to ensure that the diameters of pipes manufactured by the machine are 5 cm. Then you as a manager is needed to undergo the following phases of the hypothesis test these are:

• Establishment for criteria: At this stage, you as a manager will need to design the hypothesis. The null hypothesis here could be every pipe has a diameter of 5 cm. AS manager needs to confirm that every pipe should be diameter 5 cm then he can make a selection from an alternative hypothesis which could be The population mean is fewer than the target, the mean of the population which manager has select is greater in comparison to the target. A third alternative hypothesis could be men population is completely different from the target.  In such a case, the manager can select two side alternative hypotheses. An alternative hypothesis which manager could select is the mean population of all pipes is not 5 cm.
• Selection of significance level: At this stage, you can select the most basically used significance level which is 0.05.
• Collection of facts: It is a stage where you will require gathering information about pipes and their diameters.
• Comparison between P values: After completion of the hypothesis test you will obtain P-value. Suppose here the P-value which results in 0.04 which is less than the significance level that is 0.05. on the basis of comparison between P values, you need to make a decision whether to reject the null hypothesis or not.

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## What is Hypothesis Testing?

• Watching now: Chapter 1: Hypothesis Testing and Statistical Inference in MS Excel Start time: 00:00:00 End time: 00:01:18
• Chapter 2: How to Use Null and Alternate Hypothesis in MS Excel Start time: 00:01:19 End time: 00:05:17
• Chapter 3: How to Use One- and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests in MS Excel Start time: 00:05:18 End time: 00:08:32

## Video Type: Tutorial

(2021). What is hypothesis testing? [Video]. Sage Research Methods. https:// doi. org/10.4135/9781529630183

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Statistical inference in MS Excel using hypothesis testing is explained, including definitions and examples of important terms: null and alternate hypothesis; and one- and two-tailed tests.

## Chapter 1: Hypothesis Testing and Statistical Inference in MS Excel

• Start time: 00:00:00
• End time: 00:01:18

## Chapter 2: How to Use Null and Alternate Hypothesis in MS Excel

• Start time: 00:01:19
• End time: 00:05:17

## Chapter 3: How to Use One- and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests in MS Excel

• Start time: 00:05:18
• End time: 00:08:32
• Product: Sage Research Methods: Business
• Type of Content: Tutorial
• Title: What is Hypothesis Testing?
• Publisher: Starttech Educational Services LLP
• Series: Statistics for Business Analytics using MS Excel
• Publication year: 2021
• Online pub date: December 13, 2022
• Methods: Hypothesis testing , Statistical packages , Data analysis skills
• Duration: 00:08:32
• DOI: https:// doi. org/10.4135/9781529630183
• Keywords: business skills , data analysis , hypothesis testing , null and alternative hypotheses , Statistical inference , Statistical packages Show all Show less

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## Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is a tool for making statistical inferences about the population data. It is an analysis tool that tests assumptions and determines how likely something is within a given standard of accuracy. Hypothesis testing provides a way to verify whether the results of an experiment are valid.

A null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis are set up before performing the hypothesis testing. This helps to arrive at a conclusion regarding the sample obtained from the population. In this article, we will learn more about hypothesis testing, its types, steps to perform the testing, and associated examples.

## What is Hypothesis Testing in Statistics?

Hypothesis testing uses sample data from the population to draw useful conclusions regarding the population probability distribution . It tests an assumption made about the data using different types of hypothesis testing methodologies. The hypothesis testing results in either rejecting or not rejecting the null hypothesis.

## Hypothesis Testing Definition

Hypothesis testing can be defined as a statistical tool that is used to identify if the results of an experiment are meaningful or not. It involves setting up a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. These two hypotheses will always be mutually exclusive. This means that if the null hypothesis is true then the alternative hypothesis is false and vice versa. An example of hypothesis testing is setting up a test to check if a new medicine works on a disease in a more efficient manner.

## Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis is a concise mathematical statement that is used to indicate that there is no difference between two possibilities. In other words, there is no difference between certain characteristics of data. This hypothesis assumes that the outcomes of an experiment are based on chance alone. It is denoted as $$H_{0}$$. Hypothesis testing is used to conclude if the null hypothesis can be rejected or not. Suppose an experiment is conducted to check if girls are shorter than boys at the age of 5. The null hypothesis will say that they are the same height.

## Alternative Hypothesis

The alternative hypothesis is an alternative to the null hypothesis. It is used to show that the observations of an experiment are due to some real effect. It indicates that there is a statistical significance between two possible outcomes and can be denoted as $$H_{1}$$ or $$H_{a}$$. For the above-mentioned example, the alternative hypothesis would be that girls are shorter than boys at the age of 5.

## Hypothesis Testing P Value

In hypothesis testing, the p value is used to indicate whether the results obtained after conducting a test are statistically significant or not. It also indicates the probability of making an error in rejecting or not rejecting the null hypothesis.This value is always a number between 0 and 1. The p value is compared to an alpha level, $$\alpha$$ or significance level. The alpha level can be defined as the acceptable risk of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis. The alpha level is usually chosen between 1% to 5%.

## Hypothesis Testing Critical region

All sets of values that lead to rejecting the null hypothesis lie in the critical region. Furthermore, the value that separates the critical region from the non-critical region is known as the critical value.

## Hypothesis Testing Formula

Depending upon the type of data available and the size, different types of hypothesis testing are used to determine whether the null hypothesis can be rejected or not. The hypothesis testing formula for some important test statistics are given below:

• z = $$\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}$$. $$\overline{x}$$ is the sample mean, $$\mu$$ is the population mean, $$\sigma$$ is the population standard deviation and n is the size of the sample.
• t = $$\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}$$. s is the sample standard deviation.
• $$\chi ^{2} = \sum \frac{(O_{i}-E_{i})^{2}}{E_{i}}$$. $$O_{i}$$ is the observed value and $$E_{i}$$ is the expected value.

## Types of Hypothesis Testing

Selecting the correct test for performing hypothesis testing can be confusing. These tests are used to determine a test statistic on the basis of which the null hypothesis can either be rejected or not rejected. Some of the important tests used for hypothesis testing are given below.

## Hypothesis Testing Z Test

A z test is a way of hypothesis testing that is used for a large sample size (n ≥ 30). It is used to determine whether there is a difference between the population mean and the sample mean when the population standard deviation is known. It can also be used to compare the mean of two samples. It is used to compute the z test statistic. The formulas are given as follows:

• One sample: z = $$\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}$$.
• Two samples: z = $$\frac{(\overline{x_{1}}-\overline{x_{2}})-(\mu_{1}-\mu_{2})}{\sqrt{\frac{\sigma_{1}^{2}}{n_{1}}+\frac{\sigma_{2}^{2}}{n_{2}}}}$$.

## Hypothesis Testing t Test

The t test is another method of hypothesis testing that is used for a small sample size (n < 30). It is also used to compare the sample mean and population mean. However, the population standard deviation is not known. Instead, the sample standard deviation is known. The mean of two samples can also be compared using the t test.

• One sample: t = $$\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}$$.
• Two samples: t = $$\frac{(\overline{x_{1}}-\overline{x_{2}})-(\mu_{1}-\mu_{2})}{\sqrt{\frac{s_{1}^{2}}{n_{1}}+\frac{s_{2}^{2}}{n_{2}}}}$$.

## Hypothesis Testing Chi Square

The Chi square test is a hypothesis testing method that is used to check whether the variables in a population are independent or not. It is used when the test statistic is chi-squared distributed.

## One Tailed Hypothesis Testing

One tailed hypothesis testing is done when the rejection region is only in one direction. It can also be known as directional hypothesis testing because the effects can be tested in one direction only. This type of testing is further classified into the right tailed test and left tailed test.

Right Tailed Hypothesis Testing

The right tail test is also known as the upper tail test. This test is used to check whether the population parameter is greater than some value. The null and alternative hypotheses for this test are given as follows:

$$H_{0}$$: The population parameter is ≤ some value

$$H_{1}$$: The population parameter is > some value.

If the test statistic has a greater value than the critical value then the null hypothesis is rejected

Left Tailed Hypothesis Testing

The left tail test is also known as the lower tail test. It is used to check whether the population parameter is less than some value. The hypotheses for this hypothesis testing can be written as follows:

$$H_{0}$$: The population parameter is ≥ some value

$$H_{1}$$: The population parameter is < some value.

The null hypothesis is rejected if the test statistic has a value lesser than the critical value.

## Two Tailed Hypothesis Testing

In this hypothesis testing method, the critical region lies on both sides of the sampling distribution. It is also known as a non - directional hypothesis testing method. The two-tailed test is used when it needs to be determined if the population parameter is assumed to be different than some value. The hypotheses can be set up as follows:

$$H_{0}$$: the population parameter = some value

$$H_{1}$$: the population parameter ≠ some value

The null hypothesis is rejected if the test statistic has a value that is not equal to the critical value.

## Hypothesis Testing Steps

Hypothesis testing can be easily performed in five simple steps. The most important step is to correctly set up the hypotheses and identify the right method for hypothesis testing. The basic steps to perform hypothesis testing are as follows:

• Step 1: Set up the null hypothesis by correctly identifying whether it is the left-tailed, right-tailed, or two-tailed hypothesis testing.
• Step 2: Set up the alternative hypothesis.
• Step 3: Choose the correct significance level, $$\alpha$$, and find the critical value.
• Step 4: Calculate the correct test statistic (z, t or $$\chi$$) and p-value.
• Step 5: Compare the test statistic with the critical value or compare the p-value with $$\alpha$$ to arrive at a conclusion. In other words, decide if the null hypothesis is to be rejected or not.

## Hypothesis Testing Example

The best way to solve a problem on hypothesis testing is by applying the 5 steps mentioned in the previous section. Suppose a researcher claims that the mean average weight of men is greater than 100kgs with a standard deviation of 15kgs. 30 men are chosen with an average weight of 112.5 Kgs. Using hypothesis testing, check if there is enough evidence to support the researcher's claim. The confidence interval is given as 95%.

Step 1: This is an example of a right-tailed test. Set up the null hypothesis as $$H_{0}$$: $$\mu$$ = 100.

Step 2: The alternative hypothesis is given by $$H_{1}$$: $$\mu$$ > 100.

Step 3: As this is a one-tailed test, $$\alpha$$ = 100% - 95% = 5%. This can be used to determine the critical value.

1 - $$\alpha$$ = 1 - 0.05 = 0.95

0.95 gives the required area under the curve. Now using a normal distribution table, the area 0.95 is at z = 1.645. A similar process can be followed for a t-test. The only additional requirement is to calculate the degrees of freedom given by n - 1.

Step 4: Calculate the z test statistic. This is because the sample size is 30. Furthermore, the sample and population means are known along with the standard deviation.

z = $$\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}$$.

$$\mu$$ = 100, $$\overline{x}$$ = 112.5, n = 30, $$\sigma$$ = 15

z = $$\frac{112.5-100}{\frac{15}{\sqrt{30}}}$$ = 4.56

Step 5: Conclusion. As 4.56 > 1.645 thus, the null hypothesis can be rejected.

## Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Intervals

Confidence intervals form an important part of hypothesis testing. This is because the alpha level can be determined from a given confidence interval. Suppose a confidence interval is given as 95%. Subtract the confidence interval from 100%. This gives 100 - 95 = 5% or 0.05. This is the alpha value of a one-tailed hypothesis testing. To obtain the alpha value for a two-tailed hypothesis testing, divide this value by 2. This gives 0.05 / 2 = 0.025.

Related Articles:

• Probability and Statistics
• Data Handling

Important Notes on Hypothesis Testing

• Hypothesis testing is a technique that is used to verify whether the results of an experiment are statistically significant.
• It involves the setting up of a null hypothesis and an alternate hypothesis.
• There are three types of tests that can be conducted under hypothesis testing - z test, t test, and chi square test.
• Hypothesis testing can be classified as right tail, left tail, and two tail tests.

## Examples on Hypothesis Testing

• Example 1: The average weight of a dumbbell in a gym is 90lbs. However, a physical trainer believes that the average weight might be higher. A random sample of 5 dumbbells with an average weight of 110lbs and a standard deviation of 18lbs. Using hypothesis testing check if the physical trainer's claim can be supported for a 95% confidence level. Solution: As the sample size is lesser than 30, the t-test is used. $$H_{0}$$: $$\mu$$ = 90, $$H_{1}$$: $$\mu$$ > 90 $$\overline{x}$$ = 110, $$\mu$$ = 90, n = 5, s = 18. $$\alpha$$ = 0.05 Using the t-distribution table, the critical value is 2.132 t = $$\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}$$ t = 2.484 As 2.484 > 2.132, the null hypothesis is rejected. Answer: The average weight of the dumbbells may be greater than 90lbs
• Example 2: The average score on a test is 80 with a standard deviation of 10. With a new teaching curriculum introduced it is believed that this score will change. On random testing, the score of 38 students, the mean was found to be 88. With a 0.05 significance level, is there any evidence to support this claim? Solution: This is an example of two-tail hypothesis testing. The z test will be used. $$H_{0}$$: $$\mu$$ = 80, $$H_{1}$$: $$\mu$$ ≠ 80 $$\overline{x}$$ = 88, $$\mu$$ = 80, n = 36, $$\sigma$$ = 10. $$\alpha$$ = 0.05 / 2 = 0.025 The critical value using the normal distribution table is 1.96 z = $$\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}$$ z = $$\frac{88-80}{\frac{10}{\sqrt{36}}}$$ = 4.8 As 4.8 > 1.96, the null hypothesis is rejected. Answer: There is a difference in the scores after the new curriculum was introduced.
• Example 3: The average score of a class is 90. However, a teacher believes that the average score might be lower. The scores of 6 students were randomly measured. The mean was 82 with a standard deviation of 18. With a 0.05 significance level use hypothesis testing to check if this claim is true. Solution: The t test will be used. $$H_{0}$$: $$\mu$$ = 90, $$H_{1}$$: $$\mu$$ < 90 $$\overline{x}$$ = 110, $$\mu$$ = 90, n = 6, s = 18 The critical value from the t table is -2.015 t = $$\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}$$ t = $$\frac{82-90}{\frac{18}{\sqrt{6}}}$$ t = -1.088 As -1.088 > -2.015, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. Answer: There is not enough evidence to support the claim.

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## FAQs on Hypothesis Testing

What is hypothesis testing.

Hypothesis testing in statistics is a tool that is used to make inferences about the population data. It is also used to check if the results of an experiment are valid.

## What is the z Test in Hypothesis Testing?

The z test in hypothesis testing is used to find the z test statistic for normally distributed data . The z test is used when the standard deviation of the population is known and the sample size is greater than or equal to 30.

## What is the t Test in Hypothesis Testing?

The t test in hypothesis testing is used when the data follows a student t distribution . It is used when the sample size is less than 30 and standard deviation of the population is not known.

## What is the formula for z test in Hypothesis Testing?

The formula for a one sample z test in hypothesis testing is z = $$\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}$$ and for two samples is z = $$\frac{(\overline{x_{1}}-\overline{x_{2}})-(\mu_{1}-\mu_{2})}{\sqrt{\frac{\sigma_{1}^{2}}{n_{1}}+\frac{\sigma_{2}^{2}}{n_{2}}}}$$.

## What is the p Value in Hypothesis Testing?

The p value helps to determine if the test results are statistically significant or not. In hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis can either be rejected or not rejected based on the comparison between the p value and the alpha level.

## What is One Tail Hypothesis Testing?

When the rejection region is only on one side of the distribution curve then it is known as one tail hypothesis testing. The right tail test and the left tail test are two types of directional hypothesis testing.

## What is the Alpha Level in Two Tail Hypothesis Testing?

To get the alpha level in a two tail hypothesis testing divide $$\alpha$$ by 2. This is done as there are two rejection regions in the curve.

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Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is most often used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses, that arise from theories. There are 5 main steps in hypothesis testing:

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Hypothesis Testing is a statistical concept to verify the plausibility of a hypothesis that is based on data samples derived from a given population, using two competing hypotheses.

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Hypothesis testing is a scientific method used for making a decision and drawing conclusions by using a statistical approach. It is used to suggest new ideas by testing theories to know whether or not the sample data supports research.

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A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection. Example: Hypothesis Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor's visits. Table of contents What is a hypothesis?

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Hypothesis testing, sometimes called significance testing, is an act in statistics whereby an analyst tests an assumption regarding a population parameter. The methodology employed by the...

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A hypothesis is a predetermined declaration regarding the research question in which the investigator (s) makes a precise, educated guess about a study outcome. This is sometimes called the alternative hypothesis and ultimately allows the researcher to take a stance based on experience or insight from medical literature.

7. Research Hypothesis: Definition, Types, Examples and Quick Tips

The first step in your scientific endeavor, a hypothesis, is a strong, concise statement that forms the basis of your research. It is not the same as a thesis statement, which is a brief summary of your research paper. The sole purpose of a hypothesis is to predict your paper's findings, data, and conclusion.

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In layman's terms, hypothesis testing is used to establish whether a research hypothesis extends beyond those individuals examined in a single study. Another example could be taking a sample of 200 breast cancer sufferers in order to test a new drug that is designed to eradicate this type of cancer.

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A hypothesis test is a procedure used in statistics to assess whether a particular viewpoint is likely to be true. They follow a strict protocol, and they generate a ' p- value', on the basis of which a decision is made about the truth of the hypothesis under investigation.

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A hypothesis test is exactly what it sounds like: You make a hypothesis about the parameters of a population, and the test determines whether your hypothesis is consistent with your sample data. Hypothesis Testing Penn State University tutorial Hypothesis Testing Wolfram MathWorld overview Hypothesis Testing Minitab Blog entry

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Hypothesis testing is as old as the scientific method and is at the heart of the research process. Research exists to validate or disprove assumptions about various phenomena. The process of validation involves testing and it is in this context that we will explore hypothesis testing. What is a Hypothesis?

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Hypothesis testing is basically a statistical procedure which is performed for determining that a statement or particular theory is logically correct. About Us; ... Or we can say, Hypothesis testing is a research method that uses statistical tools to prove or disprove a theory. The hypothesis is an idea about what might be true, and the goal of ...

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Hypotheses are more formal predictions about the research outcomes. These specify the possible results that may or may not be expected regarding the relationship between groups.

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A research hypothesis (also called a scientific hypothesis) is a statement about the expected outcome of a study (for example, a dissertation or thesis). To constitute a quality hypothesis, the statement needs to have three attributes - specificity, clarity and testability. Let's take a look at these more closely. Need a helping hand?

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16. Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing can be defined as a statistical tool that is used to identify if the results of an experiment are meaningful or not. It involves setting up a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. These two hypotheses will always be mutually exclusive.

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Select appropriate methods for testing the hypothesis: Select appropriate research methods, such as experiments, surveys, or observational studies, which will allow you to test your research hypothesis. Remember that creating a research hypothesis is an iterative process, i.e., you might have to revise it based on the data you collect.

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3. One-Sided vs. Two-Sided Testing. When it's time to test your hypothesis, it's important to leverage the correct testing method. The two most common hypothesis testing methods are one-sided and two-sided tests, or one-tailed and two-tailed tests, respectively. Typically, you'd leverage a one-sided test when you have a strong conviction ...

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Hypothesis testing is a statistical method used to determine if there is enough evidence in a sample data to draw conclusions about a population. It involves formulating two competing hypotheses, the null hypothesis (H0) and the alternative hypothesis (Ha), and then collecting data to assess the evidence.

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